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Sample records for chinese herbal drugs

  1. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  2. [Significance of re-evaluation and development of Chinese herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli

    2012-01-01

    The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.

  3. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  4. Transporter modulation by Chinese herbal medicines and its mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Ma, Jiang; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2016-07-15

    The increasing use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) as complementary therapy and dietary supplement has been greatly raising the concerns about potential herb-drug interactions (HDIs). HDIs may cause the augmented or antagonized effects of prescription drugs, resulting in unexpected clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is of significance to identify or predict potential HDIs, and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Drug transporters play key roles in transmembrane passage of a large number of drugs, affecting their absorption, distribution and elimination. Modulation of drug transporters has been recognized as one of the main causes of HDIs. In the last decade, a growing number of Chinese medicinal herbs and their derived phytochemicals have been identified to have modulatory effect toward transporter proteins, leading to pharmacokinetic HDIs when concomitantly used with conventional drugs. Some of these transporter-mediated interactions have already shown clinical significance. This review article focuses on two major transporter superfamilies, the solute carrier (SLC) and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, to provide the recent advanced knowledge on CHMs and their inherent phytochemicals that interact with these transporters, and their induced pharmacokinetic HDIs from both preclinical and clinical aspects. In addition, the challenges and strategy for studying HDIs are also discussed.

  5. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper.

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of a Chinese herbal drug Yi Shen Juan Bi in adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman; Peng, Cheng; Fang, Weirong; Han, Caifeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the immunomodulating mechanisms of a Chinese herbal medicine Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) in treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Expression of TNF-α mRNA and IL-1β mRNA in synovial cells was measured with the semi-quantitative technique of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while caspase-3 was examined by western blot analysis. Results: The administration of YJB significantly decreased the production of serum TNF-α and IL-1β. It also decreased significantly the TNF-α mRNA, IL-1β mRNA, and caspase-3 expression in synoviocytes. Conclusions: YJB produces the immunomodulatory effects by downregulating the over-activated cytokines, while it activates caspase-3, which is the key executioner of apoptosis in the immune system. This may be the one of the underlying mechanisms that explains how YJB treats the rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:20711367

  7. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents. PMID:20653978

  8. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  9. [Functional targets of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.

  10. The rediscovery of ancient Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yan, Yong-Qing; Wang, Jie; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2004-08-01

    This review presents some recent discoveries of ancient Chinese herbal formulas evolved through thousands of years of clinical practice. It appears that many of the ancient combination formulas have sound scientific basis through modern pharmacological evaluation. Significant chemical changes occurred during the preparation (decoction) process of a prescribed herbal formula. For example, some toxic ingredients were significantly reduced and new active compounds generated due to the chemical interactions among the ingredients. Many combination formulas showed significantly better pharmacological results than individual herbal medicines participated in the formula. These findings suggest that the current drug screening and regulatory methodology will not be appropriate for the development of a botanical drug containing a group of phytochemicals, in which a synergistic interaction from chemical ingredients plays a fundamental role in the treatment of disease. If we view a diseased state in a holistic and dynamic way, i.e. it involves interactions among many biological systems in human body and these interactions change as the disease improves or worsens, the treatment of such disease with a single chemical entity may not be logical or technically feasible. Combination formulas may hold the potential to become the therapeutics of choice in the future due to the synergistic effect and dynamic adjustment achieved by the multiple ingredients that will restore the balance of an imbalanced or diseased human body.

  11. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  12. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24716122

  13. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47–0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers. PMID:24204397

  14. [Inhibition of aldose reductase by Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Mao, X M; Zhang, J Q

    1993-10-01

    Seven Chinese herbal drugs were screened for experimental inhibition of lens aldose reductase activity, among which quercetin exhibited potent enzyme-inhibitory activities in vitro. Its IC50 value was 3.44 x 10(-7) mol/L. It may be helpful in the prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic complications.

  15. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  16. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple expressions of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.

