Liu, X-X; Liu, R-J; Ding, L; Lin, Y-F; Huang, N-Y; Xiao, H-F; Huang, Y; Yang, J; Wang, S-L
Febuxostat is a novel non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase developed for the management of hyperuricemia in patients with gout. To investigate the pharmacokinetics and also evaluate the effects of gender and food on the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat in healthy Chinese volunteers. A phase I, 3-period study was performed in healthy Chinese male and female subjects. Subjects either received single 40 mg, multiple 40 mg and single 80 mg doses of febuxostat under fasted conditions, or received single 80 mg doses under fed condition. Plasma concentrations of febuxostat were collected and determined at 14 time points over 48 h. After 40 mg and 80 mg single dose administration of febuxostat, the C max were 2.308±0.812 and 4.559±1.246 μg/mL, the T max were 1.6±0.6 and 2.1±1.0 h, the t 1/2 were 6.8±1.7 and 6.7±1.9 h, and the AUC0-∞ were 7.704±1.723 and 16.34±3.87 μg∙h/mL, respectively. In the multiple-dose study at 40 mg dose for 6 consecutive days, the mean (SD) steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters on day 8 were similar to those following a single dose of febuxostat on day 1. In addition, food caused a decrease of 33% for C max and a delay of 0.3 h for T max. Gender had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat. Febuxostat was well tolerated over the investigated dose range. Compared with the previous study, the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat appeared to be different between Chinese and other races. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Yang, Yong-Ge; Song, Li-Xue; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Xue-Ting; Di, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Mei
Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers after a single or multiple dosages oral administration. Methods: A total of 9 healthy adult subjects were given Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in a single dosage or multiple dosages respectively. LC/MS/MS were used for the determination of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol of in plasma. The important pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software (compartment model). Results: Single and multiple dosage groups of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol were all fitted two-compartment model. The pharmacokinetics fitted first order kinetics process. No difference in pharmacokinetics of Ambroxol in single and multiple dosage groups volunteers was observed, Which showed no marked changes, suggesting that multiple dosing did not influence the velocity of drug metabolism. Moreover, parameters of Clenbuterol had significant difference between the single and multiple dosage groups (P<0.05), showing there was accumulation in the body. 9 subjects had completed single or multiple dosages oral administration test, with no adverse drug reactions appeared during the test. Conclusion: There was no obvious accumulation of Ambroxol after repeated dosing. But obvious accumulation of Clenbuterol was noted in multiple-dose administration. The established method is sensitive, accurate, reliable and specific, and it can meet the requirement of clinical pharmacokinetic trial. PMID:26770490
Shen, Yali; Nan, Feng; Li, Mei; Liang, Maozhi; Wang, Ying; Chen, Zhihui; Luo, Zhu
No pharmacokinetic data of intravenous ibuprofen were available in a Chinese population and the published information remained inadequate. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of intravenous ibuprofen in healthy Chinese volunteers after single- and multiple-dose administration. Twelve subjects received single doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg intravenous ibuprofen, respectively, and multiple doses of 400 mg intravenous ibuprofen, four times per day (every 6 h) till the morning of the sixth day in each study period. After single doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg intravenous ibuprofen, the main pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were: maximum plasma concentration (C max) 23.05 ± 2.96, 41.90 ± 3.22, 76.06 ± 8.70, and 49.53 ± 3.92 μg/ml, respectively, which were achieved immediately at the end of the infusion; area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-t ) 49.82 ± 10.92, 88.79 ± 12.43, 152.34 ± 25.23, and 106.68 ± 18.94 µg·h/mL, respectively; AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) 51.91 ± 10.67, 91.46 ± 12.06, 155.04 ± 25.70, and 108.58 ± 19.49 µg·h/ml, respectively; half-life (t ½) 1.87 ± 0.30, 1.93 ± 0.24, 2.02 ± 0.38, and 1.74 ± 0.26 h, respectively. The accumulation index (AI) was 1.22 ± 0.17 after multiple doses. The most obvious accumulation was observed in males; other parameters revealed no significant differences. Similar pharmacokinetic properties of intravenous ibuprofen in healthy Chinese volunteers were observed to those reported in a Caucasian population. Multiple doses of intravenous ibuprofen every 6 h caused slight accumulation. Except for the AI, sex did not affect the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ibuprofen. CHICTR. ChiCTR-IIR-15007347.
Wu, F; Zhao, X L; Wei, M J; Wang, S M; Zhou, H; Guo, S J; Zhang, P
The main objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characters of eszopiclone (CAS: 138729-47-2) after single and multiple-dose oral administration in healthy adult Chinese volunteers.In single-dose study, 12 subjects were given oral administrations of 1.5, 3 and 6 mg eszopiclone in an open-label, randomized, crossover fashion. In multiple-dose study, 8 subjects were given 3 mg eszopiclone once daily consecutively for 7 days. Blood samples were collected over 24 h and plasma eszopiclone were determined using a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay. The safety and tolerability of eszopiclone was evaluated by adverse events recording, physical examination, laboratory testing, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG findings.The main pharmacokinetic parameters of eszopiclone after single-dose administration were as follows: doses of 1.5, 3 and 6 mg; Cmax of 18.08±4.65, 38.29±15.41 and 76.38±23.34 ng/ml; Tmax of 0.94±0.39, 1.04±0.63 and 1.08±0.51 h; AUC0-24 of 110.90±23.06, 227.36±62.41 and 504.10±140.13 ng*h/ml; elimination half-lives of 5.84±1.03, 5.53±1.91 and 6.17±1.23 h. After multiple-dose administration, the steady-state levels of eszopiclone were achieved by the 4th day, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were Css_max at 33.43±5.63 ng/ml and AUCss (0-24) at 263.30±51.21 ng*h/ml. The most common adverse event was bitter or abnormal taste. All the adverse events were judged as mild to moderate and resolved without any medication.The pharmacokinetic character of eszopiclone is linear and dose-proportional over the range of 1.5-6 mg. The systemic exposure does not accumulate with once-daily administrations. Eszopiclone appears to have good safety and is well tolerated.
Tang, Yong-Jun; Hu, Kai; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Yao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Hong-Hao
Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which is clinically used for the ailments of various inflammations. This study investigated the allele frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G and evaluated the influences of these two genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and its metabolites in Chinese healthy male volunteers. Eight FMO3 wild-type (FMO3 HHDD) subjects and seven FMO3 homozygotes E158K and E308G mutant (FMO3 hhdd) subjects were recruited from 247 healthy male volunteers genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. The plasma concentrations of sulindac, sulindac sulfide, and sulindac sulfone were determined by UPLC, while the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two different FMO3 genotypes were compared with each other. The frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G were 20.3% and 20.1%, respectively, which were in line with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (D′ = 0.977, r2 = 0.944). The mean values of Cmax, AUC0–24, and AUC0–∞ of sulindac were significantly higher in FMO3 hhdd group than those of FMO3 HHDD group (P < 0.05), while the pharmacokinetic parameters except Tmax of sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone showed no statistical difference between the two groups. The two FMO3 mutants were in close linkage disequilibrium and might play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of sulindac in Chinese healthy male volunteers. PMID:28331852
Tang, Yong-Jun; Hu, Kai; Huang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Yao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Yuan, Chun-Su
Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which is clinically used for the ailments of various inflammations. This study investigated the allele frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G and evaluated the influences of these two genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and its metabolites in Chinese healthy male volunteers. Eight FMO3 wild-type (FMO3 HHDD) subjects and seven FMO3 homozygotes E158K and E308G mutant (FMO3 hhdd) subjects were recruited from 247 healthy male volunteers genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. The plasma concentrations of sulindac, sulindac sulfide, and sulindac sulfone were determined by UPLC, while the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two different FMO3 genotypes were compared with each other. The frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G were 20.3% and 20.1%, respectively, which were in line with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (D' = 0.977, r(2) = 0.944). The mean values of Cmax, AUC0-24, and AUC0-∞ of sulindac were significantly higher in FMO3 hhdd group than those of FMO3 HHDD group (P < 0.05), while the pharmacokinetic parameters except Tmax of sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone showed no statistical difference between the two groups. The two FMO3 mutants were in close linkage disequilibrium and might play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of sulindac in Chinese healthy male volunteers.
Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang
A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.
Zhang, Yi-fan; Dai, Xiao-jian; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiao-yan; Wang, Ting; Tang, Yun-biao; Tsai, Cheng-yuan; Chang, Li-wen; Chang, Yu-ting; Zhong, Da-fang
Purpose To investigate the effects of probenecid and cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin in humans. Methods Two independent, open-label, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in 24 (12 per study) healthy Chinese volunteers. In Study 1, each volunteer received a single oral dose of 500 mg of nemonoxacin alone or with 1.5 g of probenecid divided into three doses within 25 hours. In Study 2, each volunteer received a single oral dose of 500 mg of nemonoxacin alone or with multiple doses of cimetidine (400 mg thrice daily for 7 days). The plasma and urine nemonoxacin concentrations were determined using validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods. Results Coadministration of nemonoxacin with probenecid reduced the renal clearance (CLr) of nemonoxacin by 22.6%, and increased the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0−∞) by 26.2%. Coadministration of nemonoxacin with cimetidine reduced the CLr of nemonoxacin by 13.3% and increased AUC0−∞ by 9.4%. Coadministration of nemonoxacin with probenecid or cimetidine did not significantly affect the maximum concentration of nemonoxacin or the percentage of the administered dose recovered in the urine. Conclusion Although probenecid reduced the CLr and increased the plasma exposure of nemonoxacin, these effects are unlikely to be clinically meaningful at therapeutic doses. Cimetidine had weaker, clinically meaningless effects on the pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin. PMID:26855561
Chen, Ying; Zhuo, Xiaofu; Lin, Yisheng; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Jingrong; Zeng, Jia; Jiang, Li; Chen, Cen; Lin, Haijuan; Dettke, Markus
Recent genome-wide association studies in Caucasians suggested that an association exists between the ABO gene locus and soluble levels of P-selectin (sP-selectin). However, it is unclear if the relationship corresponds to the phenotypic expression of ABO groups or is present in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to verify this observation at both genotypic and phenotypic levels in a healthy Chinese population. The ABO blood groups were determined by both phenotypes and genotypes in 440 healthy Chinese Han volunteers, while P-selectin levels were evaluated for sP-selectin and total platelet P-selectin (pP-selectin). ABO phenotyping and quantitative analysis of individual sP-selectin plasma levels were combined to demonstrate that individuals phenotypically expressing the A antigen have approximately 20% lower sP-selectin plasma levels than those carrying the B or O phenotype (p < 0.0001), but that no difference exists between A and AB and between B and O phenotypes. Genotyping data revealed that the presence of the A gene could be attributed to the observed difference in phenotype comparison, with no difference between A/A, A/B, and A/O genotypes. There were also no associations between ABO blood groups, either phenotypes or genotypes, and pP-selectin levels. This study demonstrated an association between sP-selectin levels and ABO groups in a Chinese Han population, implicating its generalizability to other ethnic groups. This finding will improve the understanding of the mechanism of ABO blood group-associated diseases. © 2015 AABB.
de Kam, Pieter-Jan; Hou, Jie; Wang, Zaiqi; Lin, Wen Hong; van den Heuvel, Michiel
Elimination of sugammadex occurs predominantly via the kidneys, with the majority of the drug excreted unchanged in the urine. To date, most studies with sugammadex have been performed in non-Asian populations. The objectives of this open-label study were to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single-dose sugammadex (16 mg/kg) in healthy Chinese adult volunteers. 12 Chinese subjects (6 male; 6 female) received intravenous sugammadex (16 mg/kg) as a 10-second bolus infusion. Blood samples were collected pre-sugammadex and at regular intervals up to 24 hours post-sugammadex for PK assessment. Safety was assessed via AEs, vital signs, electrocardiogram, and laboratory parameters. Following sugammadex 16 mg/kg infusion, peak sugammadex concentration was 197 μg/mL, clearance was 99.7 mL/min, and apparent volume of distribution at equilibrium was 10.5 L. Plasma sugammadex concentrations showed a polyexponential decline over time, with an overall geometric mean (CV%) terminal half-life of 145 minutes (17.9%) (139 minutes (17.7%) for males; 152 minutes (18.6%) for females). No influence of gender on the PK of sugammadex was observed. Three subjects experienced an adverse events (AE) (dysgeusia of mild intensity), which was considered possibly or probably related to sugammadex. There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs, electrocardiography or laboratory parameters. PK of sugammadex (16 mg/kg) was characterized in healthy Chinese subjects. Overall between-subject variability on clearance and apparent volume of distribution was ~ 10%. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated.
Jiang, Ji; Li, Lilly; Yin, Hequn; Woessner, Ralph; Emotte, Corinne; Li, Ruobing; Khindri, Sanjeev; Pei, Hu
Indacaterol is an inhaled, ultra-long-acting β2-agonist that provides 24-h bronchodilation with once-daily dosing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of multiple daily inhaled doses of indacaterol 150 or 300 μg once daily in healthy Chinese volunteers. This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, parallel-group study, placebo-controlled trial including two doses of indacaterol: 150 and 300 μg. Serum indacaterol was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with a lower limit of quantification of 0.01 ng/mL. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using non-compartmental analysis and included C max, T max, and AUC0-24h on Day 1 and AUC0-24h,ss, C max,ss, C min,ss, C av,ss, T max,ss, T 1/2, T 1/2,acc, CL/F, V z/F, and R acc on Day 14 (after repeated once-daily doses). Safety analyses were recorded using physical examination, biochemical tests, and ECG. Indacaterol steady state was achieved after 12-14 days of daily dosing. The mean effective half-life of indacaterol (based on drug accumulation at steady state) was 33.9 and 35.8 h for 150 and 300 μg, respectively. Systemic exposure to indacaterol increased 1.27 and 1.34-fold between the 150- and 300-μg doses on Day 1 (first dose) and Day 14 (repeated dose), respectively. Indacaterol 150 and 300 μg were safe and well tolerated in these volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of multiple inhaled doses of indacaterol 150 and 300 μg (for 14 days) were consistent with moderate systemic accumulation at steady state after repeated once-daily inhalation in healthy Chinese volunteers.
Xin, X; Wu, Y; Liu, X; Sun, C; Geng, T; Ding, L
A new combination contraceptive tablet containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 0.10 mg levonorgestrel (LNG) with potential advantages has been developed in China. This study was aimed to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of this new combination contraceptive tablet in female Chinese volunteers. This study was designed as phase I, open-label, and one-sequence clinical trial. 12 healthy nonpregnant female Chinese volunteers received a single dose (1 tablet) and multiple dose (1 tablet per day) administration for 21 consecutive days under fasting condition. Blood samples were analyzed with 2 validated LC-MS/MS methods for EE and LNG, respectively. After the single dose administration, the C max of EE and LNG were 44.76±18.64 pg/mL and 2.256±1.008 ng/mL, respectively. The steady-state condition of EE was achieved on the 6(th) day after the beginning of the multiple dose administration, while the steady-state condition of LNG was achieved on the 21(st) day. For EE, the mean MRT 0-72 and t 1/2 increased by 40.2 and 30.6%, meanwhile the mean Cl/F and Vd/F decreased by 18.5 and 29.1%, respectively from Day 1 to Day 24. For LNG, the mean MRT 0-72 increased by 27.1%, while the mean Cl/F and Vd/F decreased by 62.4 and 86.3%, respectively from Day 1 to Day 24. The t 1/2 remained unchanged for LNG. The exposure of LNG significantly increased with repeated dosing, but that of EE just slightly increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Zhang, Li-jun; Fang, Xiao-ling; Li, Xue-ning; Wang, Qing-song; Han, Li-mei; Zhang, Zhi-wen; Sha, Xian-yi
A randomized, two-way, crossover study was conducted in 18 healthy male Chinese volunteers to compare pharmacokinetics profiles of galantamine hydrobromide dispersible tablet with that of conventional tablet. A single oral dose of 10 mg galantamine was administrated to each volunteer. Plasma concentrations of galantamine were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection, which allowed 1 ng/mL to be assayed as the lowest quantifiable concentration. From plasma concentrations, AUC(0-->t) (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time, 32 hr), AUC(0-->infinity) (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity), t((1/2)) (elimination of half-life of the terminal log linear phase), C(max) (maximum plasma drug concentration) and T(max) (time to reach C(max)) were evaluated through noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. AUC(0-->t) and AUC(0-->infinity) were calculated by the linear-log trapezoidal rule method. C(max) and T(max) were obtained directly from the plasma concentration-time curve. Analysis of variance was carried out using logarithmically transformed AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max). As far as AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) were concerned, there was no statistically significant difference between the test and reference formulations. Ninety percent confidence intervals (90% CI) for the ratio of AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) values for the test and reference formulations were 100.4-107.8%, 99.0-107.2% and 87.5-111.3%, respectively. As the 90% CIs of AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) were entirely within 80-125%, two formulations were considered bioequivalent.
Lei, H-P; Yu, X-Y; Xie, H-T; Li, H-H; Fan, L; Dai, L-L; Chen, Y; Zhou, H-H
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous St. John's wort administration on single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion, a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6, in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eighteen unrelated healthy male subjects participated in this study. The single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were determined before (control) and after a long-term period of St. John's wort intake (325 mg, three times a day for 14 days). Plasma concentrations of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were determined before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after dosing. St. John's wort treatment decreased the area under the concentration versus time curve extrapolated to infinity of bupropion in healthy volunteers from 1.4 microg.h ml(-1) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.6 microg.h ml(-1)) after bupropion alone to 1.2 microg.h ml(-1) (95% CI = 1.1-1.3 microg.h ml(-1)) during St. John's wort treatment. St. John's wort treatment increased the oral clearance of bupropion from 108.3 l h(-1) (95% CI = 95.4-123.0 l h(-1)) to 130.0 l h(-1) (95% CI = 118.4-142.7 l h(-1)). No change in the time to peak concentration (t(max)) and the blood elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of bupropion was observed between the control and St. John's wort-treated phases. However, the half-life of hydroxybupropion between two phases had a significant difference by a Student's t test after logarithmic transformation. St. John's wort treatment decreased the half-life of hydroxybupropion from 26.7 h (95% CI = 23.8-29.9 h) to 24.4 h (95% CI = 21.9-27.3 h). St. John's wort decreased, to a statistically significant extent, the plasma concentrations of bupropion, probably mainly by increasing the clearance of bupropion.
Cao, Guo-ying; Zhang, Ying-yuan; Guo, Bei-ning; Yu, Ji-cheng; Wu, Xiao-jie; Chen, Yuan-cheng; Wu, Ju-Fang; Shi, Yao-guo
Nemonoxacin (TG-873870) is a novel nonfluorinated quinolone with potent broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and atypical pathogens, including vancomycin-nonsusceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), quinolone-resistant MRSA, quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae. This first-in-human study was aimed at assessing the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic properties of intravenous nemonoxacin in healthy Chinese volunteers. The study comprised a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating safety and tolerability study in 92 subjects and a randomized, single-dose, open-label, 3-period Latin-square crossover pharmacokinetic study in 12 subjects. The study revealed that nemonoxacin infusion was well tolerated up to the maximum dose of 1,250 mg, and the acceptable infusion rates ranged from 0.42 to 5.56 mg/min. Drug-related adverse events (AEs) were mild, transient, and confined to local irritation at the injection site. The pharmacokinetic study revealed that after the administration of 250, 500, and 750 mg of intravenous nemonoxacin, the maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) values were 4.826 μg/ml, 7.152 μg/ml, and 11.029 μg/ml, respectively. The corresponding values for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 hours (AUC0–72 h) were 17.05 μg · h/ml, 39.30 μg · h/ml, and 61.98 μg · h/ml. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 11 h, and the mean cumulative drug excretion rate within 72 h ranged from 64.93% to 77.17%. Volunteers treated with 250 to 750 mg nemonoxacin exhibited a linear dose-response relationship between the AUC0–72 h and AUC0–∞. These findings provide further support for the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic properties of intravenous nemonoxacin. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01944774.) PMID:25092690
Liu, Guojing; Wen, Jiagen; Guo, Dong; Wang, Zhenmin; Hu, Xiaolei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhou, Honghao; Zhang, Wei
The aim was to investigate the role of rabeprazole on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of metformin. The in vitro inhibition assays on metformin transport were carried out and showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of rabeprazole on OCT2-mediated metformin transport was 26.0 μM, whereas the IC50 on MATE1-mediated metformin transport inhibition was 4.6 μM. Fifteen healthy Chinese male volunteers were enrolled and given two different doses of metformin plus the co-administration of placebo or rabeprazole. Plasma concentrations of metformin were measured up to 12 h after the second dose. The glucose-lowering effects and the variation of insulin concentrations were evaluated during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The AUC0-12 of metformin plus rabeprazole were 28,276 ± 5187 ng/ml·h, which was significantly higher than AUC0-12 of metformin plus placebo (24,691 ± 3129 ng/ml·h). Thus, rabeprazole can modestly influence the PK of metformin, suggesting the precaution of using the two drugs together. In OGTTs, rabeprazole decreased the values of AUCinsulin and the maximum insulin concentration. Although rabeprazole showed inhibition effect on OCT2-mediated metformin transport, the glucose-lowering effect of metformin remained the same regardless of its PK changes. Further studies are needed to warrant the effect of rabeprazole on metformin. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wei, Fangmi; Zhu, Rong; Zhao, Wenhui; Yang, Jing; Cai, Zheng; Hu, Qin
A simple, sensitive and specific method has been developed for the determination of cefteram in human plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through protein precipitation with 20% trichloroacetic acid (v/v) and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column at 25 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-aqueous 20 mM ammonium acetate (18:82, v/v) at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Wavelength was set at 235 nm. The lower limit of quantification was 0.04 microg/mL and the assay exhibited a linear range of 0.04-3.2 microg/mL (r=0.9996). The relative recoveries of cefteram from human plasma at three different concentrations were more than 90%. The method was successfully applied to investigate the bioequivalence between two kinds of cefteram pivoxil preparations (test vs reference) in 24 healthy Chinese volunteers. After a single 100 mg dose for the test and reference product, the resulting means of major pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), Cmax and Tmax of cefteram pivoxil were 4.75 +/- 1.35 vs 4.76 +/- 1.29 microg h/mL, 4.89 +/- 1.36 vs 4.91 +/- 1.29 microg h/mL, 1.65 +/- 0.45 vs 1.73 +/- 0.45 microg/mL and 1.48 +/- 0.59 vs 1.73 +/- 0.45 h, respectively, indicating that these two kinds of preparations were bioequivalent.
Wang, Xiao-lin; Liu, Man; Yang, Man; Zhang, Ya-nan; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Li-na; Han, Jing; Liu, Hui-chen
The gender differences in pharmacokinetics of a combination tablet of niacin extended-release/simvastatin were evaluated in healthy Chinese volunteers. Thirty-six healthy male and female volunteers were enrolled in the study receiving a single oral dose of niacin extended-release/simvastatin 1,000/20 mg. The results indicated that the systemic exposure of simvastatin hydroxy acid and the total urine excretion of niacin were significantly higher for females compared with those for males, and the T max of niacin in plasma was significantly shorter for males than that for females. There were no significant differences in the systemic exposure of simvastatin, niacin, and NUA in plasma between males and females.
Wu, Xiao-jie; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Bei-ning; Zhang, Ying-yuan; Yu, Ji-cheng; Cao, Guo-ying; Chen, Yuan-cheng; Zhu, De-mei; Ye, Xin-yu; Wu, Ju-fang; Shi, Yao-guo; Chang, Li-wen; Chang, Yu-ting; Tsai, Cheng-yuan
This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles of nemonoxacin in healthy Chinese volunteers following multiple-dose intravenous infusion once daily for 10 consecutive days. The study was composed of two stages. In the open-label stage, 500 mg or 750 mg of nemonoxacin (n = 12 each) was administered at an infusion rate of 5.56 mg/min. In the second stage, with a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, 500, 650, or 750 mg of nemonoxacin (n = 16 in each cohort; 12 subjects received the drug and the other 4 subjects received the placebo) was given at an infusion rate of 4.17 mg/min. The results showed that, in the first stage, the maximal nemonoxacin concentrations (mean ± SD) at steady state (Cmax_ss) were 9.60 ± 1.84 and 11.04 ± 2.18 μg/ml in the 500-mg and 750-mg cohorts, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve at steady state (AUC0-24_ss) were 44.03 ± 8.62 and 65.82 ± 10.78 μg · h/ml in the 500-mg and 750-mg cohorts, respectively. In the second stage, the nemonoxacin Cmax_ss values were 7.13 ± 1.47, 8.17 ± 1.76, and 9.96 ± 2.23 μg/ml in the 500-mg, 650-mg, and 750-mg cohorts, respectively; the AUC0-24_ss values were 40.46 ± 9.52, 54.17 ± 12.10, and 71.34 ± 17.79 μg · h/ml in the 500-mg, 650-mg, and 750-mg cohorts, respectively. No accumulation was found after the 10-day infusion with any regimen. The drug was well tolerated. A Monte Carlo simulation indicated that the cumulative fraction of response of any dosing regimen was nearly 100% against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The probability of target attainment of nemonoxacin therapy was >98% when the MIC of nemonoxacin against S. pneumoniae was ≤1 mg/liter. It is suggested that all of the studied intravenous nemonoxacin dosing regimens should have favorable clinical and microbiological efficacies in future clinical studies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01944774.).
Alolga, Raphael N.; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Lelu Kakila, Jimmy; Chen, Yan; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen
K-601 is an herbal formulation for influenza consisting of Lonicera japonica, Isatis indigotica, Rheum palmatum, Phellodendron chinense, and Scutellaria baicalensis. In this work, we characterized the chemical constituents in K-601, identified the absorbed compounds and determined their pharmacokinetics in 6 Chinese and African volunteers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Similarity evaluation for chromatographic fingerprint of nine different batches showed values above 0.983. Totally, 50 components were identified in K-601. Then, 15 major prototype compounds and 17 metabolites were identified in human plasma. Major metabolic pathways included glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, demethylation, and reduction. The pharmacokinetics of the most abundant prototype compounds, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and magnoflorine were determined. Significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the African and Chinese subjects. The AUCs of the African is about 4–10 fold higher than that of the Chinese for the three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Magnoflorine, an aporphine alkaloid, was absorbed better in the Chinese than in the African. The biotransformation of K-601 by human intestinal microflora was also investigated. The major reactions included hydroxylation, methylation, demethylation, acetylation and reduction. Glucuronidation and sulfation were not observed with fecal flora. These results may be important and useful in linking data from pharmacological assays and clinical effects. PMID:26268432
Li, Kun-Yan; Qiu, Yu; Jiang, Yun; Luo, Chen-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Jing; Yang, Nong
Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of arterial hypertension. Probenecid is a well-established hypouricemic agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of coadministration of probenecid on the pharmacokinetic parameters and tolerability of olmesartan in healthy volunteers. In a randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study, 12 volunteers received 2 oral treatments (olmesartan alone or olmesartan plus probenecid) separated by 4 days. Blood samples were obtained for a 48-hour pharmacokinetic evaluation after drug administration. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests before and after administration of the study drug. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated in 6 male and 6 female healthy volunteers (mean age, 22 [range, 20-25] years]; weight, 56.0 [range, 51.0-60.0] kg). Probenecid coadministration increased olmesartan Css-av, AUC0→∞, and AUC0-48 by 40%, 50%, and 50%, respectively (P = 0.018, 0.000, 0.000, respectively), but there was no statistical significance for Tmax, t1/2, Css-max, and Css-min between olmesartan plus probenecid and olmesartan alone (P = 0.697, 0.053, 0.521, and 0.734, respectively). No serious adverse event (AE) was reported during the study. The proportion of volunteers with AEs in the olmesartan plus probenecid period (5 of 12 [42%]) was higher than that in the olmesartan-alone period (1 of 12 [8%]). All of the AEs during the olmesartan plus probenecid period were abnormal routine urine test results. The AE in olmesartan-alone period was dizziness. All AEs were classified as mild and considered to be at least possibly related to treatment. All volunteers recovered from the AEs by 2 weeks after the end of the study. Probenecid increases the exposure speed of olmesartan by increasing the AUC0-48, AUC0→∞, and Css-av. The combined treatment of olmesartan medoxomil with probenecid
Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun; Li, Tingting; He, Lin; Xie, Huiru; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling
Desloratadine, the major active metabolite of loratadine, is a non-sedating long-acting antihistamine that is widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of desloratadine slow-metabolizer (DSM) phenotype and the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of desloratadine and its active metabolite 3-OH-desloratadine in healthy Chinese volunteers. A total of 46 healthy Chinese male volunteers were included in this investigation. All subjects received a single dose of a 5-mg desloratadine tablet under fasting or fed conditions and the plasma concentrations of desloratadine and 3-OH-desloratadine were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed using a non-compartmental method in the Phoenix WinNonlin program. The individuals with a 3-OH-desloratadine-to-desloratadine exposure ratio lower than 10 % or a desloratadine half-life (t 1/2) of ≥50 h were supposed to be DSM. There was only one DSM among the 46 volunteers, with a prevalence of 2.2 %. Moreover, administration in a fed state resulted in 34.07 and 32.06 % decreases in maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity for desloratadine and 47.26 and 48.46 % for 3-OH-desloratadine compared with those values under fasting conditions. Taken together, these results indicated that the incidence of the DSM phenotype in the Chinese population was low and that food intake could significantly decrease the absorption rate and extent of desloratadine.
Lin, Meihua; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Huili; Wu, Minglan; Lv, Duo; Huang, Yujie; Zheng, Yunliang; Shentu, Jianzhong; Wu, Lihua
The pharmacokinetics (PKs) of febuxostat varies among individuals, while the main causes are still unknown. We investigated whether the polymorphisms of UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 played an important role in the disposition of the drug after oral administration of febuxostat tablet in Chinese subjects. A total of 42 healthy subjects were from two previous independent clinical bioequivalence (BE) trials of febuxostat, in which the same reference formulation (ULORIC(®) tablet, 80 mg) was taken, and thus the PK data were combined for the evaluation of pharmacogenomic effect on febuxostat PKs. Our study clearly indicated that the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) in the heterozygote and homozygote of UGT1A1*6 (c.211G > A, rs4148323) was significantly higher than that in the wild-type. Meanwhile, the clearance (CL/F) exhibited a significant reduction by 22.2%. Interestingly, UGT1A1*28, in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with UGT1A3*2a, significantly increased its clearance. These results indicate that UGT1A1*6 was an important factor influencing the drug disposition, thus providing a probable explanation for interindividual variation of febuxostat PKs in Chinese subjects. In addition, by considering of the different allele distribution of UGT1A1*6 and *28 in Eastern and Western populations, these findings might further interpret the ethnic difference of febuxostat PKs. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wen, Yu-Guan; Shang, De-Wei; Xie, He-Zhi; Wang, Xi-Pei; Ni, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Wei; Qiu, Chang; Liu, Xia; Li, Fang-Fang; Li, Xuan; Luo, Fu-Tian
The aim of the study was to better understand blonanserin population pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics in Chinese healthy subjects. Data from two studies with 50 subjects were analyzed to investigate the population PK characteristics of blonanserin at single dose (4, 8, and 12 mg) under fasting, multidose (4 mg bid or 8 mg qd for 7 days) and under food intake condition (single dose, 8 mg). Blonanserin plasma concentrations were detected using the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed to describe the blonanserin concentration-time profiles. A two compartment model with first-order absorption was built to describe the time-course of blonanserin. The population-predicted system apparent clearance (CL/F), volume of apparent distribution in center (V(1)/F), and the first-order absorption rate constant (Ka) of blonanserin under fasting was 1230 L/h, 9500 L, and 3.02 h(-1), respectively. Food intake decreased Ka of blonanserin to 0.78 h(-1). The relative bioavailability between fasting and food intake estimated by the final model was 55%. No clinically significant safety issues were identified. This is the first study assessing the PK profile of blonanserin with population PKs method. The results can be used for simulation in further clinical trial and optimize individual dosage regimens using a Bayesian methodology in patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Du, Qing-qing; Wang, Zhi-jun; He, Lin; Jiang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ling
CYP3A4 is the main isoform of cytochrome P450 oxidases involved in the metabolism of approximately 60 % drugs, and its expression level is highly variable in human subjects. CYP3A4 is regulated by many transcription factors, among which the pregnane X receptor/steroid and xenobiotic receptor (PXR/SXR, NR1I2) have been identified as the most critical. Genetic polymorphisms (such as SNPs) in PXR may affect the expression level of CYP3A4. Although numerous SNPs have been identified in PXR and have appeared to affect PXR function, their impact on the expression of CYP3A4 in human subjects has not been well studied. Thus, a clinical study in healthy Chinese subjects was conducted to investigate the impact of PXR polymorphisms on repaglinide (an endogenous marker for CYP3A4 activity) pharmacokinetics used alone or in combination with a PXR inducer, flucloxacillin. Two SNPs, -298A>G and 11193T>C, were identified as the tag SNPs to represent the overall genetic polymorphic profile of PXR. To evaluate the potential functional change of these two SNPs, 24 healthy subjects were recruited in a pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics study of repaglinide with or without flucloxacillin. The pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC and T1/2 were significantly different among the PXR genotype groups. The SNPs of -298G/G and 11193C/C were found to be associated with a lower PXR activity resulting in reduction of CYP3A4 activity in vivo. After administration of flucloxacillin, a significant drug-drug interaction was observed. The clearance of repagnilide was significantly increased by concomitant flucloxacillin in a genotype dependent manner. The subjects with SNPs of -298G/G and 11193C/C appeared to be less sensitive to flucloxacillin. Our study results demonstrated for the first time the impact of genetic polymorphisms of PXR on the PK and PD of repaglinide, and showed that subjects with genotype of -298G/G and 11193C/C in PXR has a decreased elimination rate of 3A4/2C8. Furthermore
Qiu, Xuewen; Dai, Qing; Sun, Fengjun; Liu, Yao; Yang, Bo; Xiang, Rongfeng; Yu, Mingjie; Xiong, Lirong; Bi, Shanshan; Lu, Wei; Chen, Yongchuan; Xia, Peiyuan
To develop a population-based pharmacokinetic model for the oral antiepileptic drug zonisamide using a cohort of healthy (nonepileptic) subjects and evaluate the effect of individual factors on the pharmacokinetics of zonisamide. 30 young adults (21-39 years) in good health were randomly assigned to 3 equal groups (1:1 sex ratio) for single-dose administration of zonisamide at 200 mg, 300 mg, or 400 mg. An additional 9 subjects (22-24 years) were administered once daily zonisamide at 300 mg for 14 days, and comprised the multiple dosing group. Venous blood samples were collected for analysis prior to (baseline, 0 hours) and after (1-300 hours) drug administration, providing 607 total samples used to build the pharmacokinetic model. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by ICON's nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) software. Validation of the final model was carried out by nonparametric bootstrapping and visual predictive check. The zonisamide pharmacokinetics was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. In the final model, the estimated value of clearance (CL) was 23.25 L/h, the volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc) was 34.50 L, the intercompartmental clearance (Q) was 20.22 L/h, and the Ka was 0.026 h(-1). The peripheral volume of distribution (Vp) was 1,429 L for single dose and 1,003 L for multiple doses. Body weight was the significant covariate affecting CL, Vc, Vp, and Q. Otherwise, female subjects had a lower Q than male subjects. The pharmacokinetics of zonisamide after oral administration could be described using a linear first-order elimination two-compartment model, which may provide a reference for clinical use of zonisamide in Chinese adults.
Zhou, Xiao; Liu, Ji
This study developed a revised high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method to determine plasma tramadol concentration, and thereby to examine the bioequivalence of two tramadol formulations among healthy male Chinese volunteers. The study used a double-blind, randomized, 2×2 crossover-design principle. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters for both formulations were consistent with previous reports. According to the observation of vital signs and laboratory measurement, no subjects had any adverse reactions. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the test drug/reference drug for tramadol were 100.2% (95.3%-103.4%) for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to the last measurable concentration, 99.6% (94.2%-102.7%) for the AUC from administration to infinite time, and 100.8% (93.1%-106.4%) for maximum concentration. For the 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference AUC ratio and maximum concentration ratio of tramadol, both were in the acceptance range for bioequivalence. According to the two preparations by pharmacokinetic parameter statistics, the half-life, mean residence time, and clearance values showed no significant statistical differences. Therefore, the conclusion of this study was that the two tramadol formulations (tablets and capsules) were bioequivalent.
Zhou, Xiao; Liu, Ji
This study developed a revised high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method to determine plasma tramadol concentration, and thereby to examine the bioequivalence of two tramadol formulations among healthy male Chinese volunteers. The study used a double-blind, randomized, 2×2 crossover-design principle. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters for both formulations were consistent with previous reports. According to the observation of vital signs and laboratory measurement, no subjects had any adverse reactions. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the test drug/reference drug for tramadol were 100.2% (95.3%–103.4%) for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to the last measurable concentration, 99.6% (94.2%–102.7%) for the AUC from administration to infinite time, and 100.8% (93.1%–106.4%) for maximum concentration. For the 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference AUC ratio and maximum concentration ratio of tramadol, both were in the acceptance range for bioequivalence. According to the two preparations by pharmacokinetic parameter statistics, the half-life, mean residence time, and clearance values showed no significant statistical differences. Therefore, the conclusion of this study was that the two tramadol formulations (tablets and capsules) were bioequivalent. PMID:25750519
Wei, Yang; Sun, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ke-Shen; Sun, Dan-Li; Zheng, Ming-You
The aim of the present study, performed on two different groups of volunteers, is to characterize the pharmacokinetics of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combined tablet. After administration of high, medium and low doses of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combined tablets, AUC and C(max) of two compounds both increase significantly with increase of dose. Neither normalized AUC/Dose nor C(max)/Dose has significant difference between every two tested dose groups. The similar results can be observed as for the parameters of t(max). Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide are both eliminated with linear characteristics. After repeated administration of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combined tablets, AUC, C(max) and C(min) of lisinopril in the steady state increase. AUC and C(min) increase significantly. As for hydrochlorothiazide, AUC, C(max), C(min), and t(max) also increase in steady state. AUC and C(min) increase significantly. Administered with the test medication, lisinopril has an fluctuation index (FI) value of 2.29 and reaches a relative steady concentration. But hydrochlorothiazide has an FI value of 4.09 with relatively large fluctuating concentrations.
Qiu, Furong; Liu, Songcan; Miao, Ping; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Leilei; Zhao, TongFang; Ye, Yujie; Jiang, Jian
Zuojin Pill has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. In Chinese individuals, CYP 2D6*10 is the most common allele with reduced enzyme activity. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic interaction between Zuojin Pill and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy Chinese volunteers with CYP2D6*10 genotype. A pharmacokinetics interaction study was carried out in three groups with CYP2D6*1/*1 (n = 6), CYP2D6*1/*10 (n = 6), and CYP2D6*10/*10 (n = 6) genotypes. Each participant received a single oral dose of dextromethorphan (15 mg) followed by Zuojin Pill (3 g twice daily) for 7 days, and received 3 g Zuojin Pill with 15 mg dextromethorphan in the last day. Blood samples (0-24 h) and urine samples (0-12 h) were collected at baseline and after the administration of Zuojin Pill, and the samples' concentration of dextromethorphan and its main metabolite dextrorphan was determined. Compared to baseline values, co-administration of Zuojin Pill (3 g twice daily) for 7 days increased the AUC0-24 of dextromethorphan [mean (90 % CI)] by 3.00-fold (2.49∼3.61) and 1.71-fold (1.42∼2.06), and decreased oral clearance(CL/F) by 0.27-fold (0.2-0.40) and 0.57-fold (0.48-0.67) in the participants with CYP2D6*1/*1 and CYP2D6*1/*10 genotypes, respectively. In contrast, no significant change was observed in these pharmacokinetic parameters of the participants with CYP2D6*10/*10 genotype. These data demonstrated that administration of Zuojin Pill inhibited moderately CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers. The inhibitory influence of CYP2D6 was greater in CYP2D6*1/*1 and CYP2D6*1/*10 groups than CYP2D6 *10/*10 group.
Zhang, R; Yuan, G; Li, R; Liu, X; Wei, C; Wang, B; Gao, H; Guo, R
The study aimed to compare and evaluate the bioequivalence of a new generic preparation of trospium chloride (CAS NO:10405-02-4) capsule (20 mg, test) and the available import tablet (20 mg , reference) for the requirement of state regulatory criteria in China. A randomized- sequence, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese male volunteers in the fasted state. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 h after administration of a single oral dose of 40 mg trospium chloride capsules or tablets, followed by a 7-day washout period. The concentration of trospium chloride was determined by a LC-MS/MS method. Drug And Statistical-Version 2.0 was used to calculate the pharmacokinetics parameters and assess bioequivalence of the two preparations. It was considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the mean ratios (test: reference) for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were within the range from 80% to 125%, respectively. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of test and reference were as follows: t1/2 was (15.11 ± 3.24) h and (16.00 ± 3.96) h; Tmax was (4.0 ± 1.2) h and (4.1 ± 0.9) h; Cmax was (3.76 ± 1.87) ng·mL - 1 and (3.70 ± 1.89) ng·mL - 1; AUC0-t was (33.51 ± 14.39) ng·mL - 1·h and (33.33 ± 14.88) ng·mL - 1·h, and the AUC0-∞ was (35.20 ± 14.88) ng·mL - 1·h and (35.16±15.17) ng·mL - 1·h. The ratios (test: reference) for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 94.0%~111.7%, 96.4%~106.8%, and 96.1%~105.3%, respectively. No significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found between preparations and periods (p>0.05). No obvious adverse events were monitored throughout the study based on clinical parameters and patient reports.
Zou, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Jie; Ding, Li; Zhu, Yu-Bin; Fan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Da-Wei
, respectively; MRT were (3.74+/-0.85), (4.04+/-0.56) and (3.28+/-0.66) h, respectively. The essential pharmacokinetic parameters after oral multiple doses (6mg, b.i.d) were as follows: Cssmax, (2.72+/-0.61) ng/ml; Tmax, (1.10+/-0.25) h; Cssmin, (0.085+/-0.01) ng/ml; Cav, (0.54+/-0.12) ng/ml; DF, (4.84+/-0.86); AUCss, (6.53+/-1.5) ngh/ml. This developed and validated assay method had been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of tegaserod maleate in healthy Chinese volunteers at a single dose of 4 mg, 6 mg and 12 mg, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters can provide some information for clinical medication.
Liu, Wen; Dai, Ying-Chun; Deng, Nang; Liu, Xiang-Rong; Yi Luo
An HPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of venlafaxine enantiomers in human plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese volunteers. The method was carried out on a vancomycin chiral column (5 µm, 250 × 4.6 mm) maintained at 25°C. The mobile phase was methanol-water containing 30 mmol/L ammonium acetate, pH 3.3 adjusted with aqueous ammonia (8:92, v/v) at the flow rate 1.0 mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometer with an electrospray interface was operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode to detect the selected ions pair at m/z 278.0 → 120.8 for venlafaxine enantiomers and m/z 294.8 → 266.7 for estazolanm (internal standard). The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.28-423.0 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 0.28 ng/mL. The intra-and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 9.7%. The method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic profiles of venlafaxine enantiomers in 18 healthy volunteers. Validation parameters such as the specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability were evaluated, giving results within the acceptable range. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the venlafaxine enantiomers were measured in the 18 healthy Chinese volunteers who received a single regimen with venlafaxine hydrochloride capsules. The results show that AUC((0-∞)) , C(max) and t(1/2) between S-venlafaxine and R-venlafaxine are significantly different (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhou, Huili; Xu, Wei; Wu, Guolan; Wu, Lihua; Shentu, Jianzhong; Pan, Zhengfei; Hu, Shuai; Liu, Yang
Recently a formulation of intravenous (IV) ibuprofen was developed in China for management of mild to moderate pain in patients who could not take oral medications or where intravenous administration was preferable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of single and multiple doses of ibuprofen injection in healthy Chinese volunteers. This open-label, single- and multiple-dose study was conducted in healthy Chinese volunteers. In the single-dose phase, subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of ibuprofen injection 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 g administered as a 30-minute IV infusion with a 1-week washout between periods. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals from 0 to 12.5 hours after drug administration and were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. In the multiple-dose phase, subjects received 0.4 g ibuprofen every 6 hours for 9 doses. Blood samples were obtained before the 7th, 8th, and 9th administration to determine the Cmin at steady state; on the 9th intravenous administration, blood samples were also collected for 12.5 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental model. Tolerability was determined using clinical evaluation and monitoring of adverse events (AEs). A total of 12 healthy male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) Chinese volunteers were enrolled and completed the trial. After IV administration of single dose, the mean (SD) Cmax value increased from 35.77 (6.98) to 117.12 (19.78) µg/mL, and the mean (SD) AUC0-t value increased from 67.63 (10.30) to 230.50 (33.55) µg×h/mL in the range of 0.2-g to 0.8-g dose. The terminal half-life in plasma was ~ 2.0 hours. After IV administration of 9 doses of ibuprofen 400 mg every 6 hours, the mean (SD) Cmax was 66.49 (8.49) µg/mL, the AUC0-t was 135.65 (26.91) µg×h/mL, the t1
Zhou, Huili; Zheng, Yunliang; Wu, Guolan; Hu, Xingjiang; Zhai, You; Iv, Duo; Liu, Jian; Wu, Lihua; Shentu, Jianzhong
Febuxostat is a novel non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase indicated for the chronic management of hyperuricemia in patients with gout. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of single and multiple oral administrations of febuxostat capsules in healthy Chinese volunteers. This openlabel, single- and multiple-dose three-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Chinese volunteers. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of febuxostat 40, 80, or 120 mg in separate trial periods, with a 1-week washout between periods. Those allocated to the 40 mg and 80 mg dose continued into the multiple-dose phase, in which they received 40 mg or 80 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. During the course of the study, blood samples were collected and the concentrations of febuxostat were determined using LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental model. Tolerability was determined using clinical evaluation and monitoring of adverse events (AEs). 12 healthy Chinese volunteers were enrolled and completed 3 treatment periods. After oral administration of single doses of 40, 80, and 120 mg of febuxostat, the mean (SD) Cmax was 2,835.43 (1,136.41), 5,356.75 (1,711.33), and 7,718.21 (2,446.34) ng/mL, respectively; the AUC0-48h was 8,821.10 (3,018.35), 17,854.46 (5,113.28), and 30,832.05 (10,992.20) ng×h/ mL; the AUC0-∞ was 8,990.33 (3,046.14), 18,193.58 (5,160.80), and 31,466.93 (1,1074.74) ng×h/mL; the t1/2 was 5.95 (2.71), 9.41 (7.47), and 12.34 (10.34) hours; the Cl/F was 4.81 (1.18), 4.70 (1.21), and 4.18(1.19) L/h; and the Vz/F was 39.66 (16.69), 62.72 (51.41), and 73.41 (64.84) L. After administration of multiple doses of 40 and 80 mg febuxostat, the mean (SD) Cmax,ss was 2,762.38 (1,331.96) and 5,047.27 (1,456.57) ng/mL; the Cmin,ss was 124.10 (6.32) and 46.93 (15.86) ng/mL; the AUCss,0-τ was 8,525.49 (2,160.64) and 16,757.12 (4,223.17) ng×h /mL; the steadystate
Luo, Zhu; Nan, Feng; Miao, Jia; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Mei; Liang, Maozhi
The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of febuxostat in healthy Chinese male volunteers and evaluate whether the two formulations of febuxostat 40-mg and 80-mg tablets are bioequivalent. A randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Chinese male volunteers under fasting conditions. 24 eligible subjects were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive a single dose of test or reference formulation of febuxostat 40-mg or 80-mg tablet. The washout period between each administration was 1 week. Plasma febuxostat was quantified by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, physical examinations, 12-lead ECG and laboratory tests. After single-dosing of 1 tablet of 40-mg febuxostat, the pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference formulations were: Tmax 1.22±0.87 and 1.85±1.03 h, Cmax 1689.16±461.31 and 1613.80±608.43 ng·mL-1, AUC0-t 5139.87±1349.28 and 5517.91±2024.26 ng·mL-1·h, AUC0−∞ 5263.06±1339.16 and 5640.48±2040.22 ng·mL-1·h, t1/2 4.82±2.61 and 4.85±1.78 h, respectively. After single-dosing of 1 tablet of 80-mg febuxostat, the pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference formulations were: Tmax 1.71±1.21 and 2.23±1.55 h, Cmax 2744.47±1157.44 and 2998.17±1200.13 ng·mL-1, AUC0-t 9634.03±2768.25 and 10467.95±3501.65 ng·mL-1·h, AUC0−∞ 9834.32±2730.51 and 10626.63±3504.08 ng·mL-1·h, t1/2 6.25±2.44 and 5.46±1.65 h, respectively. For single-dosing of 1 tablet of 40-mg febuxostat, 90% CIs for the test/reference ratio of AUC0-t, AUC0−∞ and Cmax were 89.79 to 102.55, 90.14 to 102.56 and 93.99 to 129.63, respectively. For single-dosing of 1 tablet of 80-mg febuxostat, 90% CIs for the test/reference ratio of AUC0-t, AUC0−∞ and Cmax were 86.67 to 100.00, 87.50 to 100.51 and 79.48 to 105.99, respectively. This single dose study revealed similar pharmacokinetic properties in
Luo, Zhu; Nan, Feng; Miao, Jia; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Mei; Liang, Maozhi
The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of febuxostat in healthy Chinese male volunteers and evaluate whether the two formulations of febuxostat 40-mg and 80-mg tablets are bioequivalent. A randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Chinese male volunteers under fasting conditions. 24 eligible subjects were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive a single dose of test or reference formulation of febuxostat 40-mg or 80-mg tablet. The washout period between each administration was 1 week. Plasma febuxostat was quantified by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, physical examinations, 12-lead ECG and laboratory tests. After single-dosing of 1 tablet of 40-mg febuxostat, the pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference formulations were: Tmax 1.22±0.87 and 1.85±1.03 h, Cmax 1689.16±461.31 and 1613.80±608.43 ng·mL-1, AUC0-t 5139.87±1349.28 and 5517.91±2024.26 ng·mL-1·h, AUC0-∞ 5263.06±1339.16 and 5640.48±2040.22 ng·mL-1·h, t1/2 4.82±2.61 and 4.85±1.78 h, respectively. After single-dosing of 1 tablet of 80-mg febuxostat, the pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference formulations were: Tmax 1.71±1.21 and 2.23±1.55 h, Cmax 2744.47±1157.44 and 2998.17±1200.13 ng·mL-1, AUC0-t 9634.03±2768.25 and 10467.95±3501.65 ng·mL-1·h, AUC0-∞ 9834.32±2730.51 and 10626.63±3504.08 ng·mL-1·h, t1/2 6.25±2.44 and 5.46±1.65 h, respectively. For single-dosing of 1 tablet of 40-mg febuxostat, 90% CIs for the test/reference ratio of AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and Cmax were 89.79 to 102.55, 90.14 to 102.56 and 93.99 to 129.63, respectively. For single-dosing of 1 tablet of 80-mg febuxostat, 90% CIs for the test/reference ratio of AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and Cmax were 86.67 to 100.00, 87.50 to 100.51 and 79.48 to 105.99, respectively. This single dose study revealed similar pharmacokinetic properties in healthy
Lu, H-M; Ye, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of a new generic formulation of bicalutamide 50-mg tablets (test) and the available branded formulation (reference) to comply with regulatory criteria for marketing of the test product in China. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 40 healthy male volunteers and consisted of separate fasting and fed phases. A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 6-week washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 15, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72, 144, 288, 432 and 576 h after dosing. Plasma samples were separated and assayed for bicalutamide using a selective and sensitive HPLC method with UV detection. The fasting and fed states pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-576 h, AUC0-∞, Cmax, tmax and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration-time profile of both formulations. The formulations were considered bioequivalent when the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios (test:reference) for Cmax and AUC0-576 h were within the regulatory range of 80-125%. There were no significant increases in bicalutamide Cmax, AUC0-576 h or tmax for either formulation in the fed phase compared with the fasting phase. In both the fasting and fed portions of the study, the 90% CIs for the ratio (test:reference) of log-transformed Cmax and AUC0-576 h were within the acceptance range for bioequivalence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Zhang, Yi-fan; Dai, Xiao-jian; Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiao-yan; Liang, Li; Qiao, Hua; Tsai, Cheng-yuan; Chang, Li-wen; Huang, Ping-ting; Hsu, Chiung-yuan; Chang, Yu-ting; Tsai, Chen-en; Zhong, Da-fang
To evaluate the effects of an Al(3+)- and Mg(2+)-containing antacid, ferrous sulfate, and calcium carbonate on the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy humans. Two single-dose, open-label, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (12 per study). In Study 1, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or an antacid (containing 318 mg of Al(3+) and 496 mg of Mg(2+)) plus nemonoxacin administered 2 h before, concomitantly or 4 h after the antacid. In Study 2, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate (containing 60 mg of Fe(2+)) or calcium carbonate (containing 600 mg of Ca(2+)). Concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with the antacid significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) for nemonoxacin by 80.5%, the maximum concentration (Cmax) by 77.8%, and urine recovery (Ae) by 76.3%. Administration of nemonoxacin 4 h after the antacid decreased the AUC0-∞ for nemonoxacin by 58.0%, Cmax by 52.7%, and Ae by 57.7%. Administration of nemonoxacin 2 h before the antacid did not affect the absorption of nemonoxacin. Administration of nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate markedly decreased AUC0-∞ by 63.7%, Cmax by 57.0%, and Ae by 59.7%, while concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with calcium carbonate mildly decreased AUC0-∞ by 17.8%, Cmax by 14.3%, and Ae by 18.4%. Metal ions, Al(3+), Mg(2+), and Fe(2+) markedly decreased the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy Chinese males, whereas Ca(2+) had much weaker effects. To avoid the effects of Al(3+) and Mg(2+)-containing drugs, nemonoxacin should be administered ≥2 h before them.
Zhang, Yi-fan; Dai, Xiao-jian; Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiao-yan; Liang, Li; Qiao, Hua; Tsai, Cheng-yuan; Chang, Li-wen; Huang, Ping-ting; Hsu, Chiung-yuan; Chang, Yu-ting; Tsai, Chen-en; Zhong, Da-fang
Aim: To evaluate the effects of an Al3+- and Mg2+-containing antacid, ferrous sulfate, and calcium carbonate on the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy humans. Methods: Two single-dose, open-label, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (12 per study). In Study 1, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or an antacid (containing 318 mg of Al3+ and 496 mg of Mg2+) plus nemonoxacin administered 2 h before, concomitantly or 4 h after the antacid. In Study 2, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate (containing 60 mg of Fe2+) or calcium carbonate (containing 600 mg of Ca2+). Results: Concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with the antacid significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞) for nemonoxacin by 80.5%, the maximum concentration (Cmax) by 77.8%, and urine recovery (Ae) by 76.3%. Administration of nemonoxacin 4 h after the antacid decreased the AUC0–∞ for nemonoxacin by 58.0%, Cmax by 52.7%, and Ae by 57.7%. Administration of nemonoxacin 2 h before the antacid did not affect the absorption of nemonoxacin. Administration of nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate markedly decreased AUC0–∞ by 63.7%, Cmax by 57.0%, and Ae by 59.7%, while concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with calcium carbonate mildly decreased AUC0–∞ by 17.8%, Cmax by 14.3%, and Ae by 18.4%. Conclusion: Metal ions, Al3+, Mg2+, and Fe2+ markedly decreased the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy Chinese males, whereas Ca2+ had much weaker effects. To avoid the effects of Al3+ and Mg2+-containing drugs, nemonoxacin should be administered ≥2 h before them. PMID:25327812
Chan, Raymond C K; Manly, Tom
Deficits in planning, self-regulation and attention are a relatively common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Such "dysexecutive" deficits tend to be most exposed in complex, real world situations. Consequently, clinicians often have to rely on interviews, questionnaires and observation in their assessments. While there is little doubt that dysexecutive symptoms occur across different cultures, the expression of those symptoms, the way in which they are experienced by others, and the propensity of friends/relatives to report negative features may vary considerably. The cross-cultural use of standardized checklists and measures that have predominantly been studied with English speaking, Western groups therefore requires empirical support. Here a group of 68 healthy Chinese speaking volunteers were asked to complete translations of 2 UK developed questionnaires (the Dysexecutive Questionnaire and Cognitive Failures Questionnaire) measures and to perform 2 "executive" tasks (The Six Elements Test and the Tower of Hanoi). Their self ratings and the ratings of close relatives were very close to those seen in the original UK standardization samples--as was their performance on the 2 tasks. Accordingly, the conditions for assessing their clinical sensitivity were met. Comparison between 30 Chinese patients with TBI and matched controls showed that both questionnaires and tests were sensitive to the deficits in this group.
Liu, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Kanyin E; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Hai-Chen; Song, Yun-Xiao; Pu, Hua-Hua; Lu, Chuan; Liu, Gang-Yi; Jia, Jing-Ying; Zheng, Qing-Si; Zhu, Jian-Min; Yu, Chen
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet is the long-acting portion of the antimalaria product Artecospe(®), coblister containing artesunate tablets plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine FDC tablets. This study was conducted to support the efficacy and tolerability of the sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine FDC tablet in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Prequalification of Medicines Programme, as well as to obtain marketing authorization in China. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles between a new generic and the branded reference formulation of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine FDC tablets, and to assess the bioequivalence of the 2 products in healthy Chinese volunteers. This single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in healthy Chinese male volunteers who were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single 1500/75-mg dose (3 × 500/25-mg tablets) of either the test or reference formulation after a 12-hour overnight fast. Seventeen blood samples were obtained over a 168-hour interval, and plasma concentrations of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine were determined by 2 separate validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry methods. Pharmacokinetic properties (C(max), AUC(0-72), AUC(0-168), and T(max)) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC(0-72) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%, in accordance with the guidelines of WHO and China's Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study by vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, and subject interviews on adverse events (AEs). Forty-six healthy subjects completed the study. The mean values of sulfadoxine C(max) (183.07 and 165.15 mg/L), AUC(0-72) (11,036.52 and 10,536.78 mg/L/h), and AUC(0-168) (22,247.05 and 21,761.02 mg
Shentu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Huili; Hu, Xingjiang; Wu, Guolan; Wu, Lihua; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhai, You; Zheng, Yunliang; Liu, Jian
Bepotastine is a second-generation histamine1 receptor antagonist that is used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and pruritus associated with skin disease. A new generic formulation of bepotastine has been developed in China, and information concerning bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties in the Chinese population has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 tablet formulations of bepotastine, the 10-mg generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference), in healthy male Chinese volunteers to obtain registration approval of the test formulation. A single-center, open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover study with a 1-week washout period was conducted in 24 healthy male volunteers. Blood samples were collected for 16 hours after a single dose of the 10-mg bepotastine test formulation or the reference formulation. Plasma bepotastine concentrations were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Cmax, Tmax, AUC₀-t, AUC₀-∞, and t½ were determined using noncompartmental analysis. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for the log-transformed Cmax and AUC values were within the predetermined interval of 75% to 133% and 80% to 125%, respectively, according to the guidelines of the China Food and Drug Administration. No significant differences were found in mean (SD) pharmacokinetic parameters between the test and reference drugs, including Cmax (74.81 [9.91] ng/mL vs 78.60 [29.58] ng/mL), AUC₀-t (295.55[115.29] ng·h/mL vs 299.17[109.29] ng·h/mL), and AUC0-∞ (305.28 [118.50] ng·h/mL vs 310.90 [112.20] ng·h/mL). The mean (SD) t½ values of the test and reference formulations were 2.53 (0.50) hours and 2.62 (0.41) hours, respectively. The 90% CIs of the treatment ratios for the logarithmic transformed values of Cmax, AUC₀-t, and AUC₀-∞ were 86.96% to 101.80%, 93.22% to 104.13%, and 92.66% to 103.30%, respectively
Macrae, F A; Mackay, I R; Fraser, J R
Research that involves healthy normal volunteers frequently is performed. This article examines ethical guide-lines for the recruitment of healthy volunteers in research projects. Ethical decisions on projects that are based on patient-volunteers or healthy normal volunteers should balance the risk to the volunteer and the collective benefit to the community. For healthy normal volunteers that risk should be minimal or trivial. Investigators should follow recruitment practices that avoid approaches to persons who are dependent upon them in some way, and should carry the day-to-day ethical responsibility even after institutional ethical approval has been granted. Pilot studies and self-experimentation readily can transgress ethical guide-lines. Compensation for mishaps or injuries that occur during research in which there is no question of negligence (for example, an unforeseeable reaction in a phase-1 drug trial) is an unresolved issue which should be addressed by the research community. It is recommended that action be taken to ensure that healthy volunteers who participate in approved research have redress in the rare event of an accident, whether this is a result of negligence, chance or misadventure. Hospitals/institutions or other bodies that sponsor research should extend their insurance to cover specifically such unforeseeable events in which there may be liability, and to have the facility for a payment of beneficence in the case of accidents in which liability cannot be established.
Ding, L-K; Jia, N; Yang, L; Li, J-K; Song, W; Wang, M-H; Wang, C; Gao, X-H; Wen, A-D
The aim of this study is to investigate a food effect on the single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of subutinib maleate capsules in healthy Chinese volunteers. The author evaluated the effect of being under a fasting or fed state at the time of drug intake on the single-dose of subutinib maleate capsules in a randomized, balanced, single-dose, 2-treatment (fasting and fed), 2-period design with a 3-week washout period. The end points were the maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) and areas under the plasma-concentration curve (AUC) for 336 h exposure (AUC0-336) and total exposure (AUC0-∞). All volunteers completed the whole study without side effects being observed. For subutinib, Cmax were 6.13 and 5.04 ng·mL(-1), and AUC0-336 were 278.4 and 304.5 h·ng·mL(-1) in the fasting and the fed state, respectively. For active metabolite, Cmax were 0.90 and 0.61 ng·mL(-1), and AUC0-336 were 65.5 and 56.4 h·ng·mL(-1) in the fasting and the fed state, respectively. The authors showed that food intake was associated with a slight increase in AUC values but decrease in Cmax of subutinib, and it was associated with a decrease both in AUC and Cmax of active metabolite. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li
An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063 ng/mL to 2.034 ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within ± 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72 h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose.
Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; He, Xiaojing; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li
A rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of lercanidipine (LER) in human plasma. The plasma sample was deproteinized with methanol after addition of diazepam (internal standard, IS) and separated on a 38°C Hedera ODS-2 analytical column with a mobile phase of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid at an isocratic flow rate of 400μL/min. The detection was performed on an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ESI mode. Quantification was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions of m/z 612.2→280.2 for LER and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS, respectively. The method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQ of 0.015ng/mL) and good linearity over the concentration range of 0.015-8.0ng/mL. No matrix effect and carry-over effect were observed. The values on both the occasions (intra- and inter-day) were all within 15% at three concentration levels. This robust method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LER in 59 healthy male Chinese volunteers after a single oral administration of 10mg LER.
Bian, Yuhai; Zhong, Ming
The objective of this study was to compare two lansoprazole products (the reference brand enteric-coated capsules and the test generic enteric-coated tablets), and the key pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters for both formulations and their metabolites were assessed. The study used an open-label, randomized two-period crossover design with an 8-day washout period between doses in 24 healthy subjects under fasting conditions. The concentration of lansoprazole and its two metabolites was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The in vitro release of lansoprazole from the test and reference formulations was within the acceptable limits. The relationship between concentration and peak area ratio was found to be linear within the range for lansoprazole and metabolites. The point estimates (ratios of geometric mean) of lansoprazole and two main metabolites were between 94.3% and 105.1% for AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax. No statistically significant difference between the two formulations was found. The results of in vitro and in vivo suggested equivalent clinical efficacy of the two brands.
Hu, Jinqing; Shang, Dewei; Xu, Xinwen; He, Xiuling; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhanzhang; Qiu, Chang; Deng, Shuhua; Lu, Haoyang; Zhu, Xiuqing; Huang, Wencan; Wen, Yuguan
1. Ingestion of grapefruit juice and food could be factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone, a promising drug for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 2. A randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study was carried out in 12 healthy Chinese male volunteers who were randomized to one of the three treatments: pirfenidone tablets (0.4 g) were orally administered to fasted or fed subjects, or with grapefruit juice. The washout period was 7 d. 3. Significantly reduced maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, 5.0 5 ± 1.39 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)), modestly affected area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 12 h post dosing (AUC0-12 h, 21.8 9 ± 6.47 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) and delayed time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were observed in fed group compared with fasted group. Similar effects on Cmax (5.8 2 ± 1.23 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)) and AUC0-12 h (modest but not statistically significant, 24.4 4 ± 7.40 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) were observed for grapefruit juice compared to fasted subjects. 4. Co-administration of pirfenidone with grapefruit juice resulted in modestly reduced overall oral absorption and significantly reduced peak concentrations compared to fasting, which was similar to effect of food ingestion. No adverse events were observed in the study, but relatively dramatic reduction of peak concentrations should raise concerns for clinical efficacy and safety.
Liu, Yun; Hu, Chaoying; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Yu, Chen; Zhu, Jianmin; Zheng, Qingsi
Artesun-Plus is a fixed-dose combination antimalarial agent containing artesunate and amodiaquine. The current study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of Artesun-Plus and the WHO-designated comparator product Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop. To overcome the high intrasubject variability of artesunate, the study applied a two-sequence and four-period crossover (2 by 4), replicate study design to assess bioequivalence between the two products in 31 healthy male Chinese volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the values of the geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to the last blood sample collection (AUC0-last) for the artesunate component in the test and reference products were 95.9% and 93.9%, respectively, and that the corresponding 90% confidence intervals were 84.5% to 108.7% and 87.2% to 101.1%, while the geometric mean ratios for the amodiaquine component in the test and reference products were 95.0% and 100.0%, respectively, and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals were 86.7% to 104.1% and 93.5% to 107.0%. In conclusion, bioequivalence between the two artesunate and amodiaquine fixed-dose combination products was demonstrated for both components. The study also confirmed high intrasubject variability, especially for artesunate: the coefficients of variation (CV) of Cmax values for the test and reference products were 39.2% and 43.7%, respectively, while those for amodiaquine were 30.6% and 30.2%, respectively. PMID:25070094
Wen, Jun; Hong, Zhanying; Wu, Yiwen; Wei, Hua; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian
A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of rupatadine and its metabolite desloratadine in human plasma. After the addition of diphenhydramine, the internal standard (IS), plasma samples were extracted with a mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-hexane (1:1, v/v). The analysis was performed on a Ultimate AQ-C18 (4.6mm x 100mm, 5microm) column using a mobile phase consisting of a 80/20 mixture of methanol/water containing 0.0005% formic acid pumped at 0.3mlmin(-1). The analytes and the IS were detected in positive ionization mode and monitoring their precursor-->product ion combinations of m/z 416-->309, 311-->259, and 256-->167, respectively, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear ranges of the assay were 0.1-50 and 0.1-20ngml(-1) for rupatadine and desloratadine, respectively. The lower limits of reliable quantification for both rupatadine and desloratadine were 0.1ngml(-1), which offered high sensitivity and selectivity. The within- and between-run precision was less than 7.2%. The accuracy ranged from -9.2% to +6.4% and -7.2% to +7.2% for rupatadine and desloratadine in quality control samples at three levels, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of rupatadine and its major metabolite after oral administration of 10, 20 and 40mg rupatadine tablets to healthy Chinese volunteers.
Liu, Yun; Hu, Chaoying; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Yu, Chen; Zhu, Jianmin; Zheng, Qingsi; Zhang, Kanyin E
Artesun-Plus is a fixed-dose combination antimalarial agent containing artesunate and amodiaquine. The current study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of Artesun-Plus and the WHO-designated comparator product Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop. To overcome the high intrasubject variability of artesunate, the study applied a two-sequence and four-period crossover (2 by 4), replicate study design to assess bioequivalence between the two products in 31 healthy male Chinese volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the values of the geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to the last blood sample collection (AUC0-last) for the artesunate component in the test and reference products were 95.9% and 93.9%, respectively, and that the corresponding 90% confidence intervals were 84.5% to 108.7% and 87.2% to 101.1%, while the geometric mean ratios for the amodiaquine component in the test and reference products were 95.0% and 100.0%, respectively, and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals were 86.7% to 104.1% and 93.5% to 107.0%. In conclusion, bioequivalence between the two artesunate and amodiaquine fixed-dose combination products was demonstrated for both components. The study also confirmed high intrasubject variability, especially for artesunate: the coefficients of variation (CV) of Cmax values for the test and reference products were 39.2% and 43.7%, respectively, while those for amodiaquine were 30.6% and 30.2%, respectively.
Henderson, Susan J; Newman, Jeannette; Ferguson, Rennie W; Jung, Paul
Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) provides a set of quantifiable objectives for improving the health and well-being of Americans. This study examines Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics in comparison with the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs) in order to set baseline measures for Volunteers' health care and align our measurements with Healthy People 2020 standards. Health data from multiple internal Peace Corps datasets were compared with relevant LHIs and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Seventeen (65%) of the 26 LHIs were relevant to Peace Corps Volunteers. Of these, Volunteers' health measures met or were more favorable than the goals of 13 (76%) of the LHIs. There were no data available for 4 (24%) of the LHIs. The entire Volunteer population has full access to primary care, oral health, and reproductive health services. No suicides or homicides were reported among Volunteers during the analyzed time period. Utilizing the LHIs, we have identified high-priority public health issues relevant for the Peace Corps Volunteer population. We discuss the need for quality data to measure and monitor Volunteers' health progress and outcomes over time, and also to standardize our measurements with Healthy People 2020 benchmarks. This framework may foster greater collaboration to engage in health promotion and disease prevention activities driven by evidence-based information, which may, in turn, encourage healthy behavior among Volunteers.
Xiong, Yuqing; Yuan, Zhao; Yang, Jingzhi; Xia, Chunhua; Li, Xinhua; Huang, Shibo; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Mingyi
Rupatadine (RUP) is an oral antihistamine and platelet-activating factor antagonist and is shown as the substrate of CYP3A5 and P-gp. The significant interindividual differences of CYP3A5 and P-gp often cause bioavailability differences of some clinical drugs. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on RUP pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese volunteer subjects. Blood samples were collected from 36 subjects before and after a single, oral RUP 10 mg dose. A PCR-RFLP assay was used to genotype CYP3A5*3 and assess MDR1 C3435T variation. A validated LC-MS/MS method quantified plasma RUP concentration. The relationship between RUP plasma concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters, and polymorphic alleles (CYP3A5 and MDR1) were assessed. Plasma RUP concentrations were lower for CYP3A5*1/*1 carriers than for CYP3A5*3/*3 and CYP3A5*1/*3 carriers. Mean C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were significantly lower, and the CLz and Vd were significantly higher in the CYP3A5 wild-type group, than in the CYP3A5 mutated group. MDR1 CT and MDR1 TT carriers had lower plasma RUP concentrations than MDR1 CC carriers. The mean C(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞) and T max were significantly lower in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups. The mean CLz was higher in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups, but not significantly. These results suggest that CYP3A5 and MDR1 may play a key role in the variability of RUP metabolism and transport, respectively. CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms may be the main explanation for the differences observed in RUP pharmacokinetics, and therefore may provide a rationale for safe and effective clinical use of RUP. Our research lays down a solid theory foundation to guide the safe and effective clinical use of RUP and a route to achieve individualized therapy.
Endo, Yusuke; Ishihara, Yoshitaka; Tsuno, Satoshi; Matsuda, Akiko; Qian, Weibin; Miura, Norimasa; Hasegawa, Junichi
Background Ranitidine is a histamine 2 receptor antagonist, and daijokito is a Kampo (Chinese herbal medicine as practiced in Japan) formula, which is traditionally used for treating constipation and digestive trouble. Previous study demonstrated that daijokito significantly affected the pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in rats; however, the doses of ranitidine and daijokito in that study were higher than in clinical practice. Therefore, we examined the pharmacokinetic interaction between ranitidine and daijokito in clinical practice doses in healthy volunteers. Methods This was a randomized, open label, two-period crossover study in healthy volunteers (n = 7). Volunteers received administrations of either a single dose of ranitidine 300 mg, or ranitidine 300 mg in combination with daijokito extract granules 2.5 g. Plasma concentrations of ranitidine were measured over 12 h by LC/MS/MS method. Results Plasma concentrations of ranitidine were lower with co-administration of daijokito compared with ranitidine alone. Co-administration of daijokito significantly decreased ranitidine area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0–12) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) with geometric mean (GM) ratio [90% confidence interval (CI)] for AUC0–12 of 0.609 (0.449, 0.826) and Cmax of 0.515 (0.345, 0.771). Conclusion Co-administration of ranitidine with daijokito resulted in a significant decrease in plasma level of ranitidine in healthy volunteers. PMID:27493481
Thompson, Katy-Anne; Copley, Vicky R; Parks, Simon; Walker, James T; Bennett, Allan M
Understanding Staphylococcus aureus dispersal from human carriers is vital for preventing transmission and colonization of this organism in health care settings. This study investigated the S aureus supershedder hypothesis in relation to attributes of healthy volunteers. Microbial aerosol generation from volunteers was quantified within a controlled environmental chamber during walking or sitting activities. Biological air samplers were used to determine numbers of total S aureus colony-forming units disseminated during these activities. A total of 17 volunteers was sampled on 3 occasions. Hairstyle (long hair tied up or a shaved head) was the only significant predictor of dissemination of S aureus (5% significance level). No other significant effects were found at the 5% level. A negative binomial distribution provides the best fit with respect to S aureus. We found that, in the context of our small sample size, hairstyle (long hair tied up or a shaved head) statistically affected levels of bacteria shed from volunteers. However, we found no evidence for "supershedders" or "cloud adults," suggesting they are at an extreme end of a continuous distribution. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Almond, D. S.; Szwandt, I. S. F.; Edwards, G.; Lee, M. G.; Winstanley, P. A.
A proportion of patients with AIDS and toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) sustain low plasma pyrimethamine concentrations during oral treatment, possibly because of incomplete and variable bioavailability. We wanted to develop a safe, practicable intravenous (i.v.) formulation of pyrimethamine and characterize its disposition in healthy volunteers. A neutral, aqueous, sterile solution of pyrimethamine was produced and presented in sealed glass ampoules. Pyrimethamine (1 mg/kg) was given to eight healthy male volunteers by i.v. infusion over 2 h, and blood was sampled over a 2 week period. Pyrimethamine levels in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The drug was well tolerated by all volunteers, and there were no changes in vital signs, electrocardiogram, hematology, or biochemical parameters. The maximum pyrimethamine concentration of 2,089 ± 565 ng ml−1 (mean ± standard deviation) was achieved shortly after the end of the infusion; thereafter, concentrations declined in a log-linear manner, with a half-life of 140 ± 31 h. PMID:10817730
Small, David S; Payne, Christopher D; Kothare, Prajakti; Yuen, Eunice; Natanegara, Fanni; Teng Loh, Mei; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Richard Lachno, D; Li, Ying G; Winters, Kenneth J; Farid, Nagy A; Ni, Lan; Salazar, Daniel E; Tomlin, Molly; Kelly, Ronan
Prasugrel is an oral antiplatelet agent approved for the reduction of atherothrombotic cardiovascular events in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Although the approved loading dose is 60 mg, earlier studies of prasugrel suggested that active-metabolite exposure and pharmacodynamic response may be higher in Asian subjects than in white subjects. This study compared the pharmacodynamic response to a single 30-mg dose of prasugrel in healthy Chinese and white subjects and the response to a single 30-mg dose of prasugrel and a single 300-mg dose of clopidogrel in healthy Chinese subjects. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of both drugs were also assessed. This was an open-label, single-dose study conducted in Singapore. Chinese subjects were randomly allocated to receive prasugrel 30 mg or clopidogrel 300 mg; after a 14-day washout period, they received the alternative drug. White subjects received only prasugrel 30 mg. Blood samples for pharmaco-dynamic assessments were collected before dosing and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after dosing. Three methods were used to measure inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA)-traditional light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the Verify Now P2Y12 (VN-P2Y12) assay, and a vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation flow cytometry assay-and their results were compared. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic assessments were collected at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after dosing. Concentrations of the active metabolite of prasugrel were measured using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The study enrolled 18 Chinese subjects and 14 white subjects. Chinese subjects had a mean (SD) age of 31 (10) years and a mean body weight of 65.2 (8.9) kg; 83% were male. The corresponding values for white subjects were 30 (10) years, 77.2 (12.4) kg, and 86%. Thirty of the 32 enrolled subjects completed the study. Two Chinese men were withdrawn from the study
Liu, Hong; Yang, Dan; Wan, Ke; Luo, Yong; Sun, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Jing; Li, Wei-Hao; Greiser, Andreas; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yu-Cheng
The cine magnetic resonance imaging based technique feature tracking-cardiac magnetic resonance (FT-CMR) is emerging as a novel, simple and robust method to evaluate myocardial strain. We investigated the distribution characteristics of left-ventricular myocardial strain using a novel cine MRI based deformation registration algorithm (DRA) in a cohort of healthy Chinese subjects. A total of 130 healthy Chinese subjects were enrolled. Three components of orthogonal strain (radial, circumferential, longitudinal) of the left ventricle were analyzed using DRA on steady-state free precession cine sequence images. A distinct transmural circumferential strain gradient was observed in the left ventricle that showed universal increment from the epicardial to endocardial myocardial wall (epiwall: −15.4 ± 1.9%; midwall: −18.8 ± 2.0%; endowall: −22.3 ± 2.3%, P < 0.001). Longitudinal strain showed a similar trend from epicardial to endocardial layers (epiwall: −16.0 ± 2.9%; midwall: −15.6 ± 2.7%; endowall: −14.8 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001), but radial strain had a very heterogeneous distribution and variation. In the longitudinal direction from the base to the apex of the left ventricle, there was a trend of decreasing peak systolic longitudinal strain (basal: −23.3 ± 4.6%; mid: −13.7 ± 7.3%; apical: −13.2 ± 5.5%; P < 0.001). In conclusion, there are distinct distribution patterns of circumferential and longitudinal strain within the left ventricle in healthy Chinese subjects. These distribution patterns of strain may provide unique profiles for further study in different types of myocardial disease. PMID:28349989
POMAROL-CLOTET, E.; HONEY, G. D.; MURRAY, G. K.; CORLETT, P. R.; ABSALOM, A. R.; LEE, M.; MCKENNA, P. J.; BULLMORE, E. T.; FLETCHER, P. C.
Background The psychosis-inducing effect of ketamine is important evidence supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the symptoms the drug produces have not been described systematically. Aim To examine the effects of ketamine in healthy people using a structured psychiatric interview. Method Ketamine (200 ng/ml) or placebo was administered by continuous infusion to 15 healthy volunteers. Symptoms were rated using the Present State Examination, the Thought, Language and Communication Scale and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Results Ketamine induced a range of perceptual distortions, but not hallucinations. Referential ideas were seen in nearly half the sample. There were only mild and infrequent ratings on the thought disorder scale. Affective flattening and alogia were seen in some volunteers. Conclusions Ketamine does not reproduce the full picture of schizophrenia. The main point of similarity concerns referential thinking. Phenomena resembling negative symptoms are also seen, but the distinction of these from the drug’s sedative effects requires further elucidation. PMID:16880489
Relative bioavailability of generic and branded acetylcysteine effervescent tablets: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers.
Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen
Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and
Chen, Xia; Wang, Hongyun; Jiang, Ji; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Hongzhong; Hu, Pei
Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug acting as a mixed serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety of blonanserin in healthy Chinese males. This was an open-label trial with two parts. Twenty-four subjects were enrolled in part A to receive a single fasting dose of 4 or 8 mg blonanserin (each n = 12); part B recruited 12 subjects and administered single and sequentially twice-daily multiple postprandial doses of blonanserin 2 mg for 9 days. Serial blood samples were taken for the bioassay of plasma blonanserin and its four metabolites during both sub-studies. Safety was assessed, including repeat measurements of fasting serum prolactin, insulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Blonanserin was rapidly absorbed, accompanied with immediate plasma concentration elevation of the N-oxide form (M2) and gradual rises of the N-deethylated form (M1) and its downstream metabolites. The mean elimination half-life of blonanserin (7.7-11.9 h) was much longer than that of M2 (1.2-1.3 h) but shorter than that of M1 (26.4-31.4 h) after single fasting doses. After food intake, a single dose of 2 mg blonanserin resulted in total exposure and peak concentrations of blonanserin similar to those observed with a single fasting dose of blonanserin 4 mg. Moreover, the relationship of metabolite over parent compound ratio was different between M1 and M2 after single and multiple postprandial administrations (single dose vs multiple dose: M1, 0.33 vs 0.75; M2, 0.13 vs 0.067). Mild but transient increases of prolactin, insulin and triglyceride were observed. The pharmacokinetics of blonanserin in Chinese subjects were similar to those observed in Japanese subjects. This study suggested that food intake not only increases the bioavailability of blonanserin but differently affects the pharmacokinetics of its metabolites as well. The drug was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese males.
Li, Ming; Chen, Fei; Wang, Huiting; Wu, Wenbo; Zhang, Xin; Tian, Chuanshuai; Yu, Haiping; Liu, Renyuan; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zhenyu
Background. Generally, males display greater strength and muscle capacity than females while performing a task. Muscle biopsy is regarded as the reference method of evaluating muscle functions; however, it is invasive and has sampling errors, and is not practical for longitudinal studies and dynamic measurement during excise. In this study, we built an in-house force control and gauge system for quantitatively applying force to quadriceps while the subjects underwent (31)P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS); our aim was to investigate if there is a sex difference of phosphate metabolite change in working muscles in young heathy Chinese volunteers. Methods. Volunteers performed knee-extending excises using a force control and gauge system while lying prone in a Philips 3T Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanner. The (31)P-MRS coil was firmly placed under the middle of the quadriceps . (31)P-MRS measurements of inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were acquired from quadriceps while subjects were in a state of pre-, during- and post-exercise. The PCr, Pi, PCr/Pi, PCr/ATP, pH, work/energy cost ratio (WE), kPCr and oxidative capacity were compared between males and females. Results. A total of 17 volunteers underwent the study. Males: N = 10, age = 23.30 ± 1.25years; females: N = 7, age = 23.57 ± 0.79 years. In this study, males had significantly greater WE (16.33 ± 6.46 vs. 7.82 ± 2.16, p = 0.002) than females. Among PCr, Pi, PCr/Pi, PCr/ATP, pH, kPCr and oxidative capacity at different exercise status, only PCr/Pi (during-exercise, males = 5.630 ± 1.647, females = 4.014 ± 1.298, p = 0.047), PCr/ATP (during-exercise, males =1.273 ± 0.219, females = 1.523 ± 0.167, p = 0.025), and ATP (post-exercise, males = 24.469 ± 3.911 mmol/kg, females = 18.353 ± 4.818 mmol/kg, p = 0.035) had significant sex differences. Males had significantly greater PCr/Pi, but less PCr/ATP than females during exercise, suggesting males had
Takyar, Varun; Nath, Anand; Beri, Andrea; Gharib, Ahmed M; Rotman, Yaron
Healthy volunteers are crucial for biomedical research. Inadvertent inclusion of subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as controls can compromise study validity and subject safety. Given the rising prevalence of NAFLD in the general population, we sought to identify its prevalence and potential impact in volunteers for clinical trials. We conducted a cross-sectional study of subjects who were classified as healthy volunteers between 2011 and 2015 and had no known liver disease. Subjects were classified as presumed NAFLD (pNF; alanine aminotransferase [ALT] level ≥ 20 for women or ≥ 31 for men and body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg/m(2) ), healthy non-NAFLD controls (normal ALT and BMI), or indeterminate. A total of 3160 subjects participated as healthy volunteers in 149 clinical trials (1-29 trials per subject); 1732 of these subjects (55%) had a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and 1382 (44%) had abnormal ALT. pNF was present in 881 subjects (27.9%), and these subjects were older than healthy control subjects and had higher triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and HbA1c and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 for all). The 149 trials included 101 non-interventional, 33 interventional, and 15 vaccine trials. The impact on study validity of recruiting NAFLD subjects as controls was estimated as likely, probable, and unlikely in 10, 41, and 98 trials, respectively. The proportion of pNF subjects (28%-29%) did not differ by impact. Only 14% of trials used both BMI and ALT for screening. ALT cutoffs for screening were based on local reference values. Grade 3-4 ALT elevations during the study period were rare but more common in pNF subjects than in healthy control subjects (4 versus 1). NAFLD is common and often overlooked in volunteers for clinical trials, despite its potential impact on subject safety and validity of study findings. Increased awareness of NAFLD prevalence and stricter ALT cutoffs may ameliorate
Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.
Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluation of two formulations of risperidone 2 mg : an open-label, single-dose, fasting, randomized-sequence, two-way crossover study in healthy male Chinese volunteers.
Liu, Yun; Zhang, Meng-qi; Jia, Jing-ying; Liu, Yan-mei; Liu, Gang-yi; Li, Shui-jun; Wang, Wei; Weng, Li-ping; Yu, Chen
Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivate and is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses in adults and children. Although there are a few reports in the literature regarding the pharmacokinetic characteristics of risperidone, insufficient data on its pharmacokinetic properties in a Chinese population are available. To meet the requirements for marketing a new generic product, this study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two 2 mg tablet formulations of risperidone: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2 × 2 crossover study was conducted in fasted healthy male Chinese volunteers. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1 tablet (2 mg each) of the test formulation (Risperidone tablet; Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd., Hyderabad, India) or the reference formulation (Risperdal(®) tablet; Xian-Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd., Xi-an, China), followed by a 2-week washout period and subsequent administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Plasma samples were collected over 96 hours. Plasma concentrations of the parent drug, risperidone, and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, were analyzed by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The formulations would be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the natural log-transformed values were within the predetermined 80-125% equivalence range for the maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), in accordance with guidelines issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. Assessment of tolerability was based on recording of adverse events (AEs), monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tests at baseline
Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge
Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165
Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X
Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.
Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X.
Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin. PMID:22363492
Pharmacokinetic properties of S-adenosylmethionine after oral and intravenous administration of its tosylate disulfate salt: a multiple-dose, open-label, parallel-group study in healthy Chinese volunteers.
Yang, Jin; He, Ying; Du, Ying-Xiang; Tang, Li-Ling; Wang, Guang-Ji; Fawcett, J Paul
S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is an endogenous molecule that plays an important role in cellular metabolism. Despite being widely used as a dietary supplement with claimed benefits for numerous conditions, there is little information about the pharmacokinetic properties of exogenous SAMe. One aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of SAMe after administration of single and multiple doses of orally and intravenously administered SAMe tosylate disulfate (STD) in healthy male and female Chinese volunteers. Because men have higher erythrocyte levels of endogenous SAMe than do women, we also assessed the effects of sex on the disposition of SAMe. A simple and sensitive assay for SAMe based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected-ion monitoring of analyte and acyclovir as internal standard was developed and validated. The assay was used to study the pharmacokinetic properties of SAMe. STD was administered as single and multiple doses of enteric-coated tablets and IV infusion of STD to groups of healthy native Chinese volunteers. After an overnight fast, male and female Chinese volunteers were assigned to receive STD 1000 mg for 5 days, either in enteric-coated tablet formulation or as a 250-mL IV infusion. Blood samples were collected 24 hours after the first and last dose and used for determining plasma SAMe concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters. For the oral formulation, SAMe concentrations were corrected for concentrations of endogenous SAMe. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated for men and women separately and for the total group of volunteers. Adverse events were monitored using a physician during blood collection and by spontaneous reporting. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled (oral formulation: 5 men, 5 women; mean [SD] age, 24.1 [4.7] years [range, 21-37 years]; mean [SD] weight, 59.9 [4.8] kg [range, 54-70 kg]; IV formulation: 5 men, 5 women; mean [SD] age, 22.6 [1.8] years [range, 21-27 years
Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yan, Liang; Cao, Hui-Min; Wei, Lu-Man; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Li-Rong
Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker that is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, significant individual variances in the disposition of nifedipine have been reported, and genetic factors are considered to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1-C3435T, and POR*28 genetic polymorphisms on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. 45 healthy Chinese volunteers enrolled in this study received a single oral dose of 90 mg nifedipine after providing written informed consent. Volunteers were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1-C3435T. The blood concentrations of nifedipine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. There were significant differences of AUC00-∞ and AUC0-48h in the different CYP3A5*3 genotype groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The CYP3A5*3 GG group and POR*28 CT/TT group were found to have lower AUC00-∞ and Cmax compared with the POR*28 CC group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the POR*28 CT/TT group was found to have longer t1/2 but lower Cmax than the CYP3A4*1G GG group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.002, respectively) as well as the CYP3A4*1G GG and the CYP3A5*3 GG group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared with the POR*28 CC group. No significant associations were found between CYP3A4*1G/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Both CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms are found to be associated with the difference in disposition of nifedipine; POR*28 is considered to have an impact on CYP3A4 activity.
Knot, E A; de Jong, E; ten Cate, J W; Gie, L K; van Royen, E A
Five healthy volunteers were injected intravenously with 73-90 uCi purified human 131I-Antithrombin III (AT III), specific biological activity 5.6 U/mg. The tracer data were analysed using a three compartment model. The plasma radioactivity half life was 66.2 +/- 1.2 (sem) h, the fractional catabolic rate constant of the plasma pool was 0.025 +/- 0.002 (sem) h-1. These data were comparable with those described in the literature. Because of the difficulty in translating the mathematical analysis of various compartments into the biological model, biodistribution was monitored by a gamma camera linked to a DEC PDP 11/34 computer system. Dynamic and static images were obtained at fixed time intervals following the injection of 131I-AT III. Whole body scanning at intervals between the time of injection (t = 0) and t = 24.5 h showed 131I-AT III distribution over the heart, lungs, liver, spleen and great vessels. Dynamic scanning was performed over the heart, spleen and liver. Overlayed frames in the first ten minutes after the 131I-AT III injection showed the following radioactivity expressed as percentage of the injected dose; 5.9% +/- 0.3 (sem) over the heart, 10.6% +/- 0.9 (sem) over the liver and 1.1% +/- 0.1 (sem) over the spleen. A slower decline of the radioactivity between t = 0 and t = 24 h; (19%) was measured over the liver compared with the radioactivity disappearance over the heart region. This shows, in combination with the fact that the radioactivity disappearance over the heart was identical with the radioactivity decline measured in the plasma samples that retention of 131I-AT III occurred in the liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chu, Nannan; Xu, Hongrong; Wang, Guoqin; Wang, Jiangdian; Chen, Weili; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Mengjie; Li, Xuening
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between finasteride and tamsulosin in healthy Chinese male subjects. This was an open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover study. Subjects received single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride alone, single and multiple doses of 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release capsule alone, and single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride with 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride, in an order determined by a computerized randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing on study day 1 and up to 24 hours after dosing on study day 9 for determination of plasma concentrations with a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated via noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assays, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG. Fifteen subjects were enrolled, and 14 completed the study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CIs) of AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of finasteride at steady state between coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.14 (1.05-1.23) and 1.06 (0.99-1.14), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of finasteride for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.02 (0.94-1.11) and 1.06 (1.01-1.11), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of tamsulosin at steady-state for coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.18 (1.05-1.33) and 1.23 (1.06-1.43), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of tamsulosin for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.04 (0.97-1.10) and 1.04 (0.98-1.11), respectively. Statistical analyses
Pharmacokinetics of guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone in a combination oral liquid formulation, administered as single and multiple doses in healthy Chinese volunteers, and comparison with data for individual compounds formulated as Antuss®.
Deng, Shuhua; Huang, Wencan; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Haoyang; Wang, Zhanzhang; Hu, Jinqing; Zhu, Xiuqing; Qiu, Chang; Shang, Dewei; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Linghui; Wen, Yuguan
1. A new oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone is effective in improving the symptoms of common cold. The pharmacokinetic properties of the individual components were evaluated in a randomized, open-label, four-period study in 12 healthy Chinese volunteers following single and multiple doses. The data were compared with data for the individual ingredients in Antuss®. 2. In the single-dose period, exposure levels (AUC and Cmax) for guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone increased directly as the dose of the oral liquid formulation increased from 5 to 15 mL. Only minor amounts of guaifenesin and hydrocodone were excreted in urine (∼0.10% and 4.66%, respectively). Pseudoephedrine was mainly excreted unchanged, with 44.95% of the dose excreted in urine within 24 h. After multiple dosing, there was no obvious accumulation of any drug, as assessed by AUC. When considering Cmax, there was a trend toward accumulation of hydrocodone and pseudoephedrine. The pharmacokinetic profiles of guaifenesin and pseudoephedrine in the oral liquid formulation were similar to those in the branded preparation, Antuss®. 3. The newly developed oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone was safe and well tolerated and might provide a reliable alternative to the branded formulation for patients with common colds.
Supakthanasiri, Phisit; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi
Healthy individuals may be exposed and sensitised to allergens, and have a positive response to a skin prick test despite being asymptomatic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of atopic sensitisation and identify the reactivity of healthy volunteers to common aeroallergens. Healthy volunteers with no known allergic symptoms were recruited in this study. All volunteers were scheduled to undergo a skin prick test with 16 common aeroallergens that were previously identified among atopic patients. A total of 100 volunteers (mean age 28 years) were enrolled in this study. 42 volunteers had positive skin prick tests for at least one allergen. The median number of sensitised allergen was 2 (range 1-7). Volunteers with positive skin tests (n = 42) were younger than those with negative skin tests (n = 58) (mean age 25.5 vs. 29.2 years; p < 0.05). The group with positive skin tests also had a higher proportion of males (57.1% vs. 31.0%; p < 0.01) and first-degree relatives with a history of atopic diseases (31.0% vs. 10.3%; p < 0.05). The most common sensitised allergens in these healthy asymptomatic volunteers were mite (n = 33), house dust (n = 23) and American cockroach (n = 20). In this study, up to 42% of healthy volunteers, particularly those with a family history of atopy, were sensitised to allergens. Reactivity of the skin test without allergic symptoms, however, does not indicate allergic disease. Therefore, the skin test should only be indicated in atopic symptomatic individuals.
Wu, Joseph; Lo, T. Wing; Liu, Elaine S. C.
The authors report an evaluation of the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Volunteer Functions Inventory on a sample of university student volunteers. Reliabilities were high for four out of the six scales of the Inventory (Values, Career, Social, and Understanding) in terms of internal consistency. Items in these four scales also…
Zhu, Yubing; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Cuixia; Zou, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Hu, Yunfang
Nevirapine was the first member of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class to be approved for the treatment of HIV infection. It binds directly to the allosteric site on the reverse transcriptase and inhibits the activity of both RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of nevirapine 200-mg tablets after single oral doses in healthy Chinese men to meet regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-way crossover study was conducted at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Healthy male Chinese volunteers were randomized in a 1∶1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg (3.2-mg/kg) tablet of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Concentrations of nevirapine were assayed using an HPLC-UV method. For analysis of nevirapine pharmacokinetic parameters, blood samples were obtained before dosing and at regularly scheduled intervals over 168 hours after administration. The 2 formulations would be assumed to be bioequivalent for regulatory purposes if the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of nevirapine AUC and C(max) were within the range established by the US Food and Drug Administration (0.80-1.25). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital signs, physical examinations, 12-lead ECGs, and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). Twenty Chinese male subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Their mean age was 23 years (range, 21-25 years), mean weight was 63 kg (range, 56-70 kg), and mean height was 171 cm (range, 166-176 cm). No period or sequence effect was observed. The mean (SD) t(½) was 38.12 (2.23) hours for the test tablet and 36.79 (5.06) hours for the
Farahi, Neda; Loutsios, Chrystalla; Simmonds, Rosalind P; Porter, Linsey; Gillett, Daniel; Heard, Sarah; Peters, A Michael; Condliffe, Alison M; Chilvers, Edwin R
Radiolabelled leukocyte scans are widely used in nuclear medicine to locate sites of infection and inflammation. Radiolabelling of leukocyte subpopulations can also yield valuable information on cell trafficking and kinetics in vivo, but care must be taken to minimize inadvertent cell activation ex vivo. Here, we describe the use of autologous indium(111)-labelled eosinophils to measure eosinophil intravascular life-span and monitor their distribution and fate using gamma camera imaging in healthy non-atopic individuals.
Cutler, N R
In clinical trials of dopamine-blocking antipsychotics, significant adverse events may occur in healthy volunteers at dose levels that are well tolerated by schizophrenic patients. Because of these differences in tolerability, bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies of antipsychotics should be performed in schizophrenic patients rather than in healthy volunteers. When clozapine is the drug being investigated, pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies should be carried out in real-life dosage conditions because the half-life of clozapine increases with multiple doses. Under real-life conditions, the evaluation of multiple doses of clozapine in a population of schizophrenic patients can provide direct therapeutic relevance to bioavailability findings. This article discusses patient recruitment and informed consent in pharmacokinetic trials of schizophrenia, issues in studying antipsychotic agents in healthy volunteers versus schizophrenic patients, and a bioequivalency study of Clozaril (Novartis Pharmaceuticals) and generic clozapine (Creighton [Sandoz]) in schizophrenic patients.
A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for analysis of pericyazine in presence of 7-hydroxypericyazine and pericyazine sulphoxide in human plasma and its application to a comparative bioequivalence study in Chinese healthy volunteers.
Cai, Hua Lin; Deng, Yang; Fang, Ping Fei; Cao, SiSi; Hou, Zhen Yan; Wu, Yan Qin; Chen, Xue Jiao; Yan, Miao; Zhang, BiKui
A robust and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of pericyazine in human plasma. The plasma sample was alkalized with sodium hydroxide solution and handled by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate after adding perphenazine as an internal standard (IS). The analytes were separated on an Ultimate™ AQ-C18 analytical column at 40°C, with a gradient elution consisting of A (aqueous phase: 5mM ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid) and B (organic phase: acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.350mL/min. The detection was conducted on an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, m/z 366.5>142.4 for pericyazine, m/z 382.5>142.4 for its 7-hydroxy and sulphoxide metabolites and m/z 404.3>171.3 for IS were chosen to achieve high selectivity in the simultaneous analyses. The method exhibited great improvement in sensitivity (LLOQ of 0.021ng/mL) and good linearity over the concentration range of 0.021-9.90ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, and stability results were within the acceptable limits and no matrix effect was observed. This method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics in 20 healthy male Chinese volunteers. Additional exploratory analyses of 7-hydroxy and sulphoxide metabolites of pericyazine in the same samples suggest that the unchanged drug is predominant in the plasma and suitable for the bioequivalence comparison after a single oral administration of 10mg pericyazine.
Liu, Min; Ma, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Hongna; Du, Aihua; Yang, Man; Meng, Lingjie; Deng, Ming; Liu, Huichen
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the first time and validated for the determination of cefprozil diastereomers in human plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. Detection was performed using an electronic spray ion source in the negative ion mode, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 388.0 to m/z 205.0 for cefprozil diastereomers and m/z 346.1 to m/z 268.1 for cephalexin (the internal standard). The calibration curves of cis-cefprozil and trans-cefprozil were linear in the ranges 0.125-16.0 µg/mL and 0.0403-1.72 µg/mL, respectively. The lower limits of quantification of cis- and trans-cefprozil were 0.125 and 0.0403 µg/mL in human plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions of cis- and trans-cefprozil were all <9.7%, and the accuracy ranged from 99.2 to 104.7% and from 100.6 to 102.2%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two cefprozil formulations in 24 healthy Chinese volunteers. The two cefprozil tablets were bioequivalent by measurement of cis-, trans- and total cefprozil. We suggest that the bioequivalence of cefprozil formulations can be evaluated only using cis-cefprozil as the analyte in future studies.
Della Corte, Anna; Tamburrelli, Chiara; Crescente, Marilena; Giordano, Lucia; D'Imperio, Marco; Di Michele, Michela; Donati, Maria Benedetta; De Gaetano, Giovanni; Rotilio, Domenico; Cerletti, Chiara
Smoking accelerates atherosclerosis and is a well-known risk factor for acute cardiovascular complications; however, the mechanisms of these effects have not been completely clarified. Recently developed proteomic approaches may offer new clues when combined with well-established functional tests. Platelet proteome of healthy smokers and non-smokers was resolved by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, compared by Decyder software and identified by mass spectrometry analysis (nano-LC-MS/MS). In smokers, three proteins (Factor XIII-A subunit, platelet glycoprotein IIb and beta-actin) were significantly up-regulated, whereas WDR1 protein and chaperonine HSP60 were down-regulated. Furthermore, the highest scored network derived by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis using the modulated proteins as input showed the involvement of several proteins to be related to inflammation and apoptosis. Platelet function tests and the levels of markers of platelet and leukocyte activation were not different in smokers vs. non-smoker subjects. The platelet proteomic approach confirms that cigarette smoking triggers several inflammatory reactions and may help clarify some of the molecular mechanisms of smoke effect on cellular systems relevant for vascular integrity and human health.
Baggott, Matthew J.; Childs, Emma; Hart, Amy B.; de Bruin, Eveline; Palmer, Abraham A.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; de Wit, Harriet
Background Theobromine, a methylxanthine related to caffeine and present in high levels in cocoa, may contribute to the appeal of chocolate. However, currently evidence for this is limited. Objectives We conducted a within-subjects placebo-controlled study of a wide range of oral theobromine doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg) using an active control dose of caffeine (200 mg) in 80 healthy participants. Results Caffeine had the expected effects on mood including feelings of alertness, and cardiovascular parameters. Theobromine responses differed according to dose: it showed limited subjective effects at 250 mg and negative mood effects at higher doses. It also dose-dependently increased heart rate. In secondary analyses we also examined individual differences in the drugs' effects in relation to genes related to their target receptors, but few associations were detected. Conclusions This study represents the highest dose of theobromine studied in humans. We conclude that theobromine at normal intake ranges may contribute to the positive effects of chocolate, but at higher intakes effects become negative. PMID:23420115
Gautier, V; Vinçon, G; Demotes-Mainard, F; Albin, H
The kinetics of chlormezanone were determined after oral administration of single (400 mg) and multiple doses (400 mg/day during 8 days) in eight young healthy male subjects. Plasma levels determination had been carried out by HPLC. After single dose administration, Cmax concentrations 4.62 +/- 0.75 mg/l were obtained (Tmax) 2.18 +/- 1.49 h after drug intake. Area under plasma concentrations time curve was 224.93 +/- 27.79 mg.h/l and terminal half-life 40.50 +/- 4.19 h. On chronic regimen, chlormezanone accumulates in the body: trough plasma concentrations are significantly increased from Day 7 (2.97 +/- 0.45 mg/l) to Day 9 (5.41 +/- 0.90 mg/l) and reach the steady state faster than it can be expected from half-life (40 hours) and dosing interval (24 hours). Elimination is faster (T1/2 beta = 37.14 +/- 3.18 h) after chronic regimen. Area under curve during dosing interval at steady state (164.19 +/- 21.70 mg.h/l) is significantly lower than the area under curve between zero and infinity in the single dose sequence (224.93 +/- 27.79 mg.h/l). These results agree with probable induction effect of chlormezanone on its own metabolism.
Pieters, M S; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Schoemaker, H C; Cohen, A F
1. Healthy student volunteers (n = 103) participating in ongoing clinical pharmacological research completed the Dutch Personality Inventory (DPI), the Dutch version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-DY) and the Dutch version of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). 2. The volunteers were more extrovert (P less than 0.001), more flexible (P less than 0.001), more tolerant or less impulsive (P less than 0.001), had more self-confidence and initiative (P less than 0.001), and were more satisfied and optimistic (P less than 0.01) when compared with the general norm. When compared with a student norm, volunteers had lower levels of state (P less than 0.001) and trait (P less than 0.05) anxiety. The general sensation seeking tendency of volunteers was higher than in the student norm group (P less than 0.001). The volunteers had a greater tendency to thrill-and-adventure-seeking (P less than 0.001) and to disinhibition (P less than 0.01). 3. Hence, volunteers were a selected sample of the total population of students. This may influence the interpretation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. 4. Personality screening should be added to the screening procedures for volunteers.
Resnik, David B
Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on research risks faced by healthy volunteers constitute a type of soft, impure paternalism because participants usually do not fully understand the risks they are taking. I consider some approaches to limiting research risks and propose that healthy volunteers in biomedical research should not be exposed to greater than a 1% chance of serious harm, such as death, permanent disability, or severe illness or injury. While this guideline would restrict research risks, the limits would not be so low that they would prevent investigators from conducting valuable research. They would, however, set a clear upper boundary for investigators and signal to the scientific community and the public that there are limits on the risks that healthy participants may face in research. This standard provides guidance for decisions made by oversight bodies, but it is not an absolute rule. Investigators can enroll healthy volunteers in studies involving a greater than 1% chance of serious harm if they show that the research addresses a compelling public health or social problem and that the risk of serious harm is only slightly more than 1%. The committee reviewing the research should use outside experts to assess these risks.
Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul
Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695
Scarpelini, S; Rhind, S G; Nascimento, B; Tien, H; Shek, P N; Peng, H T; Huang, H; Pinto, R; Speers, V; Reis, M; Rizoli, S B
Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG parameters analyzed were R, K, alpha, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer's normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, alpha: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity). Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer's normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer's recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG.
Pomarol-Clotet, E; Honey, G D; Murray, G K; Corlett, P R; Absalom, A R; Lee, M; McKenna, P J; Bullmore, E T; Fletcher, P C
The psychosis-inducing effect of ketamine is important evidence supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the symptoms the drug produces have not been described systematically. To examine the effects of ketamine in healthy people using a structured psychiatric interview. Ketamine (200 ng/ml) or placebo was administered by continuous infusion to 15 healthy volunteers. Symptoms were rated using the Present State Examination, the Thought, Language and Communication Scale and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Ketamine induced a range of perceptual distortions, but not hallucinations. Referential ideas were seen in nearly half the sample. There were only mild and infrequent ratings on the thought disorder scale. Affective flattening and alogia were seen in some volunteers. Ketamine does not reproduce the full picture of schizophrenia. The main point of similarity concerns referential thinking. Phenomena resembling negative symptoms are also seen, but the distinction of these from the drug's sedative effects requires further elucidation.
Miralles, Iris; Monterde, Sónia; Montull, Salvador; Salvat, Isabel; Fernández-Ballart, J; Beceiro, Judith
Taping is a common technique to treat inversion ankle sprains, but the effects of tape on proprioception are still not clear. The purpose of this study was to establish whether proprioception would be modified by the use of ankle tape. To do so we studied joint position sense (JPS) in healthy volunteers using three-dimensional (3D) movement analysis systems. Forty healthy volunteers (mean age and SD = 23.2 ± 4.2) were asked to actively reproduce four different ankle positions: 10 degrees of dorsiflexion, neutral, 10 degrees and 20 degrees of plantarflexion. The absolute difference between the estimated angle and the target angle was used to assess JPS. This difference was named Error. Subjects were randomly assigned to the control (n = 21) or the intervention (n = 19) groups. Members of the intervention group received ankle tape for a lateral ligament sprain in the non-dominant leg. A t-test was used to evaluate the results. Tape significantly improved JPS for the dorsiflexion position (p = 0.038). Neutral was the most accurately reproduced position, and the remaining positions were overestimated for both groups. Taping improved proprioception in healthy volunteers, and 3D movement analysis was a useful method to accurately quantify joint position sense. Because ankle proprioception is critical to the functional success of surgical and rehabilitation treatments, these results regarding proprioception are of particular importance because ankle taping is often used in preventing ankle sprains and it is a common treatment after ankle injuries.
Chen, Stephanie C; Sinaii, Ninet; Bedarida, Gabriella; Gregorio, Mark A; Emanuel, Ezekiel; Grady, Christine
Healthy volunteers in phase 1 clinical trials contribute to the development of safe drugs and other biologics and accept risks and burdens without anticipated health benefits from participation. Although emerging data have shown that healthy volunteers are influenced by risk, some still worry that financial incentives lead them to take on unreasonable risk. Yet little is known about healthy volunteers' preferences and how they make choices about enrolling in research studies. We surveyed 654 healthy volunteers at the end of their participation in a phase 1 Pfizer trial in the United States, Belgium, and Singapore to examine their reported willingness to enroll in studies of different types, with various procedures, and with possible side-effects. The majority of respondents were willing to join many kinds of studies, but fewer were willing to participate in first-in-human vaccine studies or studies of psychiatric drugs than in other study types. With regard to procedures, a substantial proportion were unwilling to participate in studies that involved invasive procedures, such as a lumbar puncture (45.4%) and bone marrow biopsy (42.3%), but willing to participate in studies with less invasive procedures such as a computed tomography scan of the heart (86.8%), magnetic resonance imaging (87.4%), and skin allergy testing (86.8%). Although there was some variation by gender and region, the majority were willing to participate in studies with side-effects like pain (80%) or nausea and vomiting (64%), but only a minority were willing to join if the research drug would result in their having a one in a million chance of death (34.4%), a small chance of kidney damage (16.7%), or influence how their mind works (23.2%; Figure 4). Our results suggest that healthy volunteers are willing to participate in a wide range of types of phase 1 clinical trials, and express preferences for low risk and familiar studies and study procedures, preferences which are partially affected by
Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ranolazine following single and multiple sustained-release doses in Chinese healthy adult volunteers: a randomized, open-label, Latin square design, phase I study.
Tan, Qin-You; Li, Huan-De; Zhu, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Zhi; Zhang, Jun; Peng, Wen-Xing
Ranolazine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2006 for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris, and is the first approved agent from a new class of anti-anginal drugs in almost 25 years. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concentration of ranolazine in human plasma using the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ranolazine after administration of single and multiple doses of ranolazine in healthy Chinese adult volunteers. A randomized, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study design was used in the study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg of ranolazine. Those who received the single dose continued on to the multiple-dose phase and received 500 mg twice daily for 7 days. In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected from 0 to 48 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration at 8:00 am and 8:00 pm on days 6 and 7 to determine the minimum steady-state plasma concentration (C(min,ss)) of ranolazine; on day 8, samples were collected from 0 to 48 h after drug administration. All values were expressed as means (standard deviations [SDs]). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study via subject interview, vital signs, and blood sampling. The LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. Twelve Chinese subjects (six men, six women) were enrolled in the single-dose phase of the pharmacokinetic study. The mean (SD) age of the subjects was 24.7 (1.6) years; their mean (SD) weight was 61.3 (6.4) kg, their mean (SD) height was 165.7 (4.5) cm, and their mean (SD) body mass index was 21.6 (6.6) kg/m(2). The main pharmacokinetic parameters [mean (SD)] for ranolazine after administration of a single oral dose of 500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg were as follows: maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) 741.5 (253.0), 1,355.0 (502.0), and 2
Funk, D L; Chan, L; Lutz, N; Verdile, V P
Out-of-hospital (OOH) emergency personnel measure serum glucose in order to determine the need for dextrose therapy. Most devices that measure serum glucose are designed to use capillary blood obtained from a finger puncture. However, OOH emergency personnel often use venous blood obtained during intravenous line (IV) placement to determine serum glucose. To compare capillary and venous glucose measurements. This prospective study used healthy, non-fasting volunteers. Simultaneous venous and capillary blood samples were obtained from each subject. Glucose levels were measured using a glucometer designed for capillary samples. The capillary and venous measurements were compared using a Pearson correlation coefficient. Power analysis revealed that the study had the ability to detect a difference of 15 mg/dL. Ninety-seven volunteers (56 males, 41 females) with a mean age of 37 +/- 11.9 years were enrolled. The mean capillary and venous glucose values were 104.5 +/- 20.7 mg/dL and 109.7 +/- 22.4 mg/dL, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.24. The correlation between venous and capillary blood glucose measurements is relatively poor in this group of healthy volunteers. Further research must be conducted on patients at risk for abnormal blood glucose.
Background To evaluate the peripapillary choroidal thickness of a healthy Chinese population, and to determine its influencing factors. Methods A total of 76 healthy volunteers (76 eyes) without ophthalmic or systemic symptoms were enrolled. Choroidal scans (360-degree 3.4 mm diameter peripapillary circle scans) were obtained for all eyes using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroid thickness was measured at the temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal segments. Results The average peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were 165.03 ± 40.37 μm. Inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal thicknesses (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found among inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses. The average peripapillary choroidal thickness decreased linearly with age (β = −1.33, 95% CI −1.98, -0.68, P < 0.001). No correlation was noted between average choroidal thickness and other factors (gender, refractive error, axial length, average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure, systolic ocular perfusion pressure, and mean ocular perfusion pressure). Conclusions The inferonasal, inferior, inferotemporal peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, and nasal thicknesses. A thinner peripapillary choroid is associated with increasing age. PMID:23758729
Cummings, L; Dane, A; Rhodes, J; Lynch, P; Hughes, A M
Aims To define the change in power in standard waveband frequencies of quantitative cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) data over a 24 h period, in a drug free representative healthy volunteer population. Methods This was an open, non randomised study in which 18 volunteers (9 male and 9 female) were studied on 1 study day, over a 24 h period. Volunteers had a cortical EEG recording taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h. Each recording lasted for 6 min (3 min eyes open, 3 min eyes closed). All EEG recordings were taken in a quietened ward environment with the curtains drawn round the bed and the volunteer supine. During the 3 min eyes open, volunteers were asked to look at a red circle on a screen at the foot of the bed, and refrain from talking. Results Plots produced of geometric mean power by time of the standard wave band frequencies gave some indication of a circadian rhythm over the 24 h period for θ (4.75–6.75 Hz), α1 (7.0–9.5 Hz) and β1 (12.75–18.50 Hz) wavebands. Mixed models were fitted to both the eyes open and eyes closed data which confirmed a change in mean waveband power with time with statistical significance at the conventional 5% level (P < 0.05). Conclusions These data indicate the presence of a diurnal variation in the cortical quantitative EEG. They support the use of a placebo control group when designing clinical trials which utilize quantitative EEG to screen for central nervous system (CNS) activity of pharmaceutical agents, to control for the confounding variable of time of day at which the EEG recordings were made. PMID:10886113
Stauffer, Emilie; Kalicki, Robert; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Frey, Brigitte M.; Frey, Felix J.; Uehlinger, Dominik E.; Pasch, Andreas
Summary Background and objectives Vascular calcification is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Human and animal studies indicate that sodium thiosulfate (STS) may prevent the progression of vascular calcifications. The pharmacokinetics of STS in hemodialysis patients has not been investigated yet. Design, setting, participants, & measurements STS was given intravenously to 10 hemodialysis patients on- and off-hemodialysis. Additionally, STS was applied to 9 healthy volunteers once intravenously and once orally. Thiosulfate concentrations were measured by using a specific and sensitive HPLC method. Results In volunteers and patients, mean endogenous thiosulfate baseline concentrations were 5.5 ± 1.82 versus 7.1 ± 2.7 μmol/L. Renal clearance was high in volunteers (1.86 ± 0.45 ml/min per kg) and reflected GFR. Nonrenal clearance was slightly, but not significantly, higher in volunteers (2.25 ± 0.32 ml/min per kg) than in anuric patients (2.04 ± 0.72 ml/min per kg). Hemodialysis clearance of STS was 2.62 ± 1.01 ml/min per kg. On the basis of the nonrenal clearance and the thiosulfate steady-state serum concentrations, a mean endogenous thiosulfate generation rate of 14.6 nmol/min per kg was calculated in patients. After oral application, only 4% of STS was recovered in urine of volunteers, reflecting a low bioavailability of 7.6% (0.8% to 26%). Conclusions Given the low and variable bioavailability of oral STS, only intravenous STS should be prescribed today. The biologic relevance of the high hemodialysis clearance for the optimal time point of STS dosing awaits clarification of the mechanisms of action of STS. PMID:21566113
Is it appropriate regarding patient preference to take Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules after a meal rather than at fasted state? A food–drug pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy Chinese volunteers
Zhao, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan
Background According to prescribing information for Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules, the medicine should be taken on an empty stomach. Some patients may experience stomach discomfort after oral administration in fasted state and would prefer to take the medicine after a meal. However, there is no literature addressing the effect of meal on absorption of this drug; therefore, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of taking the capsule after a meal from pharmacokinetic perspective. Methods A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadruples mass spectrometry assay was established and validated for determining plasma concentrations of eucalyptol, a target component of Myrtol standardized capsules. A self-control clinical study was carried out in healthy male volunteers in fasted and fed states after a single oral dose of 300 mg capsules. Comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters in the two phases and bioequivalence evaluation were performed. Results The specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the assay satisfied the requirements for biopharmaceutical analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol (fasted vs fed) were as follows: maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) (167.60±114.69 vs 518.89±314.47 ng·mL−1), time of maximum concentration (Tmax) (3.7±1.1 vs 4.8±0.7 h), elimination half-life (T1/2) (3.2±1.4 vs 2.6±0.7 h), area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–t) (584.91±369.90 vs 1,271.61±605.82 ng·h·mL−1), and AUC0–∞ (690.36±467.26 vs 1,458.02±720.21 ng·h·mL−1). There was statistically significant difference in Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ between the two dosing methods (P<0.05). Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol given in fasted state in Chinese were comparable to those in Germany population. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax (18.4%~64.7%), AUC0–t (28.9%~68.5%), and AUC0–∞ (31.1%~68.4%) values for the test (fasted) and reference (fed) were beyond the Food and
Is it appropriate regarding patient preference to take Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules after a meal rather than at fasted state? A food-drug pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy Chinese volunteers.
Zhao, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan
According to prescribing information for Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules, the medicine should be taken on an empty stomach. Some patients may experience stomach discomfort after oral administration in fasted state and would prefer to take the medicine after a meal. However, there is no literature addressing the effect of meal on absorption of this drug; therefore, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of taking the capsule after a meal from pharmacokinetic perspective. A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadruples mass spectrometry assay was established and validated for determining plasma concentrations of eucalyptol, a target component of Myrtol standardized capsules. A self-control clinical study was carried out in healthy male volunteers in fasted and fed states after a single oral dose of 300 mg capsules. Comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters in the two phases and bioequivalence evaluation were performed. The specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the assay satisfied the requirements for biopharmaceutical analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol (fasted vs fed) were as follows: maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) (167.60±114.69 vs 518.89±314.47 ng·mL(-1)), time of maximum concentration (Tmax) (3.7±1.1 vs 4.8±0.7 h), elimination half-life (T1/2) (3.2±1.4 vs 2.6±0.7 h), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) (584.91±369.90 vs 1,271.61±605.82 ng·h·mL(-1)), and AUC0-∞ (690.36±467.26 vs 1,458.02±720.21 ng·h·mL(-1)). There was statistically significant difference in Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ between the two dosing methods (P<0.05). Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol given in fasted state in Chinese were comparable to those in Germany population. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax (18.4%~64.7%), AUC0-t (28.9%~68.5%), and AUC0-∞ (31.1%~68.4%) values for the test (fasted) and reference (fed) were beyond the Food and Drug Administration's acceptable range
Garrett, May; Poland, Bill; Brennan, Meghan; Hee, Brian; Pithavala, Yazdi K; Amantea, Michael A
AIMS Axitinib is a potent and selective second generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 approved for second line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. The objectives of this analysis were to assess plasma pharmacokinetics and identify covariates that may explain variability in axitinib disposition following single dose administration in healthy volunteers. METHODS Plasma concentration–time data from 337 healthy volunteers in 10 phase I studies were analyzed, using non-linear mixed effects modelling (nonmem) to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate relationships between parameters and food, formulation, demographic factors, measures of renal and hepatic function and metabolic genotypes (UGT1A1*28 and CYP2C19). RESULTS A two compartment structural model with first order absorption and lag time best described axitinib pharmacokinetics. Population estimates for systemic clearance (CL), central volume of distribution (Vc), absorption rate constant (ka) and absolute bioavailability (F) were 17.0 l h−1, 45.3 l, 0.523 h−1 and 46.5%, respectively. With axitinib Form IV, ka and F increased in the fasted state by 207% and 33.8%, respectively. For Form XLI (marketed formulation), F was 15% lower compared with Form IV. CL was not significantly influenced by any of the covariates studied. Body weight significantly affected Vc, but the effect was within the estimated interindividual variability for Vc. CONCLUSIONS The analysis established a model that adequately characterizes axitinib pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Vc was found to increase with body weight. However, no change in plasma exposures is expected with change in body weight; hence no dose adjustment is warranted. PMID:23834452
Mohammad, Sohail; Arshad, Usman; Abbass, Nasir; Parvez, Irfan; Abbas, Ghulam; Mahmood, Wajahat
A two way, randomized cross-over bioequivalence study was conducted to analyse the rate and extent of absorption of atorvastatin after a single dose of 80 mg atorvastatin as atorvastatin calcium tablets. The study was carried out using healthy male volunteers (N = 24). A high performance liquid chromatography method was employed to determine the level of drug in human plasma. It was concluded that the test and the reference drug exhibited comparable values of pharmacokinetic parameters. It was also concluded that since there was no significant difference between the rate and extent of absorption of the drug from the test and the reference formulations: these two formulations could thus be declared bioequivalent.
Huang, Zhaoyi; Lu, Fu'er; Dong, Hui; Xu, Lijun; Chen, Guang; Zou, Xin; Lei, Hongwei
The effects of Cinnamon granules on pharmacokinetics of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis granules in healthy male volunteers, and the compatibility mechanism of Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW) composed of Rhizoma Coptidis granules and Cinnamon granules were investigated. The concentration of berberine in plasma of healthy male volunteers was determined directly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis granules alone or combined with Cinnamon granules (JTW). The plasma concentration-time curves of berberine were plotted. The data were analyzed with Drug and Statistics (DAS) 2.0 pharmacokinetic program (Chinese Pharmacology Society) to obtain the main pharmacokinetic parameters. The results showed that the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine was described by a two-compartment model. The C(max), T(max), t(1/2) and CLz/F of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis granules were 360.883 μg/L, 2.0 h, 3.882 h, 119.320 L·h(-1)·kg(-1) respectively, and those of berberine in JTW were 396.124 μg/L, 1.5 h, 4.727 h, 57.709 L·h(-1)·kg(-1) respectively. It was suggested that Rhizoma Coptidis granules combined with Cinnamon granules could increase the plasma concentration of berberine, promote berberine absorption and lengthen the detention time of berberine in healthy male volunteers.
Khemka, Sushilkumar S; Rao, Nagendra H Rama; Nagarathna, Raghuram
This controlled study compared immediate effects of two relaxation techniques on state anxiety and sustained attention in healthy subjects. 86 volunteers (56 men and 30 women) were divided into two groups: the first 43 volunteers (age range 18 to 64) practiced 20 minutes of yoga-based Deep Relaxation Technique (DRT), while the second group of 43 volunteers (same age range), practiced 20 minutes Supine Rest (SR). State anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI A-State), and sustained attention was assessed using the Six Letter Cancellation (SLC) and Digit Letter Substitution (DLS) tests. All tests were administered immediately before, and immediately after, practice. A significant reduction in State Anxiety score (P < 0.001) was observed for the group practicing DRT, but not for the group practicing SR. For the sustained attention tests, however, there were significant increases in scores by both DRT and SR groups (P < 0.001). The results suggest that both interventions improve attention, but that only DRT reduces State Anxiety.