  17. Characterization of phenolic compounds in the Chinese herbal drug Tu-Si-Zi by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Yan, Yuning; Guo, De-An

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are the major bioactive constituents of the Chinese herbal drug Tu-Si-Zi, which is prepared from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis. However, seeds of C. australis also are offered under the name of this drug in the herb market. In order to make a comparison of their chemical constituents, the phenolic compounds of these two Cuscuta species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). A total of 50 compounds were observed in the methanol extracts, including 23 flavonoids, 20 lignans and 7 quinic acid derivatives. These compounds were separated on a C18 column and identified or tentatively characterized based on UV spectra and MS fragmentation behavior. In contrast to previous reports, the phenolic patterns of these two Cuscuta species were found to be very different. Kaempferol and astragalin were the predominant constituents of C. australis, while hyperoside was the major compound in C. chinensis. Most of the identified compounds, especially the acylated flavonoid glycosides, have not previously been reported from Cuscuta species. In addition, a 30 Da neutral loss observed for flavonols was investigated and could be used to differentiate flavonoid isomers such as kaempferol and luteolin. The ESI-MS fragmentation behavior of furofuran lignans was also investigated, and a characteristic pathway is proposed. The large differences observed between the phenolic constituents of C. chinensis and C. australis strongly encouraged further comparison of the bioactivities of these two species.

  18. Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

  19. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  20. Placebos used in clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guan D; We, Ding A; Chung, Leung P; Fai, Cheng K

    2008-06-01

    One of the important components in randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is blinding. The gold standard of clinical trials is to achieve a double blind design. However, only a small number of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine have been reported, most of them are of poor quality in methodology including placebo preparation and verification. The purpose of the article is to review the validity of placebo used in blinded clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in recent years and related patents. We searched the Wanfang Database (total of 827 Chinese journals of medicine and/or pharmacy, from 1999 to 2005) and 598 full-length articles related to placebo clinical trials were found. 77 placebo blinded clinical trials for Chinese medicine were extracted by manual search from the 598 articles. After reviewing the 77 full-length articles, we found that nearly half of the clinical trials did not pay attention to the physical quality of the testing drug and placebo and whether they were of comparable physical quality. The rest provided very limited placebo information so that blinding assurance could not be assumed. Only 2 articles (2.6%) specifically validated the comparability between the testing drug and the placebo. Researchers in Chinese medicine commonly ignored the quality of the placebo in comparison to the test drug. This may be causing bias in the clinical trials. Quality specifications and evaluation of the placebo should deserve special attention to reduce bias in randomized controlled trials in TCM study.

  1. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs.

  2. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Search methods We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group’s Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Main results We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin. When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot

  4. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  5. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  6. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  7. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  8. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  9. [Sulfur-fumigation, maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine-discard or inheritance].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Qin, Kun-Ming; Zou, Nuo-Shu; Lou, Ya-Jing; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur-fumigation processing technology is an ancient maintenance method, which plays a certain role in storage and preservation for Chinese herbal medicine. But in recent years, with the further explanation of sulfur-fumigation processing mechanism and more attention to the safety of drugs, such traditional maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine is now being questioned by more and more people. The authors think we should have selective inheritance rather than abslute discard to this ancient processing technology after reviewing the literatures published in recent 20 years, and some suggestions are also put forward, which can supply some references for related drug supervision departments.

  10. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  11. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  12. [Drug design ideas and methods of Chinese herb prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun-guo; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-09-01

    The new drug of Chinese herbal prescription, which is the best carrier for the syndrome differentiation and treatment of Chinese medicine and is the main form of the new drug research and development, plays a very important role in the new drug research and development. Although there are many sources of the prescriptions, whether it can become a new drug, the necessity, rationality and science of the prescriptions are the key to develop the new drug. In this article, aiming at the key issues in prescriptions design, the source, classification, composition design of new drug of Chinese herbal prescriptions are discussed, and provide a useful reference for research and development of new drugs.

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27990122

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  16. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  17. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  18. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT.

  19. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  20. Anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, science or myth?*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wen-jing; Lai, Mao-de; Zhou, Jian-guang

    2006-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area. PMID:17111471

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (中藥 zhōng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (丹參 dān shēn), Notoginseng Radix (三七 sān qī), Lycii Fructus (枸杞子 gǒu qǐ zǐ), Cnidii Fructus (蛇床子 shé chuáng zǐ), Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn), Puerariae Radix (葛根 gé gēn), Puerariae Flos (葛花 gé huā), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (厚朴 hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (桔梗 jié gěng), and Trigonellae Semen (胡蘆巴 hú lú bā). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  2. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  3. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  4. [Discussing of influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui-Fu; Nie, He-Yun; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Li, Rong-Miao

    2014-10-01

    This study left flavonoids and alkaloids Chinese herbal monomer with common parent nucleus as cream base carriages drug respectively, cream base were prepared with stable span 60-tween 80 emulsification system. The near-infrared stability analysis technology was performed to quantitatively characterize the physical stability of cream. Base on the theory of gel network structure, theory of emulsification, theory of solubility parameter and theory of double layer, the influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream was discussed. The results showed that tetrahydropalmatine, matrine and naringenin had similar solubility parameter value with cream base material, creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomer have higher Zeta potential value and stronger physical stability, and that those creams had similar microstructure information with cream base. However, a larger solubility parameter difference exists between baicalin, baicalein, berberine, palmatine and cream base material. Creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomers had lower Zeta potential value and poorer physical stability, and that those creams had great different microstructure information with cream base.