Dewland, P; Pérez Campos, A; Martinez-Tobed, A
Pancopride (LAS 30451, CAS 121650-80-4) is a new selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist which has demonstrated antiemetic properties in animal models. The tolerance and pharmacokinetics of pancopride and its effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine flare test were examined in healthy male volunteers, in three single-dose studies. The studies consisted of two rising dose tolerance and kinetic studies with placebo control, each involving 14 volunteers, and an absolute bioavailability study involving 12 volunteers. The doses used in the rising dose studies were 0.5-20 mg intravenous pancopride in the first study, and 5-40 mg pancopride as oral solution in the second study. For the absolute bioavailability study, 20 mg doses as intravenous infusion, oral tablet and oral solution were compared. Pancopride was well tolerated at these doses in these studies. There were no significant effects on pulse rate, blood pressure, or electrocardiograms, or on haematology or serum biochemistry. Few adverse events were recorded, the most significant being gastrointestinal effects (including diarrhoea and soft stools) seen particularly with the 40 mg oral dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the 24 h after dosing were derived from plasma and urine pancopride levels, determined using a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Linear kinetics appeared to apply over the intravenous dose range 5-20 mg. Urinary recovery of unchanged pancopride was in the order of 10-17% over the 24 h after dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahabian, Masoud; Esmaeili, Habib-Allah; Rajbai, Omid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
Saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of a 1 week treatment of saffron tablets. Volunteers were divided into 3 groups of 10 each (5 males and 5 females). Group I received placebo; groups 2 and 3 received 200 and 400mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic parameters done in pre- and post-treatment periods. Clinical examination showed no gross changes in all volunteers after intervention. Saffron with higher dose (400mg) decreased standing systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures significantly. Saffron decreased slightly some hematological parameters such as red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. Saffron increased sodium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. This study showed that saffron tablets may change some hematological and biochemical parameters. However, these alterations were in normal ranges and they were not important clinically.
Juárez-Olguín, H; Flores, J; Pérez, G; Hernández, G; Flores, C; Guillé, A; Camacho, A; Toledo, A; Carrasco, M; Lares, I
Is well known that food can affect the bioavailability of several drugs, its impact is major for those drugs that have to act near of drug absorption. Documentation about alterations of ranitidine bioavailability by effect of food is poor. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of food over the bioavailability of ranitidine. Twenty healthy Mexican volunteers were included for the study. The study was made in two stages, in the first one the volunteers had 12 hour fast and took a 300 mg of oral dose of ranitidine (without food, WOF) and blood samples were drawn. Two weeks later, the volunteers took a normal diet just before ranitidine intake (with food, WF). The area under the curve (AUC) was 30% greater in WOF, Cmax was 921.5 ng/ml (WF) vs. 1685.2 (WOF), and t1/2 was 2.70 +/- 1.38 (WF) h vs 3.66 +/- 1.34 (WOF). The AUC, Cmax and t1/2 were statistically different. It is evident that there are differences in the drug disposition due to the presence of food, then, it is possible that the efficacy of ranitidine as inhibitor of gastric secretion being limited by food.
Lanteaume, Laura; Cassé-Perrot, Catherine; Lefebvre, Marie-Noëlle; Audebert, Christine; Deguil, Julie; Auffret, Alexandra; Otten, Lisa; Bartrés-Faz, David; Blin, Olivier; Bordet, Régis; Micallef, Joëlle
The early assessment of new symptomatic drugs against Alzheimer's disease remains difficult because of the lack of a predictive end-point. The use of a battery including different parameters could improve this early development. In order to test the reverse effect of symptomatic drugs in healthy volunteers, scientists have developed new experimental paradigms to artificially induce transient cognitive impairments in healthy volunteers akin to those observed in Alzheimer's disease, i.e. Cognitive Challenge Models. In this context, transient hypoxia could be a relevant Cognitive Challenge Model. The deleterious effects of hypoxia on cognition, as described in the literature, should be considered carefully since they are usually assessed with different populations that do not have the same hypoxic sensitivity. Hypoxia can be obtained by the means of two different methods: normobaric and hypobaric hypoxia. In both designs, cognitive changes can be directly modulated by the severity of hypoxic levels. The purpose of this review is to gather existing support on the application of hypoxia within different cognitive domains and to highlight the scientific interests of such a model to predict and select promising drug candidates. We aimed at reviewing in detail the methods, designs and cognitive paradigms used in non-pharmacological hypoxia studies. Probing the four main cognitive functions will allow identifying the extent to which different hypoxia designs selectively compromise cognitive functioning. For each cognitive process, the convergent and divergent results are discussed in terms of paradigm differences whereas we will focus on defining the optimal methodology for obtaining the desired effects.
Walsted, Alice; Wagner, Niels; Andersen, Kim Møller
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a tympanic displacement analyser could detect decreases in cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure after administration of indomethacin in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind crossover study involving 14 healthy volunteers all subjects first underwent a test-retest evaluation to investigate reproducibility followed by tests performed in sitting and supine positions to confirm intracranial-cochlear pressure transfer. In two further sessions tests were performed before and 90 min after subjects were blindly administered a suppository containing either 100 mg of indomethacin or placebo. It was found that tympanic membrane analysis performed 90 min after administration of such a suppository did not mirror the induced reduction in cerebral blood flow after administration of active drug. After administration of indomethacin eight of the subjects experienced discomfort and dizziness; after placebo none experienced subjective symptoms. After administration of indomethacin a statistically significant decrease in heart rate was demonstrated. The exponential form of the intracranial pressure-volume curve may explain why a decrease in intracranial pressure was not detected using the tympanic membrane displacement method, because the measurements were made in subjects with normal intracranial pressure. More significant findings may be found in patients with elevated intracranial pressure.
Agarwal, S; Das, A; Ghosh, D; Sarkar, A K; Chattaraj, T K; Pal, T K
The pharmacokinetics of teriflunomide [CAS No. 163451-81-8], the metabolite of leflunomide [CAS No. 75706-12-6] has been evaluated in adult human volunteers after oral administration of tablet formulation. However, no published data is available regarding the bioavailability of this in the Indian population. In light of the above, a study was designed to carry out a bioequivalence study of 2 preparations of leflunomide 20 mg in healthy Indian male volunteers.24 healthy male volunteers (age, 25±4.1 years; weight, 57.58±7.01 kg) were enrolled in this study. Each subject received a test and reference formulation in a single dose, fasting 2 period, 2 way crossover study with a wash out period of 4 weeks. Analysis of teriflunomide from plasma samples was done by a simple and sensitive HPLC method using UV detection developed in our laboratory. An analysis of variance was performed on the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ using GLM procedures in which sources of variation were subject, formulation, and period.The results indicated that there are no statistically significant differences between the 2 products in either the mean concentration-time profiles or in the obtained pharmacokinetic parameters. 90% confidence limits for the log transformed data of Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞. were within the acceptable range of 0.80-1.25.The results indicate that the 2 products are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of drug absorption. Both the preparations were well tolerated with no adverse reactions throughout the study.
Garrison, Kathleen J.; Coyle, Jeremy R.; Galloway, Gantt P.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mendelson, John E.
Hyponatremia is a serious complication of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use. We investigated potential mechanisms in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In Study 1, healthy drug-experienced volunteers received MDMA or placebo alone and in combination with the alpha-1 adrenergic inverse agonist prazosin, used as a positive control to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In Study 2, volunteers received MDMA or placebo followed by standardized water intake. MDMA lowered serum sodium but did not increase ADH or copeptin, although the control prazosin did increase ADH. Water loading reduced serum sodium more after MDMA than after placebo. There was a trend for women to have lower baseline serum sodium than men, but there were no significant interactions with drug condition. Combining studies, MDMA potentiated the ability of water to lower serum sodium. Thus, hyponatremia appears to be a significant risk when hypotonic fluids are consumed during MDMA use. Clinical trials and events where MDMA use is common should anticipate and mitigate this risk. PMID:27403159
Baggott, Matthew J; Garrison, Kathleen J; Coyle, Jeremy R; Galloway, Gantt P; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Mendelson, John E
Hyponatremia is a serious complication of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use. We investigated potential mechanisms in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In Study 1, healthy drug-experienced volunteers received MDMA or placebo alone and in combination with the alpha-1 adrenergic inverse agonist prazosin, used as a positive control to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In Study 2, volunteers received MDMA or placebo followed by standardized water intake. MDMA lowered serum sodium but did not increase ADH or copeptin, although the control prazosin did increase ADH. Water loading reduced serum sodium more after MDMA than after placebo. There was a trend for women to have lower baseline serum sodium than men, but there were no significant interactions with drug condition. Combining studies, MDMA potentiated the ability of water to lower serum sodium. Thus, hyponatremia appears to be a significant risk when hypotonic fluids are consumed during MDMA use. Clinical trials and events where MDMA use is common should anticipate and mitigate this risk.
Silva, L C; Simões, I G; Lerner, F E; Belém, G R; de Moraes, M E; De Nucci, G
The aim of the study was to assess the bioequivalence of two different diclofenac (CAS 15307-86-5) formulations (diclofenac free acid suspension as test formulation and diclofenac resinate suspension, Cataflam, as reference formulation) in 24 healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast, the volunteers received a single oral dose (50 mg) of each formulation, following an open, randomized, two-period crossover design, with a fourteen-day washout interval between doses. Serum samples were obtained over a 24-h interval post-dosing, and were analysed for their diclofenac content by HPLC-UV. No adverse effect was reported for any of the formulations administered. Geometric mean test/reference individual ratios were: 92.8% for AUC(0-24 h), 93.2% for AUC(0-infinity), 117.2% for Cmax, 131.0% for Ke and 76.2% for T1/2. The variability of Cmax parameter expressed as CV was greater than 25%. Since the 90% CI for AUC(0-24 h) mean ratio were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, it can be concluded that diclofenac free acid formulation is bioequivalent to diclofenac resinate formulation for the extent of absorption. Since the European Community Agency accepts a 90% CI for Cmax of 70-143%, it can be concluded that diclofenac free acid formulation is bioequivalent to diclofenac resinate formulation for both the rate and the extent of absorption after single dose administration.
Lin, C; Radwanski, E; Affrime, M; Cayen, M N
The pharmacokinetics of ceftibuten, a new cephalosporin antibiotic, and its conversion product, ceftibutentrans, were studied in healthy male volunteers following daily oral administration of a 400-mg capsule for 7 days. Mean concentrations of ceftibuten in plasma obtained on day 5 were similar to those obtained on day 7. Analysis of variance indicated that the concentrations in plasma on days 5 and 7 were at steady state. The mean accumulation factor was 1.14 for day 5 and 1.13 for day 7. The half-life (2.4 h) was independent of the duration of drug administration, and the mean maximum concentration of drug in plasma was 18 to 19 micrograms/ml. Urinary excretion was the major elimination route for ceftibuten, by which 57 to 59% of the drug was excreted unchanged over a 24-h period. The amounts of ceftibuten-trans in plasma and urine were low. PMID:7726497
Quantitative analysis of trazodone in human plasma by using HPLC-fluorescence detector coupled with strong cation exchange chromatographic column: application to a pharmacokinetic study in Chinese healthy volunteers.
Li-Bo, Dai; Rong-Hua, Zhu; Huan-De, Li; Feng, Wang; Ping-Fei, Fang; Jiang, Lou
A simple, selective, and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure has been developed for determination of trazodone in human plasma. Prazosin was employed as the internal standard (IS). Sample preparation involved liquid-liquid extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether after alkalinization with ammonia. The HPLC separation was performed on a CAPCELL PAK SCX column (250mm×4.6mm, 5.0μm, Shiseido, Japan) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/80mmol/L ammonium phosphate (pH adjusted to 6.0) (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min. The peaks were detected by using fluorescence detector (excitation wavelength 320nm and emission wavelength 440nm). The extraction recovery was 72.6-88.3% and the method was over the concentration range of 5.0-2486ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5.0ng/mL using 300μL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy of the method at three concentrations ranged from 96.7% to 104.2% for trazodone with precision of 2.9-3.7%. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study enrolling 12 Chinese volunteers administered a single oral trazodone hydrochloride extended-release tablet of 75mg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nolting, A; Sista, S; Abramowitz, W
Two preparations of flunisolide, an inhaled corticosteroid, were compared in a parallel, multiple-dose study of 31 healthy volunteers. The new flunisolide preparation substitutes hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) as a propellant and incorporates a spacer into its pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). In this study, subjects were randomly assigned to receive flunisolide CFC 1000 microg bid; flunisolide HFA 170 microg bid; or flunisolide HFA 340 microg bid. Dosing was continued for 13.5 days. Plasma samples were analyzed after the first dose on day 1 and again after 13.5 days of treatment. No significant differences in day 1 dose-adjusted peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were observed. Dose proportionality in C(max) and area under the concentration--time curves (AUC) was observed for the flunisolide HFA 170 and 340 microg bid groups on days 1 and 14. Day 1 mean dose-adjusted AUC was significantly greater in the flunisolide CFC 1000 microg bid group than in either flunisolide HFA group, indicating greater systemic availability of flunisolide CFC. Oral clearance and volume of distribution were significantly higher for flunisolide CFC than for flunisolide HFA. This may be due to greater oropharyngeal deposition by the flunisolide CFC formulation. Another indicator of greater flunisolide CFC oropharyngeal deposition was observed in C(max) and AUC(0--tlast) values for 6beta-OH flunisolide, the first-pass metabolite of flunisolide. The values of these pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly higher in the flunisolide CFC group than in the 340 microg bid flunisolide HFA group on days 1 and 14. However, this was not the case for cortisol values where flunisolide HFA accounted for less oropharyngeal deposition and more targeted delivery without adverse events. The study demonstrated that flunisolide HFA administered through a pMDI with built-in spacer was safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lee, Jong-Young; Sung, Ki-Chul; Choi, Hyo-In
The aim of this study is to quantify the extent and recovery of platelet inhibition after administration of indobufen and aspirin in healthy volunteers. Indobufen inhibits platelet aggregation by reversibly inhibiting the platelet cyclooxygenase enzyme, thereby suppressing thromboxane synthesis. Twenty healthy volunteers completed the study and received aspirin (200 mg/day for 2 weeks) followed by a 4-week washout period and then indobufen (200 mg twice a day for 2 weeks). The percent (%) inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed using arachidonic acid (0.5 mg/ml) and adenosine diphosphate (5 µM) at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after last dose of each drug. IPA assessed using arachidonic acid as the agonist was similar at 4 hours after the last dose of indobufen (81.07 ± 9.36%) and aspirin (96.99 ± 0.29%, p = 0.10), but significantly lower at 12 hours (74.04 ± 9.55% vs. 97.94 ± 0.28%, p = 0.02), 24 hours (33.39 ± 11.13% vs. 97.48 ± 0.32%, p < 0.001) and 48 hours (14.12 ± 9.74% vs. 98.22 ± 0.31%, p < 0.001) after indobufen, compared to the relative values for aspirin. IPA assessed using adenosine diphosphate as the agonist was similar in the two groups at 4, 12 and 24 hours after the last dose, but significantly lower 48 hours after the last dose of indobufen, compared to the relative value for aspirin (1.98 ± 3.57% vs. 12.61 ± 2.71%, p = 0.002). Indobufen (200 mg twice a day) caused equivalent initial inhibition of platelet aggregation to aspirin (200 mg daily), and the anti-aggregation effect diminished faster than after aspirin.
de Visser, S J; van der Post, J; Pieters, M S M; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A
Studies of novel antipsychotics in healthy volunteers are traditionally concerned with kinetics and tolerability, but useful information may also be obtained from biomarkers of clinical endpoints. A useful biomarker should meet the following requirements: a consistent response across studies and antipsychotics; a clear response of the biomarker to a therapeutic dose; a dose–response relationship; a plausible relationship between biomarker, pharmacology and pathogenesis. In the current review, all individual tests found in studies of neuroleptics in healthy volunteers since 1966 were progressively evaluated for compliance with these requirements. A MedLine search yielded 65 different studies, investigating the effects of 23 different neuroleptics on 101 different (variants of) neuropsychological tests, which could be clustered into seven neuropsychological domains. Subjective and objective measures of alertness, and of visual-visuomotor-auditory and motor skills were most sensitive to antipsychotics, although over half of all the studies failed to show statistically significant differences from placebo. The most consistent effects were observed using prolactin response and saccadic eye movements, where 96% and 83% of all studies resp. showed statistically significant effects. The prolactin inducing dose equivalencies relative to haloperidol of 19 different antipsychotic agents correlated with the lowest recommended daily maintenance dose (r2 = 0.52). This relationship could reflect the clinical practice of aiming for maximum tolerated levels, or it could represent a common basis behind prolactin release and antipsychotic activity (probably D2-receptor antagonism). The number of tests used in human psychopharmacology appears to be excessive. Future studies should look for the most specific and sensitive test within each of the domains that are most susceptible to neuroleptics. PMID:11259983
Farías, Javier; Keller, Guillermo A; Papouchado, Mariana; Villa Etchegoyen, María C; Criscuolo, Marcelo E; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo
To compare the pharmacokinetics, relative bioavailability (RB), immunogenicity, and safety after a single dose of test or reference formulation of teriparatide in healthy human volunteers in order to demonstrate whether both products are similar. We compared pharmacokinetic parameters, immunogenicity, and safety after a single dose of two formulations (Osteofortil® and Forteo®) of teriparatide in a randomizedsequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in 24 healthy volunteers. The washout period between formulations was 7 days. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 minutes, and 3 and 4 hours after administration. Teriparatide concentrations were determined using ELISA. Adverse events were monitored. Geometric mean (90% CI) Cmax for test and reference formulations were 165.86 (153.35 - 212.13) and 175.37 (164.04 - 221.04) pg/mL, the AUC0-t was 14,932 (5,275 - 15,752) and 14,153 (1,861 - 16,875) pg×min/mL, and the AUC0-∞ was 16,147 (15,047 - 18,799) and 15,467 (14,473 - 18,126) pg×min/mL, respectively. The test/reference ratios (90% CI) for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 94.58% (85.29 - 104.87), 105.5% (97.77 - 113.84), and 104.4% (96.97 - 112.39), respectively No subject reported adverse events. Test formulation met pharmacokinetic criteria for bioequivalence.
de Visser, S J; van der Post, J P; de Waal, P P; Cornet, F; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A
Studies of novel centrally acting drugs in healthy volunteers are traditionally concerned with kinetics and tolerability, but useful information may also be obtained from biomarkers of clinical endpoints. A useful biomarker should meet the following requirements: a consistent response across studies and drugs; a clear response of the biomarker to a therapeutic dose; a dose–response relationship; a plausible relationship between biomarker, pharmacology and pathogenesis. In the current review, all individual tests found in studies of benzodiazepine agonists registered for anxiety in healthy volunteers since 1966 were progressively evaluated for compliance with these requirements. A MedLine search yielded 56 different studies, investigating the effects of 16 different benzodiazepines on 73 different (variants of) neuropsychological tests, which could be clustered into seven neuropsychological domains. Subjective and objective measures of alertness were most sensitive to benzodiazepines. The most consistent effects were observed on saccadic peak velocity (SPV) and visual analogue scores ( VAS) of alertness, where 100% and 79% of all studies respectively showed statistically significant effects. A dose–response relationship could be constructed for temazepam and SPV, which was used to determine dose equivalencies relative to temazepam, for seven different benzodiazepines. These dose equivalencies correlated with the lowest recommended daily maintenance dose (r2 = 0.737, P < 0.05). This relationship between SPV reduction and clinical efficacy could reflect the clinical practice of aiming for maximum tolerated levels, or it could represent a common basis behind SPV reduction and anxiolytic activity for benzodiazepines (probably sedation). The number of tests used in human psychopharmacology appears to be excessive and their sensitivity and reproducibility low. PMID:12534639
Rowbotham, Michael C.; Dahl, Jørgen B.
Background Human experimental pain models leading to development of secondary hyperalgesia are used to estimate efficacy of analgesics and antihyperalgesics. The ability to develop an area of secondary hyperalgesia varies substantially between subjects, but little is known about the agreement following repeated measurements. The aim of this study was to determine if the areas of secondary hyperalgesia were consistently robust to be useful for phenotyping subjects, based on their pattern of sensitization by the heat pain models. Methods We performed post-hoc analyses of 10 completed healthy volunteer studies (n = 342 [409 repeated measurements]). Three different models were used to induce secondary hyperalgesia to monofilament stimulation: the heat/capsaicin sensitization (H/C), the brief thermal sensitization (BTS), and the burn injury (BI) models. Three studies included both the H/C and BTS models. Results Within-subject compared to between-subject variability was low, and there was substantial strength of agreement between repeated induction-sessions in most studies. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) improved little with repeated testing beyond two sessions. There was good agreement in categorizing subjects into ‘small area’ (1st quartile [<25%]) and ‘large area’ (4th quartile [>75%]) responders: 56–76% of subjects consistently fell into same ‘small-area’ or ‘large-area’ category on two consecutive study days. There was moderate to substantial agreement between the areas of secondary hyperalgesia induced on the same day using the H/C (forearm) and BTS (thigh) models. Conclusion Secondary hyperalgesia induced by experimental heat pain models seem a consistent measure of sensitization in pharmacodynamic and physiological research. The analysis indicates that healthy volunteers can be phenotyped based on their pattern of sensitization by the heat [and heat plus capsaicin] pain models. PMID:23671631
Zhao, Guilian; Liu, Mei; Wu, Xiujun; Li, Guofei; Qiu, Feng; Gu, Jingkai; Zhao, Limei
This study examined whether gene polymorphisms (CYP3A4, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, NR1I2, PPARA and NFKB1) influenced the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in Chinese healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid were quantified using LC/MS/MS. PPARA c.208+3819 G allele carriers had approximately twofold higher AUC0-∞ and Cmax of lovastatin than wild-type (PPARA c.208+3819 AA) subjects. After adjustment for the PPARA variants, subjects with the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype had approximately 50% lower AUC0-∞ of lovastatin acid than those with 521TC/CC genotypes, while the AUC0-∞ of lovastatin lactone in NFKB1-94 DD wild-type carriers was twofold higher than in mutant homozygotes carriers. Gene polymorphisms of PPARA, SLCO1B1 and NFKB1 affected the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin.
Murphy, S. E.; Downham, C.; Cowen, P. J.
Rationale Pharmacological agents used in the treatment of anxiety have been reported to decrease threat relevant processing in patients and healthy controls, suggesting a potentially relevant mechanism of action. However, the effects of the anxiolytic diazepam have typically been examined at sedative doses, which do not allow the direct actions on emotional processing to be fully separated from global effects of the drug on cognition and alertness. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a lower, but still clinically effective, dose of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers. Materials and methods Twenty-four participants were randomised to receive a single dose of diazepam (5 mg) or placebo. Sixty minutes later, participants completed a battery of psychological tests, including measures of non-emotional cognitive performance (reaction time and sustained attention) and emotional processing (affective modulation of the startle reflex, attentional dot probe, facial expression recognition, and emotional memory). Mood and subjective experience were also measured. Results Diazepam significantly modulated attentional vigilance to masked emotional faces and significantly decreased overall startle reactivity. Diazepam did not significantly affect mood, alertness, response times, facial expression recognition, or sustained attention. Conclusions At non-sedating doses, diazepam produces effects on attentional vigilance and startle responsivity that are consistent with its anxiolytic action. This may be an underlying mechanism through which benzodiazepines exert their therapeutic effects in clinical anxiety. PMID:18581100
Zhuang, Jialang; Chen, Jiangying; Wang, Xueding; Pang, Yin; Bi, Huichang; Huang, Lihui; Zeng, Guixiong; Liao, Xiaoxing; Ma, Zhongfu; Chen, Xiao; Zhong, Guoping; Huang, Min; Zhao, Xianglan
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method to determine clonidine in human plasma was developed and fully validated. Sample preparation was involved an one-step extraction with diethyl ether. Donepezil was employed as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (i.d. 2.1 × 50 mm, particle size 3μm) with a mobile phase of methanol-water (containing 0.1% formic acid; 60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 200 μL/min. The peaks were detected by mass spectrometry using the electrospray ion source in selected reaction monitoring mode. The extraction recovery was 72.53-85.25%. The method was found to be linear in a concentration range of 0.02-6.00 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantification was 0.02 ng/mL. The within- and between-batch precisions at three concentrations were 4.33-16.47 and 7.24-17.24% with accuracies of -2.47-10.91 and 1.86-10.19%, respectively. This validated method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of two clonidine transdermal patches on healthy volunteers. The results suggested that the test formulation of clonidine patch met the regulatory criterion for bioequivalence to the reference formulation, but a larger sample size should be needed for the estimation of bioequivalence.
Colpo, Elisângela; Dalton D A Vilanova, Carlos; Reetz, Luiz Gustavo B; Duarte, Marta M M F; Farias, Iria Luiza G; Meinerz, Daiane F; Mariano, Douglas O C; Vendrusculo, Raquel G; Boligon, Aline A; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L; Wagner, Roger; Athayde, Margareth L; da Rocha, João Batista T
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of Brazil nuts on the inflammatory markers of healthy individuals. A randomized crossover study was conducted with 10 healthy individuals (mean age 24.7 ± 3.4 y). Each individual was tested four times regarding intake of different portions of Brazil nuts: 0, 5, 20 and 50 g. At each testing period, peripheral blood was collected before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after intake of nuts, as well as at 5 and 30 d after intake of various Brazil nut portions. Blood samples were tested for high-sensitivity to C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea, and creatinine. Consumption of nuts did not affect biochemical parameters for liver and kidney function, indicating absence of hepatic and renal toxicity. A single intake of Brazil nuts (20 or 50 g) caused a significant decrease in serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels (P < 0.05), whereas serum levels of IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The results indicate a long-term decrease in inflammatory markers after a single intake of large portions of Brazil nuts in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the long-term effect of regular Brazil nut consumption on inflammatory markers should be better investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Libla, Jessica L; Taylor, Angelina M; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P
Postprandial glucose (PPG) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and death, regardless of diabetes status. Whereas changes in physical activity produce changes in insulin sensitivity, it is not clear whether changes in daily physical activity directly affect PPG in healthy free-living persons. We used continuous glucose monitors to measure PPG and PPG excursions (ΔPPG, postmeal - premeal blood glucose) at 30-min increments after meals in healthy habitually active volunteers (n = 12, age = 29 ± 1 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.9 kg·m(-2), VO2max = 53.6 ± 3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) during 3 d of habitual (≥10,000 steps per day) and reduced (<5000 steps per day) physical activity. Diets were standardized across monitoring periods, and fasting-state oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on the fourth day of each monitoring period. During 3 d of reduced physical activity (12,956 ± 769 to 4319 ± 256 steps per day), PPG increased at 30 and 60 min after a meal (6.31 ± 0.19 to 6.68 ± 0.23 mmol·L(-1) and 5.75 ± 0.16 to 6.26 ± 0.28 mmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 relative to corresponding active time point), and ΔPPG increased by 42%, 97%, and 33% at 30, 60, and 90 min after a meal, respectively (P < 0.05). Insulin and C-peptide responses to the OGTT increased after 3 d of reduced activity (P < 0.05), and the glucose response to the OGTT did not change significantly. Thus, despite evidence of compensatory increases in plasma insulin during an OGTT, ΔPPG assessed by continuous glucose monitoring systems increased markedly during 3 d of reduced physical activity in otherwise healthy free-living individuals. These data indicate that daily physical activity is an important mediator of glycemic control, even among healthy individuals, and reinforce the utility of physical activity in preventing pathologies associated with elevated PPG.
Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yi; Mao, Fei; Mao, Junjun; Lu, Xiaolan; Jiang, Dongdong; Wan, Yun; Lv, Jia-Ying; Cao, Guoying; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Naiqing; Atkinson, Mark; Greiner, Dale L.; Prud'homme, Gerald J.; Jiao, Zheng; Li, Yiming; Wang, Qinghua
Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01) or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01). GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p < 0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transient discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes. PMID:26617516
Korur, Aslı; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal; Yeral, Mahmut; Kandemir, Fatih; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Sariturk, Cagla; Asma, Suheyl; Solmaz, Soner; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan
Today, voluntary donation of peripheral blood stem cells by healthy donors for allogeneic hemopoietic cell transplantation is common worldwide. Such donations are associated with small but measurable risks of morbidity and mortality. Most complications are associated with citrate infusion during cell collection. We studied the effects of citrate infusion on the QTc and other vital parameters during and after peripheral stem cell apheresis in volunteers. To ensure that donors were healthy, screening included taking a detailed medical history, physical examination, and laboratory measurements of plasma calcium and magnesium. Corrected QT (QTc) values were assessed using a 12-lead electrocardiographic platform that derived QTc values automatically. In all, 141 apheresis procedures were performed. The mean QTc values at baseline, at 2 and 4 h during the procedure, and at 30 min after the procedure, were 347.6 ± 59.5, 349.9 ± 52.8, 391.8 ± 54.0, and 404.8 ± 59.2 ms, respectively. The baseline and 2 h QTcs did not differ significantly, but the baseline QTc did differ significantly from the 4 h and 30 min after the procedure values. The plasma levels of calcium and magnesium did not significantly differ before and after the procedure. QTc prolongation may develop during leukopheresis, particularly if the procedure takes more than 2 h. Thus, to enhance donor safety, QTc measurement should be standard for all donors. In addition, any family history of sudden death should be noted, to prevent the development of possible fatal arrhythmia in susceptible donors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yi; Mao, Fei; Mao, Junjun; Lu, Xiaolan; Jiang, Dongdong; Wan, Yun; Lv, Jia-Ying; Cao, Guoying; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Naiqing; Atkinson, Mark; Greiner, Dale L; Prud'homme, Gerald J; Jiao, Zheng; Li, Yiming; Wang, Qinghua
Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01) or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01). GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p < 0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transient discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes.
Cerit, Hilâl; Schuur, Rachel J.; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Van der Does, Willem
Experimental manipulation of serotonin (5-HT) availability has been shown to modulate social behavior. For instance, serotonin depletion increased the rejection rates of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG), whereas a single dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (citalopram) decreased rejection rates. These effects were observed immediately after the manipulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on UG performance in healthy individuals. A randomized double-blind placebo (PLC)-controlled design was used. Healthy volunteers (N = 47) completed the UG before and after a 6-day intervention of TRP (2.8 g/day) or PLC. Impulsivity was measured with a Go-Stop task. The overall analyses showed that TRP supplementation had no significant effect on UG scores, but the direction of the effect was opposite from expectations. Because repeated performance of the UG may lead to unwanted learning effects or strategical changes, additional analyses were conducted in which participants (N = 7) who accepted all offers on the second measurement were excluded. These analyses revealed that the TRP-group rejected very unfair offers more often than the PLC group. The groups did not differ on impulsivity. Increasing serotonin through TRP supplements increased the rejection of very unfair offers. The direction of our findings is inconsistent with earlier studies that showed that increasing 5-HT availability results in less rejection of unfair offers. The current findings thus importantly suggest that effects of acute vs. prolonged enhancement of 5-HT availability may differ. Also, the outcomes show that the UG is a complex task and participants’ decisions may depend on context, e.g., prior experience with the task. PMID:26236273
Bacon, P J; Brazier, D J; Smith, R; Smith, S E
1. Intraocular pressure and cardiovascular responses to metipranolol 0.1% and 0.3% and timolol 0.25% eyedrops were measured in a balanced single dose placebo-controlled crossover study in eight healthy volunteers aged 34-58 years. 2. Timolol 0.25% and metipranolol 0.3% reduced intraocular pressure throughout the 6 h period of observation to a similar extent. Metipranolol 0.1% was marginally less effective, significantly reducing pressure up to 4 h only. 3. No drug treatment significantly altered resting heart rate or blood pressure. Timolol 0.25% significantly reduced exercise tachycardia (P less than 0.05), an effect which was not shown by metipranolol 0.1 or 0.3%. Exertional pain in the legs occurred more frequently after timolol 0.25% and metipranolol 0.3% than after metipranolol 0.1% or placebo eyedrops. 4. Octan-1-ol/pH 7.4 buffer distribution coefficients at 37 degrees C were found to be: metipranolol 5.19, timolol 0.84, indicating that metipranolol has an approximately 6-fold greater lipid solubility. 5. It is concluded that, by comparison with timolol, metipranolol in eyedrop concentrations up to 0.3%, despite its greater lipid solubility, reaches concentrations in the systemic circulation which are less likely to affect the heart. PMID:2565117
Gavliakova, S; Biringerova, Z; Buday, T; Brozmanova, M; Calkovsky, V; Poliacek, I; Plevkova, J
Eighteen healthy volunteers with normal lung function were tested for cough. Before and after nasal administration of thymol (0.025 ml, 10(-3) M) into both nostrils, urge-to-cough, cough threshold, cumulative and total count of coughs per provocation were estimated during standardized and validated capsaicin cough challenge. Nasal thymol challenges induced pleasant olfactory sensation and in 6 out of the 18 subjects also mild cooling sensation. Cough threshold was not influenced when compared with intranasal saline and vehicle challenges (12.5 vs. 13.2 vs. 10.2 μM of capsaicin to induce two or more coughs (C2), respectively), but the total count of coughs after nasal thymol challenge was significantly lower than that obtained after saline or vehicle (19 vs. 20 vs. 14 coughs/provocation, respectively; p<0.05). Importantly, subjects did not report the urge to cough, which appeared to correspond to C2. We conclude that the modulation of cough by thymol is mostly of olfactory origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Linssen, A M W; Sambeth, A; Vuurman, E F P M; Riedel, W J
Our previous study showed enhanced declarative memory consolidation after acute methylphenidate (MPH) administration. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate the duration of this effect. Secondary, the dopaminergic contribution of MPH effects, the electrophysiological correlates of declarative memory, and the specificity of memory enhancing effects of MPH to declarative memory were assessed. Effects of 40 mg of MPH on memory performance were compared to 100mg of levodopa (LEV) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with 30 healthy volunteers. Memory performance testing included a word learning test, the Sternberg memory scanning task, a paired associates learning task, and a spatial working memory task. During the word learning test, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured. MPH failed to enhance retention of words at a 30 min delay, but it improved 24 h delayed memory recall relative to PLA and LEV. Furthermore, during encoding, the P3b and P600 ERP latencies were prolonged and the P600 amplitude was larger after LEV compared to PLA and MPH. MPH speeded response times on the Sternberg Memory Scanning task and improved performance on the Paired Associates Learning task, relative to LEV, but not PLA. Performance on the Spatial working memory task was not affected by the treatments. These findings suggest that MPH and LEV might have opposite effects on memory. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.
Mandal, U; Musmade, Prashant; Chakraborty, Mita; Rajan, D Senthil; Chakravarti, M; Pal, T K; Chattaraj, T K
Newly developed sildenafil citrate (SC), a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) in the corpus cavernosum is used for the oral treatment of erectile dysfunction. A convenient, sensitive and simple method for the determination of sildenafil in human plasma is presented. The analytical technique was based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector set at 295 nm. Rofecoxib was used as internal standard (I.S). Liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether was performed to recover sildenafil and rofecoxib. The retention time of I.S and sildenafil were 5.5 minutes and 7.2 minutes respectively. The method was validated over a linear range of 10 to 1000 ng/ml from plasma. Separate stability study showed that sildenafil is stable under conditions of analysis. The extraction efficiency from plasma varied from 79.69% to 81.13 %. The minimum quantifiable concentration was set at 10 ng/ml. (%o CV<12.5%). The method was used for Bioequivalence Study of Two Brands of Sildenafil citrate 50 mg tablets in healthy human volunteers. All pharmacokinetic parameter were calculated along with statistical evaluation.
Anlamlert, Wirin; Sermsappasuk, Pakawadee; Yokubol, Dhirayudh; Jones, Sirada
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pomelo pulp on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in healthy male Thai volunteers. The study design was an open-label, randomized, single dose, crossover study with a 2-week washout period. A single oral dose of 2 × 100 mg cyclosporine was administered with 200 mL of water. Each subject received 250 g of pomelo pulp or 250 mL of water 1 hour before drug administration and once again 10 minutes following drug administration. Blood samples were collected over a 24 hour period. The point estimates (90% confidence intervals) of the test/control ratio using logarithmic transformed data for the area under the curve (AUC) for blood concentration from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0- ∞)) and the observed maximum concentration (C(max)) were 128.8% (120.6-137.6) and 136.1% (126.0-146.8), respectively. These 90% confidence intervals were higher than the accepted bioequivalence range defined by the European Medicines Agency guidelines for narrow therapeutic index drugs (90%-111% for AUC and 80%-125% for C(max)). However, the apparent terminal half-life (t(1/2)) was not significantly different. In conclusion, co-administration of cyclosporine and pomelo pulp increased the relative bioavailability of cyclosporine. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Al-Mohizea, A M; Kadi, A A; Al-Bekairi, A M; Al-Balla, S A; Al-Yamani, M J; Al-Khamis, K I; Niazy, E M; El-Sayed, Y M
This study was done to compare the bioavailability of a new tablet formulation of gemifloxacin (gemifloxacin 320 mg/tablet) with that of the reference product (factive 320 mg/tablet). The bioequivalence of a single dose (320 mg) was assessed for gemifloxacin included in the test and reference products by comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the plasma concentration-time profiles following administration to 24 healthy male volunteers in a balanced, 2-period, 2-sequence, 2-way crossover design. Plasma concentrations of gemifloxacin were analyzed by a validated and sensitive HPLC assay developed in-house. The mean plasma concentration-time profiles are almost superimposable. 18 ANOVAs were performed to compare gemifloxacin plasma levels of the two formulations at each sampling time and there were no statistical differences between the two formulations. The parameters used to measure bioavailability were AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity and Cmax and they were calculated by a model-independent method. The parametric 90% confidence intervals of the mean values for the test/reference ratio were in each case well within the bioequivalence acceptable boundaries of 80-125% for AUCo-t, AUC0-infinity and Cmax. Data obtained in this study prove, by appropriate statistical methods, the essential similarity of plasma levels of gemifloxacin from the test product with those from the reference product suggesting equal clinical efficacy of these two products.
Hodge, Stephanie; Bunting, Brendan P; Carr, Edwin; Strain, J J; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J
Obesity is a growing problem throughout Europe, where the rate has more than doubled over the past 20 years. Reduced circulating serotonin may contribute to the development of obesity. This study aimed to explore associations between whole blood (WB) serotonin concentrations and anthropometric measures. Healthy adult volunteers (N = 68) gave whole blood samples for measurement of WB serotonin, and underwent BMI waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) assessment as well as DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans for anthropometric parameters. Student's t-tests determined differences in WB serotonin and anthropometric measures between sexes. Partial Pearson's correlations were carried out on anthropometric measures and WB serotonin. For the whole sample, WB serotonin was significantly negatively correlated with BMI, WC, WHR as well as android, gynoid and total % body fat. Analysis by sex showed significant negative correlations between WB serotonin and android, gynoid as well as total fat in males, but not in females. This dichotomy between the sexes implies that there may be sex differences in the way that serotonin interplays with the development of obesity and body fat distribution.
Klinkhardt, Ute; Breddin, Hans Klaus; Esslinger, Heinz Ulrich; Haas, Silvia; Kalatzis, Andreas; Harder, Sebastian
Aims To investigate potential interactions between reviparin and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA 300 mg o.d. from day 1–5). Methods In an open, randomized, three-way-cross over study nine healthy volunteers received reviparin (s.c. injection of 6300 anti-Xa units) or placebo from days 3 to 5 and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA 300 mg) or placebo from days 1 to 5. Assessments included bleeding time (BT), collagen (1 µg ml−1) induced platelet aggregation (CAG), heptest, plasma antifactor Xa-activity and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Results Median bleeding time at day 5 was 5.5 min after reverparin alone and after ASA alone and was 9.6 min after the combination of reviparin and ASA. ASA treatment reduced CAG from 84% to 40 to 50% of Amax; values after combined treatment of reviparin with ASA were not different from those after ASA alone. aPTT was prolonged to 32 s after reviparin; this effect was not modified if subjects received ASA. Combined treatment with ASA and reviparin had no effect on plasma anti-Xa-activity and heptest compared with reviparin alone. Conclusions We could not entirely exclude a small interaction between reviparin and ASA on bleeding time, but the effect is probably without clinical significance. PMID:10759689
Shabanov, P D; Ganapol'skiĭ, V P; Aleksandrov, P V
The meteoadaptogenic properties of a series of drugs with peptide (cortexin, noopept, dilept) and nonpeptide (vinpotropil) structure were investigated in a climate thermobarocomplex (Tabay, Japan) on a group of healthy volunteers aged 20-24. All the studied drugs produced a meteoadaptogenic action, the extent of which depended on the environmental test conditions (overcooling, overheating, hypobaric hypoxia). Vinpotropil, optimizing a physiological component of the functional state, can be recommended as a meteoadaptogen for both cold and hot climate as well as for hypobaric hypoxia, where it improved the psychological component of the functional state. Cortexin is qualified as an adaptogen and actoprotector only for hypobaric hypoxia conditions (uplands). Noopept, affecting positively a psychological component of the functional state, can be used for rapid adaptation to both cold and hot climate. In the hot climate, noopept also enhanced the physical work capacity. Dilept mostly elevated the psychological component of the functional state and can be considered as a psychomotor enhancer and adaptogen. Therefore, all the drugs studied (vinpotropil, cortexin, noopept and dilept) can be recommended as the agents producing activation, support and recovery of the physical and psychological efficiency under rapidly changing environment conditions.
Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Aunmuang, Siriluk; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Roongapinun, Sukit; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit
The objective of this study was to investigate the bioequivalence of two formulations of 5 mg donepezil HCL tablets: Tonizep as the test and Aricept as the reference. The two products were administered as a single oral dose according to a randomized two-phase crossover with a 3-week washout period in 20 healthy Thai Male volunteers. After drug administration, serial blood samples were collected over a period of 216 hours. Plasma donepezil concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed based on noncompartmental analysis. The logarithmically transformed data of AUC0–∞ and Cmax were analyzed for 90% confidence intervals (CI) using ANOVA. The mean (90% CI) values for the ratio of AUC0–∞ and Cmax values of the test product over those of the reference product were 1.08 (1.02–1.14) and 1.08 (0.99–1.17), respectively (within the bioequivalence range of 0.8–1.25). The median Tmax for the test product was similar to that of the reference product (2.0 hr), and the 90% CI for the Tmax difference between the two preparations was –0.19 to 0.29 hr and within the bioequivalence range of ± 20% of the Tmax of the reference formulation. Our study demonstrated the bioequivalence of the two preparations. PMID:23209934
Njomatchoua, Audrey Carine; Tankeu, Aurel Tiakouang; Sobngwi, Eugene; Mbanya, Jean-Claude
We aimed to quantify the glycemic effects of quinine in healthy individuals. We evaluated the glycemic profile in response to 4 h infusion of 500 ml of 0.9% saline versus 5% glucose solution with and without quinine at therapeutic dose (500 mg) in ten healthy volunteers (8 men) aged 28 ± 9 years. The order of the fourth explorations was randomly assigned. During these explorations, we measured blood glucose every 15 min for 4 h and compared the mean and glycemic fluctuations for each test. A resting ECG was performed before and after quinine infusion in each participant. The mean glycemic level during the 4-h infusion was 83 ± 5 mg/dl without quinine versus 74 ± 5 mg/dl with quinine (p < 0.001) using saline solute versus 92 ± 7 mg/dl without quinine versus 82 ± 5 mg/dl with quinine (p < 0.001) when associated with the glucose solute. In isotonic dirty solute, quinine induces a cumulative glycemic decrease of 17.5% (p = 0.01) characterized by a nadir estimated at -26.5% at the 60th minute (65 ± 23 mg/dl), p <0.001 followed by a gradual increase until the 4th hour. There were no signs of hypoglycemia or significant prolongation of the QT interval at the ECG. Overall, quinine did not induce a significant change in blood glucose with glucose compared to saline. The intravenous infusion of quinine at a therapeutic dose induces a light drop in blood glucose with a significant nadir at the 60th minute in the healthy subject without hypoglycemia. This suggests the need for close monitoring in patients at risk of hypoglycemia such as those with severe malaria especially during the first hour of quinine infusion.
Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…
Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…
Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Griffiths, Megan E.; McLean, Steven G.; Miller, Mark R.; Luo, Rosa; Lang, Ninian N.; Newby, David E.
Background Urocortin 2 and urocortin 3 are endogenous peptides with an emerging role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. We assessed their pharmacodynamic profile and examined the role of the endothelium in mediating their vasomotor effects in vivo in man. Methods and Results Eighteen healthy male volunteers (23±4 years) were recruited into a series of double‐blind, randomized crossover studies using bilateral forearm venous occlusion plethysmography during intra‐arterial urocortin 2 (3.6 to 120 pmol/min), urocortin 3 (1.2 to 36 nmol/min), and substance P (2 to 8 pmol/min) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (aspirin), cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid (fluconazole), and nitric oxide synthase (L‐NMMA). Urocortins 2 and 3 evoked arterial vasodilatation (P<0.0001) without tachyphylaxis but with a slow onset and offset of action. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L‐NMMA reduced vasodilatation to substance P and urocortin 2 (P≤0.001 for both) but had little effect on urocortin 3 (P>0.05). Neither aspirin nor fluconazole affected vasodilatation induced by any of the infusions (P>0.05 for all). In the presence of all 3 inhibitors, urocortin 2– and urocortin 3–induced vasodilatation was attenuated (P<0.001 for all) to a greater extent than with L‐NMMA alone (P≤0.005). Conclusions Urocortins 2 and 3 cause potent and prolonged arterial vasodilatation without tachyphylaxis. These vasomotor responses are at least partly mediated by endothelial nitric oxide and cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid. The role of urocortins 2 and 3 remains to be explored in the setting of human heart failure, but they have the potential to have major therapeutic benefits. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov//. Unique identifier: NCT01096706 and NCT01296607. PMID:23525432
Dettoni, Josilene L; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Drager, Luciano F; Rubira, Marcelo C; Souza, Silvia Beatriz P Cavasin de; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Mostarda, Cristiano; Borile, Suellen; Krieger, Eduardo M; Moreno, Heitor; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo
Sleep deprivation is common in Western societies and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of partial sleep deprivation on the cardiovascular system are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated 13 healthy male volunteers (age: 31 ± 2 yr) monitoring sleep diary and wrist actigraphy during their daily routine for 12 nights. The subjects were randomized and crossover to 5 nights of control sleep (>7 h) or 5 nights of partial sleep deprivation (<5 h), interposed by 2 nights of unrestricted sleep. At the end of control and partial sleep deprivation periods, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), serum norepinephrine, and venous endothelial function (dorsal hand vein technique) were measured at rest in a supine position. The subjects slept 8.0 ± 0.5 and 4.5 ± 0.3 h during control and partial sleep deprivation periods, respectively (P < 0.01). Compared with control, sleep deprivation caused significant increase in sympathetic activity as evidenced by increase in percent low-frequency (50 ± 15 vs. 59 ± 8) and a decrease in percent high-frequency (50 ± 10 vs. 41 ± 8) components of HRV, increase in low-frequency band of BPV, and increase in serum norepinephrine (119 ± 46 vs. 162 ± 58 ng/ml), as well as a reduction in maximum endothelial dependent venodilatation (100 ± 22 vs. 41 ± 20%; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In conclusion, 5 nights of partial sleep deprivation is sufficient to cause significant increase in sympathetic activity and venous endothelial dysfunction. These results may help to explain the association between short sleep and increased cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies.
van den Elzen, B D J; Tytgat, G N J; Boeckxstaens, G E E
Distal oesophageal acid exposure has been shown to increase visceral sensitivity of the proximal oesophagus via central sensitization. Here we evaluated whether acidification of the distal oesophagus also affects the sensorimotor function of the proximal stomach. A gastric barostat study combined with a 30-min acid (HCl 0.15 mol L(-1)) or saline infusion in the distal oesophagus was performed in 18 healthy volunteers. Gastric and cutaneous sensitivity was assessed before and up to 2 h after the start of infusion. Directly after acid infusion, but not after saline, the threshold for discomfort decreased (-6.4 +/- 1.7 vs 0.4 +/- 0.4 mmHg; P = 0.028) and distension-induced symptoms increased significantly compared with the baseline (122 +/- 49% vs -3 +/- 9%). Cutaneous sensitivity remained unaffected by acid infusion. In contrast, when the infused liquid was aspirated 3 cm more distally, at the level of the lower oesophageal sphincter, the effect of acid infusion on gastric sensitivity was abolished and the increase in distension-induced symptoms was reduced (61 +/- 24%). Distal oesophageal acid infusion induces visceral hypersensitivity without affecting somatic sensitivity arguing against a similar mechanism of central sensitization as observed in non-cardiac chest pain. As reduction of the acid load to the stomach prevented this effect, our findings indicate that either gastric and/or duodenal acidification is involved. It should be emphasized though that aspiration from distal oesophagus may have attenuated the effect by reducing the acid-exposed area or by reducing the contact time.
Khaliq, Yasmin; Gallicano, Keith; Tisdale, Christine; Carignan, Germain; Cooper, Curtis; McCarthy, Anne
Aims To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between ritonavir and mefloquine. Methods Healthy volunteers participated in two separate, nonfasted, three-treatment, three-period, longitudinal pharmacokinetic studies. Study 1 (12 completed): ritonavir 200 mg twice daily for 7 days, 7 day washout, mefloquine 250 mg once daily for 3 days then once weekly for 4 weeks, ritonavir restarted for 7 days simultaneously with the last mefloquine dose. Study 2 (11 completed): ritonavir 200 mg single dose, mefloquine 250 mg once daily for 3 days then once weekly for 2 weeks, ritonavir single dose repeated 2 days after the last mefloquine dose. Erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) was administered with and without drug treatments in study 2. Results Study 1: Ritonavir caused less than 7% changes with high precision (90% CIs: −12% to 11%) in overall plasma exposure (AUC(0,168 h)) and peak concentration (Cmax) of mefloquine, its two enantiomers, and carboxylic acid metabolite, and in the metabolite/mefloquine and enantiomeric AUC ratios. Mefloquine significantly decreased steady-state ritonavir plasma AUC(0,12 h) by 31%, Cmax by 36%, and predose levels by 43%, and did not affect ritonavir binding to plasma proteins. Study 2: Mefloquine did not alter single-dose ritonavir pharmacokinetics. Less than 8% changes in AUC and Cmax were observed with high variability (90%CIs: −26% to 45%). Mefloquine had no effect on the ERMBT whereas ritonavir decreased activity by 98%. Conclusions Ritonavir minimally affected mefloquine pharmacokinetics despite strong inhibition of CYP3A4 activity from a single 200 mg dose. Mefloquine had variable effects on ritonavir pharmacokinetics that were not explained by hepatic CYP3A4 activity or ritonavir protein binding. PMID:11422019
Toth, A; Sandor, B; Papp, J; Rabai, M; Botor, D; Horvath, Zs; Kenyeres, P; Juricskay, I; Toth, K; Czopf, L
Pieces of epidemiological evidence have supported that moderate red wine consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases (French-paradox). Our previous in vitro experiment has demonstrated favourable hemorheological effects of red wine, alcohol-free red wine extract and ethanol. Thirty-nine healthy, non-smoking male volunteers between 18-40 years were assigned into two groups: control group had drunk water, while red wine group had consumed 2 dl of red wine each day at dinner for 3 weeks. No alcohol had been drunk for one week prior to the study. Blood was obtained in the morning of the first and last day. Hematocrit (Hct), plasma (PV) and whole blood viscosity (WBV) (Hevimet 40 capillary viscometer), red blood cell (RBC) aggregation (Myrenne and LORCA aggregometer) and deformability (LORCA ektacytometer) were measured and Hct/WBV ratio was calculated to determine oxygen carrying capacity. Hct was adjusted to 40%. Hct and PV were not affected. WBV remained unchanged in controls, but it considerably decreased in the red wine group compared to the 3-week control group, while Hct/WBV ratio became significantly higher in the red wine group compared to the control (p < 0.05). RBC aggregation significantly decreased in the red wine group and became significantly lower compared to the 3-week controls (p < 0.05). Red wine significantly increased RBC deformability (p < 0.05) at high shear stress. Our results show that moderate red wine consumption has beneficial effects on hemorheological parameters which may contribute to the French-paradox.
Weiner, Marc; Egelund, Eric F.; Engle, Melissa; Kiser, Melissa; Prihoda, Thomas J.; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Mac Kenzie, William; Peloquin, Charles A.
Objectives Latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease are prevalent worldwide. However, antimycobacterial rifamycins have drug interactions with many antiretroviral drugs. We evaluated the effect of rifapentine on the pharmacokinetic properties of raltegravir. Methods In this open-label, fixed-sequence, three-period study, 21 healthy volunteers were given: raltegravir alone (400 mg every 12 h for 4 days) on days 1–4 of Period 1; rifapentine (900 mg once weekly for 3 weeks) on days 1, 8 and 15 of Period 2 and raltegravir (400 mg every 12 h for 4 days) on days 12–15 of Period 2; and rifapentine (600 mg once daily for 10 scheduled doses) on days 1, 4–8 and 11–14 of Period 3 and raltegravir (400 mg every 12 h for 4 days) on days 11–14 of Period 3. Plasma raltegravir concentrations were measured. ClinicalTrials.gov database: NCT00809718. Results In 16 subjects who completed the study, coadministration of raltegravir with rifapentine (900 mg once weekly; Period 2) compared with raltegravir alone resulted in the geometric mean of the raltegravir AUC from 0 to 12 h (AUC0–12) being increased by 71%; the peak concentration increased by 89% and the trough concentration decreased by 12%. Coadministration of raltegravir with rifapentine in Period 3 did not change the geometric mean of the raltegravir AUC0–12 or the peak concentration, but it decreased the trough concentration by 41%. Raltegravir coadministered with rifapentine was generally well tolerated. Conclusions The increased raltegravir exposure observed with once-weekly rifapentine was safe and tolerable. Once-weekly rifapentine can be used with raltegravir to treat latent tuberculosis infection in patients who are infected with HIV. PMID:24343893
Carver, P L; Berardi, R R; Knapp, M J; Rider, J M; Kauffman, C A; Bradley, S F; Atassi, M
Absorption of ketoconazole is impaired in subjects with an increased gastric pH due to administration of antacids, H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, or the presence of hypochlorhydria. Sucralfate could provide an attractive alternative in patients receiving ketoconazole who require therapy for acid-peptic disorders. Twelve healthy human volunteers were administered a single 400-mg oral dose of ketoconazole in each of three randomized treatment phases. In phase A, ketoconazole was administered orally with 240 ml of water. In phase B, ketoconazole and sucralfate (1.0 g) were administered simultaneously with 240 ml of water. In phase C, ketoconazole was administered with 240 ml of water 2 h after administration of sucralfate (1.0 g) orally with 240 ml of water. A 680-mg oral dose of glutamic acid hydrochloride was administered 10 min prior to and with each dose of ketoconazole, sucralfate, or ketoconazole plus sucralfate. Simultaneous administration of ketoconazole and sucralfate led to a significant reduction in the area under the concentration-time curve and maximal concentration of ketoconazole in serum (78.12 +/- 12.20 versus 59.32 +/- 13.61 micrograms.h/ml and 12.34 +/- 3.07 versus 8.92 +/- 2.57 micrograms/ml, respectively; P < 0.05). When ketoconazole was administered 2 h after sucralfate, the observed ketoconazole area under the concentration-time curve was not significantly decreased compared with that of ketoconazole alone. The time to maximal concentrations in serum and the ketoconazole elimination rate constant were not significantly different in any of the three treatment phases. In patients receiving concurrent administration of ketoconazole and sucralfate, doses should be separated by at least 2 h. PMID:7910724
Dani, Krishna A; Moreton, Fiona C; Santosh, Celestine; Lopez, Rosario; Brennan, David; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Goutcher, Colin; O'Hare, Kevin; Macrae, I Mhairi; Muir, Keith W
Oxygen challenge imaging involves transient hyperoxia applied during deoxyhaemoglobin sensitive (T2*-weighted) magnetic resonance imaging and has the potential to detect changes in brain oxygen extraction. In order to develop optimal practical protocols for oxygen challenge imaging, we investigated the influence of oxygen concentration, cerebral blood flow change, pattern of oxygen administration and field strength on T2*-weighted signal. Eight healthy volunteers underwent multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging including oxygen challenge imaging and arterial spin labelling using two oxygen concentrations (target FiO2 of 100 and 60%) administered consecutively (two-stage challenge) at both 1.5T and 3T. There was a greater signal increase in grey matter compared to white matter during oxygen challenge (p < 0.002 at 3T, P < 0.0001 at 1.5T) and at FiO2 = 100% compared to FiO2 = 60% in grey matter at both field strengths (p < 0.02) and in white matter at 3T only (p = 0.0314). Differences in the magnitude of signal change between 1.5T and 3T did not reach statistical significance. Reduction of T2*-weighted signal to below baseline, after hyperoxia withdrawal, confounded interpretation of two-stage oxygen challenge imaging. Reductions in cerebral blood flow did not obscure the T2*-weighted signal increases. In conclusion, the optimal protocol for further study should utilise target FiO2 = 100% during a single oxygen challenge. Imaging at both 1.5T and 3T is clinically feasible.
Gupta, Samir; Banfield, Christopher; Kantesaria, Bhavna; Flannery, Brian; Herron, Jerry
The authors assessed the potential for a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interaction between desloratadine and fluoxetine. This randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label study was conducted in 54 healthy volunteers. Subjects received 1 of 3 treatments: desloratadine 5 mg plus fluoxetine 20 mg, desloratadine 5 mg plus placebo, or fluoxetine 20 mg plus placebo. Serial electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed at baseline and day 35. Treatment effects on C(max) and AUC were assessed. During coadministration of desloratadine with fluoxetine, the ratio of the mean log-transformed C(max) and AUC values for desloratadine following concomitant fluoxetine therapy revealed a small increase in C(max) values of 15% (90% confidence interval [CI], 95%-139%) but no increase for AUC values (90% CI, 82%-123%). Corresponding values for 3-OH desloratadine demonstrated small increases in mean log-transformed C(max) and AUC ratios: 17% (90% CI, 100%-136%) and 13% (90% CI, 96%-132%), respectively. Statistical evaluation of the ratio of the mean C(max) and AUC values for fluoxetine following concomitant desloratadine therapy revealed small decreases of 9% (90% CI, 72%-115%) and 11% (90% CI, 69%-113%), respectively. Corresponding values for norfluoxetine demonstrated modest increases in mean log-transformed C(max) and AUC ratios: 22% (90% CI, 100%-139%) and 18% (90% CI, 101%-136%), respectively. Coadministration of desloratadine with a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6 did not result in clinically relevant changes in its pharmacokinetic parameters. Desloratadine administration was not associated with clinically important changes in the pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine, a drug metabolized by CYP2D6. The most common adverse event in all groups was headache (65%). Desloratadine plus fluoxetine caused no significant changes in ECGs or ventricular rate.
Komatsu, Ryu; Sengupta, Papiya; Cherynak, Grigory; Wadhwa, Anupama; Sessler, Daniel I.; Liu, Jin; Hurst, Harrell E.; Lenhardt, Rainer
We determined the effects of doxapram on the major autonomic thermoregulatory responses in humans. Nine healthy volunteers were studied on two days: Control and Doxapram (intravenous infusion to a plasma concentration of 2.4 ±0.8 μg/mL, 2.5 ±0.9 μg/mL, and 2.6 ±1.1 μg/mL at the sweating, vasoconstriction, and shivering thresholds, respectively). Each day, skin and core temperatures were increased to provoke sweating, then reduced to elicit peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering. We determined the sweating, vasoconstriction, and shivering thresholds with compensation for changes in skin temperature. Data were analyzed with paired t tests and presented as means ± SDs; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Doxapram did not change the sweating (Control: 37.5±0.4°C, Doxapram: 37.3±0.4°C, P=0.290) or the vasoconstriction threshold (36.8±0.7 vs. 36.4±0.5°C; P=0.110). However, it significantly reduced the shivering threshold from 36.2±0.5 to 35.7±0.7°C (P=0.012). No sedation or symptoms of panic were observed on either study day. The observed reduction in the shivering threshold explains the drug's efficacy for treatment of postoperative shivering; however, a reduction of only 0.5°C is unlikely to markedly facilitate induction of therapeutic hypothermia as a sole agent. PMID:16243996
Mosci, Camila; Kumar, Meena; Smolarz, Kamilla; Koglin, Norman; Stephens, Andrew W; Schwaiger, Markus; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Mittra, Erik S
Purpose To evaluate the normal biodistribution and kinetics of (S)-4-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-l-glutamic acid ((18)F FSPG) in healthy volunteers and to compare (18)F FSPG mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax, respectively) with those of (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) across a variety of organs. Materials and Methods This protocol was reviewed and approved by all appropriate regulatory authorities. An 8-mCi (±10%) dose of (18)F FSPG was given to five subjects (three women, two men), and seven whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 150, and 240 minutes after injection. Regions of interest were analyzed on the resultant (18)F FSPG images to evaluate the kinetics of this radiotracer. The images obtained 45 minutes after injection were used to measure SUVmean and SUVmax in additional regions of the body. These values were compared with similar values obtained with (18)F FDG PET published previously. Descriptive statistics, including average and standard deviation across the five subjects, were used. (18)F FSPG SUVmean and SUVmax were compared. Results On the (18)F FSPG images obtained 45 minutes after injection, there was only low-grade background activity in the majority of analyzed regions. Prominent activity was seen throughout the pancreas. Clearance of the radiotracer through the kidneys and collection in the bladder also were seen. SUV quantification shows notable differences between (18)F FSPG and (18)F FDG in the pancreas ((18)F FSPG SUVmean, 8.2; (18)F FDG SUVmean, 1.3), stomach ((18)F FSPG SUVmax, 3.6; (18)F FDG SUVmax, 1.6), and brain ((18)F FSPG SUVmean, 0.08; (18)F FDG SUVmean, 7.8). The kinetic data showed rapid clearance of the radiotracer from the blood pool and most organs, except the pancreas. Conclusion (18)F FSPG is a PET radiopharmaceutical characterized by rapid clearance from most healthy tissues, except the pancreas and kidneys. A consistent biodistribution pattern was
Tawbi, Hussein A; Tran, An L; Christner, Susan M; Lin, Yan; Johnson, Matthew; Mowrey, Emily; Appleman, Leonard R; Stoller, Ronald; Miller, Brian M; Egorin, Merrill J; Beumer, Jan H
Gastric upset is a common side effect of nilotinib therapy, and calcium carbonate is frequently used concomitantly, either as antacid or as calcium supplementation. With the increasing number of oral agents in cancer therapy, oral drug-drug interactions are becoming more relevant. Nilotinib has already been shown to be absorbed to a much lesser extent when co-administered with proton pump inhibitors. Because exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of anticancer drugs such as nilotinib may result in selection of resistant clones and ultimately relapse, we studied the effect of a calcium carbonate supplement (Tums Ultra 1000®) on nilotinib pharmacokinetics. Calcium carbonate may be co-administered with nilotinib without significantly affecting the pharmacokinetics of nilotinib and potentially impacting efficacy. Nilotinib is a second-generation oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with superior efficacy compared with imatinib mesylate in the treatment for chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Calcium carbonate is commonly used as a source of calcium supplementation or as antacid to ameliorate the gastrointestinal side effects associated with nilotinib, which could have unknown effects on nilotinib absorption. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the effect of calcium carbonate on the PK of nilotinib in healthy volunteers. Healthy subjects were enrolled in a two-period, open-label, single-institution, randomized, cross-over, fixed-schedule study. In one period, each subject received 400 mg of nilotinib p.o. In the other period, 4,000 mg of calcium carbonate (4 X Tums Ultra 1000®) was administered p.o. 15 min prior to the nilotinib dose. Plasma samples were collected at specified timepoints, concentrations of nilotinib were quantitated by LC-MS, and data were analyzed non-compartmentally. Eleven subjects were evaluable. Calcium supplementation did not significantly affect nilotinib pharmacokinetic parameters including area under the plasma
Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong
To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice.
Zhang, Juanling; Zhu, Junbo; Yao, Xingchen; Duan, Yabin; Zhou, Xuejiao; Yang, Meng; Li, Xiangyang
To investigate the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in Chinese Han volunteers living at low altitude (LA) and in native Han and Tibetan Chinese volunteers living at high altitude, lidocaine hydrochloride 10 mg was given by intramuscular injection to 3 groups: Han volunteers living at LA, and native Han and Tibetan volunteers living at a high altitude. Blood samples were collected before the (baseline) study drug was given and at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 h after study drug administration. Lidocaine hydrochloride in plasma was determined by RP-HPLC. Pharmacokinetics parameters of lidocaine hydrochloride showed that there were no significant difference between the native Han and Tibetan volunteers, but the t(1/2) was 29.8 and 29.8% higher in 2 groups, respectively, than in the LA group. To study related mechanism, the effects of exposure to chronic high-altitude hypoxia (CHH) on the activity and expression of CYP3A1 were examined in rats. Rats were divided into LA, chronic moderate altitude hypoxia, and CHH groups. CHH caused significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of rat CYP3A1 in vivo. This study found significant changes in the disposition of lidocaine hydrochloride in native healthy Tibetan and Han Chinese subjects living at a high altitude in comparison to healthy Han Chinese subjects living at LA, it might be due to significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A4 under CHH condition.
de Lastours, Victoire; Maugy, Elena; Mathy, Vincent; Chau, Françoise; Rossi, Benjamin; Guérin, François; Cattoir, Vincent; Fantin, Bruno
The ecological impact of ciprofloxacin on commensal enterococci is unknown. Forty-eight healthy volunteers received ciprofloxacin from day (D) 0 to D14; stools were collected on D7, D14 and D42. Fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant enterococci (FQ-SE and FQ-RE) were detected and quantified by culture, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The relative abundance of FQ-RE over FQ-SE was determined. The genetic basis of fluoroquinolone resistance was deciphered by partial sequencing of gyrA and parC genes. Clonal relatedness was determined by random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR. Clinical trial no.: NCT00190151. Enterococci were carried by 47/48 (98%) subjects. Total counts were reduced during ciprofloxacin therapy (4.0 and 3.9 log cfu/g on D7 and D14 versus 5.9 log cfu/g before and 6.9 log cfu/g after treatment; P < 0.05). Twenty-one out of 48 (44%) carried FQ-RE; among them, 21/21 carried Enterococcus faecium , 19 carried Enterococcus faecalis and 11 carried other species. Five out of 48 (10%) harboured FQ-RE (ciprofloxacin MIC >4 mg/L) before treatment (all E. faecium ), 6 on D7 (3 E. faecium and 3 E. faecalis ), 8 on D14 (4 E. faecium and 4 E. faecalis ) and 10 (21%) on D42 (9 E. faecium and 1 E. faecalis ). The relative abundance of FQ-RE increased from 44% on D0 to 73% and 75% on D7 and D14, respectively. No acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance among endogenous D0 strains was evidenced. All (14/14) distinct Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. faecalis clones were gyrA / parC double mutants with high-level resistance (ciprofloxacin MIC >64 mg/L). In contrast, 34/35 E. faecium exhibited low-level resistance (ciprofloxacin MIC 4-32 mg/L) with no gyrA / parC mutation, but overexpressed the chromosomal Efm qnr gene. As compared with Fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains, Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. faecium were more frequently ampicillin resistant and Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. faecalis were more highly resistant to gentamicin. Although
Head, A; Maxwell, S; Kendall, M J
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that beta 1 selective agents have fewer adverse effects on exercise metabolism than nonselective beta blockers, and this has been attributed to their reduced blockade of beta 2 receptors. This study aimed at determining whether a beta blocker with partial agonist activity at beta 1 and beta 2 receptors (celiprolol) was better than a conventional beta 1 receptor-blocker (atenolol) in prolonging exercise capabilities. METHODS: After four days of treatment with celiprolol 200 mg, atenolol 50 mg, or placebo, 22 healthy volunteers exercised on a treadmill for two hours at 50% of their maximal oxygen uptake. Resting heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and after exercise. During exercise, fat oxidation, plasma free fatty acids, glycerol, glucose, and ammonia were measured together with heart rate and perceived exertion. RESULTS: Mean exercising heart rate was significantly lower in those taking either of the beta blockers than in those taking placebo, and significantly lower for those taking atenolol rather than celiprolol. Fat oxidation was significantly lower for those taking celiprolol (38.8 (SD 12.2)%, P < 0.01) and atenolol (36.6 (15.9)%, P < 0.01) compared with placebo (45.6 (14.1)%). For the first 15 minutes of exercise, fat oxidation was significantly lower for those taking atenolol (24.6 (12.8)%, P < 0.01) than celiprolol (29.6 (14.3)%). The rise in plasma free fatty acids and glycerol during exercise was also significantly attenuated by both beta blockers in comparison with the rise in those taking placebo (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Both celiprolol and atenolol reduced fat oxidation compared with placebo. For the first 15 minutes of exercise fat oxidation was preserved by celiprolol, but not atenolol. This preservation of fat oxidation during the early part of exercise may confer some small benefit to patients who take beta blockers and intend to exercise regularly. However, we did not detect significant
We tested the hypothesis that exposure of healthy volunteers to concentrated ambient particles (CAPS) is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells into the lower respiratory tract. Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed to either filtered air or particles concentrated fro...
Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...
Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...
Qu, Fen; Cui, Enbo; Guo, Tongsheng; Li, Haijing; Chen, Suming; Liu, Liming; Han, Wang; Bao, Chunmei; Mao, Yuanli; Tang, Yi-Wei
Military facilities provide unique opportunities for studying Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and transmission patterns. In this cross-sectional observational study, we assessed the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization among Chinese military volunteers in two camps in the Beijing area. Antimicrobial resistance patterns, risk factors for colonization, and transmission patterns using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were also evaluated. From May to July 2007, 1,044 nasal swabs were collected from military volunteers from suburban (560) and urban (484) camps. A total of 209 S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which all were methicillin susceptible. Independent factors associated with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) nasal colonization included younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.03 to 2.21, P = 0.0347), higher education (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.73, P = 0.0056), shorter length of service (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.36, P = 0.0004), nonsmoking (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.14 to 2.28, P = 0.0069), and inactive participation in social events (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.25 to 5.49, P = 0.0082). Among 209 MSSA isolates, 126 (60.3%) were determined to be epidemic and a total of 12 genotypes were identified, of which four (90 isolates [71.4%]) represented the majority of strains. Length of service and camp location were statistically related to the four major MSSA genotype clonal transmissions. Our data indicated that MSSA, not methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), nasal colonization and clonal transmission occur in healthy military volunteers in Beijing. Younger, female, nonsmoking volunteers with higher education, little or no participation in social events, and less time in service are at higher risk for nasal MSSA carriage.
Qiu, Furong; Wang, Guangji; Zhao, Yanan; Sun, Hua; Mao, Guoguang; A, Jiyi; Sun, Jian
Aims To examine the potential effect of danshen extract on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Methods In a sequential cross-over study with two phases, 12 volunteers took 100 mg theophylline on day 1 and day 15. From day 2 to day 15, volunteers received danshen extract tablets three times daily, four tablets each time for 14 days. On day 15, they received four danshen extract tablets with 100 mg theophylline. Plasma concentrations of theophylline were measured on days 1 and 15 periodically for 24 h. Results The 90% confidence interval of Cmax, t1/2 and CL/F of theophylline with 14-day danshen extract tablets vs. without comedication were (101.42, 121.36) (84.57, 106.72) and (88.82, 105.72), respectively. The time to peak plasma theophylline concentration was unchanged by danshen (P > 0.05). The pharmacokinetics parameter of theophylline was unaffected by danshen extract. Conclusions Danshen extract does not influence the metabolism of theophylline in healthy volunteers. Dose adjustment of theophylline thus may not be necessary in patients receiving concurrent therapy with danshen extract tablets. What is already known about this subject Danshen extract is widely used for the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease and other diseases of senility in Asia.Danshen extract and theophylline may be prescribed together to treat patients with asthma.In human, theophylline with low therapeutic index is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2.In vitro findings have shown that human CYP1A2 is inhibited by the ethyl acetate extract of danshen and danshen pharmaceutical product.There may be drug interactions between danshen extract and theophylline (CYP1A2 substrate). What this study adds This study concerned drug interactions between danshen extract and theophylline in Chinese volunteers.Long-term oral intake of danshen extract does not change the basic pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline.Dose adjustment of theophylline thus may not be necessary in patients receiving
Wong, Lok Ping; Chui, Wing Hong; Kwok, Yan Yuen
Using a Hong Kong-sourced sample of 261 participants, this study set out to validate the Volunteer Satisfaction Index (VSI) in the Chinese cultural context and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The VSI was originally developed by Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley (2001) to measure the outcomes of volunteer experiences. In this study, exploratory…
Wong, Lok Ping; Chui, Wing Hong; Kwok, Yan Yuen
Using a Hong Kong-sourced sample of 261 participants, this study set out to validate the Volunteer Satisfaction Index (VSI) in the Chinese cultural context and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The VSI was originally developed by Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley (2001) to measure the outcomes of volunteer experiences. In this study, exploratory…
Grady, Christine; Bedarida, Gabriella; Sinaii, Ninet; Gregorio, Mark Anthony; Emanuel, Ezekiel J
Phase 1 trials with healthy volunteers are an integral step in drug development. Commentators worry about the possible exploitation of healthy volunteers because they are assumed to be disadvantaged, marginalized, and inappropriately influenced by the offer of money for research for which they do not appreciate the inherent risks. Yet there are limited data to support or refute these concerns. This study aims to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, motivations, and enrollment decision-making of a large cohort of healthy volunteers. We used a cross-sectional anonymous survey of 1194 healthy volunteers considering enrollment in phase 1 studies at Pfizer Clinical Research Units in New Haven, CT; Brussels, Belgium; and Singapore. Descriptive statistics describe motivations and socio-demographic characteristics. Comparisons between groups were examined. The majority rated consideration of risks as more important to their enrollment decision than the amount of money, despite reporting that their primary motivation was financial. Risk, time, money, the competence and friendliness of research staff, and contributing to medical research were important factors influencing enrollment decisions for most participants. The majority of healthy volunteers in this cohort were male, single, reported higher than high school education, and 70% had previous research experience. Many reported low annual incomes (50% below USD$25,000) and high rates of unemployment (33% overall). Nonetheless, risk as an important consideration, money, and other reported considerations and motivations, except for time, did not vary by income, employment, education, or previous experience. There were regional differences in both socio-demographic characteristics and factors important to participation decisions. Healthy volunteers in phase 1 studies consider risks as more important to their enrollment decisions than the amount of money offered, although most are motivated to participate by the
Yeager, Robert J.
Aimed specifically at Catholic institutions, this booklet provides guidelines for recruiting and using volunteers in organizational development efforts. The booklet discusses 21 ideas of interest to those who use volunteers in their programs. Topics covered in these 21 short sections are the following: history of volunteerism in America,…
Tomlin, J; Lowis, C; Read, N W
Flatulence can cause discomfort and distress but there are few published data of normal patterns and volumes. Twenty four hour collections were made using a rectal catheter in 10 normal volunteers taking their normal diet plus 200 g baked beans. Total daily volume ranged from 476 to 1491 ml (median 705 ml). Women and men (both n = 5) expelled equivalent amounts. The median daily flatus hydrogen volume was 361 ml/24 h (range 42-1060) and the carbon dioxide volume 68 ml/24 h (range 25-116), three volunteers produced methane (3, 26, and 120 ml/24 h), and the remaining unidentified gas (presumably nitrogen) or gases contributed a median 213 ml/24 h (range 61-476). Larger volumes of flatus were produced after meals than at other times. Flatus produced at a faster rate tended to contain more fermentation gases. Flatus was produced during the sleeping period, but the rate was significantly lower than the daytime rate (median 16 and 34 ml/h respectively). Ingestion of a 'fibre free' diet (Fortisip) for 48 hours significantly reduced the total volume collected in 24 hours (median 214 ml/24 h), reduced the carbon dioxide volume (median 6 ml/24 h), and practically eradicated hydrogen production. The volume of unidentified gas was not significantly affected (median 207 ml/24 h). Thus fermentation gases make the highest contribution to normal flatus volume. A 'fibre free' diet eliminates these without changing residual gas release of around 200 ml/24 h. PMID:1648028
Tranter, Elizabeth; Peters, Gary; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve
Many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been studied in healthy volunteers in phase 1, but few data have been published on the safety of that practice. We aimed to review the available data, and thereby to estimate the risks of participation in phase 1 trials of MAbs. We searched PubMed, the ClinicalTrials.gov database and Google, using the search terms ‘monoclonal antibody’, ‘phase 1’ and ‘healthy volunteers’. We identified 70 completed trials of MAbs in healthy volunteers, but the published data were too sparse to allow confident assessment of the risks of MAbs in healthy volunteers. Our best estimate of risk of a life-threatening adverse event was between 1 : 425 and 1 : 1700 volunteer-trials, but all such events occurred in a single trial (of TGN1412). In a phase 1 trial of a small molecule, the risk of death or a life-threatening adverse event appears to be 1 : 100 000–1 000 000 volunteer-trials, which is similar to the risk of many ordinary daily activities. Most people would consider that level of risk to be ‘minimal’ or ‘negligible’ and, therefore, acceptable. On that basis, the safety record of MAbs in healthy volunteers has been ruined by the TGN1412 disaster. However, that experience is unlikely to be repeated, because of improvements in governance and practice of phase 1 trials. If the experience of TGN1412 is disregarded, it seems reasonable to continue using healthy volunteers in phase 1 trials of MAbs, provided that there are scientific and medical reasons to conclude that the risk is truly minimal. PMID:23438102
Ardekani, Babak A; Tabesh, Ali; Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G; Bilder, Robert M; Szeszko, Philip R
The objective of this research was to determine whether fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain are able to reliably differentiate patients with schizophrenia from healthy volunteers. DTI and high resolution structural magnetic resonance scans were acquired in 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FA and MD maps were estimated from the DTI data and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurologic Institute standard stereotactic space. Individuals were divided randomly into two groups of 50, a training set, and a test set, each comprising 25 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. A pattern classifier was designed using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on the training set of images to categorize individuals in the test set as either patients or healthy volunteers. Using the FA maps, the classifier correctly identified 94% of the cases in the test set (96% sensitivity and 92% specificity). The classifier achieved 98% accuracy (96% sensitivity and 100% specificity) when using the MD maps as inputs to distinguish schizophrenia patients from healthy volunteers in the test dataset. Utilizing FA and MD data in combination did not significantly alter the accuracy (96% sensitivity and specificity). Patterns of water self-diffusion in the brain as estimated by DTI can be used in conjunction with automated pattern recognition algorithms to reliably distinguish between patients with schizophrenia and normal control subjects.
Ardekani, Babak A.; Tabesh, Ali; Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Bilder, Robert M.; Szeszko, Philip R.
The objective of this research was to determine whether fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain are able to reliably differentiate patients with schizophrenia from healthy volunteers. DTI and high resolution structural magnetic resonance scans were acquired in 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FA and MD maps were estimated from the DTI data and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurologic Institute standard stereotactic space. Individuals were divided randomly into two groups of 50, a training set and a test set, each comprising 25 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. A pattern classifier was designed using Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis based on the training set of images to categorize individuals in the test set as either patients or healthy volunteers. Using the FA maps the classifier correctly identified 94% of the cases in the test set (96% sensitivity and 92% specificity). The classifier achieved 98% accuracy (96% sensitivity and 100% specificity) when using the MD maps as inputs to distinguish schizophrenia patients from healthy volunteers in the test dataset. Utilizing FA and MD data in combination did not significantly alter the accuracy (96% sensitivity and specificity). Patterns of water self-diffusion in the brain as estimated by DTI can be used in conjunction with automated pattern recognition algorithms to reliably distinguish between patients with schizophrenia and normal control subjects. PMID:20205252
Mondal, U; Ganesan, M; Pal, T K; Jayakumar, M; Chattaraj, T K; Roy, Krishnangshu; Banerjee, S N
The newly developed proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole sodium is expected to have beneficial effects in the treatment of peptic ulcer. The pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), AUC(o-t), t(max)) of this drug have been evaluated to compare the single dose (20 mg) bioavailability of rabeprazole sodium with the standard reference. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV detector set at 280 nm has been used to determine plasma concentration of 12 human volunteers as per Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) guidelines. The method has been validated over a linear range of 20-480 ng/ml from plasma. The minimum quantifiable concentration was set at 10 ng/ml [co-efficient of variance (CV) < 10%]. By comparing AUC(o-t) the relative bioavailability of test preparation has been found to be 100.88% of that of reference preparation.
Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L
Based on the responses of 5,946 adolescents (mean age = 14.77), the relationships among family influence, adolescents' volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior in a Chinese context were examined. A 9-item Chinese Family Influence on Adolescent Volunteerism Scale (C-FIAV) was used to measure nine kinds of influence of the family (such as family support) which could be subsumed under two underlying domains (positive family influence and extrinsic family influence). Results showed that family support, family belief, and family modeling were positively associated with both intention and behavior. Family reward and coercion were negatively associated with both intention and behavior. Family belief in volunteerism was the most critical factor. Grade and gender differences were found only in the associations between family influence and volunteering intention. Path models showed that positive and extrinsic family influence had an effect on volunteering behavior directly or via the mediation of volunteering intention. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Tarrus, E; Cami, J; Roberts, D J; Spickett, R G; Celdran, E; Segura, J
The pharmacokinetics and tolerance of repeated oral doses of furafylline were investigated in normal volunteers. In accord with predictions from single dose studies, steady state was achieved on the first day following the administration of 90 mg and maintained by subsequent daily doses of 30 mg. When corrected for body weight there were no significant differences in minimum and maximum plateau levels of furafylline between males (1.2-2.0 micrograms ml-1; mean body weight 67.2 kg) and females (1.6-2.6 micrograms ml-1; mean body weight 54.9 kg). The half-life of elimination was less when the plasma concentration was lower than 600 ng ml-1 than during the stationary phase of treatment. Despite constant plasma levels the repeated administration of furafylline appeared to be associated with the onset of adverse xanthine-like side effects, a finding which was subsequently traced to the presence of, and possible synergism with, accumulating serum levels of caffeine in those volunteers drinking caffeine containing beverages. Subsequent studies showed that a single dose (90 mg) of furafylline results in a rapid accumulation of caffeine given orally (100 mg twice daily) and that this is accompanied by an elimination half-life of some 50 h and an abrupt decrease in metabolite levels. The furafylline-induced accumulation of caffeine was not influenced by the smoking habits of the subjects, implying that the metabolite pathway blocked by furafylline is the demethylation of caffeine in position 3, an implication confirmed by the reduced formation of paraxanthine. This demonstration of an unacceptable level of adverse side effects resulting from a potent inhibiting effect of furafylline on the metabolism of a normal dietary constituent has obvious implications in the interpretation of drug-induced toxicity. PMID:3814465
Wang, Liqing; Hu, Zheyi; Deng, Xun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongyi; Cheng, Ze-Neng
This study was designed to investigate the impact of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 polymorphisms on theophylline metabolism in a non-smoking healthy male Chinese population. Four polymorphisms CYP1A2 1C (G-3860A), G-3113A, CYP1A2 1F (C-163A) and CYP1A2 1B (C-5347T) were screened in 238 unrelated male volunteers. Then, a single oral 200-mg dose of theophylline was administered to 37 volunteers, who were selected from 238 volunteers based on the CYP1A2 genotype. CYP1A2 activities were evaluated by plasma 1,7-dimethylxanthine/caffeine ratios (17X/137X) after administration of 100-mg caffeine. The plasma concentrations of theophylline, 17X and 137X were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity of CYP1A2 was lower in volunteers with the -3113 AA genotype compared with those with the -3113 AG genotype (0.35 ± 0.04 versus 0.48 ± 0.07, p = 0.016) or the -3113 GG genotype (0.35 ± 0.04 versus 0.58 ± 0.22, p = 0.037). CYP1A2 1F polymorphisms were associated with increased CYP1A2 activity in volunteers with -3860G/-3113G/5347C homozygosity (0.66 ± 0.24 versus 0.46 ± 0.05, p = 0.034). However, theophylline metabolism showed no difference among volunteers carrying different haplotype pairs. CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms influenced CYP1A2 enzyme activity as measured by caffeine, but CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms appeared to have limited influence on theophylline metabolism in our study. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.
Pullar, T; Haigh, J R; Peaker, S; Feely, M P
1. The single dose pharmacokinetics of N-desmethylclobazam (NDMC) and clobazam were studied in eight healthy male volunteers. 2. Steady-state pharmacokinetic data are described from four healthy male volunteers and eight epileptic patients taking NDMC. 3. A single 30 mg dose of NDMC produced a greater Cmax (P less than 0.001) and AUC0-infinity (P less than 0.005) and a shorter tmax (P less than 0.05) and t1/2 (P less than 0.01) for NDMC than did 30 mg clobazam. 4. Mean steady-state NDMC concentrations were greater in male patients than in female patients and also in male patients compared with male volunteers. The differences between patients and volunteers might be explained by concomitant antiepileptic medication. PMID:3440099
Silber, Hanna E; Frey, Nicolas; Karlsson, Mats O
The extension of the previously developed integrated models for glucose and insulin (IGI) to include the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy volunteers could be valuable to better understand the differences between healthy individuals and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data from an OGTT in 23 healthy volunteers were used. Analysis was based on the previously developed intravenous model with extensions for glucose absorption and incretin effect on insulin secretion. The need for additional structural components was evaluated. The model was evaluated by simulation and a bootstrap. Multiple glucose and insulin concentration peaks were observed in most individuals as well as hypoglycemic episodes in the second half of the experiment. The OGTT data were successfully described by the extended basic model. An additional control mechanism of insulin on glucose production improved the description of the data. The model showed good predictive properties, and parameters were estimated with good precision. In conclusion, a previously presented integrated model has been extended to describe glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy volunteers following an OGTT. The characterization of the differences between the healthy and diabetic stages in the IGI model could potentially be used to extrapolate drug effect from healthy volunteers to T2DM.
Larina, I M; Kochnova, E A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Rodchenkov, G M; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Nikolaev, E N
The quantitative determination a number of endogenous steroids and their metabolites in urine of healthy volunteers by means of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was performed. The dynamic of steroid profile of healthy individuals as well as possible ranges of several endogenous steroid parameters have been investigated. Samples were obtained during 105-days experiment with 6 volunteers in isolated on ground modules where were modeling the main life conditions which could influence the steroid profile: meal volume and composition, water consumption, motion activity, air composition and temperature, rate sleep - wakefulness and emotional tension. The parameters of urine steroid profile of healthy volunteer which were affected by life conditions in isolated object were revealed. The parameters of individual and group variability of steroid profile and its dependence from definite experiment conditions - change of salt consumption periods, autonomy of vital activity were detected.
Bramstedt, Katrina A
The Internet is frequently used as a tool to recruit research subjects, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides general guidance regarding such advertising. The goal of this study was to explore the incidence and nature of ethically inappropriate recruiting advertisements on the Internet and to provide descriptive guidance to researchers for responsible Internet recruiting. In this study, 119 advertisements recruiting health volunteers and listed on the CenterWatch Clinical Trials Listing Service website were reviewed for content as well as text style and visual effects. The majority of advertisements satisfied FDA guidance. However, 21 (18%) were ethically troubling with regard to font size, font style, and/or verbiage. In many advertisements, it was unclear if "medication" meant "investigational drug," "over-the-counter medication" or US FDA approved "prescription medication." Nearly 30% of the 119 advertisements used the terms "free," "no charge" or "no cost" as lures. Ethically problematic recruiting advertisements can be coercive and misleading. Descriptive guidance provided in this paper can help clinical researchers create ethically appropriate recruiting advertisements.
Torjman, Marc C; Machnicki, Robert; Lessin, Jennifer; Loeum, Channy; Steinberger, Douglas; Mycroft, Sarah; Joseph, Jeffrey I
Introduction of a wearable device for subcutaneous delivery of larger volume bolus injections would encourage patient compliance and reduce the burden on healthcare services. With one such wearable device commercially available, this study examined the safety and functionality of an investigational device in volunteers. Four devices were applied to the subject's abdomen: 1) Investigational Device, 2) Investigational Device: subject movement, 3) Control Device: FDA-cleared syringe driver with FDA-cleared infusion set, 4) Control Device: FDA-cleared syringe driver attached to investigational device. Three milliliters of saline were infused through the four devices over 3 minutes. 84 devices were applied to 21 subjects. Three milliliters of saline were safely delivered subcutaneously from the investigational and control devices. Two control devices had occlusions and in each case the pump reached its high pressure limit of 12 psi. VAS pain measurements showed minimal pain for all subjects. Pain scores were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than baseline at the end of injection: mean pain level ranged from 2.0-22.0 mm. The investigational device performed as intended with minimal pain during needle insertion and infusion, and no leaking of fluid at the skin puncture site. Two occlusions occurred with the control devices.
Bramstedt, Katrina A.
Objective: The Internet is frequently used as a tool to recruit research subjects, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides general guidance regarding such advertising. The goal of this study was to explore the incidence and nature of ethically inappropriate recruiting advertisements on the Internet and to provide descriptive guidance to researchers for responsible Internet recruiting. Methods: In this study, 119 advertisements recruiting health volunteers and listed on the CenterWatch Clinical Trials Listing Service website were reviewed for content as well as text style and visual effects. Results: The majority of advertisements satisfied FDA guidance. However, 21 (18%) were ethically troubling with regard to font size, font style, and/or verbiage. In many advertisements, it was unclear if “medication” meant “investigational drug,” “over-the-counter medication” or US FDA approved “prescription medication.” Nearly 30% of the 119 advertisements used the terms “free,” “no charge” or “no cost” as lures. Conclusion: Ethically problematic recruiting advertisements can be coercive and misleading. Descriptive guidance provided in this paper can help clinical researchers create ethically appropriate recruiting advertisements. PMID:17607043
Pereira, R; Fidelis, S; Vanunci, M L P; Oliveira, C H; Mendes, G D; Abib, E; Moreno, R A
To compare the bioavailability of a fluconazole 150 mg capsule formulation from Laboratório Teuto Brasileiro Ltd., Brazil (test formulation), and Zoltec 150 mg capsule from Laboratórios Pfizer Ltd., Brazil (reference formulation), in 24 volunteers of both sexes. The study was conducted open with randomized 2-period crossover design and a 2-week washout period. Plasma samples were obtained over a 168-hour interval. Fluconazole concentrations were analyzed by combined reversed-phase liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization using selected ion monitoring method. From the fluconazole plasma concentration vs. time curves the following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: AUC(last), AUC(0-inf) and C(max). Geometric mean of fluconazole/Zoltec 150 mg individual percent ratio was 102.6% for AUC(last), 102.2% for AUC(0-inf) and 109.4% for C(max). The 90% confidence intervals were 97.3-108.2%, 97.0-107.8%, and 103.1-116.0%, respectively. Since the 90% CI for both Cmax, AUC(last) and AUC(0-inf) were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, it was concluded that fluconazole 150 mg capsule was bioequivalent to Zoltec 150 mg, according to both the rate and extent of absorption.
Kjøgx, Heidi; Kasch, Helge; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene
Pain catastrophizing (PC) has been related to pain levels in both patients experiencing acute or chronic pain and in healthy volunteers exposed to experimental pain. Still, it is unclear whether high levels of pain catastrophizing lead to high levels of pain or vice versa. We therefore tested whether levels of pain catastrophizing could be increased and decreased in the same participant through hypnotic suggestions and whether the altered level of situation-specific pain catastrophizing was related to increased and decreased pain levels, respectively. Using the spontaneous pain of 22 patients with chronic tension-type headache and experimentally induced pain in 22 healthy volunteers, participants were tested in 3 randomized sessions where they received 3 types of hypnotic suggestions: Negative (based on the 13 items in the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), Positive (coping-oriented reversion of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and Neutral (neutral sentence) hypnotic suggestions. The hypnotic suggestions significantly increased and decreased situation-specific PC in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Also, the levels of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were significantly altered in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Furthermore, regression analyses showed that changes in pain catastrophizing predicted changes in pain in patients (R = 0.204-0.304; P < 0.045) and in healthy volunteers (R = 0.328-0.252; P < 0.018). This is the first study to successfully manipulate PC in positive and negative directions in both patients with chronic pain and healthy volunteers and to show that these manipulations significantly influence pain levels. These findings may have important theoretical and clinical implications.
Ni, Yaojun; Hou, Lili; Chen, Liang; Fan, Jiang
In this study, a modified LC-MS/MS method was used to determine plasma ambroxol concentration and thereby examine the bioequivalence of two ambroxol medications among healthy Chinese male volunteers. The study used a single-dose, randomized, open-label design principle and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters for the comparison of the two formulations. Administration of a single oral dose of either the test drug or reference drug was found to be safe in healthy subjects. No severe, serious, or life-threatening clinical or drug-related side effects were reported during the study. The majority of clinical laboratory test results were within the normal range or not clinically significant. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ambroxol oral tablets and ambroxol orally disintegrating tablets were comparable. For the comparison of the two formulations, the 90% confidence intervals for the log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf) fell within the bioequivalence< acceptance criteria (80-125%). The ambroxol oral tablets were bioequivalent to ambroxol orally-disintegrating tablets in healthy human adult male volunteers, under fasting conditions.
Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A.; Bies, Robert R.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Empey, Philip E.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Callaway, Clifton W.
The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4°C saline infusions and 4°C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37°C saline infusions and 37°C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4°C saline + magnesium and 4°C saline infusions were 35.4 ± 0.4 and 35.8 ± 0.3°C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1′-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4°C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37°C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5°C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted. PMID:20164112
Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A; Bies, Robert R; Rittenberger, Jon C; Empey, Philip E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Callaway, Clifton W; Poloyac, Samuel M
The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4 degrees C saline infusions and 4 degrees C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37 degrees C saline infusions and 37 degrees C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium and 4 degrees C saline infusions were 35.4 +/- 0.4 and 35.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1'-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37 degrees C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5 degrees C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted.
Soeki, Takeshi; Koshiba, Kunihiko; Niki, Toshiyuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Minakuchi, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka
Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide originally isolated from the stomach. Recently, we have shown that ghrelin suppresses cardiac sympathetic activity and prevents early left ventricular remodeling in rats with myocardial infarction. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ghrelin on autonomic nerve activity in healthy human subjects. An intravenous bolus of human synthetic ghrelin (10μg/kg) was administered to 10 healthy men (mean age, 33 years). Holter monitoring assessment was performed before and during 2h after the ghrelin therapy. The standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (rMSSD), high-frequency power (HF), and low-frequency power (LF) were analyzed. Blood samples were also obtained before and after the therapy. A single administration of ghrelin decreased both heart rate and blood pressure. Interestingly, ghrelin significantly decreased the LF and LF/HF ratio of heart rate variability and increased the SDNN, rMSSD, and HF. Ghrelin also elicited a marked increase in circulating GH, but not insulin-like growth factor-1. These data suggest that ghrelin might suppress cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and stimulate cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Panna; Srivastava, Divya; Rajesh Misra; Malik, V K; Trivedi, Vikas
Dry eye syndrome is currently seen with increasing frequency throughout the world including India. An evaluation of tear physiology in the form of tear secretion and tear film stability is the most important aspect of dry eye diagnosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the age and gender related changes in the result of these tear function tests (Schirmers Test and Tear Break up time) in normal Indian population. This cross- sectional observational study included 120 normal subjects (60 Male and 60 females) with no ocular symptoms or ocular surface disorders. Schirmer and tear film break-up time tests were assessed in both eyes of each subject. The study subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their ages (<20 y, 20-40 y, 41-60 y and >60 y) each group was composed of 60 eyes of 30 subjects (15 male and 15 female subjects). The One way ANOVA test and the Statagraphic software was used for statistical analysis. We detected a statistically significant decline in both the tear function tests with increasing age. Tear function tests did not show statistically significant difference according to sex. This study suggests that the age of subjects should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of tear function test results. It is also revealed that Indian population values are different from Caucasian and Chinese values. We propose age specific cut off values of tear function tests in Indian population to aid in the diagnosis of dry eye in Indian conditions.
Teng, Renli; Maya, Juan
Objective Ticagrelor is a direct-acting, reversibly-binding, oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It demonstrates predictable, linear pharmacokinetics. Two studies were undertaken to further elucidate the absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor and its regional absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Design and methods In two open-label, randomized, cross-over studies, 12 volunteers received a single dose of ticagrelor: oral 90 mg and 15 mg IV (Study 1); or 100 mg oral suspension vs 100 mg immediate release (IR) tablet (Study 2). After the initial cross-over period in Study 2, patients received 100 mg suspension delivered to specific sites in the GI tract using an Enterion capsule. In both studies, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were measured following administration of each formulation. Results The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% (95% confidence interval = 30–42%). Metabolite:parent ratios were higher after oral administration, compared with IV administration (maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 0.356 and 0.037; area under the plasma concentration-time curves [AUC] = 0.530 and 0.173, respectively). Following oral administration of the 100 mg IR tablet, the AUC and Cmax of ticagrelor were 78% and 58%, respectively, of those following oral administration of the 100 mg suspension. Exposure to ticagrelor decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: mean Cmax for ticagrelor was 91%, 68%, and 13% that for the oral suspension when released in the proximal small bowel, distal small bowel and ascending colon, respectively; mean AUCs were 89%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Conclusion The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% and the proportion of ticagrelor absorbed decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: the mean AUC for ticagrelor was 89% (proximal small bowel), 73% (distal small bowel), and 32% (ascending colon) that of the mean AUC for the orally
Farré, M; Lamas, X; Camí, J
1. Phase I clinical trials are usually carried out in healthy volunteers. In addition to economic gain, factors that may influence willingness to participate include scientific interest, curiosity and choice for risky activities. 2. We assessed the relationship between personality variables and volunteering for clinical pharmacology research. Two personality questionnaires, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS, form V) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), were administered to 48 male healthy university students who volunteered to participate in a phase I clinical trial and to 43 male university students who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials. General norm data were also used for the comparison of results. 3. When healthy volunteers were compared with unwilling subjects, significant differences were found in thrill-and-adventure seeking (7.9 vs 6.7, P = 0.0034), experience seeking (6.4 vs 5.2, P = 0.0012), disinhibition (6.2 vs 4.3, P < 0.0001), boredom susceptibility (3.9 vs 2.8, P = 0.0073), total sensation seeking trait (24.3 vs 19.0, P < 0.0001), extraversion (15.1 vs 13.3, P = 0.0490), and psychoticism (4.4 vs 3.5, P = 0.0086). When healthy volunteers were compared with general norm data similar statistically significant differences were found in all these scales, except for boredom susceptibility and psychoticism. 4. The personality profile of healthy volunteers was characterized by a higher sensation seeking trait and extraversion as compared with individuals who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials and general norm data. PMID:7640147
Adams, M H; Poynor, W J; Garnett, W R; Karnes, H T; Ferry, J J; Ryan, K K; Sarkar, M A
To determine the effect of reduced hepatic function on the pharmacokinetics of minoxidil. The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine, lorazepam, and indocyanine green were included as indicators of hepatic function. Eight mild cirrhotics and eight healthy subjects received antipyrine (po), lorazepam (IV), indocyanine green (IV) and minoxidil 5 mg (po). Blood and urine were sampled for up to 72 h after each drug, and drug concentrations were measured by validated HPLC methods. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured for safety. For unchanged minoxidil, the serum elimination rate constant was significantly smaller and mean residence time was significantly longer in cirrhotic patients. Urinary elimination rate constant for minoxidil glucuronide was significantly smaller and fraction of dose excreted in urine was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients. Antipyrine elimination was significantly slower for cirrhotic patients. No differences were observed in lorazepam pharmacokinetic parameters. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggests a longer dosage interval may be appropriate in patients with hepatic impairment. In the absence of multiple-dose minoxidil pharmacodynamic studies in this population, minoxidil should be used as in other populations: begin with a modest dose, and adjust the dose based on clinical response.
Bamford, Susan; Penton-Voak, Ian; Pinkney, Verity; Baldwin, David S; Munafò, Marcus R; Garner, Matthew
The serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine is an effective treatment for major depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Neuropsychological models of antidepressant drug action suggest therapeutic effects might be mediated by the early correction of maladaptive biases in emotion processing, including the recognition of emotional expressions. Sub-chronic administration of duloxetine (for two weeks) produces adaptive changes in neural circuitry implicated in emotion processing; however, its effects on emotional expression recognition are unknown. Forty healthy participants were randomised to receive either 14 days of duloxetine (60 mg/day, titrated from 30 mg after three days) or matched placebo (with sham titration) in a double-blind, between-groups, repeated-measures design. On day 0 and day 14 participants completed a computerised emotional expression recognition task that measured sensitivity to the six primary emotions. Thirty-eight participants (19 per group) completed their course of tablets and were included in the analysis. Results provide evidence that duloxetine, compared to placebo, may reduce the accurate recognition of sadness. Drug effects were driven by changes in participants' ability to correctly detect subtle expressions of sadness, with greater change observed in the placebo relative to the duloxetine group. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in mood. Our preliminary findings require replication, but complement recent evidence that sadness recognition is a therapeutic target in major depression, and a mechanism through which SNRIs could resolve negative biases in emotion processing to achieve therapeutic effects. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bamford, Susan; Penton-Voak, Ian; Pinkney, Verity; Baldwin, David S; Munafò, Marcus R; Garner, Matthew
The serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine is an effective treatment for major depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Neuropsychological models of antidepressant drug action suggest therapeutic effects might be mediated by the early correction of maladaptive biases in emotion processing, including the recognition of emotional expressions. Sub-chronic administration of duloxetine (for two weeks) produces adaptive changes in neural circuitry implicated in emotion processing; however, its effects on emotional expression recognition are unknown. Forty healthy participants were randomised to receive either 14 days of duloxetine (60 mg/day, titrated from 30 mg after three days) or matched placebo (with sham titration) in a double-blind, between-groups, repeated-measures design. On day 0 and day 14 participants completed a computerised emotional expression recognition task that measured sensitivity to the six primary emotions. Thirty-eight participants (19 per group) completed their course of tablets and were included in the analysis. Results provide evidence that duloxetine, compared to placebo, may reduce the accurate recognition of sadness. Drug effects were driven by changes in participants’ ability to correctly detect subtle expressions of sadness, with greater change observed in the placebo relative to the duloxetine group. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in mood. Our preliminary findings require replication, but complement recent evidence that sadness recognition is a therapeutic target in major depression, and a mechanism through which SNRIs could resolve negative biases in emotion processing to achieve therapeutic effects. PMID:25759400
Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto
Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goernig, Matthias; Haueisen, Jens; Liehr, Mario; Schlosser, Markus; Figulla, Hans R; Leder, Uwe
The purpose of our study was to prove the existence of the U wave using magnetocardiograms (MCGs). The 31-channel MCGs of 25 healthy volunteers were recorded. The onset of the U wave was defined by newly developed spatial correlation analysis; and the end, by different approaches. A U wave could be proved in all volunteers. In 10 volunteers (heart rate, 57 +/- 19 beats/min) in whom the U wave was found to be separated from the following P wave, the U wave's end could be determined as a threshold value (U wave duration, 310 +/- 24 milliseconds). In 15 volunteers (heart rate, 70 +/- 38 beats/min), the end of the U waves was concealed by a continuous transition of the U waves into the following P waves. The U wave seems to be a regular phenomenon and has a distinct spatiotemporal assembly.
Tawbi, Hussein; Christner, Susan M; Lin, Yan; Johnson, Matthew; Mowrey, Emily T; Cherrin, Craig; Chu, Edward; Lee, James J; Puhalla, Shannon; Stoller, Ronald; Appleman, Leonard R; Miller, Brian M; Beumer, Jan H
Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec(®)/Glivec(®)) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemias and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and there is evidence for an exposure response relationship. Calcium carbonate is increasingly used as a calcium supplement and in the setting of gastric upset associated with imatinib therapy. Calcium carbonate could conceivably elevate gastric pH and complex imatinib, thereby influencing imatinib absorption and exposure. We aimed to evaluate whether use of calcium carbonate has a significant effect on imatinib pharmacokinetics. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled in a 2-period, open-label, single-institution, randomized crossover, fixed-schedule study. In one period, each subject received 400 mg of imatinib p.o. In the other period, 4,000 mg calcium carbonate (Tums Ultra(®)) was administered p.o. 15 min before 400 mg of imatinib. Plasma concentrations of imatinib and its active N-desmethyl metabolite CGP74588 were assayed by LC-MS; data were analyzed non-compartmentally and compared after log transformation. Calcium carbonate administration did not significantly affect the imatinib area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) (41.2 μg/mL h alone vs. 40.8 μg/mL h with calcium carbonate, P = 0.99), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (2.35 μg/mL alone vs. 2.39 μg/mL with calcium carbonate, P = 0.89). Our results indicate that the use of calcium carbonate does not significantly affect imatinib pharmacokinetics.
Paul, James E; Hangan, Horia; Hajgato, Julius
Background The OxyMask™ is a unique, open-style, oxygen mask that was originally developed in 2005. The original mask was modified, using computational fluid dynamics numerical simulations, with the goal of allowing it to produce a wider range of FiO2. This analysis was used to guide the modification of the mask shell and the location for the oxygen diffuser. Methods The new OxyMask was attached to 10 healthy subjects and used to deliver escalating levels of oxygen (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 LPM) for 90 seconds at each level and the resulting FiO2 was recorded (at the lips) from 5 consecutive measurements at each oxygen flow rate. Results Mean FiO2 was 25.4% at 1.5 LPM of oxygen, 30.1% at 2 LPM, 36.5% at 2.5 LPM, 41.8% at 3 LPM, 57.6% at 5 LPM, 74.4% at 10 LPM, and 80.1% at 15 LPM. Each FiO2 achieved at these escalating oxygen levels was significantly greater than all the previous levels. The mean FiO2 was 82.8 at 20 LPM, 84.2% at 25 LPM and 84.3% at 30 LPM. All of these values on average were not significantly greater than the FiO2 achieved with 15 LPM. In a few subjects a maximum FiO2 of 90% was reached. Conclusion The original OxyMask was successfully modified so that the second generation of the mask can provide a wide range of FiO2, from 25% to 90%, while keeping its unique open design. PMID:22915909
Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence; Larina, Irina M; Demiot, Claire; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Kozlovskaya, Inesa B; Custaud, Marc-Antoine
A sedentary lifestyle has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, including impaired endothelial functions. Subjecting healthy men to 7 days of dry immersion (DI) presented a unique opportunity to analyze the specific effects of enhanced inactivity on the endothelium. We investigated endothelial properties before, during, and after 7 days of DI involving eight subjects. Microcirculatory functions were assessed with laser Doppler in the skin of the calf. We studied basal blood flow and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation. We also measured plasma levels of microparticles, a sign of cellular dysfunction, and soluble endothelial factors, reflecting the endothelial state. Basal flow and endothelium-dependent vasodilation were reduced by DI (22 + or - 4 vs. 15 + or - 2 arbitrary units and 29 + or - 6% vs. 12 + or - 6%, respectively, P < 0.05), and this was accompanied by an increase in circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs), which was significant on day 3 (42 + or - 8 vs. 65 + or - 10 EMPs/microl, P < 0.05), whereas microparticles from other cell origins remained unchanged. Plasma soluble VEGF decreased significantly during DI, whereas VEGF receptor 1 and soluble CD62E were unchanged, indicating that the increase in EMPs was associated with a change in antiapoptotic tone rather than endothelial activation. Our study showed that extreme physical inactivity in humans induced by 7 days of DI causes microvascular impairment with a disturbance of endothelial functions, associated with a selective increase in EMPs. Microcirculatory endothelial dysfunction might contribute to cardiovascular deconditioning as well as to hypodynamia-associated pathologies. In conclusion, the endothelium should be the focus of special care in situations of acute limitation of physical activity.
Kadam, Sunil K; Patel, Bharvin K R; Jones, Emma; Nguyen, Tuan S; Verma, Lalit K; Landschulz, Katherine T; Stepaniants, Sergey; Li, Bin; Brandt, John T; Brail, Leslie H
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is involved in oncogenic transformation and tumor maintenance. The primary objective of this study was to select surrogate tissue to measure messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of Hh pathway genes for measurement of pharmacodynamic effect. Expression of Hh pathway specific genes was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and global gene expression using Affymetrix U133 microarrays. Correlations were made between the expression of specific genes determined by qRT-PCR and normalized microarray data. Gene ontology analysis using microarray data for a broader set of Hh pathway genes was performed to identify additional Hh pathway-related markers in the surrogate tissue. RNA extracted from blood, hair follicle, and skin obtained from healthy subjects was analyzed by qRT-PCR for 31 genes, whereas 8 samples were analyzed for a 7-gene subset. Twelve sample sets, each with ≤500 ng total RNA derived from hair, skin, and blood, were analyzed using Affymetrix U133 microarrays. Transcripts for several Hh pathway genes were undetectable in blood using qRT-PCR. Skin was the most desirable matrix, followed by hair follicle. Whether processed by robust multiarray average or microarray suite 5 (MAS5), expression patterns of individual samples showed co-clustered signals; both normalization methods were equally effective for unsupervised analysis. The MAS5- normalized probe sets appeared better suited for supervised analysis. This work provides the basis for selection of a surrogate tissue and an expression analysis-based approach to evaluate pathway-related genes as markers of pharmacodynamic effect with novel inhibitors of the Hh pathway.
The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...
The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...
HAYASHI, Naokazu; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; YATSUSHIRO, Satoshi; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; ABDULLAH, Afnizanfaizal; KURODA, Kagayaki
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict not only anatomical information, but also physiological factors such as velocity and pressure gradient. Measurement of these physiological factors is necessary to understand the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) environment. In this study we quantified CSF motion in various parts of the CSF space, determined changes in the CSF environment with aging, and compared CSF pressure gradient between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers and six iNPH patients underwent four-dimensional (4D) phase-contrast (PC) MRI. CSF motion was observed and the pressure gradient of CSF was quantified in the CSF space. In healthy volunteers, inhomogeneous CSF motion was observed whereby the pressure gradient markedly increased in the center of the skull and gradually decreased in the periphery of the skull. For example, the pressure gradient at the ventral surface of the brainstem was 6.6 times greater than that at the convexity of the cerebrum. The pressure gradient was statistically unchanged with aging. The pressure gradient of patients with iNPH was 3.2 times greater than that of healthy volunteers. The quantitative analysis of 4D-PC MRI data revealed that the pressure gradient of CSF can be used to understand the CSF environment, which is not sufficiently given by subjective impression of the anatomical image. PMID:26226976
Ammon, Susanne; Marx, Claudia; Behrens, Christoph; Hofmann, Ute; Mürdter, Thomas; Griese, Ernst-Ulrich; Mikus, Gerd
Background Previously, we have demonstrated a marked inhibition of codeine glucuronidation by diclofenac in human liver tissue homogenate. We therefore aimed to investigate whether diclofenac inhibits glucuronidation of codeine also in vivo in healthy volunteers. Methods In a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study, 12 healthy volunteers received a singe of 100 mg codeine phosphate plus 50 mg diclofenac sodium or codeine phosphate plus placebo. Over a 36 hour period serum concentrations of codeine and its metabolites as well as urinary excretion were analysed using LC-mass spectrometry. Side effects were recorded and analgesic efficacy was determined using the cold pressor test (0–6 h). Results A single dose of diclofenac did not alter the formation of codeine-6-glucuronide in healthy volunteers. Metabolic clearance of codeine to morphine was not affected by diclofenac. In terms of side effects, both treatments were well tolerated. Diclofenac did not significantly influence the analgesic effects of codeine in the cold pressor test. Conclusions In contrast to recent in vitro data, a single oral dose of diclofenac did not alter the glucuronidation of codeine in healthy volunteers. PMID:11943073
Salinsky, Martin; Storzbach, Daniel; Munoz, Sonia
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can be associated with neurotoxic side effects including cognitive dysfunction, a problem of considerable importance given the usual long-term course of treatment. Pregabalin is a relatively new AED widely used for the treatment of seizures and some types of chronic pain including fibromyalgia. We measured the cognitive effects of 12 weeks of pregabalin in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were randomized in a double-blind parallel study to receive pregabalin or placebo (1:1). Pregabalin was titrated over 8 weeks to 600 mg/d. At baseline, and after 12 weeks of treatment, all subjects underwent cognitive testing. Test-retest changes in all cognitive and subjective measures were Z scored against test-retest regressions previously developed from 90 healthy volunteers. Z scores from the placebo and pregabalin groups were compared using Wilcoxon tests. Thirty subjects completed the study (94%). Three of 6 target cognitive measures (Digit Symbol, Stroop, Controlled Oral Word Association) revealed significant test-retest differences between the pregabalin and placebo groups, all showing negative effects with pregabalin (p < 0.05). These cognitive effects were paralleled by complaints on the Portland Neurotoxicity Scale, a subjective measure of neurotoxicity (p < 0.01). At conventional doses and titration, pregabalin induced mild negative cognitive effects and neurotoxicity complaints in healthy volunteers. These effects are one factor to be considered in the selection and monitoring of chronic AED therapy. Class of Evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that pregabalin 300 mg BID negatively impacts cognition on some tasks in healthy volunteers.
Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L
To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P <0.05). Both RD and TD groups showed PI similar to controls during the recovery period. Selective REM sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garwood, Elisabeth R; Souza, Richard B; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Alan L; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Motamedi, Daria
Evaluate technical feasibility and potential applications of glenohumeral (GH) joint axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy volunteers. Eleven shoulders were imaged in neutral and with 4kg axial traction at 3T. Quantitative measurements were assessed. Axial traction was well tolerated. There was statistically significant widening of the superior GH joint space (p=0.002) and acromial angle (p=0.017) with traction. Inter-rater agreement was high. GH joint axial traction MRI is technically feasible and well tolerated in volunteers. Traction of the capsule, widening of the superior GH joint space and acromial angle were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Despite the fact that immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation, immigrants themselves are often criticised as passive citizens. This study attempts to deconstruct this myth by investigating the volunteering experiences of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The…
Despite the fact that immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation, immigrants themselves are often criticised as passive citizens. This study attempts to deconstruct this myth by investigating the volunteering experiences of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The…
Pabon, Diego F; Yost, Michael J; Melendez, Giselle C; Durand, Tamsin M; Brock, Timothy Z; Felice, Peter A; Campbell, Katherine; Bynoe, Raymond P; Fann, Stephen A
Skin flora immobilization technology is similar in efficacy to Iodine-Povidone in healthy volunteers. We did a prospective study in a university clinic with 60 healthy volunteers. Right inguinal skin area on healthy volunteers was used to compare the antimicrobial properties of cyanoacrylate sealant (FloraSeal, Adhesion Biomedical, Wyomissing, PA) versus standard surgical preparation Povidone-iodine (Betadine, Purdue Productions, Stamford, CT). Bacterial counts were measured at different time intervals: 15 minutes, 4 hours, and 24 hours. Bacterial colony forming units were compared between Povidone-iodine and cyanoacrylate sealant. The absolute log reduction was 5.568 for Povidone-iodine (7 absolute CFU); 5.028 for cyanoacrylate (59 absolute CFU); and 5.568 for Povidone-iodine and cyanoacrylate combined (21 absolute CFU). Cyanoacrylate was able to sustain a reduction on bacterial counts at 4 hours and 24 hours of more than 99.8 per cent as compared with the control group. Cyanoacrylate microbial sealant successfully reduces bacterial counts on normal healthy skin. The results were similar to Povidone-iodine alone. We believe this technology may be an excellent means of mitigating incisional surgical site infection by reducing the risk of contamination by skin flora and warrants further testing.
Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B
Objective To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measure Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Setting Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Participants Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. Results A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I2 = 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Conclusions Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. PMID:27729596
Beglinger, Leigh J; Gaydos, Brenda L; Kareken, David A; Tangphao-Daniels, Oranee; Siemers, Eric R; Mohs, Richard C
Participants in early Phase I clinical trials for drugs designed to enhance cognition are typically healthy volunteers. If improvement can be detected with a battery of cognitive tests in healthy volunteers, such a battery could be a pharmacodynamic marker in the future development of the compound for treatment of cognitive disorders. In the present exploratory study, a battery of neuropsychological (NP) tests was used to determine if changes in cognition from a pharmacological intervention could be detected in healthy volunteers. A drug with known cognitive-enhancing effects in Alzheimer's disease, donepezil, was compared with placebo and no treatment arms. Carry-over effects of repeated test administration were also assessed. In this double-blind study, 27 healthy adults were randomized into one of three arms (eight donepezil, nine placebo and 10 no treatment) and completed 14 days of donepezil (5 mg q.h.s.) or placebo (q.h.s.). A battery of NP tests was administered on days 0, 7, 14 (randomization), 21, 28 (end of treatment) and 42 (washout). There were no differences in performance between the placebo and the no treatment arms. However, on day 21, subjects in the donepezil group performed slightly but significantly worse on some tests of speed, attention and memory (p < 0.05) compared to the pooled control group (placebo and no treatment arms). No improvement in performance was present while on donepezil at days 21 or 28. While the results are counter to expectations, some tests in the battery did detect a cognitive change (transient mild worsening during drug administration) in healthy volunteers.
Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B; Gøtzsche, Peter C
To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I(2 )= 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. © The Royal Society of Medicine.
Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Ferrero, Miguel A; Vaquero Ayala, Luis; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José M G; Albillos, Silvia M; Casqueiro, Francisco Javier
Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten proteins are partially digested by human proteases generating immunogenic peptides that cause inflammation in patients carrying HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genes. Although intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with patients with CD, bacterial metabolism of gluten has not been studied in depth thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse the metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria associated with gluten intake in healthy individuals, CD patients and first-degree relatives of CD patients. Faecal samples belonging to twenty-two untreated CD patients, twenty treated CD patients, sixteen healthy volunteers on normal diet, eleven healthy volunteers on gluten-free diet (GFD), seventy-one relatives of CD patients on normal diet and sixty-nine relatives on GFD were tested for several proteolytic activities, cultivable bacteria involved in gluten metabolism, SCFA and the amount of gluten in faeces. We detected faecal peptidasic activity against the gluten-derived peptide 33-mer. CD patients showed differences in faecal glutenasic activity (FGA), faecal tryptic activity (FTA), SCFA and faecal gluten content with respect to healthy volunteers. Alterations in specific bacterial groups metabolising gluten such as Clostridium or Lactobacillus were reported in CD patients. Relatives showed similar parameters to CD patients (SCFA) and healthy volunteers (FTA and FGA). Our data support the fact that commensal microbial activity is an important factor in the metabolism of gluten proteins and that this activity is altered in CD patients.
Hosak, Ladislav; Preiss, Marek; Bazant, Jan; Tibenska, Andrea; Cermakova, Radka; Cermakova, Eva
Methamphetamine is a neurotoxic agent. Its chronic abuse may result in cognitive impairment with negative consequences for patients' treatment and rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to compare Wisconsin Card Sorting Test profiles of Czech subjects dependent on methamphetamine with healthy individuals. Forty-three hospitalized Czech Caucasian patients including twenty-seven men at the average age of 25.3±5.2 years dependent on methamphetamine for 6.2±3.3 years were assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. We used the same neurocognitive test for the comparison group of healthy controls with the same ethnicity (N=52, men N=28, average age of 38.7±12.1 years). We applied the Chi-Square Test, Two-Sample T Test, Mann-Whitney U Test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test to compare methamphetamine dependent patients with healthy volunteers. All recorded Wisconsin Card Sorting Test parameters were significantly different in the group of methamphetamine dependent patients versus healthy volunteers (P=0.04-0.006; Mann-Whitney U Test, Two-Sample T Test). The results showed a higher error rate and a smaller achievement quality in the patients as against healthy subjects. We ascertained a significant cognitive deterioration in the patients as compared to healthy volunteers even if the average patients' achievements were in the normal range according to the test norms. A cognitive impairment was present in the group of patients as compared to healthy controls. Better understanding of neurocognitive symptoms in methamphetamine dependent subjects should help to generate modern therapeutic approaches, both pharmacological and psychosocial, to prevent or attenuate the long-term negative consequences of methamphetamine use disorders.
Vrijens, Desiree; Marcelissen, Tom; Drossaerts, Jamie; Heeringa, Rhea; Degaillier, Sam; Leue, Carsten; van Koeveringe, Gommert
To explore differences in bladder sensations between patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and healthy volunteers by evaluating self-consciousness, self-awareness and affective complaints. A prospective, observational study was performed comparing patients with OAB symptoms and healthy volunteers. During 3 days subjects filled out sensation-related bladder diaries (SR-BD), Self-Consciousness Questionnaires (SCS), Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SSAS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The SSAS was filled out at the second void of the first day. In total, 134 participants were included (66 volunteers and 68 patients). Patients had lower voided volumes (193 mL vs 270 mL, P < 0.05), higher urinary frequency (10.6 vs 6.6, P < 0.05) and higher urgency scores (2.0 vs 1.2, P < 0.05) than volunteers, while perceived bladder fullness was similar. The SCS scores were similar, but the SSAS score was significantly higher for OAB patients (53.6 vs 44.6, P < 0.05). OAB Patients had significantly higher scores for anxiety and depression according to the HADS. There were significant differences in SR-BD between volunteers and OAB patients. OAB patients had significantly higher self-awareness than volunteers, indicating that OAB patients may attribute different values to body signals. Future research is required to elaborate our knowledge on the perceived sensations and labeling of emotions in OAB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Boyd, Linda D; Tivis, Rick
This study assessed perceptions of health professions student and faculty volunteers who participated with athletes at the 2009 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Healthy Athlete venues. The volunteers' perceptions and expectations of the abilities of intellectually disabled athletes were measured by administering pre-event and post-event questionnaires consisting of demographic questions and the Prognostic Belief Scale (PBS). Invitations to participate in the study were sent to 165 students and faculty members; of those, eighty (48.5 percent response rate) responded to the pre-event questionnaire, and sixty-seven (40.6 percent response rate) responded to the post-event questionnaire. Of the eighty respondents to the pre-event questionnaire, fifty-five (68.7 percent) also completed the post-event questionnaire. The ANOVA comparing pre- and post-event PBS scores between groups found a trend towards higher scores among the volunteers, but analysis did not demonstrate a significant effect in either group (p=.68) or the interaction of group by time (p=.46). Despite the findings from the PBS, participants' statements suggest the experience had an impact on their perceptions and expectations. Although not statistically significant, this study found a positive trend pre- to post-event in the volunteers' perceptions of the abilities of athletes with intellectual disabilities. In addition to didactic and clinical education, volunteer experiences may enhance care providers' knowledge, skill, and confidence levels for treating clients with intellectual disabilities.
Cruz-Correa, Omar Fernando; León-Cachón, Rafael Baltazar Reyes; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto; Soberón, Xavier
To use variants found by next-generation sequencing to predict atorvastatin plasmatic concentration profiles (AUC) in healthy volunteers. A total of 60 healthy Mexican volunteers were enrolled in this study. We used variants with a predicted functional effect across 20 genes involved in atorvastatin metabolism to construct a regression model using a support vector approach with a radial basis function kernel to predict AUC refining it afterwards in order to explain a greater extent of the variance. The final support vector regression model using 60 variants (including six novel variants) explained 94.52% of the variance in atorvastatin AUC. An integrated analysis of several genes known to intervene in the different steps of metabolism is required to predict atorvastatin's AUC.
Ciet, Pierluigi; Boiselle, Phillip M; Heidinger, Benedikt; Andrinopoulou, Eleni-Rosalina; O'Donnel, Carl; Alsop, David C; Litmanovich, Diana E
Bronchoscopy and MDCT are routinely used to assess tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). Recently, dynamic MRI (cine MRI) has been proposed as a radiation-free alternative to MDCT. In this study, we tested cine MRI assessment of airway dynamics during various breathing conditions and compared cine MRI and MDCT measurements in healthy volunteers and patients with suspected TBM. Cine MRI was found to be a technically feasible alternative to MDCT for assessing central airway dynamics.