  5. [Multimorbidity and multi-target-therapy with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Saller, R; Rostock, M

    2012-12-12

    The active components of herbal drugs and substances are pleiotropic multi-ingredient compounds with multitarget properties including antiinflammatory effects. A pleiotropic inhibition of inflammation could play an important role in mutlimorbide patients as an attempt of prevention or retardation of metastasis. A large number of experimental data for European and non-European herbal drugs as well as various herbal drug combinations suggest such a possibility. Despite the so far small number of clinical studies, such an experimental herbal treatment could appear to be reasonable and acceptable, provided that there are data available on quality and safety of these herbal drugs by treatments of patients with various diseases. Besides, herbal drugs and substances play a growing role the treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Many of these herbal drugs have antiinflammatory effects beside their proved symptomatic efficacy in a lot of other diseases. The specific selection of herbal drugs that are efficacious in specific indications and additionally showed antiinflammatory effects offers the possibility of simultaneous antiinflammatory and specific efficacy. St. John's Wort and milk thistle belong to the oldest and to the best experimentally and clinically examined herbal remedies. The spectrum of internal and external uses of Hypercum perforatum as a multicompound herbal drug includes functional gastro-intestinal complaint and illness, skin disease, mucosal lesion, superficial injury, depressive upset and depression, somatoform disorders, restlessness, nervosity, convalescence, exhaustion and sleep disturbances respectively. The plurivalent character of the multicompound even enables a broad spectrum of activity. This might justify to prefer St. John's Wort to other drugs in a wide range of treatments: In multimorbide patients with depression or in depressive patients with coronary heart disease the anti-inflammatory effects could mean an additional advantage

  6. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  7. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products.

  8. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations. PMID:27462269

  9. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  10. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  11. An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yeong-Deug; Chang, Il-Moo

    2004-09-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as 'Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.' By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.

  12. New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

  13. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  14. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  15. Herbal drugs for diabetic treatment: an updated review of patents.

    PubMed

    Wais, Mohd; Nazish, Iram; Samad, Abdus; Beg, Sarwer; Abusufyan, S; Ajaj, S Ajaz; Aqil, Mohd

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, affecting 16 million individuals in the United States and 200 million worldwide. Despite the use of advanced synthetic drugs for the treatment, use of herbal remedies is gaining higher importance because of synthetic drugs have drawbacks and limitations. The herbal drugs with antidiabetic activity are extensively formulated commercially because of easy availability, affordability and less side effects as compared to the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. Antidiabetic herbal formulations (AHF) are considered to be more effective for the management of diabetes. There are around 600 herbal drug manufacturers in India of which almost all manufacturers are developing AHF in addition to others. Till date, no article is published to give detailed information of the patents on AHF. Thus, this review article undertake the attempt for providing updated information on the type of diabetes and patented AHF which will enhance the existing knowledge of the researchers.

  16. Clinical Strategy for Optimal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Dose Selection in Disease Therapeutics: Expert Consensus on Classic TCM Herbal Formula Dose Conversion.

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.

  17. Chinese Herbal Therapy for Chronic Tension-Type Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tong, YanQing; Yu, LiXiang; Sun, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal therapy on chronic tension-type headache. Method. 132 patients with chronic tension-type headache were enrolled in the study. All patients filled in headache questionnaire at baseline phase and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after baseline. As an alternative therapeutic method, the patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Therapeutic effects were evaluated during 12 weeks of followup. Result. In the primary outcome analysis, mean headache scores were significantly lower in the group. Scores fell by 25%–40% during 12 weeks of followup. Patients fared significantly well for most secondary outcome measures. From baseline to 4–12 weeks of followup, the number of days with headache decreased by 6.8–9.5 days. Duration of each attack also significantly (P < 0.05) shortened from 5.3 hours at 4 weeks to 4.9 hours after 8 weeks of followup. Days with medication per four weeks at followup were lower than those at the baseline. The differences were significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) for all end points. Days with medication fell by 56.6% at 12 weeks. Conclusion. The study has provided evidence that Chinese herbal therapy can be clinically useful for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache. PMID:26175793