Di Simplicio, M; Massey-Chase, R; Cowen, P J; Harmer, Catherine J
Animal studies have shown the role of oxytocin in affiliation and attachment, and recent evidence suggests that oxytocin is also involved in human models of approach behaviour, possibly by modulating the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli. Although oxytocin administration has been reported to decrease neural responses to facial emotional information, the effects on a wider range of behavioural measures of emotional processing shown to be sensitive to antidepressant manipulation have not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasally administered oxytocin affects the processing of positive and negative affective information in healthy male volunteers across tasks measuring attention, perception and memory. Twenty-nine male healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24 UI) or placebo. 50 min later, participants completed a battery of psychological tests measuring emotional processing. A single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin slowed reaction time to correctly identify fearful facial expressions and reduced the misclassification of positive emotions as negative ones. These effects occurred in the absence of significant differences in subjective ratings of mood and anxiety. These results suggest that oxytocin modulates emotion processing in healthy male volunteers. This action may contribute to the emerging role of the neuropeptide in promoting affiliative and approach behaviours by reducing the salience of potentially ambiguous and threatening social stimuli.
Ukor, Ida F; Hilton, Andrew K; Bailey, Michael J; Bellomo, Rinaldo
This pilot study aimed to characterise the haemodynamic effect of 1L of IV normal saline (NS) administered as a rapid versus slow infusion on cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), systemic blood pressures, and carotid blood flow in six healthy volunteers. Six healthy male volunteers aged 18-65years were randomized to receive 1L NS given over 30min or 120min. On a subsequent study session the alternate fluid regimen was administered. Haemodynamic data was gathered using a non-invasive finger arterial pressure monitor (Nexfin®), echocardiography and carotid duplex sonography. Time to micturition and urine volume was also assessed. Compared to baseline, rapid infusion of 1L of saline over 30min produced a fall in Nexfin®-measured CO by 0.62L/min (p<0.001), whereas there was a marginal but significant increase during infusion of 1L NS over 120min of 0.02L/min (p<0.001). This effect was mirrored by changes in HR and blood pressure (BP) (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in carotid blood flow, time to micturition, or urine volume produced. Slower infusion of 1L NS in healthy male volunteers produced a greater increase in CO, HR and BP than rapid infusion. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shahzadi, Andleeb; Javed, Ijaz; Aslam, Bilal; Muhammad, Faqir; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Zia-ur-Rahman
Carbamazepine is a (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme inducer) medicine which is used by epileptic patients for a long time. During the course of therapy, patients are generally caught by other diseases like urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection etc. To cure them, physicians commonly prescribe fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (CYP1A2 inhibitor) along with Carbamazepine (CBZ). Interactions may result without recognition which may lead to unforeseen toxicity, untoward effects or even therapeutic failure. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. The main objective of this study was to generate new knowledge regarding CBZ and ciprofloxacin interaction for physicians and research workers dealing with these medicines. Eight healthy adult male volunteers were selected to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. After overnight fast the selected male volunteers were given CBZ orally. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals after medication. Then the same volunteers were given CBZ along with ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were again drawn at the same time intervals as done previously. Plasma was separated from the blood samples. Concentration of CBZ in the plasma samples was determined by using HPLC technique. Results of the present study indicated that ciprofloxacin significantly increased the plasma concentration of CBZ when given concurrently to the healthy adult male volunteers. Ciprofloxacin increased Cmax, AUC and t½ while it decreased the CL and Vd of CBZ when administered concurrently to the adult volunteers. Change in pharmacokinetic parameters was due to slow metabolism or elimination of CBZ when given concurrently with ciprofloxacin to the adult volunteers. This is probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by ciprofloxacin which is responsible for
Hingorani, Pooja; Natekar, Mili; Deshmukh, Sheetal; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kothari, Snehal; Narula, Dhiraj; Lokhandwala, Yash
Background & objectives: Morphological abnormalities in 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) are seen in subgroups of healthy individuals like athletes and air-force personnel. As these populations may not truly represent healthy individuals, we assessed morphological abnormalities in ECG in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies, who are screened to exclude associated conditions. Methods: ECGs from 62 phase I studies analyzed in a central ECG laboratory were pooled. A single drug-free baseline ECG from each subject was reviewed by experienced cardiologists. ECG intervals were measured on five consecutive beats and morphological abnormalities identified using standard guidelines. Results: Morphological abnormalities were detected in 25.5 per cent of 3978 healthy volunteers (2495 males, 1483 females; aged 18-76 yr); the presence was higher in males (29.3% vs. 19.2% in females; P<0.001). Rhythm abnormalities were the commonest (11.5%) followed by conduction abnormalities (5.9%), axis deviation (4%), ST-T wave changes (3.1%) and chamber enlargement (1.4%). Incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), short PR interval and right ventricular hypertrophy were common in young subjects (<20 yr) while atrial fibrillation, first degree atrioventricular block, complete RBBB and left anterior fascicular block were more prevalent in elderly subjects (>65 yr). Prolonged PR interval, RBBB and intraventricular conduction defects were more common in males while sinus tachycardia, short PR interval and non-specific T wave changes were more frequent in females. Interpretation & Conclusions: Morphological abnormalities in ECG are commonly seen in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies; and vary with age and gender. Further studies are required to determine whether these abnormalities persist or if some of these disappear on follow up. PMID:22561618
Raut, Ashwinikumar A.; Rege, Nirmala N.; Tadvi, Firoz M.; Solanki, Punita V.; Kene, Kirti R.; Shirolkar, Sudatta G.; Pandey, Shefali N.; Vaidya, Rama A.; Vaidya, Ashok B.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS), a “rasayana” drug, is recommended for balavardhan and mamsavardhan. The study was intended to evaluate dose-related tolerability, safety, and activity of WS formulation in normal individuals. The design was prospective, open-labeled, variable doses in volunteers. Eighteen apparently healthy volunteers (12M:6F, age:18-30 years, and BMI: 19-30) were enrolled. After baseline investigations, they received WS capsules (Rx) (aqueous extract, 8:1) daily in two divided doses with increase in daily dosage every 10 days for 30 days (750 mg/day ×10 days, 1 000 mg/day × 10 days, 1 250 mg/day × 10 days). Volunteers were assessed for symptoms/signs, vital functions, hematological and biochemical organ function tests. Muscle activity was measured by hand grip strength, quadriceps strength, and back extensor force. Exercise tolerance was determined using cycle ergometry. Lean body weight and fat% were computed from skin fold thickness measurement. Adverse events were recorded, as volunteered by the subjects. Repeated measures ANOVA, McNemar's test, and paired t test were employed. All but one volunteer tolerated WS without any adverse event. One volunteer showed increased appetite, libido, and hallucinogenic effects with vertigo at the lowest dose and was withdrawn from study. In six subjects, improvement in quality of sleep was found. Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia. PMID:23125505
Raut, Ashwinikumar A; Rege, Nirmala N; Tadvi, Firoz M; Solanki, Punita V; Kene, Kirti R; Shirolkar, Sudatta G; Pandey, Shefali N; Vaidya, Rama A; Vaidya, Ashok B
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS), a "rasayana" drug, is recommended for balavardhan and mamsavardhan. The study was intended to evaluate dose-related tolerability, safety, and activity of WS formulation in normal individuals. The design was prospective, open-labeled, variable doses in volunteers. Eighteen apparently healthy volunteers (12M:6F, age:18-30 years, and BMI: 19-30) were enrolled. After baseline investigations, they received WS capsules (Rx) (aqueous extract, 8:1) daily in two divided doses with increase in daily dosage every 10 days for 30 days (750 mg/day ×10 days, 1 000 mg/day × 10 days, 1 250 mg/day × 10 days). Volunteers were assessed for symptoms/signs, vital functions, hematological and biochemical organ function tests. Muscle activity was measured by hand grip strength, quadriceps strength, and back extensor force. Exercise tolerance was determined using cycle ergometry. Lean body weight and fat% were computed from skin fold thickness measurement. Adverse events were recorded, as volunteered by the subjects. Repeated measures ANOVA, McNemar's test, and paired t test were employed. All but one volunteer tolerated WS without any adverse event. One volunteer showed increased appetite, libido, and hallucinogenic effects with vertigo at the lowest dose and was withdrawn from study. In six subjects, improvement in quality of sleep was found. Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia.
Kraehenmann, Rainer; Preller, Katrin H; Scheidegger, Milan; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X
The amygdala is a key structure in serotonergic emotion-processing circuits. In healthy volunteers, acute administration of the serotonin 1A/2A/2C receptor agonist psilocybin reduces neural responses to negative stimuli and induces mood changes toward positive states. However, it is little-known whether psilocybin reduces amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli and whether any change in amygdala reactivity is related to mood change. This study assessed the effects of acute administration of the hallucinogen psilocybin (.16 mg/kg) versus placebo on amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli in 25 healthy volunteers using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mood changes were assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used with volunteers counterbalanced to receive psilocybin and placebo in two separate sessions at least 14 days apart. Amygdala reactivity to negative and neutral stimuli was lower after psilocybin administration than after placebo administration. The psilocybin-induced attenuation of right amygdala reactivity in response to negative stimuli was related to the psilocybin-induced increase in positive mood state. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with psilocybin decreased amygdala reactivity during emotion processing and that this was associated with an increase of positive mood in healthy volunteers. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of amygdala hyperactivity and negative mood states in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maude, Rapeephan R; Hossain, Md Amir; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Osbourne, Sophie; Sayeed, Katherine Langan Abu; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Samad, Rasheda; Borooah, Shyamanga; Dhillon, Bal; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Maude, Richard J
Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ultrasound is increasingly used as a marker to detect raised intracranial pressure (ICP). ONSD varies with age and there is no clear consensus between studies for an upper limit of normal. Knowledge of normal ONSD in a healthy population is essential to interpret this measurement. In a prospective observational study, ONSD was measured using a 15 MHz ultrasound probe in healthy volunteers in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The aims were to determine the normal range of ONSD in healthy Bangladeshi adults and children, compare measurements in males and females, horizontal and vertical beam orientations and left and right eyes in the same individual and to determine whether ONSD varies with head circumference independent of age. 136 subjects were enrolled, 12.5% of whom were age 16 or under. Median ONSD was 4.41 mm with 95% of subjects in the range 4.25-4.75 mm. ONSD was bimodally distributed. There was no relationship between ONSD and age (≥4 years), gender, head circumference, and no difference in left vs right eye or horizontal vs vertical beam. Ultrasonographic ONSD in Bangladeshi healthy volunteers has a narrow bimodal distribution independent of age (≥4 years), gender and head circumference. ONSD >4.75 mm in this population should be considered abnormal.
Maude, Rapeephan R.; Amir Hossain, Md; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Osbourne, Sophie; Sayeed, Katherine Langan Abu; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Samad, Rasheda; Borooah, Shyamanga; Dhillon, Bal; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Maude, Richard J.
Introduction Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ultrasound is increasingly used as a marker to detect raised intracranial pressure (ICP). ONSD varies with age and there is no clear consensus between studies for an upper limit of normal. Knowledge of normal ONSD in a healthy population is essential to interpret this measurement. Methods In a prospective observational study, ONSD was measured using a 15 MHz ultrasound probe in healthy volunteers in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The aims were to determine the normal range of ONSD in healthy Bangladeshi adults and children, compare measurements in males and females, horizontal and vertical beam orientations and left and right eyes in the same individual and to determine whether ONSD varies with head circumference independent of age. Results 136 subjects were enrolled, 12.5% of whom were age 16 or under. Median ONSD was 4.41 mm with 95% of subjects in the range 4.25–4.75 mm. ONSD was bimodally distributed. There was no relationship between ONSD and age (≥4 years), gender, head circumference, and no difference in left vs right eye or horizontal vs vertical beam. Conclusions Ultrasonographic ONSD in Bangladeshi healthy volunteers has a narrow bimodal distribution independent of age (≥4 years), gender and head circumference. ONSD >4.75 mm in this population should be considered abnormal. PMID:24312515
Mayer, N.; Weinstabl, C.; Podreka, I.; Spiss, C.K. )
The effect of sufentanil on human cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in seven unpremedicated, healthy volunteers 31 +/- 3.5 yr of age (mean +/- SD) and either sex. CBF (ml.100 g-1.min-1) was measured noninvasively with the 133Xe clearance technique and a scintillation camera before and after sufentanil 0.5 micrograms/kg administered intravenously. This technique provides values for global blood flow and for gray and white matter blood flow, and from 13 preselected regions in one hemisphere. After the administration of sufentanil, the volunteers were stimulated verbally in order to prevent their loss of consciousness and hypercarbia. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and end-tidal CO2 ETCO2 were recorded during the measurements. Neither global CBF (46.1 +/- 1.6 control and 43 +/- 1.9 after sufentanil, mean +/- SEM) nor gray (76.5 +/- 3.2 and 70.9 +/- 6.1) or white (22.7 +/- 1.5 and 24.2 +/- 1.6) matter blood flow changed significantly after sufentanil administration. As well, no significant differences in HR (72 +/- 4 control and 79 +/- 4 beats per min after sufentanil) and ETCO2 (39.8 +/- 1.4 and 41.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg) were observed. It is concluded that sufentanil has no significant effect on CBF in healthy human volunteers.
Pravina, K; Ravindra, K R; Goudar, K S; Vinod, D R; Joshua, A J; Wasim, P; Venkateshwarlu, K; Saxena, V S; Amit, A
BacoMind is an enriched phytochemical composition of Bacopa monniera (B. monniera), a common medicinal plant used in the traditional systems of medicine as a memory-enhancing agent. BacoMind was standardized with reference to bioactive compounds and was evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study plan employed randomized, open label, dose escalation design. Each of 23 participants were orally given one single capsule of BacoMind daily for 30 days, i.e., 300 mg for first 15 days and 450 mg for next 15 days. Detailed examination of clinical, hematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic parameters done in pre and post-treatment periods did not indicate any untoward effects in any of the treated volunteers. Mild adverse events related to gastrointestinal system were observed in the trial, which subsided spontaneously. BacoMind was found to meet the safety criteria at the dose administered for the given duration of trial period in healthy adult volunteers.
Shevde, K; Trivedi, N; Gross, M
The effects of clear liquids on gastric volume and pH were examined in 30 healthy ASA physical status I volunteers. After overnight fasting, a Salem-sump nasogastric tube was inserted and gastric contents were removed for measurement of volume and pH. Gastric contents were then reinserted through the nasogastric tube into the stomach. The volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 10) received 240 mL water, group 2 (n = 10) received 240 mL coffee, and group 3 (n = 10) received 240 mL pulp-free orange juice. All liquids were administered orally. Gastric contents were then again aspirated, measured for volume and pH, and reinserted through the nasogastric tube every half hour until gastric volume was less than 25 mL. All volunteers had gastric volumes less than 25 mL with a slight decrease in pH within 2 h of orally taking one of the three 240-mL liquids. These data suggest that if patients have ingested a moderate amount of clear liquids it is safe to conduct general anesthesia after a 2-h fast in healthy surgical patients.
Koch, B; Schäper, C; Ittermann, T; Spielhagen, T; Dörr, M; Völzke, H; Opitz, C F; Ewert, R; Gläser, S
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a widely applied clinical procedure. The aim of the present study was to acquire a comprehensive set of reference values for cardiopulmonary responses to exercise and to evaluate possible associations with sex, age and body mass index (BMI). A standardised progressive incremental exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer was applied to 1,708 volunteers of a cross-sectional epidemiologic survey, called "Study of Health in Pomerania". Individuals with cardiopulmonary disorders, or echocardiographic or lung function pathologies, were excluded. The influence of potential confounding factors, such as smoking, taking beta-blockers, hypertension, diastolic dysfunction, BMI and physical activity, were analysed for their influencing power. Reference values of CPET parameters were determined by regression analyses. Of the volunteers, 542 current smokers and obese individuals were excluded for not being representative of a healthy population. The final sample size was 534 (253 males), with age 25-80 yrs. The current study provides a representative set of reference values for CPET parameters based on age and weight. Sex and age have a significant influence on exercise parameters. While addressing the problem of a selection bias, the current study provides the first comprehensive set of reference values obtained in a large number of healthy volunteers within a population-based survey.
Arora, Ekta; Khajuria, Vijay; Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Atul; Choudhary, Naiyma
Aim: To compare the effects of aliskiren, ramipril, and losartan on the psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: In this preliminary, single-dose, open-label, cross-over study conducted in 12 healthy volunteers, psychomotor assessment was carried out by four tests: Simple reaction time (SRT), multiple choice reaction time test (MCRT), critical flicker fusion frequency threshold test (CFFT), and tracking performance test (TPT). Each volunteer received a single dose of each of the three test drugs with a washout period of 10 days between different test sessions and then evaluated for post-drug scores at 2-h intervals up to 12 h and then at 24 h. The changes from the baseline scores by the test drug were statistically analyzed. Results: All the three antihypertensive drugs caused significant improvement in a similar fashion on SRT, MCRT calculated as error index, CFFT, and TPT. Aliskiren caused numerically more improvement than the other two test drugs, suggesting better cognitive profile. However, inter-drug comparisons were nonsignificant. Conclusion: The results of the study highlight improvement of the cognitive functions equally by ramipril, losartan, and aliskiren. The results of the study could be of immense clinical utility in ambulatory hypertensive patients especially engaged in sensory-motor coordination tasks like driving and operating on mechanical tools. PMID:25276630
Sobhani, I; René, E; Ramdani, A; Bayod, F; Sabbagh, L C; Thomas, F; Mignon, M
1. Somatostatin inhibits hormonal secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. Somatostatin analogues are used in the treatment of VIPome-related watery diarrhoea. In addition, more than 10% of patients with AIDS suffer from diarrhoea likely due to the increased intestinal secretion of water and ions. However, the direct effect of somatostatin on the flux of water and ions in the intestine has not been, so far, analyzed in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lanreotide, a somatostatin analogue, on the movements of water and ions in the jejunum in man. 2. Accordingly, 10 healthy volunteers (age 18-35 years, mean 27) and two patients with AIDS (26 and 33 years) suffering from water diarrhoea (> 800 ml day-1) underwent intestinal perfusion using a four lumen tube with proximal occluding balloon. The segment tested was 25 cm long. The jejunum was infused by an isotonic control saline solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as nonabsorbable marker. Basal jejunal secretions were measured in all subjects. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was administered intraluminally to stimulate jejunal secretion in healthy volunteers. The effect of intravenous lanreotide on the jejunal PGE1-induced secretions of water and electrolytes was analysed in healthy subjects and on the basal secretions in AIDS patients. Each period was analyzed on the basis of three (10 min) successive intestinal juice collections after 20-30 min equilibration time. The antisecretory effect of lanreotide was evaluated in each subject as the difference between fluxes compared to the control period. 3. In healthy volunteers, PGE1 induced secretion of H2O, Na+, K+ and Cl- in the jejunum and lanreotide reduced significantly PGE1-induced response. In both AIDS patients basal fluxes of water and ions were reduced by lanreotide in a dose-dependent manner. 4. Somatostatin can reduce stimulated-jejunal secretion of ions and water in normal subjects and may improve water diarrhoea in AIDS
Hughes, A M; Lynch, P; Rhodes, J; Ervine, C M; Yates, R A
Aims To investigate the effects of single oral doses of chlorpromazine (50 mg) and risperidone (2 mg) relative to placebo on topographical electroencephalometry (CATEEM™) and psychomotor tests in 12 healthy male volunteers. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design using a double dummy blinding technique was utilized. Chlorpromazine was selected as representative of the ‘typical’ neuroleptics, being also highly sedative. Risperidone has been suggested as representative of the newer ‘atypical’ neuroleptics and is claimed to be only minimally sedative. Volunteers were dosed on 3 separate days with a minimum of 7 days interval between trial days. On each trial day volunteers were dosed twice. Dose 1 consisting of either chlorpromazine 50 mg or placebo to chlorpromazine, and dose 2 either risperidone 2 mg or placebo to risperidone. The volunteers were randomized so that each received either chlorpromazine or risperidone (or neither), but not both on an individual trial day. A 17 electrode quantitative topographical electroencephalograph (EEG) recording was taken for each volunteer before and after each dosing period. Seven psychomotor function tests were used to determine the effects of each treatment on psychomotor performance. Results The data confirm the cited reports of sedation following single oral doses of chlorpromazine 50 mg. However, 7 of the 12 volunteers dosed with risperidone 2 mg also reported drowsiness/lethargy which was of greater severity and duration than 5 of the 12 volunteers who reported somnolence following dosing with chlorpromazine 50 mg. Objective assessment of psychomotor impairment using a short battery of psychomotor function tests mirrored the subjective reports of somnolence in that the impairment in volunteers dosed with risperidone 2 mg was greater in extent and magnitude than in volunteers dosed with chlorpromazine 50 mg. With respect to the cortical quantitative electroencephalogram, both
Fisher, Jill A.
Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans. The majority of these studies are conducted under controlled, inpatient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. This article draws on an ethnographic study of six phase I clinics in the United States, including 268 semistructured interviews with research staff and healthy volunteers. In it, I argue that an institutional banalization of risk structures the perceptions of research staff and healthy volunteers participating in the studies. For research staff, there are three mechanisms by which risk becomes banal: a perceived homogeneity of studies, Fordist work regimes, and data-centric discourse. For healthy volunteers, repeat study participation contributes to the institutional banalization of risk both through the process of desensitization to risk and the formation of trust in the clinics. I argue that the institutional banalization of risk also renders invisible ethical concerns about exploitation of underprivileged groups in pharmaceutical research. PMID:25914430
Fisher, Jill A
Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans. The majority of these studies are conducted under controlled, inpatient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. This article draws on an ethnographic study of six phase I clinics in the United States, including 268 semistructured interviews with research staff and healthy volunteers. In it, I argue that an institutional banalization of risk structures the perceptions of research staff and healthy volunteers participating in the studies. For research staff, there are three mechanisms by which risk becomes banal: a perceived homogeneity of studies, Fordist work regimes, and data-centric discourse. For healthy volunteers, repeat study participation contributes to the institutional banalization of risk both through the process of desensitization to risk and the formation of trust in the clinics. I argue that the institutional banalization of risk also renders invisible ethical concerns about exploitation of underprivileged groups in pharmaceutical research.
Knott, Verner; de la Salle, Sara; Smith, Dylan; Choueiry, Joelle; Impey, Danielle; Smith, Meaghan; Beaudry, Elise; Saghir, Salman; Ilivitsky, Vadim; Labelle, Alain
CDP-choline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine) is a phospholipid used to treat cognitive disorders, presumably repairing and maintaining brain cell membranes. Additional mechanisms may include enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission as the α7 nicotinic receptor actions of choline and increased acetylcholine synthesis accompanying CDP-choline administration may modulate brain oscillations underlying cognitive processes. This study utilizes electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in healthy volunteers to evaluate CDP-choline induction of an oscillatory response profile associated with nicotinic stimulation. Resting state EEG was acquired in 24 male volunteers administered low (500mg) and moderate (1000mg) doses of CDP-choline in a randomized placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Consistent with nicotinic agonist treatment, spectral analysis showed dose-dependent reductions in delta and increases in alpha oscillations, which were also accompanied by decreases in beta and gamma oscillatory activity. These findings support the posit that CDP-choline cognitive enhancement involves multiple mechanisms including facilitated nicotinic cholinergic action.
Hasan, Syed Muhammad Farid; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Hassan, Fouzia; Rehman, Inam-Ur
The pharmacokinetic parameters of two oral formulations of meloxicam tablets were compared in a randomized, single oral dose; two treatments cross over design in 12 healthy male volunteers belonging to Pakistan under fasting conditions. After an overnight fast, the volunteers received 30 mg meloxicam and the blood samples were collected up to 96 hours and drug concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC method. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the plasma concentration-time curves of both formulations. The 90% confidence intervals obtained by analysis of variance were 87-94% for C(max) and 88-97% for AUC(0-t), that fell well within the acceptance range of 80-125%. Also, no significant difference (a=0.05, Wilcoxon Signed rank test) were detected between T(max) of both formulations. The two formulations were well tolerated and no adverse effect was reported during the study.
Hopf, H W; Viele, M; Watson, J J; Feiner, J; Weiskopf, R; Hunt, T K; Noorani, M; Yeap, H; Ho, R; Toy, P
Acute severe isovolemic anemia (to a hemoglobin [Hb] concentration of 50 g/L) does not decrease subcutaneous wound tissue oxygen tension (PsqO(2)). University hospital operating room and inpatient general clinical research center ward. Twenty-five healthy, paid volunteers. Subcutaneous oxygen tension and subcutaneous temperature (Tsq) were measured continuously during isovolemic hemodilution to an Hb level of 50 g/L. In 14 volunteers (initially well-perfused), "normal" perfusion (Tsq >34.4 degrees C) was achieved by hydration and systemic warming prior to starting isovolemic hemodilution, while in 11 volunteers (perfusion not controlled [PNC]), no attempt was made to control perfusion prior to hemodilution. Measurements of PsqO(2), Tsq, and relative subcutaneous blood flow (flow index). While PsqO(2), Tsq, and flow index were significantly lower in PNC vs well-perfused subjects at baseline, there was no significant difference between them at the Hb of 50 g/L (nadir). Subcutaneous PO(2) did not decrease significantly in either group. Arterial PO(2) was not different between the groups, and did not change significantly over time; Tsq and flow index increased significantly from baseline to nadir Hb in both groups. The level of PsqO(2) was maintained at baseline levels during hemodilution to Hb 50 g/L in healthy volunteers, whether they were initially well-perfused or mildly underperfused peripherally. Given the significant increase in Tsq and flow index, this resulted from a compensatory increase in subcutaneous blood flow sufficient to maintain oxygen delivery. Wound healing depends to a large extent on tissue oxygen delivery, and these data suggest that even severe anemia by itself would not be sufficient to impair wound healing. Thus, transfusion of autologous packed red blood cells solely to improve healing in surgical patients with no other indication for transfusion is not supported by these results.
Lima, Renata Monteiro; Ferreira, Maria Augusta Drago; de Jesus Ponte Carvalho, Teresa Maria; Dumêt Fernandes, Bruno José; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Lanchote, Vera Lucia
AIM This study investigated the kinetic disposition, metabolism and enantioselectivity of albendazole (ABZ) and praziquantel (PZQ) administered alone and in combination to healthy volunteers. METHODS A randomized crossover study was carried out in three phases (n = 9), in which some volunteers started in phase 1 (400 mg ABZ), others in phase 2 (1500 mg PZQ), and the remaining volunteers in phase 3 (400 mg ABZ + 1500 mg PZQ). Serial blood samples were collected from 0–48 h after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a monocompartmental model with lag time and were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test; P≤ 0.05. RESULTS The administration of PZQ increased the plasma concentrations of (+)-ASOX (albendazole sulphoxide) by 264% (AUC 0.99 vs. 2.59 µg ml−1 h), (−)-ASOX by 358% (0.14 vs. 0.50 µg ml−1 h) and albendazole sulfone (ASON) by 187% (0.17 vs. 0.32 µg ml−1 h). The administration of ABZ did not change the kinetic disposition of (+)-(S)-PZQ (–)-(R)-4-OHPZQ or (+)-(S)-4-OHPZQ, but increased the plasma concentration of (–)-(R)-PZQ by 64.77% (AUC 0.52 vs. 0.86 µg ml−1 h). CONCLUSIONS The pharmacokinetic interaction between ABZ and PZQ in healthy volunteers was demonstrated by the observation of increased plasma concentrations of ASON, both ASOX enantiomers and (–)-(R)-PZQ. Clinically, the combination of ABZ and PZQ may improve the therapeutic efficacy as a consequence of higher concentration of both active drugs. On the other hand, the magnitude of this elevation may represent an increased risk of side effects, requiring, certainly, reduction of the dosage. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this combination. PMID:21395645
Di Stefano, Michele; Carnevale Maffè, Gabriella; Bergonzi, Manuela; Mengoli, Caterina; Formagnana, Pietro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Corazza, Gino Roberto
The relationship between gluten ingestion and gastrointestinal tract function is a matter of debate. We analysed the effect of gluten on gastric and gallbladder emptying and intestinal fermentation in healthy volunteers. Ultrasound measurement of gastric and gallbladder emptying after both gluten-containing and gluten-free meals was performed in 18 volunteers (8 women, age 25.0±2.5 years; BMI 22±1.9). Breath hydrogen excretion after a gluten-containing meal, a gluten-free meal and a gluten-free meal with added gluten powder was measured in 16 volunteers (10 women, age 25.2±2.7 years; BMI 22±1.8). The severity of symptoms was monitored. Gluten presence in the meals was not recognised. Gastric emptying time was 81.6±13.8min after gluten-containing and 73.9±21.6min after gluten-free meals (p=0.11). Percentage ejection fraction after gluten-containing meals was 60±9% and 60.6±6% after gluten-free meals (p=0.68). Peak and cumulative hydrogen excretion were significantly higher after gluten-containing than after gluten-free meals (peak: 12.5±7.3 vs 6.5±5.1 parts-per-million, p<0.01; and cumulative: 2319±1720 vs 989±680 parts-per-million/minute, respectively; p<0.01). Adding gluten powder to the gluten-free meal did not modify fermentation. Symptoms were mild and not different after the meals. In healthy volunteers, gluten may induce gastrointestinal alterations. Further studies are needed to clarify which patients could benefit from dietary modification. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mellor, Fiona E; Muggleton, Jennifer M; Bagust, Jeff; Mason, William; Thomas, Peter W; Breen, Alan C
Prospective fluoroscopic and electromyographic study of coronal plane lumbar spine motion in healthy male volunteers. Assess the intervertebral motion profiles in healthy volunteers for symmetry, regularity, and neutral zone laxity during passive recumbent lateral bending motion. Previous continuous in vivo motion studies of the lumbar spine have mainly been limited to active, weight-bearing, flexion-extension (sagittal plane) motion. No data are available for passive lateral bending or to indicate the motion profiles when muscle activity is minimized. Thirty asymptomatic male volunteers underwent video-fluoroscopy of their lumbar spines during passive, recumbent lumbar lateral bending through 80 degrees using a motor-driven motion table. Approximately 120 consecutive images of segments L2-L5 were captured, and the position of each vertebra was tracked throughout the sequence using automated frame-to-frame registration. Reference intervals for intervertebral motion parameters were calculated. Surface electromyography recordings of erector spinae were obtained in a similar group of volunteers using the same protocol without fluoroscopy to determine to what extent the motion was completely passive. Correlations between intervertebral and lumbar motion were always positive in controls and asymmetry was less than 55% of intervertebral range. The upper reference interval for the slope of intervertebral rotation in the first 10 degrees of trunk motion did not exceed 0.46 for any level. Muscle electrical activity during the motion was very low. Examples from patient studies showed markedly different results. These results suggest that reference limits from asymptomatic data for coronal plane passive recumbent intervertebral motion may be a useful resource for investigating the relationship between symptoms of chronic (nonspecific) low back pain and biomechanics and in the clinical assessment of patients and interventions that target the passive holding elements of the
Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto
The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.
Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Nelson, Karen E; Wang, Yuezhu; Xiang, Charlie; Li, Lanjuan
Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with disease; however, little is known about the baseline bacterial profiles from various human habitats of healthy Chinese undergraduates. Using parallel barcoded 454 pyrosequencing targeting on the 16S rRNA gene V3 region, the bacterial diversity of the nasopharynx, saliva, dominant hands, and feces were investigated from 10 healthy Chinese junior boarding undergraduates at Zhejiang University. The participants were 21-24 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) < 24 kg/m(2). A total of 156,717 high-quality pyrosequencing reads were obtained for evaluating bacterial diversity, which represented 29,887 unique phylotypes. The overall taxonomic distribution of the 16S rRNA gene-based amplicons demonstrated that these 4 habitats of the human body harbored distinct microbiota and could be divided into different clusters according to anatomic site, while the established patterns of bacterial diversity followed the human body habitat (feces, hands, saliva, and nasopharynx). Although significant inter-individual variation was observed, the healthy microbiota still shared a large number of phylotypes in each habitat, but not among the four habitats, indicating that a core microbiome existed in each healthy habitat. The vast majority of sequences from these different habitats were classified into different taxonmies that became the predominant bacteria of the healthy microbiota. We first established the framework of microbial communities from four healthy human habitats of the same participants with similar living environments for the Chinese undergraduates. Our data represent an important step for determining the diversity of Chinese healthy microbiota, and can be used for more large-scale studies that focus on the interactions between healthy and diseases states for young Chinese adults in the same age range.
Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Brenner Reetz, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; Wagner, Roger; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira
Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.
Linssen, A M W; Vuurman, E F P M; Sambeth, A; Riedel, W J
Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline and is used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Besides reducing behavioral symptoms, it improves their cognitive function. There are also observations of methylphenidate-induced cognition enhancement in healthy adults, although studies in this area are relatively sparse. We assessed the possible memory-enhancing properties of methylphenidate. In the current study, the possible enhancing effects of three doses of methylphenidate on declarative and working memory, attention, response inhibition and planning were investigated in healthy volunteers. In a double blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 healthy young male volunteers were tested after a single dose of placebo or 10, 20 or 40 mg of methylphenidate. Cognitive performance testing included a word learning test as a measure of declarative memory, a spatial working memory test, a set-shifting test, a stop signal test and a computerized version of the Tower of London planning test. Declarative memory consolidation was significantly improved relative to placebo after 20 and 40 mg of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate also improved set shifting and stopped signal task performance but did not affect spatial working memory or planning. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting enhanced declarative memory consolidation after methylphenidate in a dose-related fashion over a dose range that is presumed to reflect a wide range of dopamine reuptake inhibition.
Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira
Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers. PMID:23840948
Jackson, Kevin; Rubin, Rachael; Van Hoeck, Nicole; Hauert, Tommy; Lana, Valentina; Wang, Huan
In general, brain temperatures are elevated during physical sporting activities; therefore, reducing brain temperature shortly after a sports-related concussion (SRC) could be a promising intervention technique. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of head and neck cooling on physiological and cognitive function in normal healthy volunteers. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent two different sessions of combined head and neck cooling, one session with a cold pack and one session with a room temperature pack. Physiological measurements included: systolic/diastolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry, heart rate, and sublingual and tympanic temperature. Cognitive assessment included: processing speed, executive function, and working memory tasks. Physiological measurements were taken pre-, mid- and post-cooling, while cognitive assessments were done before and after cooling. The order of the sessions was randomized. There was a significant decrease in tympanic temperature across both sessions; however more cooling occurred when the cold pack was in the device. There was no significant decrease in sublingual temperature across either session. The observed heart rates, pulse oximetry, systolic and diastolic blood pressure during the sessions were all within range of a normal healthy adult. Cognitive assessment remained stable across each session for both pre- and post-cooling. We propose that optimizing brain temperature management after brain injury using head and neck cooling technology may represent a sensible, practical, and effective strategy to potentially enhance recovery and perhaps minimize the subsequent short and long term consequences from SRC. PMID:28123796
Qu, Fen; Cui, Enbo; Guo, Tongsheng; Li, Haijing; Chen, Suming; Liu, Liming; Han, Wang; Bao, Chunmei; Mao, Yuanli; Tang, Yi-Wei
Military facilities provide unique opportunities for studying Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and transmission patterns. In this cross-sectional observational study, we assessed the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization among Chinese military volunteers in two camps in the Beijing area. Antimicrobial resistance patterns, risk factors for colonization, and transmission patterns using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were also evaluated. From May to July 2007, 1,044 nasal swabs were collected from military volunteers from suburban (560) and urban (484) camps. A total of 209 S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which all were methicillin susceptible. Independent factors associated with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) nasal colonization included younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.03 to 2.21, P = 0.0347), higher education (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.73, P = 0.0056), shorter length of service (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.36, P = 0.0004), nonsmoking (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.14 to 2.28, P = 0.0069), and inactive participation in social events (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.25 to 5.49, P = 0.0082). Among 209 MSSA isolates, 126 (60.3%) were determined to be epidemic and a total of 12 genotypes were identified, of which four (90 isolates [71.4%]) represented the majority of strains. Length of service and camp location were statistically related to the four major MSSA genotype clonal transmissions. Our data indicated that MSSA, not methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), nasal colonization and clonal transmission occur in healthy military volunteers in Beijing. Younger, female, nonsmoking volunteers with higher education, little or no participation in social events, and less time in service are at higher risk for nasal MSSA carriage. PMID:19889899
Müller, U; Rowe, J B; Rittman, T; Lewis, C; Robbins, T W; Sahakian, B J
Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Di Stefano, M; Papathanasopoulos, A; Blondeau, K; Vos, R; Boecxstaens, V; Farré, R; Rommel, N; Tack, J
There are limited data concerning the effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor activation on esophageal motility. Sumatriptan, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, was recently reported to enhance esophageal peristalsis after intravenous administration. Buspirone, an orally available 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, was shown to modulate gastroduodenal motor function. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of buspirone on esophageal motility of healthy volunteers. On two separate visits, 20 healthy volunteers aged 21-29 years (nine women) underwent esophageal manometry before and 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of buspirone 20-mg or placebo capsule, according to a double-blind crossover design. At each time point, we compared buspirone and placebo effects on: resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES); residual pressure and duration of LES relaxation; amplitude, duration, and onset velocity of esophageal body contractions, during 10 swallows of 5 mL of water. Significant analysis of variance differences (P < 0.05) are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Buspirone significantly increased mean distal esophageal wave amplitude (151 vs. 87 mmHg, P < 0.05) and duration (6.1 vs. 4.2 seconds, P < 0.05). Similarly, buspirone significantly increased mean LES resting pressure (26 vs. 21 mmHg, P < 0.05) and mean residual LES pressure (7.9 vs. 2 mmHg, P < 0.05), whereas reduced mean LES relaxation duration (7.2 vs. 8.0 seconds, P < 0.05) and mean distal onset velocity (7.6 vs. 14.7 cm/second, P < 0.05). Buspirone enhances esophageal peristalsis and LES function in healthy volunteers. Further study is warranted on the effects of buspirone on esophageal function and symptoms in patients with ineffective esophageal motility.
Apseloff, Glen; Kitzmiller, Joseph P; Tishler, Carl L
Early clinical trials rely upon paid healthy volunteers. Concern has been raised regarding the characteristics of these individuals, how well they understand their rights and the risks of clinical research, and how they may be influenced by manipulation or coercion. Therefore, we investigated (1) the motivations of subjects in clinical trials, (2) how well these individuals comprehend a consent form they sign, and (3) the effect of the stipend on the reliability of information reported by volunteers in clinical trials. Thirty healthy subjects (age, 21-45 years) in a long-duration clinical trial were administered a questionnaire gathering demographic information and testing their comprehension of the consent form. In a separate chart review of 10 clinical trials, 374 subjects were studied to determine their reliability in reporting abnormalities in their medical history and in reporting adverse events, and an association was examined between the incidence of unreliable reporting and the stipend paid to them for participating in the clinical trial. A large percentage of subjects who were enrolled in the long-duration clinical trial failed to comprehend a variety of basic concepts related to the consent form and their participation in the drug study. The chart review demonstrated that subjects who are paid larger stipends may not be more likely to report abnormalities on their medical history. Further studies should be undertaken with larger numbers of subjects enrolled in clinical trials, and possible associations between demographic data (eg, income, level of education, number of previous studies) and the reliability of information provided by normal healthy research volunteers should be examined.
Müller, U.; Rowe, J.B.; Rittman, T.; Lewis, C.; Robbins, T.W.; Sahakian, B.J.
Background Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Results Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Cognitive Enhancers’. PMID:22820554
Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno
Background Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05). Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) and body temperature did not change. Conclusion This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition. PMID:27980393
Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno
Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05). Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) and body temperature did not change. This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition.
Jang, Kyungho; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Oh, Jaeseong; Lee, SeungHwan; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lim, Kyoung Soo
Purpose Oseltamivir is widely used in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A and B viral infections. It is ingested as an oral prodrug that is rapidly metabolized by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) to its active form, oseltamivir carboxylate. Dexamethasone is also used in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe complication of influenza; however, its influence on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oseltamivir is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coadministering oseltamivir and dexamethasone on the PK of oseltamivir in healthy volunteers. Methods An open-label, two-period, one-sequence, multiple-dose study was conducted in 19 healthy male volunteers. Oseltamivir (75 mg) was orally administered on Day 1 and Day 8, and dexamethasone (1.5 mg) was administered once daily from Day 3 to Day 8. Serial blood and urine samples were collected for PK analysis of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate on Day 1 and Day 8. Oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate decreased after dexamethasone treatment for 6 days. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of the metabolic ratio (oseltamivir carboxylate AUC0–48h/oseltamivir AUC0–48h) was 0.92 (0.87–0.97). The amount of unchanged oseltamivir excreted in urine increased by 14% after dexamethasone treatments. Conclusion Coadministration of dexamethasone with oseltamivir slightly decreased systemic exposure to oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in healthy volunteers. This result suggests that CES1 is inhibited by dexamethasone in humans. However, coadministration of oseltamivir and dexamethasone did not appear to have a clinically relevant effect on the PK of oseltamivir; based on these results, dexamethasone can be coadministered with oseltamivir. PMID
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioavailability of a new tablet formulation of carbocysteine relative against two other oral carbocysteine containing dosage forms, viz. a syrup and capsules. Plasma levels and urine concentrations of carbocysteine were monitored, following oral administration of all three dosage forms to healthy human volunteers, by direct derivatization of carbocysteine using dabsylchloride and subsequent high performance liquid chromatography. There was no difference in bioavailability of carbocysteine from these dosage forms as expressed by the respective areas under the plasma concentration-time curves and total amounts of unchanged carbocysteine excreted in urine.
Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Wood, Jacqueline N; De Simone, Veronica; Grafman, Jordan
Studies have shown that the amygdala, temporal, and prefrontal cortices play a key role in the expression of anxiety. The correlation between gray matter volume of these structures and behavioral anxiety measures was not previously investigated in healthy volunteers. The authors used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between brain regional volume and anxiety. The authors found an inverse correlation between anxiety measures and cortical volume in regions of the limbic system and prefrontal cortex implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. The authors suggest that volumetric variability of these regions may have a correlation with the development of an anxious personality trait.
Chow, A T; Fowler, C; Williams, R R; Morgan, N; Kaminski, S; Natarajan, J
The safety and pharmacokinetics of a once-daily high intravenous dose of levofloxacin (750 mg) in 18 healthy volunteers were studied in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-center parallel group study. Levofloxacin was well tolerated, and higher maximum concentration of drug in serum and area under the concentration-time curve values were achieved. For difficult-to-treat infections, high daily doses of levofloxacin may be beneficial, and intravenous administration may be preferred in certain clinical settings, such as when treating patients in intensive care units, warranting further evaluation.
Zarubina, I V; Ganapol'skiĭ, V P; Shabanov, P D
The effect of cold exposure (-10 degrees C, air speed--2.5 m/sec, 40 minutes) on physical activity, cognitive processes and metabolic status of 75 volunteers, healthy men of 20-24, was studied in termobarocomplex Tabaj (Japan). Cold exposure reduced physical and cognitive activity, the activity of kreatine phosphokinase, superoxide dismutase, the levels of redox glutation and pyruvate. Preliminary administration of adaptogenic drug trekrezan 0.2 g prior to cold exposure normalized the indexes studied of physical activity and metabolic status. It is suggested that trekrezan can be used as a meteoadaptogenic drug for rapid and effective adaptation to cold exposure of environment.
Liu, Y-M; Chen, Q; Zhang, M-Q; Liu, G-Y; Jia, J-Y; Pu, H-H; Liu, Y; Hu, C-Y; Lu, C; Wang, W; Cao, W-E; Song, B; Song, Y-X; Zhu, J-M; Yu, C
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a racemic 4-aminoquinoline derivative that was first introduced as an antimalarial, and subsequently applied to the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Information on the pharmacokinetics of HCQ in healthy volunteers, especially in a Chinese population is limited, and this study was conducted to provide support for a generic product to obtain marketing authorization in China.The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and assess bioequivalence of a new generic test and the branded reference hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets in healthy volunteers.This was a parallel, open-label, randomized, single-dose, 1-period fasting study. 54 healthy subjects were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 200 mg hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets of the test or the reference formulation. 15 blood samples were collected and whole blood concentrations of HCQ were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Log-transformed Cmax and AUC0-24 values were used to test for bioequivalence. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the log-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC0-24 were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80-125%. Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study by vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead electrocardiograms, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events.54 healthy subjects were enrolled and completed the study (mean [SD] age, height, body weight, and BMI were 23.9 [2.4] years, 168.9 [5.0] cm, 61.3 [5.4] kg, and 21.5 [1.7] kg/m2), 27 subjects per group. No formulation or sequence effects were observed. The mean values of Cmax and AUC0-24 for the test and reference formulations of HCQ (197.6 and 199.0 ng/mL, 2460.1 and 2468.3 ng/mL/h) were not significantly different. The 90% CIs of the ratios of Cmax and AUC0
Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508
Moraes, M E; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G
1. We have studied the pharmacokinetics of stable strontium in 10 healthy male volunteers. We gave each volunteer 5 mmol strontium gluconate by intravenous infusion over 1 h and measured strontium concentrations in plasma and urine samples for 20 days. The plasma strontium concentration vs time data for each volunteer were fitted by a triexponential function using NONLIN. Compartmental model-dependent and model-independent pharmacokinetic variables were then calculated. 2. The mean half-life we report (5.4 days) is longer than that previously reported (about 2 days), since we continued sampling for 20 days. However, the rates of clearance (CL 9.4 ml min-1. CLR 5.4 ml min-1, and CLNR 4.0 ml min-1) are similar to those previously reported, and the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (64 l) is similar to the values previously reported for the size of the exchangeable pool of both strontium and calcium. 3. The similarities in the pharmacokinetic behavior of strontium and calcium suggest that the in vivo disposition of strontium may be used as a marker of calcium disposition and for studying the effects of drugs such as the calcium antagonists. PMID:2049251
Vianna-Jorge, R; Sudo, R T; Melo, P A; Suarez-Kurtz, G
1. The pharmacokinetics of different pharmaceutical preparations of oral nifedipine--Adalat (capsule), Oxcord and Cardalin (tablets)--was determined after administration of single oral doses of 10 mg to nine healthy young Brazilian volunteers (7 men). 2. There were no significant changes in heart rate or systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured in the sitting position within 8 h of nifedipine administration to these normotensive volunteers. No side effects were reported by the volunteers or observed by the attending physicians during the study. 3. No significant differences were observed among the three preparations in relation to the following pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the plasma concentration-time curves: area under the curve (AUC), slope (beta) and half-life (T1/2) of the elimination phase, volume of distribution (Vd/F) and total body clearance (CL/F), both expressed as functions of the oral bioavailability (F) of nifedipine. 4. The peak plasma concentration of nifedipine (Cmax) and the time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were not different for the two tablet preparations. However, Cmax was significantly higher, and Tmax was significantly shorter for the capsule. These data indicate that the capsule and the tablet preparations are not bioequivalent.
Ayatollahi, Hossein; Javan, Atefeh Ordoei; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Shahroodian, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
Saffron showed some effects on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In a clinical trial with a limited number volunteers, saffron tablets influenced on bleeding time. In this study, the effect of saffron on plasma level of fibrinogen, factor VII (as coagulant agent), C and S protein (as anti-coagulant agent), PT and PTT in a larger sample size was evaluated. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study consisting of 1 week treatment with 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets. Sixty healthy volunteers (age range 20-50 years) were selected for the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 received placebo; Groups 2 and 3 received 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days (1 tablet per day). Before and after 7 days treatment and also 1 month after that, blood samples were taken. The plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, C and S protein, PT and PTT were evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no difference between groups for any of evaluated factors. This study rejected any effect of saffron with dose of 200 and 400 mg for 1 week on coagulant and anticoagulant system.
Lobatto, S; Daha, M R; Voetman, A A; Evers-Schouten, J H; Van Es, A A; Pauwels, E K; Van Es, L A
Using aggregates of IgG (AIgG) obtained by heat aggregation of a 16 g% human IgG solution, we sought a method for measuring the function of the mononuclear phagocyte system with a probe that bears more resemblance to soluble immune complexes than erythrocytes coated with anti-rhesus IgG (EIgG). It was found that intravenous administration of 10 micrograms AIgG/kg body weight did not cause any detectable side effects in chimpanzees. In nine healthy volunteers, a dose of 10 micrograms AIgG/kg body weight was used without any adverse reactions. AIgG is cleared from the human circulation with a t1/2 of 26 +/- 8 min (mean +/- SD). The site of clearance is predominantly the liver, as shown by an average liver spleen uptake ratio of 230:100. In whole blood obtained from the volunteers, it was found that erythrocytes bound significant amounts of AIgG, suggesting that CR1 on erythrocytes is involved in the clearance of complement activating immune complexes in humans. In five of the volunteers, clearance studies with EIgG had been done in a previous study. EIgG was cleared from the circulation with a t1/2 of 30 +/- 6.2 min (mean +/- SD). The predominant site of clearance of EIgG was the spleen. These data indicate that sensitized red blood cells are cleared from the circulation differently from soluble IgG aggregates.
Wesnes, Keith A; Brooker, Helen; Watson, Anthony W; Bal, Wendy; Okello, Edward
The present study compared the cognitive and mood effects of two commercially available products, Red Bull energy drink 250 mL and Red Bull Sugarfree energy drink 250 mL, together with a matching placebo 250 mL. Twenty-four healthy young volunteers took part in a randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind, three-way cross-over study. Cognitive function was assessed using an integrated set of nine computerised tests of attention, working and episodic memory. On each study day the volunteers received a standardised breakfast prior to completing a baseline performance on cognitive tests and mood scales, followed by the consumption of the study drink. The cognitive tests and scales were then re-administered at 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Red Bull was found to produce significant improvements over both the Sugarfree version and the placebo drink on two composite scores from the six working and episodic memory tests; one combining the 12 accuracy measures from the six tasks and the other the average speed of correct responses from the working memory and episodic recognition memory tasks. These improvements were in the range of a medium effect size, which reflects a substantial enhancement to memory in young volunteers.
Sekar, Vanitha; Lavreys, Ludo; Van de Casteele, Tom; Berckmans, Cindy; Spinosa-Guzman, Sabrina; Vangeneugden, Tony; De Pauw, Martine; Hoetelmans, Richard
The drug-drug interaction between rifabutin (RFB) and darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) was examined in a randomized, three-way crossover study of HIV-negative healthy volunteers who received DRV/r 600/100 mg twice a day (BID) (treatment A), RFB 300 mg once a day (QD) (treatment B), and DRV/r 600/100 mg BID plus RFB 150 mg every other day (QOD) (treatment C). The sequence of treatments was randomized, and each treatment period lasted 12 days. Full pharmacokinetic profiles were determined for DRV, ritonavir, and RFB and its active metabolite, 25-O-desacetylrifabutin (desRFB), on day 13. The DRV and ritonavir areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 12 h (AUC(12h)) increased by 57% and 66%, respectively, in the presence of RFB. The RFB exposure was comparable between treatment with RFB QD alone (treatment B) and treatment with DRV/r plus RFB QOD (treatment C); however, based on least-square means ratios, the minimum plasma concentration (C(min)) increased by 64% and the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) decreased by 28%, respectively. The exposure (AUC within the dosage interval and at steady state [AUC(τ)]) to desRFB was considerably increased (by 881%) following treatment with DRV/r/RFB. The exposure to the parent drug plus the metabolite increased 1.6-fold in the presence of DRV/r. Adverse events (AEs) were more commonly reported during combined treatment (83% versus 44% for RFB and 28% for DRV/r); similarly, grade 3-4 AEs occurred in 17% versus 11% and 0%, respectively, of volunteers. Eighteen of 27 volunteers (66.7%) prematurely discontinued the trial; all volunteers discontinuing for safety reasons (n = 9) did so during RFB treatment phases. These results suggest that DRV/r may be coadministered with RFB with a dose adjustment of RFB to 150 mg QOD and increased monitoring for RFB-related AEs. Based on the overall safety profile of DRV/r, no dose adjustment of DRV/r is considered to be warranted. Given the safety profile seen with the
Gasbarrini, G; Gallo, A; Nicoletti, M; Montalto, M; Addolorato, G
A good digestion is essential to maintain a healthy status. It is known that physiological digestive processes could be improved by the ingestion of some medicinal plants, while specific foods can facilitate the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, sensory properties of food seem to also influence digestion. We assessed the influence on physiological digestive processes of two Gran Soleil (GS) products containing a mixture of digestive plant extracts, citrus juices and liquors. We evaluated, in 10 healthy volunteers, the eventual occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms after their ingestion and measured their palatability. Ingestion of GS did not cause significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, the palatability median score shows a good appreciation of the products. In conclusion, it is possible to suppose that a product with a good palatability, able to support and maintain a good digestive condition, derives from the mixture of digestive herbs, citrus juices, liquor and other ingredients.
Masri, M; Rizk, S; Boujbel, L; Bellahirich, W; Baassoumi, D; Attia, M; Matha, V
For FDA approval, bioequivalence of a generic version of Tacrolimus must be demonstrated in a randomized, two-treatments, two-periods, two-sequences, single-dose crossover study in healthy adult volunteers. Currently there are at least 3 differents generic equivalent for Tacrolimus, that are approved by the EMA and the FDA, with a USA market share of nearly 50%. However, the market share of generic immunosuppressive drugs in the Middle East region is still very low due to the reluctance of the physician to accept Tacrolimus generics, considered to be a narrow therapeutic window drug, that are approved using the standard bioequivalence criteria of 80% to 125%. Herein we present a bioequivalence study of a new Tacrolimus generic, Tacrolimus Medis 5 mg developed by Medis Tunisia batch number 12G3003 compared with Prograf® 5 mg batch number 7202 manufactured by Astellas Toyama Co., Ltd. Japan and HIKMA Pharmaceuticals, Amman-Jordan in healthy adult volunteers using the 90%-111% criteria recommended for drugs with narrow therapeutic window. The study was, balanced, randomized, two-treatments, two-periods, two-sequences, single dose, crossover, comparative oral bioavailability study in healthy adult human volunteers. The study was carried out in accordance with the Basic Principles defined in the U.S. 21 CFR Part 312.20, the principles enunciated in the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki). Thirty six non-smoking healthy, as determined by medical history, volunteers, 18 years and older, were included. Following randomization using a computer software (pharma solution) the volunteers were given a single oral dose of 5 milligrams following a 12 hour fast with a wash out period of 7 days. Pharmacokinetics profile with blood levels at: 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours were performed following each dose. Tacrolimus plasma level was determined using an HPLC validated method (Transmedical For Life S.A.R.L. Beirut
Lerner, F E; Schere, D; Batafarano, N; Casas, F; Glancszpigel, R
The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of two bromazepam (CAS 1812-30-2) formulations in 24 healthy volunteers. An open, randomised clinical trial designed as two-period crossover with 14-day washout between doses was employed. Plasma samples for assessments of their bromazepam concentration by HPLC-UV were obtained over 96 h after administration. No adverse effect was reported for any of the formulations administered. The following pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated: AUC(0-96 h), AUCinf, Cmax, Tmax, Ke and T1/2. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the mean test/reference individual ratios were 81-109 for AUC and 84-116 for Cmax. Since the 90% CI for both, AUC and Cmax ratios were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, it is concluded that the new bromazepam slow-release formulation is therapeutic equivalent to the conventional formulation for both, the extent and the rate of absorption after single dose administration in healthy volunteers.
Kang, B C; Yang, C Q; Rhee, J E; Suh, O K; Shin, W G
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of terazosin in 1 ml of human plasma was developed using prazosin as an internal standard. The plasma sample was extracted with dichloromethane and ethylether and a 100-microl aliquot was injected onto the reversed-phase column. The mobile phase, 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer:acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran = 720:220:60 (v/v/v), was run at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and the column effluent was monitored using a florescence detector set at 370 and 250 nm for the emission and excitation wave numbers, respectively. The retention times for terazosin and prazosin were approximately 6.4 and 9.8 min, respectively, and the coefficients of variation of terazosin were generally low, below 6.4%. The present HPLC method was successful for the pharmacokinetic study of terazosin in healthy volunteers. Following oral administration of terazosin, 2 mg, to 20 healthy male volunteers, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity was 421 +/- 71.8 ng h/ml and terminal half-life was 9.83 +/- 1.29 h.
Cassé-Perrot, Catherine; Lanteaume, Laura; Deguil, Julie; Bordet, Régis; Auffret, Alexandra; Otten, Lisa; Blin, Olivier; Bartrés-Faz, David; Micallef, Joëlle
To this day, the pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease remains limited to the temporary stabilisation of cognitive decline and the reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is moreover with great difficulty to predict and select promising drug candidates in the early stages of the discovery and developmental process. In this context, scientists have developed new experimental paradigms to artificially induce transient cognitive impairments in healthy volunteers akin to those observed in Alzheimer's disease, i.e. the Cognitive Challenge Models. In the last decade, a great amount of literature on Sleep Deprivation was published which mainly focused on the consequences of sleep loss for public health. However, sleep deprivation paradigm may also be regarded as a cognitive challenge model. It is commonly accepted that sleep deprivation induces cognitive impairments related to a global decrease in vigilance, while in fact, there is a controversial approach related to the selective effects on cognitive functions. The identification and validation of cognitive challenge models in healthy volunteers are suitable in early clinical development of drugs to determine the 'hint of efficacy' of drug candidates. The present review aims at exploring in detail the methods, designs and cognitive paradigms used in non pharmacological sleep deprivation studies. Sleep deprivation can be induced by different methods. Probing the four main cognitive functions will allow identifying the extent to which different sleep deprivation designs selectively compromise executive function, working memory, episodic memory and attention. Findings will be discussed in line with cognitive processing levels that are required according to the tasks.
Zuurman, Lineke; Ippel, Annelies E; Moin, Eduard; van Gerven, Joop M A
An increasing number of novel therapeutic agents are targeted at cannabinoid receptors. Drug development programmes of new cannabinoid drugs may be facilitated by the identification of useful biomarkers. This systemic literature review aims to assess the usefulness of direct biomarkers for the effects of cannabis and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers. One hundred and sixty-five useful articles were found that investigated the acute effects of cannabis or THC on the central nervous system (CNS) and heart rate in healthy volunteers. Three hundred and eighteen tests (or test variants) were grouped in test clusters and functional domains, to allow their evaluation as a useful biomarker and to study their dose-response effects. Cannabis/THC affected a wide range of CNS domains. In addition to heart rate, subjective effects were the most reliable biomarkers, showing significant responses to cannabis in almost all studies. Some CNS domains showed indications of depression at lower and stimulation at higher doses. Subjective effects and heart rate are currently the most reliable biomarkers to study the effect of cannabis. Cannabis affects most CNS domains, but too many different CNS tests are used to quantify the drug-response relationships reliably. Test standardization, particularly in motor and memory domains, may reveal additional biomarkers.
Doerner, Jonas M; Kuetting, Daniel L; Luetkens, Julian A; Naehle, Claas P; Dabir, Darius; Homsi, Rami; Nadal, Jennifer; Schild, Hans H; Thomas, Daniel K
To investigate the impact of a caffeine and taurine containing energy drink (ED) on myocardial contractility in healthy volunteers using cardiac MR and cardiac MR based strain analysis. 32 healthy volunteers (mean age 28 years) were investigated before and 1 h after consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED. For assessment of global cardiac functional parameters balanced SSFP-Cine imaging was performed, whereas CSPAMM tagging was used to evaluate global and regional myocardial strain. In addition, ten randomly chosen subjects were investigated once more using a caffeine only protocol to further evaluate the effect of caffeine solely. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded throughout all studies. ED consumption led to a significant increase in peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR) 1 h after consumption (PSS: w/o ED -22.8 ± 2.1%; w ED -24.3 ± 2.4%, P = <0.0001 and PSSR: w/o ED -1.2 ± 0.1 1/s; w ED -1.3 ± 0.2 1/s, P = 0.0056), which was not observed in the caffeine only group. In contrast, global left ventricular function was unchanged (P = 0.2076). No significant changes of vital parameters and diastolic filling pattern were detected 1 h after ED consumption. Consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED results in a subtle, but significant increase of myocardial contractility 1 h after consumption.
Grande, L; Manterola, C; Ros, E; Lacima, G; Pera, C
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of red wine taken with meals on esophageal motility, esophageal exposure to acid, and gastric pH. Following a randomized design, 14 healthy male volunteers (mean age 25 years, range 18-35 years were given 360 ml of red wine or tap water during lunch or dinner. All subjects underwent ambulatory 24-hr esophageal motility and esophagogastric pH monitoring studies. Three different periods were analyzed: during meals (30 min), postprandial (3 hr), and 8-hr supine. Two volunteers complained of heartburn after wine ingestion. An increase in the number of high amplitude waves (> 125 mm Hg, 95th percentile of our motility unit controls) was observed during meals accompanied by wine: water 1.2 (0-10.2), wine 1.6 (0-32.6), P = 0.02 [median (range)]. No other esophageal motility changes occurred. Percent reflux time increased during the postprandial period after wine ingestion in comparison with water: 1.7 (0-14.9) vs 0.1 (0-0.8), P < 0.05. Gastric pH was unaffected by the type of drink. Ingestion of moderate amounts of red wine with meals increases postprandial esophageal exposure to gastric acid in healthy persons.
Bülow, M; Olsson, R; Ekberg, O
Simultaneous videoradiography and solid-state manometry (videomanometry) was applied in eight healthy volunteers (four women, four men; age range 25-64 years, mean age 41 years) without swallowing problems. Three different swallowing techniques were tested; supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck. Seven videoradiographic variables and six manometric variables were analyzed. The supraglottic swallowing technique did not differ significantly from that of the control swallows. The effortful swallow had a significantly (p = 0.0001) reduced hyoid-mandibular distance preswallow due to an elevation of the hyoid and the larynx, which caused a significantly (p = 0.007) reduced maximal hyoid movement and a significantly (p = 0.009) reduced laryngeal elevation during swallow. The chin tuck swallow had a significantly (p = 0. 001) reduced laryngohyoid distance and also a significantly (p = 0. 004) reduced hyoid-mandibular distance. The chin tuck swallow also displayed significantly (p = 0.003) weaker pharyngeal contractions. Videomanometry allows for analysis of bolus transport, movement of anatomical structures, and measurement of intraluminal pressures. These variables are important when evaluating swallowing techniques. In the present study, we made a few observations that never have been reported before. When healthy volunteers performed supraglottic swallow, they performed the technique somewhat differently. Therefore, we assume dysphagic patients would need a substantial period of training to perform a technique efficiently. Chin tuck could impair protection of the airways in dysphagic patients with weak pharyngeal constrictor muscles.
Miyajima, Atsushi; Hirota, Takashi; Tashiro, Mari; Noguchi, Wataru; Kawano, Yayoi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yuasa, Nae; Koshino, Machi; Shiraishi, Yumi; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Akagi, Keita; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Makigami, Kuniko; Komoda, Masayo
As a novel administration method of ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we proposed a "whole-body bathing method (WBBM)". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. Previously, we demonstrated that WBBM could deliver IVM to the skin but not to the plasma in rats. In the present study, to assess the clinical validity of the method an arm bathing examination (first trial) and a whole-body bathing examination (second trial) were conducted in healthy volunteers. In both the first and second trials, after bathing in fluid containing IVM, the exposure in the stratum corneum was higher compared with that after taking IVM p.o. as reported previously. IVM was not detected in plasma at any sampling point after the whole-body bathing in the second trial. Furthermore no serious adverse events were found. These results in both trials suggest that WBBM can deliver IVM to the human stratum corneum without systemic exposure or serious adverse effects in healthy volunteers, and at concentrations that would be adequate for scabies treatment.
Gyaran, Ibrahim A; Spiezia, Filippo; Hudson, Zoe; Maffulli, Nicola
Iliotibial tract friction syndrome (ITBFS) might be caused by repetitive friction and abrasion of the iliotibial (ITB) tract across the lateral femoral epicondyle. Thickening in the ITB adjacent to the lateral femoral epicondyle has been reported. The values of ITB thickness at the lateral femoral epicondyle in healthy adult volunteers were determined, and the association between the thickness of the ITB and the subjects' age, weight, height, dominant limb and the volume of training or sporting activity was assessed. An Ultrasound Scan (high resolution 3-2 MHz transducer Voluson-i G E Medical Systems, UK) was used to measure the thickness of the ITB in 38 healthy volunteers (30 men and 8 women, mean age 22.5 ± 1.5 years, range 18-25 years). One measurement from each of the subjects' knees at the level of lateral femoral epicondyle was taken. Reliability was established by measuring 11 of the subjects on three separate occasions at least I week apart. The thickness of the ITB on the right and left knees was 1.1 ± 0.2 mm. There was no evidence of a significant association between the thickness of the ITB and the subjects' age, weight, height, dominant limb and the volume of training or sporting activity. There is no evidence of significant correlation between the thickness of the ITB and subjects' age, weight, height, dominant limb and volume of training or sporting activity.
Glue, Paul; Lockhart, Michelle; Lam, Fred; Hung, Noelyn; Hung, Cheung-Tak; Friedhoff, Lawrence
Noribogaine is the active metabolite of the naturally occurring psychoactive substance ibogaine, and may help suppress withdrawal symptoms in opioid-dependent subjects. The objectives of this Phase I study were to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profiles of noribogaine. In this ascending single-dose, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in 36 healthy drug-free male volunteers, 4 cohorts (n = 9) received oral doses of 3, 10, 30, or 60 mg or matching placebo, with intensive safety and pharmacokinetic assessments out to 216 hours, along with pharmacodynamic assessments sensitive to the effects of mu-opioid agonists. Noribogaine was rapidly absorbed, with peak concentrations occurring 2-3 hours after oral dosing, and showed dose-linear increases of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and Cmax between 3 and 60 mg. The drug was slowly eliminated, with mean half-life estimates of 28-49 hours across dose groups. Apparent volume of distribution was high (mean 1417-3086 L across dose groups). No safety or tolerability issues were identified in any cohort. No mu-opioid agonist pharmacodynamic effects were noted in pupillometry or cold-pressor testing. Single oral doses of noribogaine 3-60 mg were safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers.
Garzaro, Massimiliano; Pecorari, G; Nadalin, J; Raimondo, L; Palmo, A; Baccega, M; Giordano, C
The aim of our study is to assess, with objective measures, the impact on digestion of a coffee-flavoured iced dessert ingested at the end of a standardized meal; moreover, a subjective assessment, using a specific questionnaire, was carried out in order to compare objective and subjective data. Ten healthy male volunteers, after ENT and psychological assessment, underwent two scintigraphic evaluations (standardized meal without and with coffee-flavoured iced dessert) and, after the meal, filled in a specific questionnaire named dynamic digestibility questionnaire. In our sample the ingestion of the coffee-flavoured iced dessert seemed to improve the digestibility of a standardized meal: the difference between the curves of gastric emptying without and with iced dessert is statistically significant. These data are strongly confirmed by subjective assessment: the dynamic digestibility questionnaire (DDQ) showed a higher digestibility of a standardized meal with the coffee-flavoured iced dessert in comparison to a normal meal. The current study represents a preliminary report on this topic with a small sample of healthy volunteers: further studies on larger population are requested in order to confirm all the encouraging results herein discussed.
Wang, Tingting; Cai, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Fei, Na; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Jia, Wei; Cai, Sanjun; Zhao, Liping
Despite a long-suspected role in the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC), the composition of gut microbiota in CRC patients has not been adequately described. In this study, fecal bacterial diversity in CRC patients (n=46) and healthy volunteers (n=56) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Both principal component analysis and UniFrac analysis showed structural segregation between the two populations. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by redundancy analysis as key variables significantly associated with the structural difference. One OTU closely related to Bacteroides fragilis was enriched in the gut microbiota of CRC patients, whereas three OTUs related to Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis were enriched in that of healthy volunteers. A total of 11 OTUs belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Escherichia/Shigella, Klebsiella, Streptococcus and Peptostreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of CRC patients, and 5 OTUs belonging to the genus Roseburia and other butyrate-producing bacteria of the family Lachnospiraceae were less abundant. Real-time quantitative PCR further validated the significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut microbiota of CRC patients by measuring the copy numbers of butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase genes (Mann–Whitney test, P<0.01). Reduction of butyrate producers and increase of opportunistic pathogens may constitute a major structural imbalance of gut microbiota in CRC patients. PMID:21850056
Kuchewar, Vaishali V.; Borkar, Mangal A.; Nisargandha, Milind A.
Background: It is increasingly being realized that many of today's diseases are due to “oxidative stress” that results from an imbalance between formation and neutralization of free radicals. Rasayana Chikitsa is a unique branch of Ayurveda. The word Rasayana means the way for attaining excellent Rasadi Dhatus. Several medicinal plants have been described as Rasayanas in Ayurveda. Ashwagandha and Guduchi are the best among the Rasayanas described by Charaka. Aim: To study the efficacy of Ashwagandha and Guduchi in oxidative stress in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers after obtaining written informed consent. They were randomly distributed in three groups. Each group was treated with three different colored capsules containing Ashwagandha, Guduchi and placebo in the dose of 1 capsule (500 mg) twice a day for 6 months. The parameters such as hemoglobin%, Erythorcyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Super-Oxide Dismutase (SOD) level, etc., were assessed before and after treatment. The Student's t-test was applied to assess significant variations in all of the studied parameters. Results: In this study, there was a significant increase in SOD level and decrease in MDA level in Ashwagandha and Guduchi groups. Conclusion: Ashwagandha and Guduchi may be helpful in preventing the oxidative stress and premature aging. PMID:25364199
Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.
Carisoprodol is a centrally acting drug used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions. There is evidence from different sources that this oral muscle relaxant is abused and that it is associated with impairment leading to arrests for “driving under the influence” as well as increased risk of automobile accidents. Its subjective and psychomotor effects in healthy volunteers at therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses have not been well-characterized, and form the basis of this report. Fifteen healthy volunteers (8 males, 7 females) were administered 0, 350, and 700 mg of carisoprodol in separate sessions and for 6 h afterwards they completed a battery of tests at fixed time intervals so as to assess the subjective and psychomotor effects of the drug. The supratherapeutic dose, 700 mg, increased visual analog scale ratings of terms that were more reflective of sedation (e.g., “sleepy,” “heavy, sluggish feeling”) than those of abuse liability, and produced impaired performance on several psychomotor tests. The therapeutic dose, 350 mg, while producing few and mild subjective effects, still produced psychomotor impairment. The fact that the therapeutic dose of carisoprodol produced minimal subjective effects while adversely affecting performance is of concern in that patients prescribed this drug may feel relatively normal and engage in tasks (driving) that could put themselves and others at risk. PMID:21884720
Pimpão, Rui C; Dew, Tristan; Figueira, Maria E; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Claudia N; Williamson, Gary
The colonic metabolism of dietary flavonoids, phenolic acids and their phenolic metabolites is complex and many metabolites and conjugates have not yet been unambiguously identified in humans. Urine samples from nine healthy human volunteers obtained after the ingestion of a puree of five (poly)phenol-rich berry fruits were analysed using LC-Orbitrap MS to provide a preliminary indication of possible metabolites based on exact mass. In most cases, the identity of compounds was confirmed using standards produced either chemically or enzymically followed by analysis using LC-triple quadrupole MS. Sulphated, glucuronidated and methylated forms of catechol, pyrogallol and protocatechuic acid mostly appeared in urine after 8 h, suggesting colonic metabolism. Gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin conjugates appeared mainly before 4 h, indicative of absorption from the small intestine. Conjugates of ferulic, caffeic, and vanillic acid appeared at intermediate times. We have positively identified metabolites and conjugates, some novel, in the urine of healthy volunteers after intake of multiple phenolics from a mixed puree from berry fruits, with each being excreted at specific and signature times. Some of these compounds could potentially be used as biomarkers of fruit intake. The possible biological activities of these colonic metabolites require further assessment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Larsen, Lars E; Jakobsen, Lydia A; Jensen, Anne; Lambden, Benjamin M; Sørensen, Morten R; Ellrich, Jens
An ankle-foot orthosis is suggested to actively assist dorsiflexion of the foot by induction of a positive proprioceptive impact to ankle dorsiflexor muscles. However, an objective proof is missing. To assess the proprioceptive impact of an ankle-foot orthosis application by Hoffmann reflex recordings of the soleus muscle under static conditions. It was hypothesized that the use of an ankle-foot orthosis facilitated dorsiflexor motor function and thus a decreased the soleus Hoffmann reflex. Experimental study in healthy volunteers, pre-post test design. In all, 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in order to assess the proprioceptive impact of orthosis application. The Hoffmann reflex was recorded before, during, and after orthosis application. Under orthosis application, the Hoffmann reflex significantly decreased as compared to before (p < 0.05) and after application (p < 0.05). Findings indicate an inhibition of plantarflexors probably induced by facilitation of ankle dorsiflexors under static conditions. At first glance, it seems that foot orthoses primarily have a stabilizing effect on ankle joints in terms of simple mechanical bandages. However, the present results suggest an additional active impact on proprioceptive control. The putative neuromodulatory effect on motor control may support the application of such ankle-foot orthoses in, for example, drop foot. Furthermore, the objective assessment of a neurophysiological mode of action of orthoses by Hoffmann reflex recordings might be an appropriate primary outcome parameter in clinical trials. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Ichijo, Tomoaki; Izumi, Yoko; Nakamoto, Sayuri; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao
The primary infectious source of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which are known as opportunistic pathogens, appears to be environmental exposure, and it is important to reduce the frequency of exposure from environmental sources for preventing NTM infections. In order to achieve this, the distribution and respiratory activity of NTM in the environments must be clarified. In this study, we determined the abundance of mycobacteria and respiratory active mycobacteria in the household water system of healthy volunteers using quantitative PCR and a fluorescent staining method, because household water has been considered as one of the possible infectious sources. We chose healthy volunteer households in order to lessen the effect of possible residential contamination from an infected patient. We evaluated whether each sampling site (bathroom drain, kitchen drain, bath heater pipe and showerhead) have the potential to be the sources of NTM infections. Our results indicated that drains in the bathroom and kitchen sink are the niche for Mycobacterium spp. and M. avium cells were only detected in the bathtub inlet. Both physicochemical and biologic selective pressures may affect the preferred habitat of Mycobacterium spp. Regional differences also appear to exist as demonstrated by the presence (US) or absence (Japan) of Mycobacterium spp. on showerheads. Understanding of the country specific human activities and water usage will help to elucidate the infectious source and route of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.
Mooventhan, A; Nivethitha, L
Ice massage (IM) is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects have been reported, effects of IM of the head and spine on heart rate variability (HRV) have not been studied. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of IM of the head and spine on HRV in healthy volunteers. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into 3 sessions: (1) IM, (2) tap water massage (TWM) and (3) prone rest (PR). Heart rate (HR) and HRV were assessed before and after each intervention session. A significant increase in the mean of the intervals between adjacent QRS complexes or the instantaneous HR (RRI), square root of mean of sum of squares of differences between adjacent normal to normal (NN) intervals (RMSSD), number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 milliseconds (NN50), proportion derived by dividing NN50 by total number of NN intervals along with significant reduction in HR after IM session; significant increase in RRI along with significant reduction in HR after TWM, and a significant increase only in RMSSD after PR were observed. However, there was no significant difference between the sessions. Results of this study suggest that 20 min of IM of the head and spine is effective in reducing HR and improving HRV through vagal dominance in healthy volunteers.
Ostrowicz, Andrzej; Mikołajczak, Przemysław L; Wierzbicka, Marzena; Boguradzki, Piotr
The aim of the study was to investigate the bioavailability of a generic product of 100 mg and 400 mg imatinib film-coated tablets (test) as compared to that of a branded product (reference) at the same strength to determine bioequivalence. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate tolerability of both products. An open-label, randomized, crossover, two-period, single-dose, comparative study was conducted in 43 (Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg film-coated tablet) and in 42 (Imatynib-Biofarm 400 mg film-coated tablet), brand name Imatenil, Caucasian healthy volunteers in fed conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was separated by 14-day washout period. The imatinib and its metabolite N-desmethyl imatinib concentrations were determined using a validated LC MS/MS method. The results of the single-dose study in healthy volunteers indicated that the film-coated tablets of Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Biofarm Sp. z o.o. (test products) are bioequivalent to those of Glivec 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Novartis Pharma GmbH (reference products). Both products in the two doses of imatinib were well tolerated.
Zuurman, Lineke; Ippel, Annelies E; Moin, Eduard; van Gerven, Joop M A
An increasing number of novel therapeutic agents are targeted at cannabinoid receptors. Drug development programmes of new cannabinoid drugs may be facilitated by the identification of useful biomarkers. This systemic literature review aims to assess the usefulness of direct biomarkers for the effects of cannabis and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers. One hundred and sixty-five useful articles were found that investigated the acute effects of cannabis or THC on the central nervous system (CNS) and heart rate in healthy volunteers. Three hundred and eighteen tests (or test variants) were grouped in test clusters and functional domains, to allow their evaluation as a useful biomarker and to study their dose–response effects. Cannabis/THC affected a wide range of CNS domains. In addition to heart rate, subjective effects were the most reliable biomarkers, showing significant responses to cannabis in almost all studies. Some CNS domains showed indications of depression at lower and stimulation at higher doses. Subjective effects and heart rate are currently the most reliable biomarkers to study the effect of cannabis. Cannabis affects most CNS domains, but too many different CNS tests are used to quantify the drug–response relationships reliably. Test standardization, particularly in motor and memory domains, may reveal additional biomarkers. PMID:19133057
Tao, Yuehui; Rilling, Gabriel; Davies, Mike; Marshall, Ian
Measurement of blood flow by cine phase-contrast MRI is a valuable technique in the study of arterial disease but is time consuming, especially for multi-slice (4D) studies. Compressed sensing is a modern signal processing technique that exploits sparse signal representations to enable sampling at lower than the conventional Nyquist rate. It is emerging as a powerful technique for the acceleration of MRI acquisition. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of phase-contrast carotid blood flow measurement in healthy volunteers using threefold undersampling of kt-space and compressed sensing reconstruction. Sixteen healthy volunteers were scanned at 1.5T with a retrospectively gated 2D cine phase-contrast sequence. Both fully sampled and three-fold accelerated scans were carried out to measure blood flow velocities in the common carotid arteries. The accelerated scans used a k-t variable density randomised sampling scheme and standard compressed sensing reconstruction. Flow rates were determined by integration of velocities within the manually segmented arteries. Undersampled measurements were compared with fully sampled results. Bland-Altman analysis found that peak velocities and flow rates determined from the compressed sensing scans were underestimated by 5% compared with fully sampled scanning. The corresponding figure for time-averaged flow was 3%. These acceptably small errors with a threefold reduction in scan time will facilitate future extension to 4D flow studies in clinical research and practice. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Rongrong; He, Wei; Jiang, Zhengyan; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Wang, Wei
Early parental bonding experiences play a role in emotion recognition and expression in later adulthood, and patients with personality disorder frequently experience inappropriate parental bonding styles, therefore the aim of the present study was to explore whether parental bonding style is correlated with recognition of facial emotion in personality disorder patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Matsumoto and Ekman Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) photo set tests were carried out in 289 participants. Patients scored lower on parental Care but higher on parental Freedom Control and Autonomy Denial subscales, and they displayed less accuracy when recognizing contempt, disgust and happiness than the healthy volunteers. In healthy volunteers, maternal Autonomy Denial significantly predicted accuracy when recognizing fear, and maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness. In patients, paternal Care negatively predicted the accuracy of recognizing anger, paternal Freedom Control predicted the perceived intensity of contempt, maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness, and the intensity of disgust. Parenting bonding styles have an impact on the decoding process and sensitivity when recognizing facial emotions, especially in personality disorder patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Allen, A P; Hutch, W; Borre, Y E; Kennedy, P J; Temko, A; Boylan, G; Murphy, E; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G
The emerging concept of psychobiotics—live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit—represents a novel approach for the management of stress-related conditions. The majority of studies have focused on animal models. Recent preclinical studies have identified the B. longum 1714 strain as a putative psychobiotic with an impact on stress-related behaviors, physiology and cognitive performance. Whether such preclinical effects could be translated to healthy human volunteers remains unknown. We tested whether psychobiotic consumption could affect the stress response, cognition and brain activity patterns. In a within-participants design, healthy volunteers (N=22) completed cognitive assessments, resting electroencephalography and were exposed to a socially evaluated cold pressor test at baseline, post-placebo and post-psychobiotic. Increases in cortisol output and subjective anxiety in response to the socially evaluated cold pressor test were attenuated. Furthermore, daily reported stress was reduced by psychobiotic consumption. We also observed subtle improvements in hippocampus-dependent visuospatial memory performance, as well as enhanced frontal midline electroencephalographic mobility following psychobiotic consumption. These subtle but clear benefits are in line with the predicted impact from preclinical screening platforms. Our results indicate that consumption of B. longum 1714 is associated with reduced stress and improved memory. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the benefits of this putative psychobiotic in relevant stress-related conditions and to unravel the mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:27801892
Theofilopoulos, N; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M
Eight healthy male volunteers participated in four experimental sessions in which they ingested one of the following drugs: ranitidine hydrochloride (150 mg), cimetidine hydrochloride (400 mg), thioridazine hydrochloride (50 mg), placebo (lactose). Drugs were allocated to subjects and sessions in a double-blind fashion, according to a balanced cross-over design. The subjects' mood state and psychomotor performance were assessed 1 and 3 h after drug taking. Mood state was measured using a battery of visual analogue scales, and psychomotor performance using pencil-and-paper tests, critical flicker fusion frequency, wire-maze tracing and tapping. Ranitidine and cimetidine had no significant effect on subjectively rated alertness, whereas thioridazine caused a significant decrease in alertness. Ranitidine and cimetidine had no significant effect on performance on the pencil-and-paper tests (digit cancellation, digit symbol substitution, symbol copying), whereas thioridazine caused a significant decrement on these tests. Ranitidine and cimetidine had no significant effect on critical flicker fusion frequency, wire-maze tracing, and tapping rate. Thioridazine caused a significant impairment of psychomotor performance as evidenced by all the instrumental tests. It is concluded that, in contrast to thioridazine and similarly to cimetidine, ranitidine has little effect on subjectively rated alertness and psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:6091708
Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Elliott, Hazel; Walker, Caroline; Mehta, Payal; Shoukru, Sera; Thompson, Richard P H; Powell, Jonathan J
Dietary Si, as soluble orthosilicic acid (OSA), may be important for the growth and development of bone and connective tissue. Beer appears to be a major contributor to Si intake, although the Si content of beer and its bioavailability in human subjects have not been well established. Here we investigated the Si content of different beers and then estimated Si absorption from beer in healthy volunteers. The Si content of seventy-six different beers was estimated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and one of the beers, used in the ingestion study, was ultrafiltered to determine OSA content. Next, following the ingestion of 0.6 litres beer (22.5 mg Si; 4.6 % (v/v) ethanol), serum and urinary Si levels were measured in nine healthy volunteers over a 6 h period. A solution of OSA was similarly investigated as a positive control and water and 4.6 % ethanol as negative controls. The mean Si level of beer was 19.2 (sd 6.6) mg/l; the median Si level was 18.0 mg/l. There was no significant difference in the Si levels of the different beers by geographical origin or type of beer. Serum and urinary Si levels increased considerably following the ingestion of beer or a solution of OSA but not with the ingestion of either 4.6 % ethanol or water. The ultrafilterability of Si from beer (about 80 %) and its absorption in volunteers (about 55 %) was comparable with that of a solution of OSA suggesting that Si in beer is present chiefly in a monomeric form and is readily bioavailable.
Hubble, Sheena M A; Kyte, Hayley L; Gooding, Kim; Shore, Angela C
As sublingual microvascular indices are increasingly heralded as new resuscitation end-points, better population data are required to power clinical studies. This paper describes improved methods to quantify sublingual microvessel flow and density in images obtained by sidestream dark field (SDF) technology in healthy volunteers, including vessels under 10 microm in diameter. Measurements of sublingual capillary density and flow were obtained by recording three 15-second images in 20 healthy volunteers over three days. Two independent observers quantified capillary density by using two methods: total vessel length (mm/mm2) and counting (number/mm). Both intraoral and temporal variabilities within subject and observer reproducibilities were determined by using coefficients of variability and reproducibility indices. For small (1-10 microm), medium (11-20 microm), and large (21-50 microm) diameter, mean vessel density with standard deviations (SDs) in volunteers was 21.3(+/- 4.9), 5.2 (+/- 1.2), and 2.7 (+/- 0.9) mm/mm2, respectively. Also, 94.0 +/- 1.4% of small vessels, 94.5 +/- 1.4% of medium vessels, and 94.5+/- 4.0% of large vessels had continuous perfusion. Within subjects, the means of all measurements over three days varied less than 13, 22, and 35% in small, medium, and large vessels, respectively. Interobserver reproducibility was good, especially for capillary (1-10 microm) density and flow measurements. Our methods of microvessel flow and density quantification have low observer variability and confirm the stability of microcirculatory measurements over time. These results facilitate the development of SDF-acquired sublingual microvascular indices as feasible microperfusion markers in shock resuscitation.
de Freitas Silva, M; Schramm, S G; Kano, E K; Koono, E E M; Manfio, J L; Porta, V; dos Reis Serra, C H
Metronidazole is a BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class 1 drug, traditionally considered the choice drug in the infections treatment caused by protozoa and anaerobic microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate bioequivalence between 2 different marketed 250 mg metronidazole immediate release tablets. A randomized, open-label, 2×2 crossover study was performed in healthy Brazilian volunteers under fasting conditions with a 7-day washout period. The formulations were administered as single oral dose and blood was sampled over 48 h. Metronidazole plasma concentrations were determined by a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The plasma concentration vs. time profile was generated for each volunteer and the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, ke, and t1/2 were calculated using a noncompartmental model. Bioequivalence between pharmaceutical formulations was determined by calculating 90% CIs (Confidence Intervall) for the ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ values for test and reference using log-transformed data. 22 healthy volunteers (11 men, 11 women; mean (SD) age, 28 (6.5) years [range, 21-45 years]; mean (SD) weight, 66 (9.3) kg [range, 51-81 kg]; mean (SD) height, 169 (6.5) cm [range, 156-186 cm]) were enrolled in and completed the study. The 90% CIs for Cmax (0.92-1.06), AUC0-t (0.97-1.02), and AUC0-∞ (0.97-1.03) values for the test and reference products fitted in the interval of 0.80-1.25 proposed by most regulatory agencies, including the Brazilian agency ANVISA. No clinically significant adverse effects were reported. After pharmacokinetics analysis, it concluded that test 250 mg metronidazole formulation is bioequivalent to the reference product according to the Brazilian agency requirements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Leary, Andrew C.; Dowling, Muiris; Cussen, Kathleen; O'Brien, Jackie; Stote, Robert M.
Background The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a Bentley Pharmaceuticals proprietary intranasal (IN) insulin formulation (Nasulin™) were studied in healthy volunteers. Methods Thirteen fasting healthy male volunteers received five doses of medication (one dose of 4 international units [IU] subcutaneous (SC) regular insulin and four doses of 25 IU IN insulin) at least 48 h apart. Serum insulin, serum C-peptide, and plasma glucose were measured in the 4 h after dosing. Profiles were compared for IN insulin spray following administration into the dominant nostril (more open at time of dosing) and into the nondominant nostril (less open at time of dosing). Results The formulation was generally well tolerated. A rise in serum insulin levels accompanied by a decrease in plasma glucose was seen following all doses. For IN doses, peak insulin levels were generally attained in 10–20 min and remained elevated for approximately 40–50 min; the resultant effect on glucose peaked at 40 min and waned approximately 2 h postdosing. As reported in other studies, the interindividual response to insulin was variable. The comparative absorption of IN insulin relative to SC insulin was 12.0% (dominant nostril) or 15.4% (nondominant nostril) over 2 h. This increased somewhat if sneezers and volunteers with moderately blocked nostrils were removed from the analysis. Conclusions This IN formulation was generally well tolerated and relatively well absorbed. While both insulin data (maximal plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration time curve) and glucose data (% fall) support a trend toward better absorption from the nondominant nostril, this did not reach statistical significance. Nasulin can be administered without reference to the nasal cycle. PMID:19885293
Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Rendl, Gundula; Schuetz, Matthias; Mien, Leonhard Key; Ettlinger, Dagmar E; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt; Karanikas, Georgios
Functional imaging of the adrenal cortex by means of PET may play an important clinical role. Recently, we presented the synthesis and first evaluation of a novel 11beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, [(18)F]FETO, in rats displaying high tracer accumulation in the adrenals. In this study, we aimed to investigate for the first time the potency of [(18)F]FETO as a PET tracer for the adrenal cortex in humans. An average preparation yielded 1-2 GBq of [(18)F]FETO ready to use. Ten healthy volunteers aged 24-57 years (five male and five female) were included in the study. After i.v. administration of 365 MBq [(18)F]FETO (246-391 MBq), dynamic images were acquired in 2D standard mode in 14 frames over 45 min. Afterwards, whole-body scanning was performed. In addition to visual interpretation, semi-quantitative analysis using standardised uptake values (SUVs) was conducted. [(18)F]FETO distribution was similar in all scanned volunteers. Visually, pronounced accumulation of [(18)F]FETO was found in the adrenals, whereas moderate uptake was observed-at least in some of the subjects-for liver, renal calices, gallbladder, stomach walls and pancreas. Kidney and bowels showed only faint uptake. Median SUVs for the right and left adrenal glands were 15.6 (10.0-28.6) and 15.7 (10.3-35.9), respectively. The reference tissue (liver) displayed a median SUV of 2.5 (2.2-4.6). [(18)F]FETO is a valuable tracer for adrenocortical PET imaging, combining the longer half-life of( 18)F with a high 11beta-hydroxylase selectivity. In accordance with our findings in rats, FETO PET revealed very high accumulation in the adrenal glands in healthy volunteers.
Antypa, N; Van der Does, A J W; Smelt, A H M; Rogers, R D
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation may be beneficial in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders, including depression. A small number of studies have suggested that there may also be cognitive and mood effects in healthy samples. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA on depression-relevant cognitive functioning in healthy individuals. Fifty-four healthy university students were randomized to receive either n-3 PUFA supplements or placebo for 4 weeks in a double-blind design. The test battery included measures of cognitive reactivity, attention, response inhibition, facial emotion recognition, memory and risky decision-making. Results showed few effects of n-3 PUFAs on cognition and mood states. The n-3 PUFA group made fewer risk-averse decisions than the placebo group. This difference appeared only in non-normative trials of the decision-making test, and was not accompanied by increased impulsiveness. N-3 PUFAs improved scores on the control/perfectionism scale of the cognitive reactivity measure. No effects were found on the other cognitive tasks and no consistent effects on mood were observed. The present findings indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a selective effect on risky decision making in healthy volunteers, which is unrelated to impulsiveness.
Gota, Vikram S; Maru, Girish B; Soni, Tejal G; Gandhi, Tejal R; Kochar, Nitin; Agarwal, Manish G
Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and inflammatory pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, the clinical literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent due to its low bioavailability in humans. The purpose of this study was to quantify plasma levels of free curcumin after dosing of a solid lipid curcumin particle (SLCP) formulation versus unformulated curcumin in healthy volunteers and to determine its tolerability and dose-plasma concentration relationship in late-stage osteosarcoma patients. Doses of 2, 3, and 4 g of SLCP were evaluated in 11 patients with osteosarcoma. Plasma curcumin levels were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The limit of detection of the assay was 1 ng/mL of curcumin. In healthy subjects, the mean peak concentration of curcumin achieved from dosing 650 mg of SLCP was 22.43 ng/mL, whereas plasma curcumin from dosing an equal quantity of unformulated 95% curcuminoids extract was not detected. In both healthy individuals and osteosarcoma patients, high interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and nonlinear dose dependency was observed, suggesting potentially complex absorption kinetics. Overall, good tolerability was noted in both healthy and osteosarcoma groups.
Li, Wei; Han, Lei; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Wu, Xiaokang; Moore, John E; Xu, Jiru
Systemic inflammation contributes to both the development of cancer and of cachexia. The microenvironment of bacterial habitats might be changed during the progression of cancer cachexia. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively compare the composition of the skin microbiota between cancer cachexia patients and healthy volunteers. Cutaneous bacteria were swabbed at the axillary fossa of 70 cancer cachexia patients and 34 healthy individuals from China. Nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) with primers specifically targeting V3 region and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis were performed on all samples. Barcoded 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions was performed on 30 randomly selected samples. By comparing diversity and richness indices, we found that the skin microbiome of cachectic cancer patients is less diverse than that of healthy participants, though these differences were not significant. The main microbes that reside on human skin were divided into four phyla: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. were the dominant bacteria at the genus level. Significantly fewer Corynebacterium spp. had been observed in cachexia patients compared to healthy subjects. These results suggest that the presence of cancer and cachexia alters human skin bacterial communities. Understanding the changes in microbiota during cancer cachexia may lead to new insights into the syndrome.
Peolsson, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Wibault, Johanna; Dedering, Åsa; Peterson, Gunnel
The purposes of this study were to examine whether any differences in function and health exist between patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) due to disk disease scheduled for surgery and patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and to compare measures of patients' physical function with those obtained from healthy volunteers. This is a cross-sectional study of patients with CR (n = 198) and patients with chronic WAD (n = 215). Patient data were compared with raw data previously obtained from healthy people. Physical measures included cervical active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand grip strength. Self-rated measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), neck disability (Neck Disability Index), self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier). Patient groups exhibited significantly lower performance than the healthy group in all physical measures (P < .0005) except for neck muscle endurance in flexion for women (P > .09). There was a general trend toward worse results in the CR group than the WAD group, with significant differences in neck active range of motion, left hand strength for women, pain intensity, Neck Disability Index, EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier, and Self-Efficacy Scale (P < .0001). Patients had worse values than healthy individuals in almost all physical measures. There was a trend toward worse results for CR than WAD patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gurfinkel, Yuri I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.; Kudutkina, Marina I.
Capillaries play a critical role in cardiovascular function as the point of exchange of nutrients and waste products between tissues and circulation. A common problem for healthy volunteers examined during isolation, and for the patients suffering from heart failure is a quantitative estimation tissue oedema. Until now, objective assessment body fluids retention in tissues did not exist. Optical imaging of living capillaries is a challenging and medically important scientific problem. Goal of the investigation was to study dynamic of microcriculation parameters including tissue oedema in healthy volunteers during extended isolation and relative hypokinesia as a model of mission to the International Space Station. The other aim was to study dynamic of microcirculation parameters including tissue oedema in patients suffering from heart failure under treatment. Healthy volunteers and patients. We studied four healthy male subjects at the age of 41, 37, 40, and 48 before the experiment (June 1999), and during the 240-d isolation period starting from July3, 1999. Unique hermetic chambers with artidicial environmental parameters allowed performing this study with maximum similarity to real conditions in the International Space Station (ISS). With the regularity of 3 times a week at the same time, each subject recorded three video episodes with the total length of one-minute using the optical computerized capillaroscope for noninvasive measurement of the capillary diameters sizes, capillary blood velocity as well as the size of the perivascular zone. All this parameters of microcirculation determined during three weeks in 15 patients (10 male, 5 female, aged 62,2+/-8,8) suffering from heart failure under Furosemid 40 mg 2 times a week, as diuretic. Results. About 1500 episodes recorded on laser disks and analyzed during this experiment. Every subject had wave-like variations of capillary blood velocity within the minute, week, and month ranges. It was found that the
Antoniewicz, Lukasz; Bosson, Jenny A; Kuhl, Jeanette; Abdel-Halim, Samy M; Kiessling, Anna; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Lundbäck, Magnus
The use of electronic cigarettes is increasing dramatically on a global scale and its effects on human health remain uncertain. In the present study, we measured endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and microvesicles (MVs) in healthy young volunteers following short-term exposure to inhalation of e-cigarette vapor (ECV) to determine vascular changes. Sixteen healthy seldom smokers were randomized into two groups either exposed or not exposed to 10 puffs of ECV for 10 min, in a crossover design. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and 1, 4 and 24 h following exposure. EPCs (CD34 + CD309) and MVs were analyzed by flow cytometry. MVs were phenotyped according to origin (platelet (CD41), endothelial (CD144), leukocytes (CD45), monocytes (CD14)) and nuclear content (SYTO 13 dye). In addition, expression of inflammation markers such P-selectin (CD62P), E-selectin (CD62E), CD40-ligand (CD154) and HMGB1 was investigated. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was also measured at baseline and after 24 h. EPC levels in blood were significantly increased 1 h following exposure to ECV and returned to baseline values after 24 h. Only E-selectin positive MVs (endothelial origin) were slightly elevated (p < 0.038). FeNO was unaffected by exposure to ECV. In healthy volunteers, ten puffs of e-cigarette vapor inhalation caused an increase in EPCs. This increase was of the same magnitude as following smoking of one traditional cigarette, as we previously demonstrated. Taken together, these results may represent signs of possible vascular changes after short e-cigarette inhalation. Further studies analyzing potential cardiovascular health effects are critical as the e-cigarette market continues to burgeon. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jordanova, Malina; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Poskotinova, Lilia; Medvedeva, Anna; Uzunov, Todor; Alenikova, Alexandra
Space Climate is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the long-term change in the Sun, and its effects in the near-Earth environment, including possible effects on human health. This paper will present the first results from simultaneous experiments performed at 3 different locations - Sofia, Bulgaria 42° 40' N 23° 20' E; Moscow, Russia 55° 45' N 37° 36‘ E and Arkhangelsk, Russia 64° 34' N / 40° 32' E. Subjects are 5 healthy volunteers, women, mean age 39,4 years. The experiments are part of the project “Heliobiology” (2011 - 2015) that reflects the intense interest towards the influence of solar activity and meteorology on the human health. The aim of the experiments is to study the degree of conjugation of the heart rate variability and the variations of the geomagnetic field. To minimize the experimental bias one and the same hard- and software were applied during the testing. ECG signals were recorder via "KARDI-2", the software package is "Ecosan-2007", both developed by "Medical Computer Systems", Zelenograd, Russia. The duration of the observations ranged from 60 to 120 minutes. A comparison of the dynamics of the minute variations of the heart rate with the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field vector revealed a synchronization of some of the research parameters as well as specific individual differences. Despite of the small sample size (5 subjects per 8 measures), in over 70% of the experimental data a similar patterns of variation of geophysical and heart rate variability were recorded. The experiments discussed involved healthy volunteers, i.e. people that have good adaptation reserves, and the response to variation of geomagnetic field will not push them beyond the physiological norms. The observed effect of synchronization of heart rate fluctuations of healthy subjects with fluctuations of geomagnetic field may give an effective tool to address further one especially interesting problems - the mechanism of geomagnetic
Li, Gangping; Yang, Min; Zhou, Kan; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Lugao; Lv, Shangze; Jin, Yu; Qian, Wei; Xiong, Hanhua; Lin, Rong; Fu, Yu; Hou, Xiaohua
The diverse microbial communities that colonize distinct segments of the gastrointestinal tract are intimately related to aspects of physiology and the pathology of human health. However, most recent studies have focused on the rectal or fecal microbiota, and the microbial signature of the duodenum is poorly studied. In this study, we compared the microbiota in duodenal and rectal samples to illustrate the characteristic microbial signatures of the duodenum in healthy adults. Nine healthy volunteers donated biopsies and luminal contents from the duodenum and rectum. To determine the composition and diversity of the microbiota, 454- pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA was performed and multiple bioinformatics analyses were applied. The α-diversity and phylogenetic diversity of the microbiota in the duodenal samples were higher than those of the rectal samples. There was higher biodiversity among the microbiota isolated from rectal biopsies than feces. Proteobacteria were more highly represented in the duodenum than in the rectum, both in the biopsies and in the luminal contents from the healthy volunteers (38.7% versus 12.5%, 33.2% versus 5.0%, respectively). Acinetobacter and Prevotella were dominant in the duodenum, whereas Bacteroides and Prevotella were dominant in the rectum. Additionally, the percentage of OTUs shared in biopsy groups was far higher than in the luminal group (43.0% versus 26.8%) and a greater number of genera was shared among the biopsies than the luminal contents. Duodenal samples demonstrated greater biological diversity and possessed a unique microbial signature compared with the rectum. The mucosa-associated microbiota was more relatively conserved than luminal samples.
Petrova, Maja; Diamond, Jeanmarie; Schuster, Benno; Dalton, Pamela
Background Asthmatics often report the triggering or exacerbation of respiratory symptoms following exposure to airborne irritants, which in some cases may result from stimulation of irritant receptors in the upper airways inducing reflexive broncho-constriction. Ammonia (NH3) is a common constituent of commercially available household products, and in high concentration has the potential to elicit sensory irritation in the eyes and upper respiratory tract of humans. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of ammonia in asthmatics and healthy volunteers and to determine whether differences in nasal or ocular irritant sensitivity to ammonia between these two groups could account for the exacerbation of symptoms reported by asthmatics following exposure to an irritant. Methods 25 healthy and 15 mild/moderate persistent asthmatic volunteers, with reported sensitivity to household cleaning products, were evaluated for their sensitivity to the ocular and nasal irritancy of NH3. Lung function was evaluated at baseline and multiple time points following exposure. Results Irritation thresholds did not differ between asthmatics and healthy controls, nor did ratings of odor intensity, annoyance and irritancy following exposure to NH3 concentrations at and above the irritant threshold for longer periods of time (30 sec).Importantly, no changes in lung function occurred following exposure to NH3 for any individuals in either group. Conclusion Despite heightened symptom reports to environmental irritants among asthmatics, the ocular and nasal trigeminal system of mild-moderate asthmatics does not appear to be more sensitive or more reactive than that of non-asthmatics, nor does short duration exposure to ammonia at irritant levels induce changes in lung function. At least in brief exposures, the basis for some asthmatics to experience adverse responses to volatile compounds in everyday life may arise from factors other than trigeminally
Eijsbouts, Agnes M M; Kempers, Marlies J E; Kramer, Renske S A; Hopman, Maria T E; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; Laan, Ronald F J M; Hermus, Ad R M M; Sweep, Fred C G J; van de Putte, Leo B A
AIM To study the effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen on the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in healthy volunteers. METHODS A double-blind, randomized study in two groups of 20 healthy volunteers was performed. The activity of the HPA axis was measured before and after the use of naproxen or placebo during a period of 2 weeks. Basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, 24-h urinary cortisol, and circadian cortisol rhythm in saliva were determined. Plasma ACTH and cortisol were also measured during submaximal physical exercise. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the placebo and naproxen groups in basal plasma ACTH [09.00 h 3.1 pmol l−1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0, 4.2, and 2.8 pmol l−1, 95% CI 1.9, 3.7, respectively], cortisol levels (09.00 h 0.45 µmol l−1, 95% CI 0.39, 0.51, and 0.40 µmol l−1, 95% CI 0.35, 0.44, respectively), 24 h urinary cortisol excretion (67.5 nmol 24 h−1, 95% CI 54.3, 80.7, and 86.8 nmol 24 h−1, 95% CI 54.4, 119.2, respectively), circadian cortisol rhythm measured in salivary samples, or ACTH and cortisol concentrations after physical exercise. After the use of placebo or naproxen for 2 weeks, no significant change in any of the parameters occurred (ACTH 09.00 h 3.0 pmol l−1, 95% CI 2.0, 3.9, and 3.0 pmol l−1, 95% CI 2.2, 3.8, respectively; cortisol 09.00 h 0.45 µmol l−1, 95% CI 0.37, 0.52, and 0.39 µmol l−1, 95% CI 0.34, 0.44, respectively; cortisol urine 79.5 nmol 24 h−1, 95% CI 59.5, 99.4, and 81.7 nmol 24 h−1, 95% CI 64.0, 99.4, respectively), and no significant differences were found in these parameters between the placebo and naproxen groups. CONCLUSIONS The use of naproxen does not influence the activity of the HPA axis in healthy volunteers under basal circumstances or in response to physical stress. PMID:19133058
Yago, Marc Anthony R.; Frymoyer, Adam R.; Smelick, Gillian S.; Frassetto, Lynda A.; Budha, Nageshwar R.; Dresser, Mark J.; Ware, Joseph A.; Benet, Leslie Z.
Previous studies have demonstrated that increased gastric pH from the use of acid-reducing agents, such as proton-pump inhibitors or H2-receptor antagonists, can significantly impact the absorption of weakly basic drugs that exhibit pH-dependent solubility. Clinically practical strategies to mitigate this interaction have not been developed. This pilot study evaluated the extent and time course of gastric re-acidification after a solid oral dosage form of anhydrous betaine HCl in healthy volunteers with pharmacologically-induced hypochlorhydria. Six healthy volunteers with baseline normochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH < 4) were enrolled in this single period study. Hypochlorhydria was induced via 20 mg oral rabeprazole twice daily for four days. On the fifth day, an additional 20 mg dose of oral rabeprazole was given and gastric pH was monitored continuously using the Heidelberg pH capsule. After gastric pH > 4 was confirmed for 15 minutes, 1500 mg of betaine HCl was given orally with 90 mL of water and gastric pH was continuously monitored for 2 hours. Betaine HCl significantly lowered gastric pH by 4.5 (±0.5) units from 5.2 (±0.5) to 0.6 (±0.2) (P <0.001) during the 30 minute interval after administration. The onset of effect of betaine HCl was rapid, with a mean time to pH < 3 of 6.3 (±4.3) minutes. The re-acidification period was temporary with a gastric pH < 3 and < 4 lasting 73 (±33) and 77 (±30) minutes, respectively. Betaine HCl was well tolerated by all subjects. In healthy volunteers with pharmacologically-induced hypochlorhydria, betaine HCl was effective at temporarily lowering gastric pH. The rapid onset and relatively short duration of gastric pH reduction gives betaine HCl the potential to aid the absorption of orally administered weakly basic drugs that exhibit pH-dependent solubility when administered under hypochlorhydric conditions. PMID:23980906
Crawford, R J; Filli, L; Elliott, J M; Nanz, D; Fischer, M A; Marcon, M; Ulbrich, E J
Normative age-related decline in paravertebral muscle quality is important for reference to disease and risk identification in patients. We aimed to establish age- and vertebral level-dependence of paravertebral (multifidus and erector spinae) muscle volume and fat content in healthy adult volunteers. In this prospective study multifidus and erector spinae fat signal fraction and volume at lumbar levels L1-L5 were measured in 80 healthy volunteers (10 women and men per decade, 20-62 years of age) by 2-point Dixon 3T MR imaging. ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction compared fat signal fraction and volume among subgroups. Pearson and Spearman analysis were used for correlations (P < .05). Fat signal fraction was higher in women (17.8% ± 10.7%) than men (14.7% ± 7.8%; P < .001) and increased with age. Multifidus and erector spinae volume was lower in women (565.4 ± 83.8 cm(3)) than in men (811.6 ± 98.9 cm(3); P < .001) and was age-independent. No differences in fat signal fraction were shown between the right and left paravertebral muscles or among the L1, L2, and L3 lumbar levels. The fat signal fraction was highest at L5 (women, 31.9% ± 9.3%; men, 25.7% ± 8.0%; P < .001). The fat signal fraction at L4 correlated best with total lumbar fat signal fraction (women, r = 0.95; men, r = 0.92, P < .001). Total fat signal fraction was higher in the multifidus compared with erector spinae muscles at L1-L4 for both sexes (P < .001). Lumbar paravertebral muscle fat content increases with aging, independent of volume, in healthy volunteers 20-62 years of age. Women, low lumbar levels, and the multifidus muscle are most affected. Further study examining younger and older subjects and the functional impact of fatty infiltrated paravertebral muscles are warranted. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Xin, Hua-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Qing; Yu, Ai-Rong; Zhu, Min; Shen, Yang; Su, Dan; Xiong, Lei
What is already known about this subject Schisandra sphenanthera extract (SchE) and tacrolimus are often co-administrated in treating renal and liver transplant recipients in China. We discovered occasionally that blood tacrolimus concentrations are markedly increased in some patients who receive tacrolimus and concomitant SchE. This is the first study to investigate the effects of SchE on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. What this study adds Following administration of SchE in healthy volunteers, the mean AUC, AUMC and Cmax of tacrolimus substantially increases, whereas its CL/F and V/F decreases significantly. Blood tacrolimus concentrations need to be closely monitored and dose adjustments of tacrolimus have to be made accordingly in the presence of SchE. Aim To assess the effect of Schisandra sphenanthera extract (SchE) on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in healthy volunteers. Methods Twelve healthy male volunteers were orally treated with SchE, three capsules twice daily for 13 days. Pharmacokinetic investigations of oral tacrolimus administration at 2 mg were performed both before and at the end of the SchE treatment period. Whole blood tacrolimus concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Estimated pharmacokinetic parameters before and with SchE were calculated with noncompartmental techniques. Results Following administration of SchE, the average percentage increases of individual increases in AUC, AUMC and Cmax of tacrolimus were 164.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 70.1, 258.4], 133.1% (95% CI 49.5, 261.3) and 227.1% (95% CI 155.8, 298.4), respectively (P< 0.01 or 0.05). On average, there was a 36.8% (95% CI 13.4, 60.2) increase in tacrolimus tmax (P< 0.01). The average percentage decreases in CL/F and V/F were 49.0% (95% CI 31.1, 66.9) and 53.7% (95% CI 40.1, 67.4), respectively (P< 0.01). Conclusions SchE can increase the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus. The results of this study will add important information to the
Yago, Marc R; Frymoyer, Adam R; Smelick, Gillian S; Frassetto, Lynda A; Budha, Nageshwar R; Dresser, Mark J; Ware, Joseph A; Benet, Leslie Z
Previous studies have demonstrated that increased gastric pH from the use of acid-reducing agents, such as proton-pump inhibitors or H2-receptor antagonists, can significantly impact the absorption of weakly basic drugs that exhibit pH-dependent solubility. Clinically practical strategies to mitigate this interaction have not been developed. This pilot study evaluated the extent and time course of gastric reacidification after a solid oral dosage form of anhydrous betaine HCl in healthy volunteers with pharmacologically induced hypochlorhydria. Six healthy volunteers with baseline normochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH < 4) were enrolled in this single period study. Hypochlorhydria was induced via 20 mg oral rabeprazole twice daily for four days. On the fifth day, an additional 20 mg dose of oral rabeprazole was given and gastric pH was monitored continuously using the Heidelberg pH capsule. After gastric pH > 4 was confirmed for 15 min, 1500 mg of betaine HCl was given orally with 90 mL of water and gastric pH was continuously monitored for 2 h. Betaine HCl significantly lowered gastric pH by 4.5 (± 0.5) units from 5.2 (± 0.5) to 0.6 (± 0.2) (P < 0.001) during the 30 min interval after administration. The onset of effect of betaine HCl was rapid, with a mean time to pH < 3 of 6.3 (± 4.3) min. The reacidification period was temporary with a gastric pH < 3 and < 4 lasting 73 (± 33) and 77 (± 30) min, respectively. Betaine HCl was well tolerated by all subjects. In healthy volunteers with pharmacologically induced hypochlorhydria, betaine HCl was effective at temporarily lowering gastric pH. The rapid onset and relatively short duration of gastric pH reduction gives betaine HCl the potential to aid the absorption of orally administered weakly basic drugs that exhibit pH-dependent solubility when administered under hypochlorhydric conditions.
Noisel, Nolwenn; Bouchard, Michèle; Carrier, Gaétan
This study was aimed at documenting the kinetic time courses of selenium (Se) in accessible biological matrices of volunteers following controlled applications of therapeutic shampoo containing Se, to better elucidate the mechanisms by which shampoo-Se accumulates in hair and hence estimate the contribution of this source to total Se body burden. Ten healthy volunteers were exposed to Se-shampoo three times a week over a month. Blood, hair and toenail concentrations along with daily urinary excretions were repeatedly measured over an 18-month period following the onset of application. Over the entire study period, blood concentrations of Se (range: 127-233μg/l) and daily urinary excretions (range: 11.9-150μg/d) remained within baseline range of the general population. Conversely, during shampoo application, mean Se concentrations in hair reached transitional levels of 89μg/g while, following cessation of treatment, a mono-exponential decrease was observed with a mean half-life of 4.5 weeks. Two of the volunteers also exhibited an increase in toenail concentrations of Se during the study period. Results show that Se-shampoo does not contribute significantly to total Se body burden, as assessed from blood and urine levels. Differences observed between blood and urine time courses as compared to hair profiles and the presence of Se on hair grown before treatment indicates an adsorption on hair; however, the gradual decrease in Se concentrations in successive centimeters of hair grown following the application period suggests a concomitant absorption from the scalp during treatment with subsequent excretion in hair.
Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Dale, Suzanne E.; Chesnel, Laurent; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea has been associated with disruption of the normal intestinal microbiota, particularly the Bacteroides fragilis group and Prevotella species. Surotomycin is a bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide in development for treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea that has selective and potent activity against C. difficile and other Gram-positive bacteria and a minimal impact on intestinal Gram-negative organisms. The impacts of ascending doses of surotomycin on major organism groups in the gut microbiota of healthy volunteers were evaluated during a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose phase 1 study. Thirty volunteers were randomized into 3 cohorts, using a 4:1 ratio, to receive 250 mg, 500 mg, or 1,000 mg of surotomycin, or placebo, twice daily for 14 days. Stool samples collected at baseline (days 0 and 1) and at the end of treatment (days 13 to 15) were cultured quantitatively. The B. fragilis group, the Bacteroides/Prevotella group, and Enterobacteriaceae were also quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Baseline and end-of-treatment stool samples showed 1- to 2-log10 CFU/g reductions in total bacterial counts for most volunteers. Various decreases in clostridial, Lactobacillus-Bifidobacterium group, and enterococcus-streptococcus group counts occurred while patients were receiving surotomycin, whereas the enterobacteria and the B. fragilis group persisted at the end of treatment. There was no change in enterococcus MICs of surotomycin, nor was vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus detected after exposure. Surotomycin at doses of up to 1,000 mg twice daily had only modest disruptive effects on the gut microbiota. The potential sparing of the gut microbiota by surotomycin may decrease the risk of disease recurrence. PMID:26787687
Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Dale, Suzanne E; Chesnel, Laurent; Goldstein, Ellie J C
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea has been associated with disruption of the normal intestinal microbiota, particularly theBacteroides fragilisgroup andPrevotellaspecies. Surotomycin is a bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide in development for treatment ofClostridium difficile-associated diarrhea that has selective and potent activity againstC. difficileand other Gram-positive bacteria and a minimal impact on intestinal Gram-negative organisms. The impacts of ascending doses of surotomycin on major organism groups in the gut microbiota of healthy volunteers were evaluated during a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose phase 1 study. Thirty volunteers were randomized into 3 cohorts, using a 4:1 ratio, to receive 250 mg, 500 mg, or 1,000 mg of surotomycin, or placebo, twice daily for 14 days. Stool samples collected at baseline (days 0 and 1) and at the end of treatment (days 13 to 15) were cultured quantitatively. TheB. fragilisgroup, theBacteroides/Prevotellagroup, andEnterobacteriaceaewere also quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Baseline and end-of-treatment stool samples showed 1- to 2-log10CFU/g reductions in total bacterial counts for most volunteers. Various decreases in clostridial,Lactobacillus-Bifidobacteriumgroup, and enterococcus-streptococcus group counts occurred while patients were receiving surotomycin, whereas the enterobacteria and theB. fragilisgroup persisted at the end of treatment. There was no change in enterococcus MICs of surotomycin, nor was vancomycin-resistantEnterococcusdetected after exposure. Surotomycin at doses of up to 1,000 mg twice daily had only modest disruptive effects on the gut microbiota. The potential sparing of the gut microbiota by surotomycin may decrease the risk of disease recurrence. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Oh, D Alexander; Parikh, Neha; Khurana, Varun; Cognata Smith, Christina; Vetticaden, Santosh
Dronabinol is a pharmaceutical tetrahydrocannabinol originally developed as an oral capsule. A dronabinol oral solution was recently approved, and the effects of food on absorption and bioavailability of the oral solution versus capsules were compared in an open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg (fed) or dronabinol capsule 5 mg (fed or fasted). Dosing was separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma pharmacokinetics were evaluated for dronabinol and its major metabolite, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-Δ9-THC). Pharmacokinetic data were available for analysis in 54 volunteers. In the fed state, initial dronabinol absorption was faster with oral solution versus capsule (mean time to the first measurable concentration, 0.15 vs 2.02 hours, respectively), with 100% and 15% of volunteers, respectively, having detectable plasma dronabinol levels 30 minutes postdose. There was less interindividual variability in plasma dronabinol concentration during early absorption with oral solution versus capsule. Compared with the fasted state, mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC0−t) increased by 2.1- and 2.4-fold for dronabinol oral solution and capsule, respectively, when taken with food. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration was similarly delayed for dronabinol oral solution with food (7.7 hours) and capsule with food (5.6 hours) versus capsule with fasting (1.7 hours). Under fed conditions, AUC0−t and area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to infinity were similar for the oral solution versus capsule based on 11-OH-Δ9-THC levels. An appreciable food effect was observed for dronabinol oral solution and capsules. Dronabinol oral solution may offer therapeutic benefit to patients, given its rapid and lower interindividual absorption variability versus dronabinol capsule
Oh, D Alexander; Parikh, Neha; Khurana, Varun; Cognata Smith, Christina; Vetticaden, Santosh
Dronabinol is a pharmaceutical tetrahydrocannabinol originally developed as an oral capsule. A dronabinol oral solution was recently approved, and the effects of food on absorption and bioavailability of the oral solution versus capsules were compared in an open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg (fed) or dronabinol capsule 5 mg (fed or fasted). Dosing was separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma pharmacokinetics were evaluated for dronabinol and its major metabolite, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-Δ9-THC). Pharmacokinetic data were available for analysis in 54 volunteers. In the fed state, initial dronabinol absorption was faster with oral solution versus capsule (mean time to the first measurable concentration, 0.15 vs 2.02 hours, respectively), with 100% and 15% of volunteers, respectively, having detectable plasma dronabinol levels 30 minutes postdose. There was less interindividual variability in plasma dronabinol concentration during early absorption with oral solution versus capsule. Compared with the fasted state, mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) increased by 2.1- and 2.4-fold for dronabinol oral solution and capsule, respectively, when taken with food. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration was similarly delayed for dronabinol oral solution with food (7.7 hours) and capsule with food (5.6 hours) versus capsule with fasting (1.7 hours). Under fed conditions, AUC0-t and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity were similar for the oral solution versus capsule based on 11-OH-Δ9-THC levels. An appreciable food effect was observed for dronabinol oral solution and capsules. Dronabinol oral solution may offer therapeutic benefit to patients, given its rapid and lower interindividual absorption variability versus dronabinol capsule.
Teng, Renli; Butler, Kathleen
Objectives Two open-label, two-period, crossover studies in healthy volunteers were designed to determine the pharmacokinetic interactions between ticagrelor, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, and a moderate (diltiazem) and a strong (ketoconazole) cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A inhibitor. Methods Seventeen volunteers received diltiazem (240 mg once daily) for 14 days. In the second study, ketoconazole (n = 14) 200 mg twice daily was given for 10 days. A single oral 90-mg ticagrelor dose was administered on day 8 (diltiazem) or day 4 (ketoconazole). In each study, volunteers received a single 90-mg oral dose of ticagrelor before or after washout (≥14 days). Pharmacokinetic parameters for ticagrelor, AR-C124910XX (primary metabolite), diltiazem, and ketoconazole were assessed. Results Compared with ticagrelor alone, diltiazem co-administration significantly increased the mean maximum concentration (Cmax) and mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) for ticagrelor by 69% and 174%, respectively. Diltiazem co-administration reduced Cmax by 38% but had no significant effect on AUC for AR-C124910XX. Cmax and AUC for ticagrelor were increased by 135% and 632%, respectively, by ketoconazole co-administration, whereas these parameters were reduced by 89% and 56%, respectively, for AR-C124910XX. Diltiazem and ketoconazole pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly affected by the presence of ticagrelor. Conclusions These results suggest that ticagrelor can be co-administered with moderate CYP3A inhibitors. However, co-administration of strong CYP3A inhibitors with ticagrelor is not recommended. PMID:27536435
Hoerth, Christian; Kundi, Michael; Katzenschlager, Reinhold; Hirschl, Mirko
Nailfold capillaroscopy (NVC) is a diagnostic tool particularly useful in the differential diagnosis of rheumatic and connective tissue diseases. Although successfully applied since many years, little is known about prevalence and distribution of NVC changes in healthy individuals. NVC was performed in 120 individuals (57 men and 63 women; age 18 to 70 years) randomly selected according to predefined age and sex strata. Diseases associated with NVC changes were excluded. The nailfolds of eight fingers were assessed according to standardized procedures. A scoring system was developed based on the distribution of the number of morphologically deviating capillaries, microhaemorrhages, and capillary density. Only 18 individuals (15 %) had no deviation in morphology, haemorrhages, or capillary density on any finger. Overall 67 % had morphological changes, 48 % had microhaemorrhages, and 40 % of volunteers below 40 years of age and 18 % above age 40 had less than 8 capillaries/mm. Among morphological changes tortous (43 %), ramified (47 %), and bushy capillaries (27 %) were the most frequently altered capillary types. A semiquantitative scoring system was developed in such a way that a score above 1 indicates an extreme position (above the 90th percentile) in the distribution of scores among healthy individuals. Altered capillaries occur frequently among healthy individuals and should be interpreted as normal unless a suspicious increase in their frequency is determined by reference to the scoring system. Megacapillaries and diffuse loss of capillaries were not found and seem to be of specific diagnostic value.
Geyer, M; Manrique, I; Degen, L; Beglinger, C
Yacon is a root crop which contains high amounts of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yacon syrup on colon transit time in healthy volunteers. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study yacon was administered to 16 healthy individuals (8 males, 8 females) in a dose of 20 g daily (equal to 6.4 g FOS) in a 2-week crossover design. Each period was interrupted by a 2-week wash-out phase. Transit time was assessed by a radio-opaque marker technique. Transit time (mean +/- SEM) through the gastrointestinal tract was significantly decreased from 59.7 +/- 4.3 to 38.4 +/- 4.2 h (p < 0.001). Yacon was well tolerated with an excellent side effect profile. Bloating is not an uncommon side effect observed with FOS, but bloating-related disturbances were not significantly more often reported with yacon compared to placebo. Stool frequency increased from 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.2 times per day and the consistency showed a tendency for softer stools as assessed by a numerical depicted stool protocol. Neither parameter did, however, reach statistical significance. Yacon markedly accelerates colonic transit in healthy individuals. Further studies are needed in constipated patients to confirm these preliminary data. Due to the low caloric content of yacon, the root could be a useful treatment in constipated diabetics or obese patients. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Muala, Ala; Nicklasson, Hanna; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Nyström, Robin; Pettersson, Esbjörn; Bosson, Jenny A; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Sandström, Thomas; Löndahl, Jakob
Respiratory tract deposition of air pollution particles is a key to their adverse health effects. This study was aimed to determine the size-resolved deposition fraction (DF) of sooty wood smoke particles in the lungs of healthy subjects. The type of wood smoke investigated is typical for household air pollution from solid fuels, which is among the largest environmental health problems globally. Twelve healthy volunteers inhaled diluted wood smoke from incomplete soot-rich combustion in a common wood stove. The DF of smoke particles (10-500 nm) was measured during three 15-min exposures in each subject during spontaneous breathing. Lung function was measured using standard spirometry. The total DFs by particle number concentration were 0.34±0.08. This can be compared with DFs of 0.21-0.23 in healthy subjects during previous experiments with wood pellet combustion. For particle mass, the total DFs found in this study were 0.22±0.06. DF and breathing frequency were negatively correlated as expected from model calculations (p<0.01). The DF of the investigated sooty wood smoke particles was higher than for previously investigated particles generated during more efficient combustion of biomass. Together with toxicological studies, which have indicated that incomplete biomass combustion particles rich in soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are especially harmful, these data highlight the health risks of inadequate wood combustion.
Liu, Man; Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yanan; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects. After a single oral dose of 2-mg terazosin, the plasma concentrations of terazosin enantiomers were measured over the course of 48 h in 12 healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of (+)-(R)-terazosin at all time points were higher than those of (-)-(S)-terazosin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞) ) and maximum plasma concentration of (+)-(R)-terazosin were significantly greater than those of the (-)-(S)-terazosin (P < 0.01, respectively). The R/S ratio of AUC(0-∞) of terazosin was 1.68. For the first time, it was proven that the pharmacokinetics of terazosin was stereoselective in healthy Chinese male subjects.
Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.
Background There are epidemiological data indicating that medical and/or nonmedical use of prescription opioids oftentimes involves concurrent use of other substances. One of those substances is benzodiazepines. It would be of relevance to characterize the effects of an opioid and a benzodiazepine when taken together to determine if measures related to abuse liability-related effects and psychomotor performance impairment are increased compared to when the drugs are taken alone. Methods Twenty volunteers participated in a crossover, randomized, double-blind study in which they received placebo, 0.5 mg alprazolam, 10mg oxycodone, and 0.5 mg alprazolam combined with 10mg oxycodone, all p.o. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological measures were assessed during each of the four sessions. Results Oxycodone by itself increased drug liking and “take again” ratings relative to placebo, but these ratings were not increased when oxycodone was taken with alprazolam, which by itself did not increase either of these ratings. The two drugs in combination produced stronger effects (larger in magnitude or longer lasting) than when either was taken alone on a number of measures, including psychomotor performance impairment. Conclusions In healthy volunteers, abuse liability-related subjective effects of oxycodone were not enhanced by alprazolam. There was enhanced behavioral toxicity when the drugs were taken together, and thus, this is of significant concern from a public safety standpoint. PMID:22365897
Cawello, Willi; Bonn, Rainer
Two open-label, randomized, multiple-dose clinical studies evaluated the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between the antiepileptic drugs lacosamide and valproic acid. The influence of lacosamide on valproic acid pharmacokinetics (trial A) and valproic acid on lacosamide pharmacokinetics (trial B) was investigated in 32 healthy male volunteers, 16 in each trial. Volunteers in trial A received valproic acid (300 mg bid) with randomization to either early or late addition of lacosamide (200 mg bid). Those in trial B received lacosamide (200 mg bid) with randomization to either early or late addition of valproic acid (300 mg bid). Area under the concentration-time curve during a 12-hour dosing interval at steady state (AUC(τ,ss)) and maximum steady-state plasma drug concentration (C(max,ss)) were measured for each drug alone and together and tested for equivalence. The point estimates (90% confidence intervals) for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) were 104% (99%-109%) and 101% (97%-107%), respectively, for valproic acid and 100% (98%-103%) and 101% (96%-107%), respectively, for lacosamide, which were within the generally accepted equivalence range of 80% to 125%. No changes in the rate or extent of absorption, terminal half-life, or time to maximum concentration were observed. These results suggest that lacosamide and valproic acid have no relevant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction.
Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L
Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers.
Dugger, H A; Carlson, J D; Henderson, W; Erdmann, G R; Alam, S M; Dham, R; Quamruzaman
The bioequivalence of two lansoprazole 30-mg capsules was determined in healthy human, adult volunteers after a single dose in a randomized cross-over study. The study was conducted at Pharmaconsult, Flemington Pharmaceutical Corp., New Jersey, USA. Reference (Lanzor, Laboratoires Houde, Paris, France) and test (Lanfast, Julphar, UAE) were administered to volunteers with 240 ml water after overnight fasting. Blood samples were collected at specified time intervals, plasma was separated and analyzed for lansoprazole using a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-t), AUC(0-~), C(max), T(max), T(1/2) and elimination rate constant were determined from plasma concentration-time profile of both formulations and found to be in good agreement with previously reported values. The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters were compared statistically to evaluate bioequivalence between the two brands, using the statistical modules recommended by the Food and Drug Administration. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any significant difference between the two formulations and 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptable range (80-120%) for bioequivalence. Based on these statistical inferences it was concluded that the two formulations exhibited comparable pharmacokinetic profiles and that Julphar's Lanfast is bioequivalent to Lanzor of Lab. Houde.
Staahl, Camilla; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr
AIM Experimental pain models may help to evaluate the mechanisms of action of analgesics and target the clinical indications for their use. This review addresses how the efficacy of opioids can be assessed in human volunteers using experimental pain models. The drawback with the different study designs is also discussed. METHOD A literature search was completed for randomized controlled studies which included human experimental pain models, healthy volunteers and opioids. RESULTS Opioids with a strong affinity for the µ-opioid receptor decreased the sensation in a variety of experimental pain modalities, but strong tonic pain was attenuated more than short lasting pain and non-painful sensations. The effects of opioids with weaker affinity for the µ-opioid receptor were detected by a more narrow range of pain models, and the assessment methods needed to be more sensitive. CONCLUSION The way the pain is induced, assessed and summarized is very important for the sensitivity of the pain models. This review gives an overview of how different opioids perform in experimental pain models. Generally experimental pain models need to be designed with careful consideration of pharmacological mechanisms and pharmacokinetics of analgesics. This knowledge can aid the decisions needed to be taken when designing experimental pain studies for compounds entering phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:19694733
SIPS, A. J. A. M.; van der VIJGH, W. J. F.; BARTO, R.; NETELENBOS, J. C.
1The absorption kinetics of orally administered strontium chloride and its reproducibility were investigated in healthy volunteers after administering strontium either under fasting conditions (study I, n=8) or in combination with a standardized meal (study II, n=8). Each subject received strontium orally at day 0, 14, and 28 and intravenously at day 42. The study was performed as part of a project in which a simple clinical test for measuring intestinal calcium absorption is being developed, based on the use of stable strontium as a marker. 2Plasma strontium concentration–time curves were analysed by noncompartment analysis and a four compartment disposition model. Within a volunteer each oral curve was fitted simultaneously with the intravenous curve, by which means a two segment model for absorption was revealed. 3Mean absolute bioavailability of strontium was 25% without a meal and 19% with a meal, whereas the intraindividual variation was 24% and 20%, respectively. 4Various limited sampling absorption parameters were determined in order to select a potential test parameter for measuring intestinal calcium absorption using strontium as a marker. Fractional absorption at 4 h (Fc240), obtained after co-ingestion of strontium with a meal, appeared to be the best test parameter, because it represented bioavailability well (r=0.90). PMID:8799520
Brion, N; Beaumont, D; Advenier, C
1 The anticholinergic effects of atropine and two antihistamines (terfenadine and mequitazine) were investigated vs placebo in a double-blind study. 2 Salivary secretion, basal pupil diameter, pilocarpine (0.25%) induced miosis and heart rate were determined in eight healthy volunteers, seven male and one female, aged between 23 and 35 years. Each volunteer received all four separate courses of treatment: i.e. terfenadine 60 mg or mequitazine 5 mg twice daily for 3 days, and one single dose on the day of the trial; for the placebo or atropine courses they received the placebo twice daily during 3 days and, on the morning of test day, either the placebo again or atropine 1 mg. Pupillary diameter was measured under standardized conditions using a pupil gauge (Smith and Nephew Pharmaceuticals Ltd). 3 Atropine significantly reduced salivary output (-2.25 +/- 0.36 ml from control values of 4.17 +/- 0.42 ml, P less than 0.001) and heart rate (-9.7 +/- 3.7 beats min-1 from 77.5 +/- 2.7, P less than 0.05). These maximal effects were observed 3 h after atropine dosing for salivary secretion and 1 h for heart rate. Atropine did not affect basal pupil diameter or pilocarpine-induced miosis. 4 Mequitazine and terfenadine did not affect salivary flow, heart rate or pilocarpine-induced miosis. 5 Terfenadine and mequitazine had no anticholinergic effect in these tests involving a limited number of subjects. PMID:3130890
Helmy, Sally A; El-Bedaiwy, Heba M
Piroxicam is a NSAID with analgesic and antipyretic properties, used for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two brands of piroxicam capsules (20 mg) in 24 Egyptian volunteers. The in vivo study was established according to a single-center, randomized, single-dose, laboratory-blinded, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study with a washout period of 3 weeks. Under fasting conditions, 24 healthy male volunteers were randomly selected to receive a single oral dose of one capsule (20 mg) of either test or reference product. Plasma samples were obtained over a 144-hour interval and analyzed for piroxicam by HPLC with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax , tmax , AUC0-t , AUC0-∞ , Vd /F, Cl/F, and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of log transformed values of Cmax , AUC0-t , and AUC0-∞ of the two treatments were within the acceptable range (0.8-1.25) for bioequivalence. From PK perspectives, the two piroxicam formulations were considered bioequivalent, based on the rate and extent of absorption. No adverse events occurred or were reported after a single 20-mg piroxicam and both formulations were well-tolerated.
do Nascimento, D F; Silva Leite, A L A e; de Moraes, R A; Camarão, G C; Bezerra, F A F; de Moraes, M O; de Moraes, M E A
To assess the effect of dimeticone and pepsin on the bioavailability of metoclopramide (CAS 7232-21-5) in healthy volunteers. The study was conducted using a randomized, open, 2-period crossover design. The volunteers received single administration of 7-mg conventional metoclopramide capsule and a formulation containing metoclopramide (7 mg) plus dimeticone (40 mg) and pepsin (50 mg), with a 7-day interval between treatments. Serial blood samples were collected before dosing and during 24 h post-treatment. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetics parameters AUC(last) and C(max) were obtained from the metoclopramide plasma concentration vs. time curves. Metoclopramide's association was bioequivalent to conventional capsule; 90% CIs for geometric mean treatment ratios of C(max) [108.0% (90% CI, 100.4-116.3%)], AUC(last) [103.3% (90% CI, 99.5-107.4%)] were within the predefined range. The metoclopramide formulations were well tolerated at the administered doses and no significant adverse reactions were observed. Thus, these results confirm the good bioavailability of metoclopramide in the new formulation and rule out any impaired absorption when the drugs are formulated in combination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Courville, Amber B; DiVito, Meagan; Moyer, Lindsay; Rossinoff, Anna; Royster, Caitlin; Psota, Tricia; Ayres, Elaine; Zambell, Kirsten L
Current literature provides limited information about healthy volunteers serving as controls for biomedical research. This study describes trends in body mass index (BMI), a ratio of weight to height (kilograms per square meter), of the population of healthy volunteers at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC) and compares these trends to a nationally representative sample, as reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We hypothesized that BMI trends at the NIH CC would follow those of the US population. This cross-sectional study examined the BMI of healthy volunteers at the NIH CC from 1976 to 1980, 1981 to 1987, 1988 to 1994, 1995 to 1998 and for all subsequent two-year periods onward until 2012. Study data were extracted from the NIH Biomedical Translational Research Information System. Subjects were selected based on a discharge code of "volunteer." Descriptive statistics of volunteers at the NIH CC were calculated for height, weight, age-adjusted BMI, age, and sex, and associations between categorical variables were analyzed using the χ2 test. Differences between BMI categories or periods for continuous independent variables were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Tamhane T2 tests. The 13 898 healthy volunteers with median age of 34 years were 53% female and primarily non-Hispanic whites. Mean BMI was within the normal category from 1976 to 1987. From 1988 on, mean BMI fluctuated but increased overall. The BMI of healthy volunteers at the NIH CC appears to follow national trends as described by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data of increasing body weight during the past three decades followed by a recent plateau.
Malhotra, S; Dixit, R K; Garg, S K
The effect of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of carbamazepine was studied. In a two-way cross-over design with a 1 week washout period, 10 healthy volunteers were randomized to received 200 mg carbamazepine orally with 300 ml of Coca-Cola or water. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after drug administration. Plasma carbamazepine levels were higher with Coca-Cola as compared to water. The AUC0-infinity and Cmax of carbamazepine were significantly enhanced after Coca-Cola while tmax was achieved earlier with Coca-Cola. The results of the study indicate that concomitant administration of Coca-Cola enhances the rate and extent of absorption of carbamazepine.
Sioufi, A; Pommier, F; Boschet, F; Godbillon, J; Lavoignat, D; Salliere, D
The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac was studied in ten healthy volunteers treated with Emulgel containing 1.16% diclofenac diethylammonium for 8 d as follows: a single application of 5 g Emulgel on days 1 and 8, and two applications d-1 on days 2-7. Plasma concentration profiles of unchanged diclofenac and urinary concentrations of total diclofenac and metabolites (sum of free and conjugated) were determined. High inter-individual variations in plasma and urine data were recorded, due probably to the permeability and the hydration of the skin. Steady state was reached after 2 d of twice-daily administration. Plasma concentrations were low but remained in the range 10-50 nmol L-1 over the full day for most of the subjects, indicating prolonged absorption from the application site.
Barry, Robert L; Rogers, Baxter P; Conrad, Benjamin N; Smith, Seth A; Gore, John C
We recently reported our findings of resting state functional connectivity in the human spinal cord: in a cohort of healthy volunteers we observed robust functional connectivity between left and right ventral (motor) horns and between left and right dorsal (sensory) horns (Barry et al., 2014). Building upon these results, we now quantify the within-subject reproducibility of bilateral motor and sensory networks (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.54-0.56) and explore the impact of including frequencies up to 0.13Hz. Our results suggest that frequencies above 0.08Hz may enhance the detectability of these resting state networks, which would be beneficial for practical studies of spinal cord functional connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sandouk, P; Bouvier d'Yvoire, M; Chretien, P; Tillement, J P; Scherrmann, J M
A single dose of 8 mg of thiocolchicoside was administered to 12 healthy volunteers according to a Latin square design, either as tablets (reference), oral solution, or intramuscular injection. Serum thiocolchicoside concentrations showed an absorption phase followed by a biexponential decay with a terminal half-life (t1/2 beta) of approximately 5 h, similar for the three formulations. The relative bioavailability of both oral formulations was approximately 25%, compared to the intramuscular formulation. There was a trend for the oral solution to have a slightly larger AUC and Cmax, as well as a slightly shorter Tmax, than the tablet formulation. However, the comparison of the two oral forms did not show statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, and AUC, suggesting that the Coltramyl tablets have an adequate in vivo dissolution profile.
Joubert, P H; Starke, D D; Van Reenen, O; Venter, C P
Binedaline is a new antidepressant drug which is not a tricyclic compound. In animal investigations it showed a greater therapeutic index than imipramine and amitriptylene and a smaller ED50. It also showed less anticholinergic and antihistaminic activity. In this study the effects of 100 mg (females) and 150 mg (males) of binedaline was compared with 50 mg and 75 mg of amitriptylene and placebo in healthy volunteers. Binedaline was better tolerated than amitriptylene and produced less sedation and fewer instances of dry mouth. Binedaline was devoid of the marked postural hypotension produced by amitriptylene but caused the same degree of tachycardia as amitriptylene at rest, when subjects were tilted and when subjected to ergometry. It was concluded that binedaline causes less alpha-adrenergic blockade than amitriptylene but that the sympathomimetic effects were similar. At the doses employed no major changes in electrocardiogram or systolic time intervals occurred.
Saavedra S, Iván; Sasso A, Jaime; Quiñones S, Luis; Saavedra B, Mónica; Gaete G, Leonardo; Boza T, Ignacio; Carvajal H, Cristóbal; Soto L, Jorge
The bioequivalence of different formulations of a same pharmaceutical product must be tested empirically. To evaluate the relative bioavailability for an oralformulation of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (Linfonex™) compared to the reference formulation (Cellcept™) to determine the bioequivalence between both formulations. A randomized, crossover, double-blind trial in 22 healthy male volunteers, who received a single oral dose of 1000 mg of Linfonex and Cellcept with a washout period of 10 days. Plasma levels of the drug were determined by high performance liquid chr ornatography. Plasma concentrations were plotted and maximum concentration, area under the plasma concentration versus time between 0 and 12 hours after administration and área under plasma concentration curve versus time after administration between 0 and infinity, were calculated for both products. The active compound, mycophenolic acid, was similarly absorbed in both formulations. No statistically significant differences were found in calculated pharmacokinetic parameters between both formulations. Linfonex™ 500 mg is bioequivalent to Cellcept™ 500 mg.
Osterdahl, M; Kocturk, T; Koochek, A; Wändell, P E
Prevention of cardiovascular diseases by paleolithic or hunter-gatherer diets has been discussed during recent years. Our aim was to assess the effect of a paleolithic diet in a pilot study on healthy volunteers during 3 weeks. The intention was to include 20 subjects, of whom 14 fulfilled the study. Complete dietary assessment was available for six subjects. Mean weight decreased by 2.3 kg (P<0.001), body mass index by 0.8 (P<0.001), waist circumference by 0.5 cm (P=0.001), systolic blood pressure by 3 mm Hg (P=0.03) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by 72% (P=0.020). Regarding nutrient intake, intake of energy decreased by 36%, and other effects were also observed, both favourable (fat composition, antioxidants, potassium-sodium rate) and unfavourable (calcium). This short-term intervention showed some favourable effects by the diet, but further studies, including control group, are needed.
Cánovas, M; Canals, M; Polonio, F; Cabré, F
A bioequivalence study of 2 zolmitriptan (CAS 139264-17-8) orodispersible tablet formulations was carried out in 26 healthy volunteers according to an open label, randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover, single dose and fasting conditions design. The test and reference formulations were administered in 2 treatment days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. Plasma concentrations of zolmitriptan and its active metabolite (N-desmethyl-zolmitriptan) were obtained by LC/MS/MS method. Log-transformed AUCs and Cmax values were tested for bioequivalence based on the ratios of the geometric means (test/reference). Tmax was analysed nonparametrically. The 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean values for the test/reference ratios for AUC0-t and Cmax were within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80-125%. According to the European Guideline 1 it may be therefore concluded that test formulation of zolmitriptan 5 mg orodispersible tablet is bioequivalent to the reference formulation.
Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N
Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.
Chen, Longhui; Yang, Zemin; Chen, Weiwen; Li, Ruliu; Lin, Chuanquan; Guan, Lihua; Zhu, Zhangzhi; Chen, Ruifang; Li, Saimei; Zhao, Lingbo; Zeng, Jinhao; Wang, Jianhua
To investigate the clinical differentia tion of spleen-deficiency pattern (SDP), a group of symptoms and signs defined in terms of Traditional Chinese Medicine for its clinical practice. Peripheral venous blood (> 3 mL) was collected from each of six type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-SDP patients and six healthy volunteers. After the isolation of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs), total RNA was extracted, and quality control was performed on all RNA samples. Microarray experiments were conducted using the Agilent human whole genome gene chip, and genes demonstrating differential expression were screened. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted on these genes using several online databases. We screened a total of 175 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 111 (63%) were down-regulated and 64 (37%) were up-regulated in T2DM-SDP patients compared with healthy controls. Among the 175 genes, 158 had biological function annotations: 46 (29%) were directly related to an individual's immune regulation or response, 25 (16%) were associated with substance and energy metabolism of PWBCs which could also indirectly influence immunity, and the remaining 87 (55%) were involved in a variety of PWBC biological processes that might eventually influence the immune function. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were predominantly enriched in seven immune-related pathways. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified gene expression patterns that were distinguishable between the two study groups. Our results suggest that T2DM-SDP patients experience significant hypoimmunity and/or immune dysfunctions, and possess a specific gene expression profile. These findings offer new insights into SDP and the clinical pattern differentiation of T2DM-SDP.
Lummel, N; Zeif, C; Kloetzer, A; Linn, J; Brückmann, H; Bitterling, H
Evaluation of alar traumatic injuries by using MR imaging is frequently performed. This study investigates the variability of morphology and signal intensity of alar ligaments in healthy volunteers so that pathology can be more accurately defined. Fifty healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5T MR imaging scanner with 2-mm PD-weighted sequences in 3 planes. Delineation of the alar ligaments in 3 planes and signal-intensity characteristics on sagittal planes were analyzed by using a 4-point grading scale. Variability of courses and morphologic characteristics were described. Delineation of alar ligaments was best viewed in the coronal plane, followed by the sagittal and axial planes. In the sagittal view, 6.5% of alar ligaments appeared homogeneously dark. Hyperintense signal intensity in up to one-third of the cross-sectional area was present in 33% of cases; in up to two-thirds of the cross-sectional area, in 45% of cases; and in more than two-thirds of the cross-sectional area, in 15% of cases. Of alar ligaments, 58.5% ascended laterally, 40.5% ran horizontally, and 1% descended laterally. The cross-sectional area was round in 41.5%, oval in 51.5%, and winglike in 6.5%. On 1.5T MR imaging, the alar ligaments can be delineated best in the coronal and sagittal planes. Our data indicate a remarkable variability of morphology and course as well as signal intensity. This finding is contradictory to former publications assigning such alterations exclusively to patients with trauma.
Brott, David A; Adler, Scott H; Arani, Ramin; Lovick, Susan C; Pinches, Mark; Furlong, Stephen T
Background Several preclinical urinary biomarkers have been qualified and accepted by the health authorities (US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency) for detecting drug-induced kidney injury during preclinical toxicologic testing. Validated human assays for many of these biomarkers have become commercially available, and this study was designed to characterize some of the novel clinical renal biomarkers. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical renal biomarkers in a typical Phase I healthy volunteer population to determine confidence intervals (pilot reference intervals), intersubject and intrasubject variability, effects of food intake, effect of sex, and vendor assay comparisons. Methods Spot urine samples from 20 male and 19 female healthy volunteers collected on multiple days were analyzed using single analyte and multiplex assays. The following analytes were measured: α-1-microglobulin, β-2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, connective tissue growth factor, creatinine, cystatin C, glutathione S-transferase-α, kidney injury marker-1, microalbumin, N-acetyl-β-(D) glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, trefoil factor 3, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Results Confidence intervals were determined from the single analyte and multiplex assays. Intersubject and intrasubject variability ranged from 38% to 299% and from 29% to 82% for biomarker concentration, and from 24% to 331% and from 10% to 67% for biomarker concentration normalized to creatinine, respectively. There was no major effect of food intake or sex. Single analyte and multiplex assays correlated with r2≥0.700 for five of six biomarkers when evaluating biomarker concentration, but for only two biomarkers when evaluating concentration normalized to creatinine. Conclusion Confidence intervals as well as
Terai, Shiho; Iijima, Katsunori; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru
Nitric oxide produced endogenously in vagal neurons modulates gastrointestinal motor activity as an important non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurotransmitter. Other than through endogenous biosynthesis, a high concentration of nitric oxide also occurs by chemical reactions within the stomach in the presence of gastric acid through the entero-salivary re-circulation of dietary nitrate. Although dietary nitrate can be a potential source of nitric oxide in the human stomach, there has been no report on the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric emptying, one of the major parameters for the gastric motor function. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a placebo-controlled (310 mg sodium nitrate or placebo), double-blind, crossover trial. Since a sufficient amount of gastric acid is essential for dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide generation in the stomach, the same protocol was repeated after 1-week treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole. Gastric emptying was evaluated by (13)C-octanoate breath test. The sodium nitrate ingestion did not affect gastric emptying either prior to or during rabeprazole treatment, although rabeprazole treatment itself significantly delayed gastric emptying, being independent of the dietary nitrate load. Confirmation of the delayed gastric emptying with rabeprazole indicates the sensitivity of the breath test employed in the present study. In conclusion, despite the potential nitrogen source of exogenous nitric oxide, the ingestion of 310 mg sodium nitrate, which is equivalent to the average daily intake of Japanese adults, does not affect gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.
Diestelhorst, M; Krieglstein, G K
In 19 healthy volunteers (9 men, 10 women) we studied the effect of drinking 1000 ml of water within 10 min on aqueous humor dynamics. Fluorescein was applied topically five times, 6 h before measurements. All readings were taken during the afternoon. The Wilcox-on signed-rank test was used to evaluate the statistical relevance of the data. Aqueous humor flow was measured 60 min before (F1) and 10 min (F2), 30 min (F3), 60 min (F4) and 90 min (F5) after drinking 11 of water. Flow (mean +/- SD) changed as follows: F1, 2.25 +/- 1.2 microliters/min; F2, -3.29 +/- 3.4 microliters/min (P < 0.0000); F3, 1.69 +/- 1.0 microliters/min (P = 0.007); F4, 2.39 +/- 0.9 microliters/min (P = 0.25); F5, 2.64 +/- 0.9 microliters/min (P = 0.02). Three to four days later the identical procedure was performed in each individual: F1, 2.06 +/- 1.0 microliters/min; F2, -3.12 +/- 2.4 microliters/min (P < 0.0000); F3, 1.09 +/- 0.6 microliters/min (P < 0.0001); F4, 1.76 +/- 0.6 microliters/min (P = 0.15); F5, 2.54 +/- 0.8 microliters/min (P = 0.01). The correlation coefficient for the left and night eyes (F1-F5, both days) was r = 0.85. The mean flow in the 19 healthy volunteers during the afternoon hours was 2.25 +/- 1.0 microliters/min. Water load consistently led to a reflux of unbound fluorescein into the eye about 10 min later. This is documented as a negative flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Tribl, Gotthard G; Wetter, Thomas C; Schredl, Michael
Sleep related symptoms of depression include sleep fragmentation, early morning awakening, decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency, increased REM density, and more negative dream content. Most tricyclic antidepressants (ADs) increase total sleep time and decrease wake time after sleep onset, while many selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have an opposite effect. However, almost all ADs prolong REM sleep latency and reduce the amount of REM sleep. Case reports and research data indicate a strong effect of ADs on dream recall and dream content. We performed a systematic review (1950 to August 2010) about ADs impact on dreaming in depressive patients and healthy volunteers. Twenty-one clinical studies and 25 case reports were eligible for review and document a clear AD effect on dreaming. The major finding, both in depressed patients and in healthy volunteers, is a decrease of dream recall frequency (DRF) under ADs. This is a rather consistent effect in tricyclic ADs and phenelzine, less consistently documented also for SSRIs/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Tricyclic ADs induce more positive dream emotions. Withdrawal from tricyclic ADs and from the monoamine oxidase inhibitors phenelzine and tranylcypromine may cause nightmares. Intake and even more withdrawal of SSRIs/SNRIs seem to intensify dreaming, which may be experienced in different ways; a potential to cause nightmares has to be taken into account. Though there are clear-cut pharmacological effects of ADs on DRF and dream content, publications have been surprisingly scarce during the past 60 years. There is evidence of a gap in neuropsychopharmacological research. AD effects on dreams should be recognized and may be used in treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kording, Fabian; Yamamura, Jin; Lund, Gunnar; Ueberle, Friedrich; Jung, Caroline; Adam, Gerhard; Schoennagel, Bjoern Philip
Electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may be influenced by electromagnetic interferences with increasing magnetic field strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Doppler ultrasound (DUS) as an alternative trigger technique for CMR in comparison to ECG and pulse oximetry (POX) at 3T and using different sequence types. Balanced turbo field echo two-dimensional (2D) short axis cine CMR and 2D phase-contrast angiography of the ascending aorta was performed in 11 healthy volunteers at 3T using ECG, DUS, and POX for cardiac triggering. DUS and POX triggering were compared to the reference standard of ECG in terms of trigger quality (trigger detection and temporal variability), image quality [endocardial blurring (EB)], and functional measurements [left ventricular (LV) volumetry and aortic blood flow velocimetry]. Trigger signal detection and temporal variability did not differ significantly between ECG/DUS (I = 0.6) and ECG/POX (P = 0.4). Averaged EB was similar for ECG, DUS, and POX (pECG/DUS = 0.4, pECG/POX = 0.9). Diastolic EB was significantly decreased for DUS in comparison to ECG (P = 0.02) and POX (P = 0.04). The LV function assessment and aortic blood flow were not significantly different. This study demonstrated the feasibility of DUS for gating human CMR at 3T. The magnetohydrodynamic effect did not significantly disturb ECG triggering in this small healthy volunteer study. DUS showed a significant improvement in diastolic EB but could not be identified as a superior trigger method. The potential benefit of DUS has to be evaluated in a larger clinical patient population.
Wezenberg, Elke; Verkes, Robert Jan; Ruigt, Ge S F; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard G C
Ampakines act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism associated with memory storage and consolidation. The present study investigated the acute effects of farampator, 1-(benzofurazan-5-ylcarbonyl) piperidine, on memory and information processes in healthy elderly volunteers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over study was performed in 16 healthy, elderly volunteers (eight male, eight female; mean age 66.1, SD 4.5 years). All subjects received farampator (500 mg) and placebo. Testing took place 1 h after drug intake, which was around Tmax for farampator. Subjects performed tasks assessing episodic memory (wordlist learning and picture memory), working and short-term memory (N-back, symbol recall) and motor learning (maze task, pursuit rotor). Information processing was assessed with a tangled lines task, the symbol digit substitution test (SDST) and the continuous trail making test (CTMT). Farampator (500 mg) unequivocally improved short-term memory but appeared to impair episodic memory. Furthermore, it tended to decrease the number of switching errors in the CTMT. Drug-induced side effects (SEs) included headache, somnolence and nausea. Subjects with SEs had significantly higher plasma levels of farampator than subjects without SEs. Additional analyses revealed that in the farampator condition the group without SEs showed a significantly superior memory performance relative to the group with SEs. The positive results on short-term memory and the favorable trends in the trail making test (CTMT) are interesting in view of the development of ampakines in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.
Günther, A C; Schandl, A R; Berhardsson, J; Bjärtå, A; Wållgren, M; Sundin, Ö; Alvarsson, J; Bottai, M; Martling, C-R; Sackey, P V
Assessing pain in critically ill patients is difficult. Skin conductance variability (SCV), induced by the sympathetic response to pain, has been suggested as a method to identify pain in poorly communicating patients. However, SCV, a derivate of conventional skin conductance, could potentially also be sensitive to emotional stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate if pain and emotional stress can be distinguished with SCV. In a series of twelve 1-min sessions with SCV recording, 18 healthy volunteers were exposed to standardized electric pain stimulation during blocks of positive, negative, or neutral emotion, induced with pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Additionally, authentic intensive care unit (ICU) sound was included in half of the sessions. All possible combinations of pain and sound occurred in each block of emotion, and blocks were presented in randomized order. Pain stimulation resulted in increases in the number of skin conductance fluctuations (NSCF) in all but one participant. During pain-free baseline sessions, the median NSCF was 0.068 (interquartile range 0.013-0.089) and during pain stimulation median NSCF increased to 0.225 (interquartile range 0.146-0.3175). Only small increases in NSCF were found during negative emotions. Pain, assessed with the numeric rating scale, during the sessions with pain stimulation was not altered significantly by other ongoing sensory input. In healthy volunteers, NSCF appears to reflect ongoing autonomous reactions mainly to pain and to a lesser extent, reactions to emotion induced with IAPS pictures or ICU sound. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adegbola, Adebanjo J; Soyinka, Julius O; Adeagbo, Babatunde A; Igbinoba, Sharon I; Nathaniel, Thomas I
This study evaluated the effects of concurrent ciprofloxacin administration on the disposition of quinine in healthy volunteers. Quinine (600-mg single dose) was administered either alone or with the 11th dose of ciprofloxacin (500 mg every 12 hours for 7 days) to 15 healthy volunteers in a crossover fashion. Blood samples collected at predetermined time intervals were analyzed for quinine and its major metabolite, 3-hydroxquinine, using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Administration of quinine plus ciprofloxacin resulted in significant increases (P < 0.05) in the total area under the concentration-time curve, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and terminal elimination half-life (T1/2b) of quinine compared with values with quinine dosing alone (AUC: 27.93 ± 8.04 vs. 41.62 ± 13.98 h·mg/L; Cmax: 1.37 ± 0.24 vs. 1.64 ± 0.38 mg/L; T1/2b: 16.28 ± 2.66 vs. 21.43 ± 3.22 hours), whereas the oral plasma clearance markedly decreased (23.17 ± 6.49 vs. 16.00 ± 5.27 L/h). In the presence of ciprofloxacin, there was a pronounced decrease in the ratio of AUC (metabolite)/AUC (unchanged drug) and highly significant decreases in Cmax and AUC of the metabolite (P < 0.05). Ciprofloxacin may increase the adverse effects of concomitantly administered quinine, which can have serious consequences on the patient. Thus, a downward dosage adjustment of quinine seems to be necessary when concurrently administered with ciprofloxacin.
Colasanti, Alessandro; Salamon, Ewa; Schruers, Koen; van Diest, Rob; van Duinen, Marlies; Griez, Eric J
A number of evidences have established that panic and respiration are closely related. Clinical studies indicated that respiratory sensations constitute a discrete cluster of panic symptoms and play a major role in the pathophysiology of panic. The aim of the present study was to explore the phenomenology of an experimental model of panic in healthy volunteers based on the hypothesis that: (1) we can isolate discrete clusters of panic symptoms, (2) respiratory symptoms represent a distinct cluster of panic symptoms, and (3) respiratory symptoms are the best predictor of the subjective feeling of panic, as defined in the DSM IV criteria.Sixty-four healthy volunteers received a double inhalation of four mixtures containing 0, 9, 17.5 and 35% CO(2,) respectively, in a double-blind, cross-over, random design. An electronic visual analog scale and the Panic Symptom List (PSL) were used to assess subjective 'fear/discomfort' and panic symptoms, respectively. Statistical analyses consisted of Spearman's correlations, a principal component factor analysis of the 13 PSL symptoms, and linear regressions analyses.The factor analysis extracted three clusters of panic symptoms: respiratory, cognitive, and neurovegetative (r(2)=0.65). Respiratory symptoms were highly related to subjective feeling of fear/discomfort specifically in the CO(2)-enriched condition. Moreover, the respiratory component was the most important predictor of the subjective feeling of 'fear/discomfort' (beta=0.54).The discrete clusters of symptoms observed in this study were similar to those elicited in panic attacks naturally occurring in patients affected by panic disorder. Consistent with the idea that respiration plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of panic, we found that respiratory symptoms were the best predictors the subjective state defined in the DSM IV criteria for panic.
Goey, Andrew K L; Meijerman, Irma; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M
Grape seed extract (GSE) has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. To determine the clinical effect of GSE on CYP2D6, the pharmacokinetic interaction between GSE and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy adult volunteers was examined. In this open label, randomized, cross-over study, 30 subjects were assigned to cohort A or B. Both cohorts ingested 30 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide on day 1 and day 10. Cohort A received 100 mg GSE capsules three times daily on days 8, 9 and 10, while cohort B started with GSE on day -1 until day 1. After urine collection (0-8 h) on day 1 and day 10, the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio was determined. Among 28 evaluable subjects, an increase of the urinary metabolic ratio was observed in 16 subjects (57 %). The mean metabolic ratio (± standard deviation) before and after GSE supplementation was 0.41 (± 0.56) and 0.48 (± 0.59), respectively. This result was neither statistically (P = 0.342) nor clinically [geometric mean ratio 1.10, 90 % CI (0.93-1.30)] significant. Further, the majority (73 %) of the included subjects did not experience any adverse events after intake of dextromethorphan or GSE. Supplementation of GSE did not significantly affect the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio in healthy volunteers. The results of this clinical study indicate that GSE appears to be safe to combine with drugs extensively metabolized by CYP2D6, such as dextromethorphan and tamoxifen.
Puente de la Vega Costa, Katia; Gómez Perez, Miquel A; Roqueta, Cristina; Fischer, Lorenz
The sympathetic nervous system has an important role in generating pain. Various pathomechanisms are involved that respond well to the application of local anesthetics (LA), for example to the stellate ganglion block (SGB). We wanted to know more about the effects of SGB on cardiovascular parameters. We included 15 healthy volunteers; another 15 healthy volunteers as a control group (sham injection of LA). In order to produce a more precise SGB, we employed only a small volume of LA (3mL), a LA with a lower permeability (procaine 1%), and a modified injection technique. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), and echocardiographic parameters were recorded before and after SGB. We also investigated whether there are side differences (left and right SBG). At baseline all parameters were within the normal range. After performing right and left SGB DBP significantly increased (on the right side from 68.73±8.61 to 73.53±11.10, p=0.015; on the left side from 70.66±13.01 to 77.93±10.40, p=0.003). In the control group no increase in DBP was observed. No side-specific differences were found, except a significant reduction in the maximum velocity of myocardial contraction during the systole with left-sided SGB. Even with our methods we could not prevent the simultaneous occurrence of a partial parasympatholytic effect. For this reason, the SGB has only minor hemodynamic effects, which is desirable as it enhances the safety of the SGB. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Objective To investigate the effects of using motor imagery (MI) in combination with a virtual reality (VR) program on healthy volunteers and stroke patients. In addition, this study investigated whether task variability within the VR-guided MI programs would influence corticomotor excitability. Methods The present study included 15 stroke patients and 15 healthy right-handed volunteers who were presented with four different conditions in a random order: rest, MI alone, VR-guided MI, and VR-guided MI with task variability. The corticomotor excitability of each participant was assessed before, during, and after each condition by measuring changes in the various parameters of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the extensor carpi radials (ECR). Changes in intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were calculated after each condition as percentages of inhibition (%INH) and facilitation (%FAC) at rest. Results In both groups, the increases in MEP amplitudes were greater during the two VR-guided MI conditions than during MI alone. Additionally, the reductions in ECR %INH in both groups were greater under the condition involving VR-guided MI with task variability than under that involving VR-guided MI with regular interval. Conclusion The corticomotor excitability elicited by MI using a VR avatar representation was greater than that elicited by MI with real body observations. Furthermore, the use of task variability in a VR program may enhance neural regeneration after stroke by reducing ICI. The present findings support the use of various VR programs as well as the concept of combining MI with VR programs for neurorehabilitation. PMID:27446778
Yassen, Ashraf; Olofsen, Erik; Romberg, Raymonda; Sarton, Elise; Danhof, Meindert; Dahan, Albert
The objective of this investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relation of buprenorphine's antinociceptive effect in healthy volunteers. Data on the time course of the antinociceptive effect after intravenous administration of 0.05-0.6 mg/70 kg buprenorphine in healthy volunteers was analyzed in conjunction with plasma concentrations by nonlinear mixed-effects analysis. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model best described the concentration time course. Four structurally different pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models were evaluated for their appropriateness to describe the time course of buprenorphine's antinociceptive effect: (1) E(max) model with an effect compartment model, (2) "power" model with an effect compartment model, (3) receptor association-dissociation model with a linear transduction function, and (4) combined biophase equilibration/receptor association-dissociation model with a linear transduction function. The latter pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model described the time course of effect best and was used to explain time dependencies in buprenorphine's pharmacodynamics. The model converged, yielding precise estimation of the parameters characterizing hysteresis and the relation between relative receptor occupancy and antinociceptive effect. The rate constant describing biophase equilibration (k(eo)) was 0.00447 min(-1) (95% confidence interval, 0.00299-0.00595 min(-1)). The receptor dissociation rate constant (k(off)) was 0.0785 min(-1) (95% confidence interval, 0.0352-0.122 min(-1)), and k(on) was 0.0631 ml . ng(-1) . min(-1) (95% confidence interval, 0.0390-0.0872 ml . ng(-1) . min(-1)). This is consistent with observations in rats, suggesting that the rate-limiting step in the onset and offset of the antinociceptive effect is biophase distribution rather than slow receptor association-dissociation. In the dose range studied, no saturation of receptor occupancy occurred explaining the lack of a ceiling effect
Ishida, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Erina; Kondo, Yuya; Matsushita, Ryo; Komai, Kiyonobu
3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) is commonly used for treating neuromuscular diseases, such as the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, but the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-DAP base have not been investigated. We therefore studied 3,4-DAP base pharmacokinetics in healthy Japanese volunteers. In this crossover study, we administered a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg 3,4-DAP base to healthy Japanese volunteers (n = 5) after food intake, or 10 mg 3,4-DAP to fasting individuals. We measured serum 3,4-DAP concentrations, performed electrocardiography (ECG), and administered questionnaires. After administration of 10 or 20 mg 3,4-DAP following food intake, the maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) were 8.09 ± 4.47 ng/mL and 35.8 ± 15.7 ng/mL, respectively (mean ± standard deviation; SD), and the areas under the serum concentration-time curve (extrapolated to infinity) were 639 ± 213 ng x min/mL and 2,097 ± 936 ng x min/mL (mean ± SD), respectively. Administration to fasted individuals indicated that food intake did not significantly alter 3,4-DAP pharmacokinetics. ECG showed no clinically significant changes, but PR intervals were prolonged in all cases. Two out of 5 subjects showed perioral paresthesia symptoms after administration of 20 mg 3,4-DAP. This study indicated that 3,4-DAP base pharmacokinetics were non-linear. Although no clinically significant changes in ECG were observed, it is advisable to perform ECG periodically during 3,4-DAP administration in order to monitor cardiac function. Moreover, the development of perioral paresthesia may be dependent on the dose of 3,4-DAP used.
Kim, Yo Han; Choi, Hee Youn; Lee, Shi Hyang; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Miki, Tokutaro; Kang, Jong-Koo; Han, Kyoung-Goo; Bae, Kyun-Seop
Background HX-1171 (1-O-hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone) is a promising antioxidant with therapeutic potential for hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of HX-1171 in healthy volunteers. Methods A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study was conducted in 83 subjects. In the single ascending dose study, 20, 40, 80, 160, 300, 600, 1,200, 1,500 or 2,000 mg of HX-1171 was administered to 67 subjects. In the multiple ascending dose study, 500 or 1,000 mg was administered to 16 subjects for 14 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of HX-1171 were determined by using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed based on physical examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, and electrocardiograms. Results Adverse events reported in the study were all mild in intensity and resolved without any sequelae. HX-1171 was rapidly and minimally absorbed with a median time at maximal concentration of 0.63–1.50 hours and slowly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 21.12–40.96 hours. Accumulation index ranged from 2.0 to 2.2 after repeated dosing for 14 days. For both the single and multiple doses administrations, urinary concentrations indicated that less than 0.01% of the HX-1171 administered was excreted in urine. Conclusion HX-1171 was well tolerated and minimally absorbed in healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic profile of HX-1171 was consistent with once-a-day dosing. PMID:25848210
Sunger, Kanchan; Powley, William; Kelsall, Angela; Sumner, Helen; Murdoch, Robert; Smith, Jaclyn A
Cough is one of the commonest reasons for medical consultation and acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) is a global problem. In otherwise healthy volunteers complaining of cough associated with symptoms of URTI, we aimed to assess objective and subjective measures of cough and their repeatability and perform power calculations for the design of future studies to test therapies. We studied 54 otherwise healthy volunteers with acute cough (<3 weeks) (median age 22 yrs (interquartile range 21-26 yrs), 64% female, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s 97.6±10.5% predicted). All subjects performed 24-h ambulatory cough monitoring and reported cough frequency and severity using visual analogue scales (VAS) on 2 consecutive days. Sample size calculations were performed for crossover and parallel group study designs. Objective cough frequency was high (session 1: geometric mean 12.1 coughs·h(-1) (95%CI 9.7-15.2)) and fell significantly (session 2: 9.0 coughs·h(-1) (95%CI 6.9-11.6); p<0.001). Repeatability was higher for objective cough frequency (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.94, p<0.001) than reported cough frequency (daytime VAS ICC=0.784, p<0.001). Crossover/parallel studies require <15 and <41 subjects per arm to detect a 50% reduction in cough frequency with 90% power, respectively. Acute cough frequency is highly repeatable over any 48-h period, allowing small sample sizes to be used when investigating the effectiveness of novel anti-tussives.
Yoon, Saunjoo L; Grundmann, Oliver; Keane, Devan; Urbano, Theodore; Moshiree, Baharak
Although clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of liquid herbal medicinal products, design of feasible placebos that mimic the appearance, taste, and smell of such products is particularly challenging. The design and feasibility of a liquid placebo for STW5, an herbal medicinal product used for various gastrointestinal problems, was explored in this study. Four sample products-STW5, a fresh and aged version of a placebo made from a seasoning mix (Maggi™), and a placebo with aged artificial flavor and food coloring-were compared in two organoleptic (sensory), single-blind trials with a total of 60 (N=60) healthy volunteers (n(1)=30, n(2)=30). The appearance, smell, and taste of each solution were evaluated using a Likert scale questionnaire. The liquid placebos evaluated were similar in regard to appearance, smell, and taste. However, participants indicated that for a clinical trial with STW5, the aged Maggi™ placebo would be more viable compared to the fresh Maggi placebo or the aged artificial food coloring placebo with licorice flavor. Participants also noted that the mint flavor and smell of STW5 was distinctly different from the placebo solutions. The trials were conducted in healthy volunteers, not in actual patients. The aged Maggi™ liquid mix may be more favorable as a placebo than the artificially created one. However, further adjustment will need to be made to the Maggi™ placebo to simulate the complex aromatic composition of STW5 for clinical studies in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramakrishnan, Rohini; Cheung, Wing K; Wacholtz, Mary C; Minton, Neil; Jusko, William J
This study describes a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to account for serum recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) concentrations in healthy volunteers following intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) dosing; it also characterizes the pharmacodynamics (PD) of SC rHuEpo effects on reticulocytes, red blood cells (RBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood. Data were obtained from 4 clinical studies carried out in healthy volunteers. Epoetin alfa (rHuEpo) was administered as 5 single IV doses ranging from 10 to 500 IU/kg, as 8 single SC doses ranging from 300 to 2400 IU/kg, and as 2 multiple SC dosage regimens (150 IU/kg/3 times a week [tiw] and 600 IU/kg/wk). A dual-absorption rate model (fast zero-order and slow first-order inputs) with nonlinear disposition characterized the PK of SC rHuEpo. A high K(m) value was obtained indicating that clearance was mildly nonlinear. Absorption was slow (t(max) approximately 24 hours), and the bioavailability of SC rHuEpo increased with dose (ranging from 46%-100%). A catenary cell production and loss model with a feedback down regulation component was used to fit the reticulocyte data yielding estimates of the stimulatory capacity (S(max)), sensitivity (SC(50)), and life span parameters. These parameters were used for simulations of RBC and Hb profiles. An SC(50) of 27 to 61 IU/L was estimated indicating that low physiological plasma rHuEpo concentrations were sufficient to produce pharmacological effects. No marked sex-dependent differences in clinical responses to rHuEpo therapy were found despite baseline differences. Realistic pharmacokinetic and physiological models accounted for clinical responses from a wide array of dosing conditions with rHuEpo. The rationale for greater efficacy of SC administration of rHuEpo compared to IV was ascertained.
Ozcan, Ayse Nur Sirin; Tan, Sinan; Tangal, Nuray Gulden; Cıracı, Saliha; Kudas, Savas; Bektaser, Suleyman Bulent; Arslan, Halil
The comparison of elastographic features of quadriceps and patellar tendons in a group of professional athletes and healthy volunteers and the description of elasticity characteristics of these tendons. Thirty-nine professional athletes (22 male, 17 female; mean age 18.5 years) and 35 healthy volunteers (21 male, 14 female; mean age 19 years) were included. They were divided into two groups by gender. Quadriceps tendon, patellar side of the patellar tendon, and tibial side of the patellar tendon elasticity patterns and strain ratios were investigated with real-time ultrasound elastography. The elasticity features of the dominant leg and non-dominant leg of athletes and volunteers legs were compared. In addition quadriceps and patellar tendons were compared separately for three distinct tendon locations. There was no difference between the athletes and the healthy volunteers and also between the dominant leg and non-dominant leg of athletes. At tendon comparison, the quadriceps tendon was harder than the patellar tendon at both side and patellar side of patellar tendon was found to be stiffer than the tibial side of patellar tendon. Although biomechanical studies showed that tendon stiffness increased after long exercise, no significant difference was found between athletes' and healthy volunteers' tendon elasticity. These three tendon locations exhibit different elasticity features and the knowledge of the elasticity feature will be useful in assessing tendon pathologies.
Fromonot, Julien; Chaumet, Guillaume; Gavarry, Olivier; Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lucciano, Michel; Joulia, Fabrice; Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis; Boussuges, Alain
Abstract Head-up tilt test is useful for exploring neurally mediated syncope. Adenosine is an ATP derivative implicated in cardiovascular disturbances that occur during head-up tilt test. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hyperoxia on adenosine plasma level and on hemodynamic changes induced by head-up tilt testing. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (mean age 35 ± 11 years) were included in the study. The experiment consisted of 2 head-up tilt tests, 1 session with subjects breathing, through a mask, medical air (FiO2 = 21%) and 1 session with administration of pure oxygen (FiO2 = 100%) in double-blind manner. Investigations included continuous monitoring of hemodynamic data and measurement of plasma adenosine levels. No presyncope or syncope was found in 15 of the 17 volunteers. In these subjects, a slight decrease in systolic blood pressure was recorded during orthostatic stress performed under medical air exposure. In contrast, hyperoxia led to increased systolic blood pressure during orthostatic stress when compared with medical air. Furthermore, mean adenosine plasma levels decreased during hyperoxic exposure before (0.31 ± 0.08 μM) and during head-up tilt test (0.33 ± 0.09 μM) when compared with baseline (0.6 ± 0.1 μM). Adenosine plasma level was unchanged during medical air exposure at rest (0.6 ± 0.1 μM), and slightly decreased during orthostatic stress. In 2 volunteers, the head-up tilt test induced a loss of consciousness when breathing air. In these subjects, adenosine plasma level increased during orthostatic stress. In contrast, during hyperoxic exposure, the head-up tilt test did not induce presyncope or syncope. In these 2 volunteers, biological study demonstrated a decrease in adenosine plasma level at both baseline and during orthostatic stress for hyperoxic exposure compared with medical air. These results suggest that hyperoxia was able to increase blood pressure during head
Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Asaduzzaman, Md; Morshed, Helal; Hossain, Md Monir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Rahman, Md Rezowanur
Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the score of logical memory test-I and II, total score of digit span, 30 min delayed-recall, percent score in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, time taken to complete letter cancellation test, time taken in trail
Fromonot, Julien; Chaumet, Guillaume; Gavarry, Olivier; Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lucciano, Michel; Joulia, Fabrice; Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis; Boussuges, Alain
Head-up tilt test is useful for exploring neurally mediated syncope. Adenosine is an ATP derivative implicated in cardiovascular disturbances that occur during head-up tilt test. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hyperoxia on adenosine plasma level and on hemodynamic changes induced by head-up tilt testing.Seventeen healthy male volunteers (mean age 35 ± 11 years) were included in the study. The experiment consisted of 2 head-up tilt tests, 1 session with subjects breathing, through a mask, medical air (FiO2 = 21%) and 1 session with administration of pure oxygen (FiO2 = 100%) in double-blind manner. Investigations included continuous monitoring of hemodynamic data and measurement of plasma adenosine levels.No presyncope or syncope was found in 15 of the 17 volunteers. In these subjects, a slight decrease in systolic blood pressure was recorded during orthostatic stress performed under medical air exposure. In contrast, hyperoxia led to increased systolic blood pressure during orthostatic stress when compared with medical air. Furthermore, mean adenosine plasma levels decreased during hyperoxic exposure before (0.31 ± 0.08 μM) and during head-up tilt test (0.33 ± 0.09 μM) when compared with baseline (0.6 ± 0.1 μM). Adenosine plasma level was unchanged during medical air exposure at rest (0.6 ± 0.1 μM), and slightly decreased during orthostatic stress. In 2 volunteers, the head-up tilt test induced a loss of consciousness when breathing air. In these subjects, adenosine plasma level increased during orthostatic stress. In contrast, during hyperoxic exposure, the head-up tilt test did not induce presyncope or syncope. In these 2 volunteers, biological study demonstrated a decrease in adenosine plasma level at both baseline and during orthostatic stress for hyperoxic exposure compared with medical air.These results suggest that hyperoxia was able to increase blood pressure during head-up tilt
Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L
The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function). When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.
Escobar, Yesenia; Venturelli, Caterina R.; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos
Background: The pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin, particularlyAUC and Cmax, are variable by population. A description of the pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin in Mexican mestizos was not found in a search of MEDLINE/PubMed (key terms: pravastatin, Mexican, and pharmacokinetics; years: 1966–2005). Because Mexicans and Japanese have common ancestors (Mongoloid group), they also have a common gene pool. This gene pool was modified by genetic “bottlenecks” that occurred when these populations migrated to the Americas and when the Mexican population mixed with the Spanish population during the 16th and 17th centuries. Previous studies in Japanese subjects showed 5 main mutations on the hepatic drug transporter OATP-C, resulting in higher Cmax and AUC values compared with whites. In the Japanese population, the rates of expression of the *1b and *15 alleles were 46% and 15%, respectively. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic propertiesof pravastatin in healthy Mexican mestizo volunteers and to compare them with those in white and Japanese populations described in the literature. Methods: This open-label, uncontrolled pilot study of the pharmacokineticproperties of pravastatin was conducted at the Division of Pharmacology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Mexico City, Mexico. Healthy, adult, Mexican volunteers received a single dose of pravastatin 10 mg PO (tablet). High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine plasma pravastatin concentrations between 15 minutes and 12 hours after dosing. Results: Twenty-four subjects (15 women, 9 men; mean age, 30.6 years)participated in the study. The mean (SD) Cmax was 9.5 (2.4) ng/mL; Tmax, 0.8 (0.3) hours; AUC0−∞ 35.7 (19.7) ng/mL - h; t1/2, 2.7 (1.1) hours; and mean residence time, 3.1 (1.1) hours. One volunteer (4%) had an AUC value that differed substantially from the rest of the study population, producing a bimodal distribution of the
Hoeben, Eef; De Winter, Willem; Neyens, Martine; Devineni, Damayanthi; Vermeulen, An; Dunne, Adrian
Canagliflozin is an orally active, reversible, selective sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. A population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model of canagliflozin, including relevant covariates as sources of inter-individual variability, was developed to describe phase I, II, and III data in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The final analysis included 9061 pharmacokinetic (PK) samples from 1616 volunteers enrolled in nine phase I, two phase II, and three phase III studies and was performed using NONMEM(®) 7.1. Inter-individual variability was evaluated using an exponential model and the residual error model was additive in the log domain. The first-order conditional estimation method with interaction was applied and the model was parameterized in terms of rate constants. Covariate effects were explored graphically on empirical Bayes estimates of PK parameters, as shrinkage was low. Clinical relevance of statistically significant covariates was evaluated. The predictive properties of the model were illustrated by prediction-corrected visual predictive checks. A two-compartment PK model with lag-time and sequential zero- and first-order absorption and first-order elimination best described the observed data. Sex, age, and weight on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment, body mass index on first-order absorption rate constant, and body mass index and over-encapsulation on lag-time, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, by MDRD equation), dose, and genetic polymorphism (carriers of UGT1A9*3 allele) on elimination rate constant were identified as statistically significant covariates. The prediction-corrected visual predictive checks revealed acceptable predictive performance of the model. The popPK model adequately described canagliflozin PK in healthy volunteers and in patients with T2DM. Because of the small magnitude of statistically significant covariates, they were not considered clinically
Hsiao, Chih Yin; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chi, Mei Hung; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serotonin on anxiety and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; the correlation between subjective anxiety rating and changes of ANS function following tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers was examined. Twenty-eight healthy participants, consisting of 15 females and 13 males, with an average age of 33.3 years, were recruited. Baseline Chinese Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and ANS function measurements were taken. TD was carried out on the testing day, and participants provided blood samples right before and 5 hours after TD. ANS function, somatic symptoms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) were determined after TD. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman ρ correlation were adapted for analyses of the results. The TD procedure reduced total and free plasma tryptophan effectively. After TD, the sympathetic nervous activity increased and parasympathetic nervous activity decreased. Baseline anxiety ratings positively correlated with post-TD changes in sympathetic nervous activity, VAS ratings, and physical symptoms. However, a negative correlation with post-TD changes in parasympathetic nervous activity was found. The change in ANS function after TD was associated with the severity of anxiety in healthy volunteers. This supports the fact that the effect of anxiety on heart rate variability is related to serotonin vulnerability. Furthermore, it also shows that the subjective anxiety rating has a biological basis related to serotonin. PMID:27175645
Hsiao, Chih Yin; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chi, Mei Hung; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serotonin on anxiety and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; the correlation between subjective anxiety rating and changes of ANS function following tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers was examined. Twenty-eight healthy participants, consisting of 15 females and 13 males, with an average age of 33.3 years, were recruited.Baseline Chinese Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and ANS function measurements were taken. TD was carried out on the testing day, and participants provided blood samples right before and 5 hours after TD. ANS function, somatic symptoms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) were determined after TD. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman ρ correlation were adapted for analyses of the results.The TD procedure reduced total and free plasma tryptophan effectively. After TD, the sympathetic nervous activity increased and parasympathetic nervous activity decreased. Baseline anxiety ratings positively correlated with post-TD changes in sympathetic nervous activity, VAS ratings, and physical symptoms. However, a negative correlation with post-TD changes in parasympathetic nervous activity was found.The change in ANS function after TD was associated with the severity of anxiety in healthy volunteers. This supports the fact that the effect of anxiety on heart rate variability is related to serotonin vulnerability. Furthermore, it also shows that the subjective anxiety rating has a biological basis related to serotonin.
Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy volunteers after oral administration of compound tablets containing a combination of metronidazole, tetracycline hydrochloride and bismuth oxide.
Wu, Y; Ding, L; Huang, N-Y; Wen, A-D; Liu, B; Li, W-B
To eradicate Helicobacter pylori in human pylorus and to heal duodenal ulcers, recently, a new formulation of combination tablets containing metronidazole 125 mg, tetracycline hydrochloride 125 mg and bismuth oxide 40 mg has been developed. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of the test formulation. A one-sequence, 3-period study was conducted in 12 Chinese healthy volunteers (6 male, 6 female). Volunteers each received single low dose (1 tablet) under fed condition in period 1, single high dose (3 tablets) under fasted condition in period 2, and single high dose (3 tablets) and multiple doses (3 tablets at once, 4 times daily for 7 consecutive days) under fed condition in period 3. Blood samples were collected and determined over 48 h in every period. After single high dose administration under fed condition, the C max of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 6.833 ± 0.742 μg/mL, 0.8513 ± 0.1253 μg/mL and 3.32 ± 1.89 ng/mL, respectively. The C max and AUC 0-48 of metronidazole increased in proportion to the doses within the tested dose range, but tetracycline and bismuth did not. Food caused 10% and 80% decrease of the C max for metronidazole and bismuth, respectively, but did not affect tetracycline. No gender effect was found on the pharmacokinetics of the 3 ingredients. In the steady state, the C av of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 20.75 ± 3.52 μg/mL, 1.900 ± 0.243 μg/mL and 5.61 ± 1.34 ng/mL, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Miyakoshi, N; Kudo, D; Hongo, M; Kasukawa, Y; Ishikawa, Y; Shimada, Y
This study compared spinal alignment, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers. The results indicated that lower QOL in osteoporosis patients may be associated with increased thoracic kyphosis, reduced lean muscle mass, and generalized muscle weakness. Increased spinal kyphosis is common in patients with osteoporosis and negatively impacts quality of life (QOL). Muscular strength is also important for QOL in patients with osteoporosis. However, spinal kyphosis and muscle weakness also occur in healthy individuals with advancing age. The purposes of this study were thus to compare spinal alignment, muscular strength, and QOL between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers. Participants comprised 236 female patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age, 68.7 years) and 93 healthy volunteer women (mean age, 71.0 years). Body mass index (BMI), angles of spinal kyphosis, back extensor strength, grip strength, and QOL were compared between groups. BMI, back extensor strength, and grip strength were significantly higher in the volunteer group than in the osteoporosis group (p < 0.01). Both thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were significantly greater in the osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p < 0.01). With regard to QOL, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) subscale scores of role physical, bodily pain, general health, and role emotional were all significantly lower in the osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p < 0.05 each). SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score was significantly lower in the osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p < 0.001). SF-36 PCS score correlated positively with thoracic kyphosis and negatively with BMI only in the osteoporosis group (p < 0.05 each). These results indicated that lower QOL in osteoporosis patients may be associated with increased thoracic kyphosis, reduced lean muscle
Matar, Kamal M.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Elamin, Sakina B.
Artesunate (AS) in combination with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is the first-line therapy for management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of SP on the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), in healthy adults. A single-dose, randomized, open-label, crossover study design with a washout period of three weeks was performed with 16 volunteers. After oral administration of AS alone or in combination with SP, Tmax values of AS and DHA were significantly prolonged in the combination group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant effect on the other pharmacokinetic parameters (P > 0.05). The t1/2 values of AS and DHA were significantly higher in females than in males (P < 0.05). The present findings suggest that co-administration of SP with AS has no clinically relevant impact on the pharmacokinetics of AS or DHA in healthy persons. PMID:24615137
Matar, Kamal M; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Elamin, Sakina B
Artesunate (AS) in combination with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is the first-line therapy for management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of SP on the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), in healthy adults. A single-dose, randomized, open-label, crossover study design with a washout period of three weeks was performed with 16 volunteers. After oral administration of AS alone or in combination with SP, Tmax values of AS and DHA were significantly prolonged in the combination group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant effect on the other pharmacokinetic parameters (P > 0.05). The t1/2 values of AS and DHA were significantly higher in females than in males (P < 0.05). The present findings suggest that co-administration of SP with AS has no clinically relevant impact on the pharmacokinetics of AS or DHA in healthy persons.
O’CONNELL, HELEN E.; DeLANCEY, JOHN O. L.
Purpose We determined the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of normal clitoral anatomy. Materials and Methods A series of MRI studies of 10 healthy, nulliparous volunteers with no prior surgery and normal pelvic examination was studied and the key characteristics of clitoral anatomy were determined. A range of different magnetic resonance sequences was used without any contrast agent. Results The axial plane best revealed the clitoral body and its proximal continuation as the paired crura. The glans was seen more caudal than the body of the clitoris. The bulbs of the clitoris had the same signal as the rest of the clitoris in the axial plane and they related consistently to the other erectile structures. The bulbs, body and crura formed an erectile tissue cluster, namely the clitoris. In turn, the clitoris partially surrounded the urethra and vagina, forming a consistently observed tissue complex. Midline sagittal section revealed the shape of the body, although in this plane the rest of the clitoris was poorly displayed. The coronal plane revealed the relationship between the clitoral body and labia. The axial section cephalad to the clitoral body best revealed the vascular component of the neurovascular bundle to the clitoris. The fat saturation sequence particularly highlighted clitoral anatomy in healthy, premenopausal, nulliparous women. Conclusions Normal clitoral anatomy has been clearly demonstrated using noncontrast pelvic MRI. PMID:15879834
Treister, Roi; Pud, Dorit; Ebstein, Richard P; Eisenberg, Elon
The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the dopamine transporter gene. Healthy volunteers (n = 105) participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Heat pain threshold and intensity, cold pain threshold, and the response to tonic cold pain (latency, intensity, and tolerance) were evaluated before and for up to 120 min after the administration of 1.5 mg apomorphine/placebo. A polymorphism (3'-UTR 40-bp VNTR) within the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) was investigated. Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in tolerance. An association was found between the enhancing effect of apomorphine on pain tolerance (120 min after its administration) and the DAT-1 polymorphism. Subjects with two copies of the 10-allele demonstrated significantly greater tolerance prolongation than the 9-allele homozygote carriers and the heterozygote carriers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.003 in comparison to the placebo, respectively). In conclusion, apomorphine administration produced a decrease followed by a genetically associated increase in cold pain tolerance.
Gostner, A; Blaut, M; Schäffer, V; Kozianowski, G; Theis, S; Klingeberg, M; Dombrowski, Y; Martin, D; Ehrhardt, S; Taras, D; Schwiertz, A; Kleessen, B; Lührs, H; Schauber, J; Dorbath, D; Menzel, T; Scheppach, W
Due to its low digestibility in the small intestine, a major fraction of the polyol isomalt reaches the colon. However, little is known about effects on the intestinal microflora. During two 4-week periods in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, nineteen healthy volunteers consumed a controlled basal diet enriched with either 30 g isomalt or 30 g sucrose daily. Stools were collected at the end of each test phase and various microbiological and luminal markers were analysed. Fermentation characteristics of isomalt were also investigated in vitro. Microbiological analyses of faecal samples indicated a shift of the gut flora towards an increase of bifidobacteria following consumption of the isomalt diet compared with the sucrose diet (P<0.05). During the isomalt phase, the activity of bacterial beta-glucosidase decreased (P<0.05) whereas beta-glucuronidase, sulfatase, nitroreductase and urease remained unchanged. Faecal polyamines were not different between test periods with the exception of cadaverine, which showed a trend towards a lower concentration following isomalt (P=0.055). Faecal SCFA, lactate, bile acids, neutral sterols, N, NH3, phenol and p-cresol were not affected by isomalt consumption. In vitro, isomalt was metabolized in several bifidobacteria strains and yielded high butyrate concentrations. Isomalt, which is used widely as a low-glycaemic and low-energy sweetener, has to be considered a prebiotic carbohydrate that might contribute to a healthy luminal environment of the colonic mucosa.
Castañeda-Hernández, G; Vargas-Alvarado, Y; Aguirre, F; Flores-Murrieta, F J
Cinnarizine (CAS 298-57-7) pharmacokinetics were studied after single and repetitive dosing in healthy volunteers. Six young male healthy subjects received a 75 mg tablet and blood samples were drawn for 72 h after medication. Cinnarizine plasma levels were determined by gas chromatography. Cmax was 275 +/- 36 ng/ml, tmax 3.0 +/- 0.5 h, AUC extrapolated to infinity 4437 +/- 948 ng.h/ml and terminal half-life 23.6 +/- 3.2 h. After a 2-week washout period, 5 of these subjects received 75 mg tablets b.i.d. for 15 days. After the administration of doses 1 and 29, blood samples were drawn for 12 h and cinnarizine plasma levels were measured. Cinnarizine accumulated under these conditions. At steady state (dose 29), the observed accumulation factor was 2.79 +/- 0.23, being not significantly different from that predicted with the terminal half-life obtained from single dose data, which was 3.37 +/- 0.37. AUC0-12 for dose 29 was 5074 +/- 1021 ng.h/ml, being not significantly different from the AUC extrapolated to infinity obtained with the single dose. Results indicate that cinnarizine accumulates with repetitive dosing due to its pharmacokinetic properties.
Nagalla, S; Thomson, L; Oppong, Y; Bachman, B; Chervoneva, I; Kraft, W K
It was hypothesized that the four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) Kcentra 25 unit/kg would reverse impairment of thrombin generation in healthy volunteers dosed with apixaban to steady state. In this randomized, two-period crossover, assessor-blinded trial, 12 healthy subjects received 5 mg apixaban every 12 h. Three h after the fifth dose, four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) 25 unit/kg or saline were infused. Serial blood samples were assessed for thrombin generation using PPP-reagent and PPP-reagent low, anti-Xa, PT, and PTT assays. Geometric mean ratio was calculated at 30 min postinfusion, and at 24, 48, and 72 h. Peak thrombin generation was 76% higher at 30 min postinfusion with 4F-PCC (p = 0.025). The difference declined to 24% at 24 h and resolved by 48 h. Other thrombin generation parameters were also partially normalized. There was no difference between 4F-PCC and saline in anti-Xa assessment at 30 min or later time points. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Samuels, E R; Hou, R H; Langley, R W; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus is a major wakefulness-promoting nucleus of the brain, which is also involved in the regulation of autonomic and endocrine functions. The activity of the locus coeruleus is believed to be tonically enhanced by a mesocoerulear dopaminergic pathway arising from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. Both modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting drug, and pramipexole, a D(2)/D(3)receptor agonist with sedative properties, may act on this pathway, with modafinil increasing and pramipexole decreasing locus coeruleus activity. The aim of this study was to compare the two drugs on alertness, autonomic and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers. Pramipexole (0.5mg), modafinil (200mg), and their combination were administered to 16 healthy males in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Methods included tests of alertness (pupillographic sleepiness test, critical flicker fusion frequency, visual analogue scales), autonomic functions (resting pupil diameter, light and darkness reflex responses, heart rate, blood pressure, salivation, core temperature), and endocrine functions (blood concentrations of prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid stimulating hormone). Data were analysed by ANOVA. Pramipexole reduced alertness, caused pupil dilatation, increased heart rate, reduced prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone, and increased growth hormone level. Modafinil caused small increases in blood pressure and core temperature, and reduced prolactin levels. The sedative effect of pramipexole and the autonomic effects of modafinil are consistent with altered activity in the mesocoerulear pathway; the pupil dilatation following pramipexole suggests reduced dopaminergic excitation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.
Edlinger, Christoph; Schreiber, Catharina; Goebel, Bjoern; Pistulli, Rudin; Paar, Vera; Schernthaner, Christiana; Rohm, Ilonka; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Hoppe, Uta C; Franz, Marcus; Jung, Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael
The induction of microvascular inflammation and the effects on cytokine production in blood due to hypoxia has been shown in the past. We have previously reported a statistically significant increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in normobaric hypoxia in the setting of a hypoxia-chamber. In the present study, we sought to analyze plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in a real-life stetting in order to foster our knowledge on hypoxia induced microvascular inflammation at moderate altitude. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α) were measured in an experimental field study, exposing 18 healthy volunteers to moderate hypoxia while staying at a mountain lodge in Diavolezza, Switzerland (2978 meters above sea level). Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. In contradiction to our results in a normobaric hypoxia-chamber, exposure to moderate hypoxia led to a significant decrease of plasma IL-8 levels in a real-life setting (from 2.902 (1.046 - 4.984) pg/mL to 1.395 (0.698 - 3.712) pg/mL, p = 0.034). Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α did not show statistically significant changes in comparison to baseline measurements. The results of this study show a decrease of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in a real life setting of moderate altitude in healthy individuals. Initiation of angiogenesis or subliminal stimulus for an altitude-induced inflammatory reaction may be explanations for this unexpected finding.
Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Dortch, Richard D.; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Kang, Hakmook; Abramson, Richard G.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.
Quantitative magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging provides a means for indirectly detecting changes in the macromolecular content of tissue noninvasively. A potential application is the diagnosis and assessment of treatment response in breast cancer; however, before quantitative magnetization transfer imaging can be reliably used in such settings, the technique’s reproducibility in healthy breast tissue must be established. Thus, this study aims to establish the reproducibility of the measurement of the macromolecular-to-free water proton pool size ratio (PSR) in healthy fibroglandular (FG) breast tissue. Thirteen women with no history of breast disease were scanned twice within a single scanning session, with repositioning between scans. Eleven women had appreciable FG tissue for test–retest measurements. Mean PSR values for the FG tissue ranged from 9.5% to 16.7%. The absolute value of the difference between 2 mean PSR measurements for each volunteer ranged from 0.1% to 2.1%. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference was ±0.75%, and the repeatability value was 2.39%. These results indicate that the expected measurement variability would be ±0.75% for a cohort of a similar size and would be ±2.39% for an individual, suggesting that future studies of change in PSR in patients with breast cancer are feasible. PMID:28090588
Sacher, Julia; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Spindelegger, Christoph; Klein, Nikolas; Geiss-Granadia, Thomas; Sauermann, Robert; Lackner, Edith; Joukhadar, Christian; Müller, Markus; Kasper, Siegfried
Atypical antipsychotics have been linked to a higher risk for glucose intolerance, and consequentially the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We have therefore set out to investigate the acute effects of oral administration of olanzapine and ziprasidone on whole body insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Using the standardized hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique we compared whole body insulin sensitivity of 29 healthy male volunteers after oral intake of either olanzapine 10 mg/day (n = 14) or ziprasidone 80 mg/day (n = 15) for 10 days. A significant decrease (p<0.001) in whole body insulin sensitivity from 5.7 ml/h/kg ( = mean, SM = 0.4 ml/h/kg) at baseline to 4.7 ml/h/kg ( = mean, SM = 0.3 ml/h/kg) after oral intake of olanzapine (10 mg/day) for 10 days was observed. The ziprasidone (80 mg/day) group did not show any significant difference (5.2+/-0.3 ml/h/kg baseline vs 5.1+/-0.3 ml/h/kg) after 10 days of oral intake. Our main finding demonstrates that oral administration of olanzapine but not ziprasidone leads to a decrease in whole body insulin sensitivity in response to a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic challenge. Our finding is suggestive that not all atypical antipsychotics cause acute direct effects on glucose disposal and that accurate determination of side effect profile should be performed when choosing an atypical antipsychotic.
Maceira, Alicia M; Cosin-Sales, Juan; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pennell, Dudley J
Left and right atrial function show a different pattern in advanced age in order to maintain adequate ventricular filling. It has been shown that left atrial (LA) function has a prognostic value in a number of heart conditions. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides high quality images of the left and right atria using high temporal resolution steady state free precession (SSFP) cine sequences. We used SSFP cines to characterize atrial function in healthy, normotensive, volunteers. We measured maximum, preatrial contraction and minimum left and right atrial volumes in 120 healthy subjects after careful exclusion of cardiovascular abnormality (60 men, 60 women; 20 subjects per age decile from 20 to 80 years). Data were generated from 3-dimensional modeling, including tracking of the atrioventricular ring motion and time-volume curves analysis. With those measurements, all the usual parameters for left and right atrial function were calculated. Gender had significant influence on some parameters of left and right atrial conduit and booster pump function. Age significantly influenced the majority of parameters of both left and right atrial function, with typically lower reservoir and conduit functions and higher booster pump function, both in males and females belonging to older age groups. CMR normal ranges were modelled for clinical use with normalization, where appropriate, for body surface area and gender, displaying parameters with respect to age. CMR normal reference ranges for components of left and right atrial function are provided for males and females for a wide age range.
Quiñones, Luis; Sasso, Jaime; Tamayo, Evelyn; Catalán, Johanna; González, Juan Paplo; Escala, Mario; Varela, Nelson; León, Jorge; Cáceres, Dante Daniel; Saavedra, Iván
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between two brands of pregabalin in healthy Chilean volunteers. Methods A randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in healthy Chilean males. Plasma samples were collected over a 12-hour period after administration of 150 mg pregabalin in each period. A validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography with positive ionization mass spectrometric detection method was used to analyze pregabalin concentration in plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. Bioequivalence between the test and reference products was determined when the ratio for the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the difference in the means of the log-transformed area under the curve (AUC)0—t, AUC0—∞, and maximum concentration (Cmax) of the two products were within 0.80 and 1.25. Results The study was carried out on 22 healthy Chilean volunteers. The mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0—t and AUC0—∞ of the test formulation (Pregobin™) of pregabalin were 2.10 (0.56) μg/ml, 10.35 (2.00) μgxh/ml and 13.92 (2.74) μgxh/ml, respectively. The mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0—t and AUC0—∞ of the reference formulation (Lyrica™) of pregabalin were 2.15 (0.52) μg/ml, 10.31 (1.85) μgxh/ml and 13.78 (2.25) μgxh/ml, respectively. The parametric 90% CIs for Cmax, AUC0—t, and AUC0—∞ were 0.97–1.13, 1.01–1.04, and 0.98–1.02, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that both products are bioequivalent and can be used as interchangeable options in the clinical setting. PMID:23251735
Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yii-Jeng; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Hu, Wan-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Lin, Yun-Lian
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs) were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%), while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%). Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC. PMID:27340421
Kwakye, Isaac N.; Garner, Matthew; Baldwin, David S.; Bamford, Susan; Pinkney, Verity
Objective The objective of this study was to develop an in‐depth understanding of healthy volunteers' experiences of mental health trials. Methods A qualitative study was nested within a healthy volunteer placebo‐controlled trial of duloxetine, a psychotropic drug used for treating patients with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Eight participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Interviewees described volunteering for the trial because they were interested in research, wanted the monetary incentive, wanted to help researchers, and wanted to be part of something. On entering the trial, participants considered the possible risks and described feeling anxious, excited, and determined; they had some clear expectations and some loosely held hopes about what would happen. During the trial, participants were curious about whether they were taking duloxetine or placebo, self‐monitored their bodies' reactions, and guessed which treatment they received. On being un‐blinded to treatment allocation after completing the trial, some participants' guesses were confirmed, but others were surprised, and a few were disappointed. Conclusions Small changes to advertising/consent materials to reflect volunteers' motivations could improve recruitment rates to similar trials; “active” placebos might be particularly useful for maintaining blinding in healthy volunteer trials; and sensitive procedures are needed for un‐blinding participants to treatment allocation. © 2016 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27378326
Puglisi, Filadelfio; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Papathanasiou, Matthildi; Kapreli, Eleni; Bonelli, Aurelio; Sgambetterra, Sergio; Ferrari, Robert
The purpose of this study was to obtain comparative data concerning the percentage contribution of segmental cervical vertebral motion to the cervical range of motion (ROM) in healthy volunteers under two conditions: (1) normal, voluntary neck flexion and extension and (2) feigned restriction of neck flexion and extension. Each healthy subject's angular motion over forward cervical flexion and extension was measured first by X-ray analysis during normal, voluntary motion. Then the subjects were asked to pretend that they had a 50% restricted neck range due to pain or stiffness and thus to move in both flexion and extension only as far as about 50% of their normal range. A total of 26 healthy subjects (ten males and sixteen females, age 28.7+/-7.7 years) participated. The total angular motion from C2 to C7 was normal in the unrestricted condition and was significantly reduced in the feigned restriction condition (p<0.001). The percentage contribution of each of the functional units C2-C3 to C6-C7 to this rotation was different between the normal unrestricted and the feigned restricted conditions. In the feigned restricted neck flexion and extension, a shift occurred in the pattern of how each segment contributes to the total angular range. A greater percentage contribution was made by C2-C3 and C3-C4 than under normal conditions (P<0.01), and the percentage contribution to total rotation made by C6-C7 became much less under the feigned restricted movements than under normal, unrestricted neck range (p<0.001). Thus, simulated or feigned restricted neck ROM affects the percentage contribution of the functional units C2-C3 to C6-C7 by showing a higher percentage contribution of the upper cervical segments and less contribution to the angular rotation by the lowest cervical segment. Feigners of restricted neck range thus produce a pattern different from nonfeigning subjects.
Mato, Lugkana; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyawatkul, Nawanant; Yimtae, Kwanchanok; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn
Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL). Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750 mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential. PMID:19880441
Koppers, Ralph J H; Vos, Petra J E; Folgering, Hans Th M
Normocapnic hyperpnea has been established as a method of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET). This technique has not been applied on a large scale because complicated and expensive equipment is needed to maintain CO(2)-homeostasis during hyperpnea. This CO(2)-homeostasis can be preserved during hyperpnea by enlarging the dead space of the ventilatory system. One of the possibilities to enlarge dead space is breathing through a tube. If tube breathing is safe and feasible, it may be a new and inexpensive method for RMET, enabling its widespread use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of tube breathing and investigate the effect on CO(2)-homeostasis in healthy subjects. A total of 20 healthy volunteers performed 10 min of tube breathing (dead space 60% of vital capacity). Oxygen-saturation, PaCO(2), respiratory muscle function, hypercapnic ventilatory response and dyspnea (Borg-score) were measured. Tube breathing did not lead to severe complaints, adverse events or oxygen desaturations. A total of 14 out of 20 subjects became hypercapnic (PaCO(2)>6.0 kPa) during tube breathing. There were no significant correlations between PaCO(2) and respiratory muscle function or hypercapnic ventilatory responses. The normocapnic versus hypercapnic subjects showed no significant differences between decrease in oxygen saturation (-0.7% versus -0.2%, respectively, P=0.6), Borg score (4.3 versus 4.7, P=0.9), respiratory muscle function nor hypercapnic ventilatory responses. Our results show that tube breathing is well tolerated amongst healthy subjects. No complaints, nor desaturations occurred. Hypercapnia developed in a substantial number of subjects. When tube breathing will be applied as respiratory muscle training modality, this potential development of hypercapnia must be considered.
Isakova-Sivak, Irina; Stukova, Marina; Erofeeva, Mariana; Naykhin, Anatoly; Donina, Svetlana; Petukhova, Galina; Kuznetsova, Victoria; Kiseleva, Irina; Smolonogina, Tatiana; Dubrovina, Irina; Pisareva, Maria; Nikiforova, Alexandra; Power, Maureen; Flores, Jorge; Rudenko, Larisa
H2N2 influenza viruses have not circulated in the human population since 1968, but they are still being regularly detected in the animal reservoir, suggesting their high pandemic potential. To prepare for a possible H2N2 pandemic, a number of H2N2 vaccine candidates have been generated and tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Here we describe the results of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of an H2N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidate prepared from a human influenza virus isolated in 1966. The vaccine candidate was safe and well-tolerated by healthy adults, and did not cause serious adverse events or an increased rate of moderate or severe reactogenicities. The H2N2 vaccine virus was infectious for Humans. It was shed by 78.6% and 74.1% volunteers after the first and second dose, respectively, most probably due to the human origin of the virus. Importantly, no vaccine virus transmission to unvaccinated subjects was detected during the study. We employed multiple immunological tests to ensure the adequate assessment of the H2N2 pandemic LAIV candidate and demonstrated that the majority (92.6%) of the vaccinated subjects responded to the H2N2 LAIV in one or more immunological tests, including 85.2% of subjects with antibody responses and 55.6% volunteers with cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, we observed strong correlation between the H2N2 LAIV virus replication in the upper respiratory tract and the development of antibody responses. PMID:25831405
Kim, Chol; Okabe, Tadashi; Sakurai, Minoru; Kanaya, Koji; Ishihara, Keiichi; Inoue, Tetsuo; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro
Preoperative ingestion of only clear fluids until 2 hours before induction of anesthesia is a common preoperative fasting regimen. Gastric emptying times, however, vary among clear fluids. We therefore investigated the gastric emptying of 2 clear glucose-electrolyte drinks. A 2-way crossover study was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. After fasting, the volunteers drank 500 mL of either OS-1(®), an oral rehydration solution, or Pocari Sweat(®), a popular sports drink, over 3 minutes in a standing position. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the drinking of each test fluid. The difference in gastric emptying between OS-1(®) and Pocari Sweat(®) was evaluated by comparing gastric fluid volume, flow rate, and residual ratio. We also compared the flow rates of sodium, potassium, carbohydrates, and osmotically active particles in the 2 test fluids. Gastric fluid volume 30 minutes after drinking was significantly smaller for OS-1(®) (76.0 ± 57.0 mL) than for Pocari Sweat(®) (158.1 ± 73.5 mL, p<0.01), although the volumes did not differ before or immediately after drinking. The flow rate was significantly faster for OS-1(®) (10.66 ± 3.34 mL) than for Pocari Sweat(®) (8.68 ± 3.02 mL/min, p<0.05), and the residual ratio was significantly smaller for OS-1(®) (21 ± 14% than for Pocari Sweat(®) (41 ± 19%, p<0.01). The flow rates of sodium, potassium, and glucose differed significantly between OS-1(®) and Pocari Sweat(®), whereas the flow rate of osmotically active particles did not. Gastric emptying is significantly faster for OS-1(®) than for Pocari Sweat(®).
Ali, Huma; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Zafar, Farya; Hanif, Muhammad; Bushra, Rabia; Naz, Asia; Khursheed, Raheela
This study was conducted with the aim to determine the pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence of diclofenac potassium 50 mg test (F4) tablet formulation with reference product (Caflam). Present study was single dose, randomized, two phase cross over design, conducted in 12 healthy Pakistani volunteers and planned in accordance with FDA guidelines. In this study a simple, selective, sensitive and reproducible HPLC procedure was developed and validated for the estimation of diclofenac potassium in plasma. The process was validated in the range of 50 - 0.05 µg.mL-1 and used in bioequivalence trial of two products. Multiple blood samples were collected at various time points (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 hr after treating volunteers with test (F4) and marketed reference brand. Plasma separation and deproteination were carried out with acetonitrile; samples (20µL) were injected using the validated HPLC method. Various pharmacokinetic parameters (compartmental and noncompartmental) were estimated using KineticaTM 4.4.1 (Thermo Electron Corp. USA). Bioequivalence among the products was established by calculating the 90% CI with log and non log transformed data for Cmaxcalc, Tmaxcalc, AUC0-∞, AUCtot and AUClast using two way ANOVA and Schirmann's Two one sided t- test. No significant difference was found between log and non-log data. The 90% confidence interval values using log transformed data for AUC0-∞ (0.997-1.024), AUCtot (1.004-1.031), AUClast (0.997 -1.024), Cmaxcalc (0.994-1.007) and Tmaxcalc (0.996-1.013) for the trial and reference products were found within the FDA acceptable limits of 0.8-1.25. Results were further verified by the Schirmann's one-sided t test. Results showed the bioequivalence of test and reference formulations. Both the products were well tolerated.
Gurfinkel, Yury I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.; Ushakov, Boris B.
There were investigated four healthy volunteers at the age of 37, 40, 41 and 48 during the baseline 240-d isolation period starting from July 3, 1999 in the frame of SFINCSS-99 - "SIMULATION OF FLIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL CREW ON SPACE STATION". Before a starting of experiment with long-term isolation were carried out measurements of magnetic properties of module and sleeping places. With the regularity of 3 times a week each subject made records of no less then 3 video episodes with the total length of one minute minimum at the same time between 1 and 2 p.m. Applying vital non-invasive computer capillaroscopy of nailbed has allowed quantitatively estimating a capillary blood velocity (CBV). The microcirculation parameters obtained during experiment were compared to local indexes of geomagnetic activity. About 1500 episodes were recorded on laser disks and analyzed. Parameters of microcirculation were compared with other physiological parameters monitored in the experiment. CBV investigation during the most intensive magnetic storm for the period of isolation (A-index- 44) show, that CBV at all volunteers was considerably slowed down. The greatest delay of blood flow velocity revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 2,0. CBV at the subject has made 498 ± 46 μm/s with (- 65,8 % from base line). Least delay of a CBV is revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 3, 15 (-12 % from base line).
Cook, Mary R; Graham, Charles; Sastre, Antonio; Gerkovich, Mary M
Questions have been raised about the role pyridostigmine bromide (PB) plays in the etiology of Gulf War veterans' illnesses. There is a need to understand better the physiological and behavioral effects of this drug, particularly at the 30-mg/8-h regimen recommended by the US Military. OBJECTIVE. To perform a double-blind, cross-over, dose-response study of PB in 67 healthy, young volunteers (31 women, 36 men). Volunteers were initially trained on a standardized test battery. Supervised administration of placebo (PL) and PB (every 8 h/5 days) occurred in each of two dosing weeks, separated by a non-dosing week. One group received 30 mg PB and PL, and the other 60 mg PB and PL. In each dosing week, the battery was performed after the first pill and again when steady-state plasma PB levels were achieved. PB was associated with an overall improvement in reaction time on tests of memory and attention, and with a reduction in RMS error on a tracking task. PB slowed heart rate and decreased the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HF HRV). Dose-response effects were found only for HF HRV, and RMS error. The extent of cholinesterase inhibition was directly related to the magnitude of the HF HRV decrease, and was predicted by the weight-normalized PB dose. Cholinesterase inhibition was not related to the extent or severity of reported drug side effects. PB does not appear to have detrimental physiological or performance consequences at the recommended 30-mg dose, or at twice that dose, when evaluated under non-stressful laboratory conditions.
Zacny, J P; Janiszewski, D; Sadeghi, P; Black, M L
To characterize the reinforcing, subjective and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, across a range of subanesthetic concentrations in non-drug-abusing humans. In addition, a concentration of nitrous oxide was included in the design in order to compare and contrast behavioral effects of a gaseous to a volatile anesthesic. Repeated measures, double-blind, placebo control experiment. Human psychopharmacology laboratory. Fourteen moderate-drinking healthy volunteers. In each of four sessions, subjects first sampled placebo-oxygen and an active drug (end-tidal concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% sevoflurane and 30% nitrous oxide in oxygen) and then chose between the two Mood and psychomotor performance during the sampling trials, and choice of drug or placebo-oxygen during choice trial. Nitrous oxide was chosen by 71% of the subjects, and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% sevoflurane were chosen by 50%, 57% and 50% of the subjects, respectively. Neither drug was chosen at levels that exceeded that of chance. Sevoflurane and nitrous oxide both impaired psychomotor performance and produced changes in mood. There were several differences in subjective effects between sevoflurane and nitrous oxide at concentrations which were considered to be equivalent in anesthetic effect. Finally, although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of individuals tested, there was evidence that sevoflurane functioned as a reinforcer in some volunteers: subjects who chose to inhale sevoflurane over placebo-oxygen tended to report a positive spectrum of subjective effects during the sevoflurane sampling trial, relative to those subjects who chose placebo-oxygen over sevoflurane. Although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of subjects tested, the correspondence between positive subjective effects of sevoflurane and subsequent sevoflurane choice suggests that the volatile anesthetic drug can function as a reinforcer in some moderate drinkers.
O'Daly, Owen G; Joyce, Daniel; Tracy, Derek K; Stephan, Klaas E; Murray, Robin M; Shergill, Sukhwinder
Amphetamine sensitisation (AS) is an established animal model of the hypersensitivity to psychostimulants seen in patients with schizophrenia. AS also models the dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine signalling which has been implicated in the development of psychotic symptoms. Recent data suggest that the enhanced excitability of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in AS is driven by a hyperactivity of hippocampal (subiculum) neurons, consistent with a strong association between hippocampal dysfunction and schizophrenia. While AS can be modelled in human volunteers, its functional consequences on dopaminoceptive brain regions (i.e. striatum and hippocampus) remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of a sensitising dosage pattern of dextroamphetamine on the neural correlates of motor sequence learning in healthy volunteers, within a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design. Behaviourally, sensitisation was characterised by enhanced subjective responses to amphetamine but did not change performance (i.e. learning rate) during an explicit sequence learning task. In contrast, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements showed that repeated intermittent amphetamine exposure was associated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) (subiculum/entorhinal cortex) and midbrain, in the vicinity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during sequence encoding. Importantly, MTL hyperactivity correlated with the sensitisation of amphetamine-induced attentiveness. The MTL-midbrain hyperactivity reported here mirrors observations in sensitised rodents and is consistent with contemporary models of schizophrenia and behavioural sensitisation. These findings of meso-hippocampal hyperactivity during AS thus link pathophysiological concepts of dopamine dysregulation to cognitive models of psychosis.
Walker, D J; Zacny, J P
The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of three opioid mu-receptor agonists were studied in healthy volunteers using a cumulative-dosing procedure. Sixteen volunteers with no history of drug abuse received i.v. injections of saline (SAL), morphine (MOR), hydromorphone (HM), or meperidine (MEP) in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Subjects received 1 injection/h for the first 4 h, and a 3-h recovery period followed. SAL was injected first during each session, then SAL or increasing doses of each drug were administered every hour for the next 3 h. The absolute doses per injection were MOR: 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/70 kg; HM: 0.33, 0.65, and 1.3 mg/70 kg; and MEP: 17.5, 35, and 70 mg/70 kg. These injections resulted in cumulative doses of MOR: 2.5, 7.5, and 17.5; HM: 0.33, 0.98, and 2.28; and MEP: 17.5, 52.5, and 122.5 mg/70 kg. Subjects completed mood forms and psychomotor tests, and physiological measures were recorded at various times after each injection and during recovery. MEP tended to produce the most intense effects immediately after drug injection, which dissipated rapidly. MOR produced the mildest effects but was associated with unpleasant side effects during recovery and after the session. HM's effects were stronger than MOR's, and the recovery from HM was slower than with MEP. None of the opioids produced consistent effects that are typically associated with abuse liability. Orderly dose-response functions suggested that our cumulative-dosing procedure is an efficient way of determining dose-response functions for multiple opioids within the same subjects within the same study.
Zhang, Gui-Feng; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chun-Zhi; Wang, Shu-Xia; Yang, Jun-Jun; Shan, Bao-Ci
To observe the characteristics of needling sensation of "Deqi" (feelings of soreness, numbness, distending and heaviness, SNDH) by using positron emission tomography (PET) based on changes of glucose metabolism in different functional brain areas. Eighteen normal volunteers [9 men and 9 women, mean age (23.23-1- 3. 32) years] were randomly divided into control, Waiguan (SJ 5) and non-acupoint groups (n=6 in each group). SJ 5 and non-acupoint (the midpoint between SJ 5 and the running course of the Small Intestine Meridian on the right forearm) were punctured by using a sterilized filiform needle. PET scan of the brain began 40 min after intravenous 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection (0. 11 mCi/kg body weight, left opisthenar vein). Needling sensations including "Deqi"(n= 5), tingling (n 5) and no-apparently-specific-feeling (NASF) were acquired by acupuncture stimulation and grouped. The needling sensations were evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale(VAS). The acquired image data of different needling-sensation groups were analyzed using SPM 2. 0 software in the Matlab Platform. After receiving acupuncture stimulation of SJ 5, 5 volunteers in the Waiguan (SJ 5) group experienced fee- lings of SNDH, with the mean VAS score being 4.23 +/- 1. 50, and 5 volunteers of the non-acupoint group had a tingling feeling, with the mean VAS score being 5.73 2.40. The VAS score of the tingling group was significantly higher than that of SNDH group (P<0. 05). Compared with the NASF control group, the activated cerebral areas were Brodmann area (BA) 7, 13, 20, 22, 39, 42 and BA 45 in the SNDH group, mainly involving the left temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, etc. and being obviously different to those of the control group (P<0. 001,k>10 voxels). The activated cerebral areas in the tingling group were BA 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 32, 36, 40 and BA 45, predominantly involving the left limbic lobe, hippocampal gyrus, etc. and being apparently different to those of the control
Goh, Chee Leok; Tang, Mark B Y; Briantais, Philippe; Kaoukhov, Alexandre; Soto, Pascale
The efficacious acne treatment adapalene gel 0.1% is significantly less irritating than tretinoin of various concentrations and formulations, according to several clinical studies conducted predominantly in Caucasian patients. To confirm the lower irritation potential of adapalene gel 0.1% compared to tretinoin gel 0.025% among volunteers of various ethnic origins and to explore the difference in the irritant susceptibility among ethnic groups. The study was a single-centre, randomized, investigator-masked and intra-individual comparison. Healthy volunteers applied adapalene and tretinoin daily to the face for 21 days and to the forearms for 4 days, and were then evaluated for the level of irritation. The irritation potential of adapalene gel 0.1% was significantly lower than that of tretinoin gel 0.025% in all tolerability assessments, irrespective of the volunteers' ethnic origins. The between-treatment differences were similar among various ethnic groups. Statistically significant but small inter-ethnicity differences were observed in the evaluation of facial signs, with Caucasians being less susceptible than Chinese, Asian Indians and Malays. Adapalene gel 0.1% was significantly better tolerated than tretinoin gel 0.025% among various ethnic groups. The patients' ethnic origins had no impact on the difference between adapalene and tretinoin treatments in terms of tolerability.
Fisher, Jill A
The first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans is referred to as a phase I clinical trial. The purpose of these studies is to test the safety of the drugs and to establish appropriate doses that can later be given to patients. Most of these studies are conducted under controlled, in-patient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. To explore healthy volunteers' experiences in clinical trials, an ethnographic study was conducted at six in-patient phase I clinics in the USA. In addition to the observation of clinic activities (from informed consent procedures to dosing to blood draws), 268 semi-structured interviews were conducted, 33 with clinic staff and 235 with healthy volunteers. Drawing on this dataset, this article explores healthy volunteers' exchange of contemporary legends about phase I clinical trials. In addition to potentially scaring the listener and communicating distrust in the medical community, these incredible stories help participants cope with perceived stigma and establish a gradient of risk of trial participation, creating potential boundaries to their participation in medical research. The article argues that contemporary legends play a productive role in society, shaping how people view themselves and others and influencing their decisions about risky activities.
McCartan, D; Bell, R; Green, J F; Campbell, C; Trimble, K; Pickering, A; King, D J
Latent inhibition (LI) is a measure of reduced learning about a stimulus to which there has been prior exposure without any consequence. It therefore requires a comparison between a pre-exposed (PE) and a non-pre-exposed (NPE) condition. Since, in animals, LI is disrupted by amphetamines and enhanced by antipsychotics, LI disruption has been proposed as a measure of the characteristic attentional deficit in schizophrenia: the inability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. The findings in humans are, however, inconsistent. In particular, a recent investigation suggested that since haloperidol disrupted LI in healthy volunteers, and LI was normal in non-medicated patients with schizophrenia, the previous findings in schizophrenic patients were entirely due to the negative effects of their medication on LI (Williams et al., 1998). We conducted two studies of antipsychotic drug effects on auditory LI using a within-subject, parallel group design in healthy volunteers. In the first of these, single doses of haloperidol (1 mg. i.v.) were compared with paroxetine (20 mg p.o.) and placebo, and in the second, chlorpromazine (100 mg p.o.) was compared with lorazepam (2 mg. p.o.) and placebo. Eye movements, neuropsychological test performance (spatial working memory (SWM), Tower of London and intra/extra dimensional shift, from the CANTAB test battery) and visual analogue rating scales, were also included as other measures of attention and frontal lobe function. Haloperidol was associated with a non-significant reduction in LI scores, and dysphoria/akathisia (Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale) in three-quarters of the subjects. The LI finding may be explained by increased distractibility which was indicated by an increase in antisaccade directional errors in this group. In contrast, LI was significantly increased by chlorpromazine but not by an equally sedative dose of lorazepam (both drugs causing marked decreases in peak saccadic velocity). Paroxetine had no effect on LI, eye
Seaber, Emma J; Peck, Richard W; Smith, Deborah A; Allanson, John; Hefting, Nanco R; van Lier, Jan J; Sollie, Frans A E; Wemer, Johan; Jonkman, Jan H G
Aims Zolmitriptan (Zomig (formerly 311C90)) is a novel 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist developed for the acute oral treatment of migraine. A highly sensitive LCMS-MS assay has been developed which allows quantification of plasma concentrations of zolmitriptan and its active metabolite, 183C91, after therapeutic doses. Two studies using this assay method were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics, including absolute bioavailability, of 2.5 and 5 mg oral doses of zolmitriptan in men and women, the dose-proportionality of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg doses and the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of a 5 mg oral dose. Methods Two randomized, balanced, open-label, 4-period crossover studies were conducted in a total of 32 healthy volunteers. The first study determined the absolute bioavailability of 2.5 and 5 mg doses of zolmitriptan and compared the pharmacokinetics in men and women. The second study examined the dose-proportionality in pharmacokinetics after fasting doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg, and the effect of food on a 5 mg dose. Blood pressure, heart rate, ECG, clinical chemistry, haematology and adverse events were also monitored. Results The mean (s.d.) absolute oral bioavailability was 0.41 (0.14 and 0.40) 0.09 after 2.5 mg and 0.48±0.14 and 0.36±0.07 after 5 mg in women and men, respectively. Without adjustment for bodyweight, plasma concentrations of zolmitriptan, but not 183C91, were higher in women than men. Mean (±s.d.) AUC was 32.7±10.1 and 60.2±26.8 ng ml−1 h after 5 mg in men and women, respectively (95% CI for ratio 0.43–0.77). After 2.5 mg mean (±s.d.) AUC was 18.4±5.4 and 23.1±9.9 ng ml−1 h in men and women, respectively (95% CI for ratio 0.61–1.09). However, these differences were of no clinical significance. Cmax and AUC of oral zolmitriptan were dose-proportional and there was a 13 and 16% fall in mean zolmitriptan Cmax and AUC, respectively, when administered after food. Adverse effects were minor, predominantly mild and transient, and
Redford, Daniel; Paidy, Samata; Kashif, Faisal
Traditional patient monitoring may not detect cerebral tissue hypoxia, and typical interventions may not improve tissue oxygenation. Therefore, monitoring cerebral tissue oxygen status with regional oximetry is being increasingly used by anesthesiologists and perfusionists during surgery. In this study, we evaluated absolute and trend accuracy of a new regional oximetry technology in healthy volunteers. A near-infrared spectroscopy sensor connected to a regional oximetry system (O3™, Masimo, Irvine, CA) was placed on the subject's forehead, to provide continuous measurement of regional oxygen saturation (rSO2). Reference blood samples were taken from the radial artery and internal jugular bulb vein, at baseline and after a series of increasingly hypoxic states induced by altering the inspired oxygen concentration while maintaining normocapnic arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2). Absolute and trend accuracy of the regional oximetry system was determined by comparing rSO2 against reference cerebral oxygen saturation (SavO2), that is calculated by combining arterial and venous saturations of oxygen in the blood samples. Twenty-seven subjects were enrolled. Bias (test method mean error), standard deviation of error, standard error of the mean, and root mean square accuracy (ARMS) of rSO2 compared to SavO2 were 0.4%, 4.0%, 0.3%, and 4.0%, respectively. The limits of agreement were 8.4% (95% confidence interval, 7.6%-9.3%) to -7.6% (95% confidence interval, -8.4% to -6.7%). Trend accuracy analysis yielded a relative mean error of 0%, with a standard deviation of 2.1%, a standard error of 0.1%, and an ARMS of 2.1%. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and skin color did not affect the bias (all P > 0.1). Masimo O3 regional oximetry provided absolute root-mean-squared error of 4% and relative root-mean-squared error of 2.1% in healthy volunteers undergoing controlled hypoxia.
Gierthmühlen, Janne; Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Attal, Nadine; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Jensen, Troels S; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D; Mainka, Tina; Rice, Andrew S C; Segerdahl, Märta; Sindrup, Søren H; Serra, Jordi; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph
Clinical and human experimental pain studies often include so-called "healthy" controls in investigations of sensory abnormalities, using quantitative sensory testing (QST) as an outcome measure. However, the criteria for what is considered "healthy" vary among the different studies and between study centers and investigators, partly explaining the high variability of the results. Therefore, several aspects should be considered during inclusion of healthy volunteers in QST-based trials to have homogenous groups of healthy controls with less variability between human experimental studies, so that results are less likely to be false negative or false positive because of subject-related factors. The EUROPAIN and NEUROPAIN consortia aimed to define factors influencing the variability in selection of healthy subjects in QST-based studies before the start of both projects and to give recommendations how to minimize it based on the current literature and expertise of the participants. The present suggestions for inclusion criteria of healthy volunteers into QST-based trials describe a 2-level approach including standardized questionnaires enabling the collection of relevant information on sociodemographic data, medical history, current health status, coping strategies in dealing with pain, and the motivation of the volunteer to participate in the study. These suggestions are believed to help researchers interpret their results in comparison with others and improve the quality of clinical studies including healthy volunteers as controls or in human experimental pain studies. They aim to reduce any confounding factors. Furthermore, the acquired information will allow post hoc analyses of variance for different potential influencing factors.
Li, Yun-Hui; Huang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Hong-Min; Ren, Ping; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin II has been shown to have a favorable effect in the attenuation of angina. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid (FA), which is a vasorelaxant compound present in Guanxin II, in healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris following the administration of Guanxin II. Ex vivo experiments were performed in order to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of FA on the human internal mammary artery (IMA) to provide evidence that it is a bioactive component of Guanxin II. Following the oral administration of Guanxin II, the FA levels in the serum were quantified by a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Treatment with FA (10(-8)-10(-3) M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelial IMA rings following precontraction with KCl. Statistically significant differences were identified between the pharmaco-kinetic parameters Cmax, t1/2α, t1/2β and t1/2Ka of the healthy volunteers and the patients with angina pectoris following the oral administration of Guanxin II. FA is a bioactive compound absorbed from Guanxin II that attenuates angina pectoris, a condition that may modify the pharmacokinetics of FA. Not only do the pharmacokinetic parameters direct the clinical use of Guanxin II, but they may also be useful for exploring the pathology of angina pectoris.
Schmechtig, A; Lees, J; Perkins, A; Altavilla, A; Craig, K J; Dawson, G R; William Deakin, J F; Dourish, C T; Evans, L H; Koychev, I; Weaver, K; Smallman, R; Walters, J; Wilkinson, L S; Morris, R; Williams, S C R; Ettinger, U
The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine leads to transient psychosis-like symptoms and impairments in oculomotor performance in healthy volunteers. This study examined whether the adverse effects of ketamine on oculomotor performance can be reversed by the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 72 healthy participants performed smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades (PS) and antisaccades (AS) while being randomly assigned to one of four drug groups (intravenous 100 ng ml−1 ketamine, 2 mg oral risperidone, 100 ng ml−1 ketamine plus 2 mg oral risperidone, placebo). Drug administration did not lead to harmful adverse events. Ketamine increased saccadic frequency and decreased velocity gain of SPEM (all P<0.01) but had no significant effects on PS or AS (all P⩾0.07). An effect of risperidone was observed for amplitude gain and peak velocity of PS and AS, indicating hypometric gain and slower velocities compared with placebo (both P⩽0.04). No ketamine by risperidone interactions were found (all P⩾0.26). The results confirm that the administration of ketamine produces oculomotor performance deficits similar in part to those seen in schizophrenia. The atypical antipsychotic risperidone did not reverse ketamine-induced deteriorations. These findings do not support the cognitive enhancing potential of risperidone on oculomotor biomarkers in this model system of schizophrenia and point towards the importance of developing alternative performance-enhancing compounds to optimise pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24326395
Sharma, Vineeta; Madhu, Sirisha; Natarajan, Parthiban; Muniyandi, Ganesan; Jaiswal, Vijaya; Saxena, Renu
India is one of the few countries where biosimilar enoxaparin is available for clinical use. Despite availability since past 4 to 5 years, there is a paucity of published literature regarding their biological activity. The aim of the current study is to compare the biological activity of an endogenously developed formulation of enoxaparin with the branded formulation. Twelve healthy male volunteers received 1 subcutaneous injection of 2 different formulations of enoxaparin in a randomized, open-label, balanced, 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence, cross-over study. The test formulation was Injection Troynoxa (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/0.4 mL, Troikaa Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India) and reference formulation was Injection Clexane (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/ 0.4 mL, Sanofi-Aventis, UK). The plasma anti-Xa activity and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were estimated on fully automated coagulometer predose and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours following dosing with 40 mg/0.4 mL of enoxaparin. The results of mixed model analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for estimating difference between least square means of test and reference formulations, at all time points, showed no significant differences in anti-Xa activity and plasma aPTT levels. Both formulations were well tolerated and there were no bleeding episodes. After a single-dose injection in healthy participants, anti-Xa activities of 2 formulations of LMWH enoxaparin were comparable. No significant difference was observed in the mean plasma aPTT. It remains to be seen whether the 2 formulations would show comparable clinical efficacy.
Kirdpon, Sukachart; Kirdpon, Wichit; Airarat, Wanchai; Trevanich, Anothai; Nanakorn, Somsong
1. To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and in the urine of healthy normal volunteers, before and after consuming fresh aloe gel. 2. To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among subjects after taking aloe gel. 3. To determine the value of consuming aloe gel for prevention of renal stone formation. Experimental study; before and after experiment with no control group Thirty one healthy male medical students between 18 and 23 years of age were enrolled (with informed consent) in the clinical trial. Subjects ingested 100 g of fresh aloe gel twice a day for seven consecutive days. The 24-hr urine was collected one day prior to taking the gel (Day 0), Days 2 and 5 of consumption, and Day 8 (one day after completion). The authors determined the urine volume, osmolality, potassium, sodium, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, oxalate, Permissible Increment in calcium (PI in calcium), Permissible Increment in oxalate (PI in oxalate), Concentration product ratio of calcium phosphate (CPR of CaPO4) and the citrate per creatinine ratio. The citrate and tartrate concentration in 100 g of fresh aloe gel was 96.3 and 158.9 mg, respectively. The urinary excretion of oxalate was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The PI in calcium was significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the citrate excretion and PI in oxalate were consistently, albeit non-significantly, increased. The mean CPR values of CaPO4 were decreased non-significantly. The other measurements were unremarkable. Fresh Aloe vera gel (100 g) contains 96.3 mg of citrate and 158.9 mg of tartrate. This is mid-range for Thai fruits. Changes in chemical compositions of urine after aloe consumption shows its potential for preventing kidney stone formation among adults.
Swidsinski, Alexander; Dörffel, Yvonne; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Gille, Christoph; Reißhauer, Anne; Göktas, Onder; Krüger, Monika; Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland
AIM To test the effects of humic acids on innate microbial communities of the colon. METHODS We followed the effects of oral supplementation with humic acids (Activomin®) on concentrations and composition of colonic microbiome in 14 healthy volunteers for 45 d. 3 × 800 mg Activomin® were taken orally for 10 d followed by 3 × 400 mg for 35 d. Colonic microbiota were investigated using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Carnoy fixated and paraffin embedded stool cylinders. Two stool samples were collected a week prior to therapy and one stool sample on days 10, 31 and 45. Forty-one FISH probes representing different bacterial groups were used. RESULTS The sum concentration of colonic microbiota increased from 20% at day 10 to 30% by day 31 and remained stable until day 45 (32%) of humic acid supplementation (P < 0.001). The increase in the concentrations in each person was due to growth of preexisting groups. The individual microbial profile of the patients remained unchanged. Similarly, the bacterial diversity remained stable. Concentrations of 24 of the 35 substantial groups increased from 20% to 96%. Two bacterial groups detected with Bac303 (Bacteroides) and Myc657 (mycolic acid-containing Actinomycetes) FISH probes decreased (P > 0.05). The others remained unaffected. Bacterial groups with initially marginal concentrations (< 0.1 × 109/mL) demonstrated no response to humic acids. The concentrations of pioneer groups of Bifidobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile increased but the observed differences were statistically not significant. CONCLUSION Humic acids have a profound effect on healthy colonic microbiome and may be potentially interesting substances for the development of drugs that control the innate colonic microbiome. PMID:28223733
Swidsinski, Alexander; Dörffel, Yvonne; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Gille, Christoph; Reißhauer, Anne; Göktas, Onder; Krüger, Monika; Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland
To test the effects of humic acids on innate microbial communities of the colon. We followed the effects of oral supplementation with humic acids (Activomin(®)) on concentrations and composition of colonic microbiome in 14 healthy volunteers for 45 d. 3 × 800 mg Activomin(®) were taken orally for 10 d followed by 3 × 400 mg for 35 d. Colonic microbiota were investigated using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Carnoy fixated and paraffin embedded stool cylinders. Two stool samples were collected a week prior to therapy and one stool sample on days 10, 31 and 45. Forty-one FISH probes representing different bacterial groups were used. The sum concentration of colonic microbiota increased from 20% at day 10 to 30% by day 31 and remained stable until day 45 (32%) of humic acid supplementation (P < 0.001). The increase in the concentrations in each person was due to growth of preexisting groups. The individual microbial profile of the patients remained unchanged. Similarly, the bacterial diversity remained stable. Concentrations of 24 of the 35 substantial groups increased from 20% to 96%. Two bacterial groups detected with Bac303 (Bacteroides) and Myc657 (mycolic acid-containing Actinomycetes) FISH probes decreased (P > 0.05). The others remained unaffected. Bacterial groups with initially marginal concentrations (< 0.1 × 10(9)/mL) demonstrated no response to humic acids. The concentrations of pioneer groups of Bifidobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile increased but the observed differences were statistically not significant. Humic acids have a profound effect on healthy colonic microbiome and may be potentially interesting substances for the development of drugs that control the innate colonic microbiome.
Attie, Kenneth M; Allison, Mark J; McClure, Ty; Boyd, Ingrid E; Wilson, Dawn M; Pearsall, Amelia E; Sherman, Matthew L
ACE-536, a recombinant protein containing a modified activin receptor type IIB, is being developed for the treatment of anemias caused by ineffective erythropoiesis, such as thalassemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. ACE-536 acts through a mechanism distinct from erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to promote late-stage erythroid differentiation by binding to transforming growth factor-β superfamily ligands and inhibiting signaling through transcription factors Smad 2/3. The goal of this Phase 1 study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects of ascending dose levels of ACE-536 in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two postmenopausal women were randomized in sequential cohorts of eight subjects each to receive up to two doses of either ACE-536 (0.0625-0.25 mg/kg) or placebo (3:1 randomization) given subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Mean baseline age was 59.4 years, and hemoglobin was 13.2 g/dL. ACE-536 was well tolerated at dose levels up to 0.25 mg/kg over the 1-month treatment period. There were no serious or severe adverse events, nor clinically meaningful changes in safety laboratory measures or vital signs. Mean ACE-536 AUC0-14d and Cmax increased proportionally after first dose; mean t½ was 15-16 days. Dose-dependent increases in hemoglobin concentration were observed, beginning 7 days after initiation of treatment and maintained for several weeks following treatment. The proportion of subjects with a hemoglobin increase ≥1.0 g/dL increased in a dose-dependent manner to 83.3% of subjects in the highest dose group, 0.25 mg/kg. ACE-536 was well tolerated and resulted in sustained increases in hemoglobin levels in healthy postmenopausal women.
Peltz, Cathryn D; Zauel, Roger; Ramo, Nicole; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J
Traumatic glenohumeral joint (GHJ) dislocations are common, resulting in significant shoulder disability and pain. Previous research indicates that bony morphology is associated with an increased risk of injury in other joints (eg, the knee), but the extent to which bony morphology is associated with traumatic GHJ dislocation is unknown. This study assessed GHJ morphology in patients with anterior GHJ instability and in a control population of healthy volunteers. Bilateral computed tomography scans were used to measure GHJ morphology in both shoulders of 11 patients with instability and 11 control subjects. Specific outcome measures included the glenoid radius of curvature (ROC) in the anterior/posterior (A/P) and superior/inferior (S/I) directions, humeral head ROC, A/P and S/I conformity index, and A/P and S/I stability angle. Compared with the control subjects, the glenoid of the instability the injured shoulder in patients with instability was flatter (ie, higher ROC) in the A/P (P = .001) and S/I (P = .01) directions and this finding was also true for uninjured, contralateral shoulder (A/P: P = .01, S/I: P = .03). No differences in GHJ morphology were detected between the instability patients' injured and contralateral shoulders (P > .07). Similarly, no differences in GHJ morphology were detected between the control subjects' dominant and nondominant shoulders (P > .51). There are significant differences in GHJ morphology between healthy control subjects and both shoulders (injured and uninjured, contralateral) of patients diagnosed with anterior instability after GHJ dislocation. These findings are important clinically because they suggest that glenoid morphology may influence the risk of GHJ dislocation. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ruiz, Francieli S; Andersen, Monica L; Martins, Raquel C S; Zager, Adriano; Lopes, José D; Tufik, Sergio
We investigated the impact of two nights of total sleep deprivation (SD) or four nights of rapid eye movement (REM) SD on immunological parameters in healthy men. Thirty-two volunteers were randomly assigned to three protocols (control, total SD or REM SD). Both SD protocols were followed by three nights of sleep recovery. The control and REM SD groups had regular nights of sleep monitored by polysomnography. Circulating white blood cells (WBCs), T- (CD4/CD8) and B-lymphocytes, Ig classes, complement and cytokine levels were assessed daily. Two nights of total SD increased the numbers of leukocytes and neutrophils compared with baseline levels, and these levels returned to baseline after 24 h of sleep recovery. The CD4(+) T-cells increased during the total SD period (one and two nights) and IgA levels decreased during the entire period of REM SD. These levels did not return to baseline after three nights of sleep recovery. Levels of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) remained unchanged by both protocols of SD. Our findings suggest that both protocols affected the human immune profile, although in different parameters, and that CD4(+) T-cells and IgA levels were not re-established after sleep recovery.
Shin, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Ji Who; Lee, Yun-Sang; Yang, Bo Yeun; Lee, Jae Sung; Jung, Jae-Min; Yoon, Seo-Hyun; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang
This study explored microdosing methods for evaluating the distribution and pharmacokinetics (PK) of a central nervous system (CNS) drug candidate. We used sertraline as a model drug. In this open-label, one-arm, three-period, multiple-dosing study, 10 healthy male volunteers received 6-day administrations of sertraline at doses of 5, 25 or 50 mg/d in three different periods. Before the first dose of Period 1, and 24 h after the last dose of each period, an intravenous bolus of [11C]sertraline was injected for positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. After the sixth dose in each period, serial blood samples were collected at scheduled intervals over 48 h; then serum sertraline concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sertraline was distributed in the brain within 20 min, and it was highly distributed in the putamen, cingulate, and thalamus. Linearity in steady-state Cmax and AUClast were observed in the 5 - 50 mg dose range. The results suggested that microdosing with PET was a useful method for exploring the bloodbrain- barrier penetration and distribution of a candidate CNS drug. This study described a microdosing method that combined PET with LC-MS/MS for determining the brain distribution and PK characteristics of a CNS drug candidate.
Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B
Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. © 2013.
Jänsch, Claire; Harmer, Catherine; Cooper, Myra J
Emotional processing was investigated in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in healthy volunteers (HVs) using self report questionnaires and information processing tasks. Compared to the HVs, patients with AN had lower levels of self reported emotional awareness and expression. They also responded more slowly to, correctly identified fewer emotions and misclassified more emotions in a facial recognition task, and responded more slowly to, and recalled fewer, self-referent emotion words. There were no key differences between the two groups on non-emotional control tasks, suggesting that their deficits are specific to emotional information and not a general feature of the illness. Analysis indicated that some, but not all, of the differences found remained when depressive symptoms were taken into account. Exploratory analysis of sub-groups (medicated vs. unmedicated patients) indicated that those who were on medication may perform very differently from those who were not on medication, including when level of depression is controlled, although it is important to emphasise that these findings are preliminary. The implications of a deficit in emotional processing in those with AN, including discussion of the specific differences found between medicated and unmedicated, are discussed in relation to previous findings in the area. A number of implications for future research, theory and therapy with those with AN are discussed.
Engle, A; Hebert, J R; Reddy, B S
Quantitative food frequency questionnaires and 5-day food records were used to explore relationships between food consumption and nutrient intake among 65 healthy volunteers who were willing to participate in a dietary fiber intervention study. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the nutrient intake and the frequency of consumption of each food item, as well as the amount consumed per month. Percentage of calories from fat was related to frequency of consumption and amount of consumption, respectively, of bacon (r = .48, .49), frankfurters and sausage (r = .45, .45), and french fries and fried potatoes (r = .43, .39). Frequency and amount, respectively, of consumption of fruits were most highly correlated with intake of vitamin A (r = .45, .46), vitamin C (r = .44, .48), and dietary fiber (r = .43, .43). We conclude that specific food consumption amounts and/or frequency of eating foods such as legumes, fruits, and whole-grain or bran-rich cereals should be recommended to assist individuals in meeting dietary goals.
Umbricht, Daniel; Koller, Rene; Vollenweider, Franz X; Schmid, Liselotte
Previous studies indicate that mismatch negativity (MMN)-a preattentive auditory event-related potential (ERP)-depends on NMDA receptor (NMDAR) functioning. To explore if the strength of MMN generation reflects the functional condition of the NMDAR system in healthy volunteers, we analyzed correlations between MMN recorded before drug administration and subsequent responses to the NMDAR antagonist ketamine or the 5-HT2a agonist psilocybin. In two separate studies, MMN was recorded to both frequency and duration deviants prior to administration of ketamine or psilocybin. Behavioral and subjective effects of ketamine and psilocybin were assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the OAV Scale-a rating scale developed to measure altered states of consciousness. Correlations between ERP amplitudes (MMN, N1, and P2) and drug-induced effects were calculated in each study group and compared between them. Smaller MMN to both pitch and duration deviants was significantly correlated to stronger effects during ketamine, but not psilocybin administration. No significant correlations were observed for N1 and P2. Smaller MMN indicates a NMDAR system that is more vulnerable to disruption by the NMDAR antagonist ketamine. MMN generation appears to index the functional state of NMDAR-mediated neurotransmission even in subjects who do not demonstrate any psychopathology.
Wezenberg, E.; Valkenberg, M. M. G. J.; de Jong, C. A. J.; Buitelaar, J. K.; van Gerven, J. M. A.; Verkes, R. J.
Rationale In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people expose themselves to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”). Commonly, ecstasy is used in combination with other substances, in particular alcohol (ethanol). MDMA induces both arousing as well as hallucinogenic effects, whereas ethanol is a general central nervous system depressant. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess the acute effects of single and co-administration of MDMA and ethanol on executive, memory, psychomotor, visuomotor, visuospatial and attention function, as well as on subjective experience. Materials and methods We performed a four-way, double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers (nine male, seven female) between the ages of 18–29. MDMA was given orally (100 mg) and blood alcohol concentration was maintained at 0.6‰ by an ethanol infusion regime. Results Co-administration of MDMA and ethanol was well tolerated and did not show greater impairment of performance compared to the single-drug conditions. Impaired memory function was consistently observed after all drug conditions, whereas impairment of psychomotor function and attention was less consistent across drug conditions. Conclusions Co-administration of MDMA and ethanol did not exacerbate the effects of either drug alone. Although the impairment of performance by all drug conditions was relatively moderate, all induced significant impairment of cognitive function. PMID:18305926
Wallace, Allison W; Victory, Jennifer M; Amsden, Guy W
Previous work has demonstrated that the chelation interaction seen with ciprofloxacin when it is coadministered with antacids also happens when it is coadministered with calcium-fortified foods. This study was conducted to study whether this was a drug-specific finding or whether the interaction occurs with other members of the fluoroquinolone class of drugs. Sixteen healthy volunteers received single 400-mg oral doses of gatifloxacin with 12 ounces each of water, nonfortified orange juice, and calcium-fortified orange juice and had plasma samples drawn for assay over the subsequent 48 hours. Results demonstrated significant increases in total oral clearance (15%) and volume of distribution (13%) along with a matching significant decrease (12%) in exposure (AUC) when gatifloxacin was taken with the fortified juice. Although not statistically significant, peak concentrations decreased by 15% and were reached (tmax) approximately 38% later when gatifloxacin was coadministered with the calcium-fortified juice. Bioavailability testing indicated that although the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratio of the geometric means of the calcium-fortified juice and water arms' AUC stayed within the range of 80% to 125%, those for Cmax did not. This study demonstrated a chelation or adsorption interaction between the fortified juice and gatifloxacin that reached regulatory significance. As a result, clinicians may wish to instruct patients to take gatifloxacin either with nonfortified foods or on an empty stomach.
Lohsiriwat, S; Puengna, N; Leelakusolvong, S
Caffeine affects many aspects of body function including the gastrointestinal system. A single-blinded experimental study was performed to evaluate the effect of caffeine on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and esophageal peristaltic contractions in healthy Thai adults. The volunteers were six men and six women aged 19-31 years. Subjects drank 100 mL of water. Five wet swallows were performed 30 min after the drink. The basal LES pressure was continuously measured using esophageal manometric technique. They then consumed another 100 mL of water containing caffeine at the dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight. The swallows and basal LES pressure monitoring were repeated. The results showed no change in basal LES pressure after a water drink while caffeine consumption significantly lowered the pressure at 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. The mean amplitude of contractions and peristaltic velocity were decreased at the distal esophagus at 3 and 8 cm above LES. The mean duration of contraction was decreased at the distal part but increased at the more proximal esophagus. The heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were increased significantly at 10-20 min after caffeine ingestion. This study indicated that caffeine 3.5 mg/kg affected esophageal function, resulting in a decrease in basal LES pressure and distal esophageal contraction, which is known to promote the reflux of gastric contents up into the esophagus.