  18. Herbal product–drug interactions mediated by induction

    PubMed Central

    Tirona, Rommel G; Bailey, David G

    2006-01-01

    Despite their common use, it is not widely recognized that herbal medicines can alter the efficacy of coadministered prescription drugs. Constituents in herbs interact with nuclear receptors to enhance metabolizing enzyme and/or transporter activity leading to reduced drug concentrations. Although St John’s wort was the first and most frequently reported source of induction-style herb–drug interactions, this knowledge has not yet changed its current availability. This type of interaction is likely to be relevant to other herbal products. Caregivers need to be aware of the issues and options for therapeutic management. PMID:16722828

  19. TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and

  20. Identifying Core Herbal Treatments for Children with Asthma: Implication from a Chinese Herbal Medicine Database in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study. PMID:24066007

  1. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abebe, W

    2002-12-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the US has increased dramatically in recent years. These products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the same scrutiny as conventional drugs. Patients who use herbal supplements often do so in conjunction with conventional drugs. This article is a review of potential adverse interactions between some of the commonly used herbal supplements and analgesic drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, have the potential to interact with herbal supplements that are known to possess antiplatelet activity (ginkgo, garlic, ginger, bilberry, dong quai, feverfew, ginseng, turmeric, meadowsweet and willow), with those containing coumarin (chamomile, motherworth, horse chestnut, fenugreek and red clover) and with tamarind, enhancing the risk of bleeding. Acetaminophen may also interact with ginkgo and possibly with at least some of the above herbs to increase the risk of bleeding. Further, the incidences of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity may be augmented by acetaminophen when concomitantly used with the potentially hepatotoxic herbs Echinacea and kava, and with herbs containing salicylate (willow, meadowsweet), respectively. The concomitant use of opioid analgesics with the sedative herbal supplements, valerian, kava and chamomile, may lead to increased central nervous system (CNS) depression. The analgesic effect of opioids may also be inhibited by ginseng. It is suggested that health-care professionals should be more aware of the potential adverse interactions between herbal supplements and analgesic drugs, and take appropriate precautionary measures to avoid their possible occurrences. However, as most of the interaction information available is based on individual case reports, animal studies and in vitro data, further research is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions.

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ong, Madeleine; Peng, Jie; Jin, Xingliang; Qu, Xianqin

    2017-03-30

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Existing pharmaceutical agents such as hormonal therapies have been associated with side effects and are not appropriate for PCOS women with infertility. Additionally, insulin sensitizing agents useful for treating the metabolic abnormalities in PCOS have limited efficacy for treating reproductive aspects of the disorder. Chinese herbal medicines have a long history of treating gynaecological problems and infertility and therefore may be a novel approach to the treatment of PCOS. Current research demonstrates that the compounds isolated from herbs have shown beneficial effects for PCOS and when combined in an herbal formula can target both reproductive and metabolic defects simultaneously. Therefore, further investigation into Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PCOS is warranted.

  3. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Managed Withdrawal from Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-ting; Epstein, David H.; Bao, Yan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either α2-adrenergic agonists or opioid agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad’s scale (1–2 = low; 3–5 = high). Meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effect models in RevMan software; outcome measures assessed were withdrawal-symptoms score, anxiety, and adverse effects of treatment. Twenty-one studies (2,949 participants) were included. For withdrawal-symptoms score relieving during the 10-day observation, Chinese herbal medicine was superior to α2-adrenergic agonists in relieving opioid-withdrawal symptoms during 4–10 days (except D8) and no difference was found within the first 3 days. Compared with opioid agonists, Chinese herbal medicine was inferior during the first 3 days, but the difference became non-significant during days 4–9. Chinese herbal medicine has better effect on anxiety relieving at late stage of intervention than α2-adrenergic agonists, and no difference with opioid agonists. The incidence of some adverse effects (fatigue, dizziness) was significantly lower for Chinese herbal medicine than for α2-adrenergic agonists (sufficient data for comparison with opioid agonists were not available). Findings were robust to file-drawer effects. Our meta-analysis suggests that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safety treatment for heroin detoxification. And more work is needed to determine the specific effects of specific forms of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:18584321

  5. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  6. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  7. [Thinking and practice of study on material basis of parched Chinese herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Jie; Zhong, Rui-Xue; Yang, Tian-Jun; Wang, Ru-Ru; Wu, Chun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Though parched Chinese herbal medicines contain less effective or index components, their pharmacological actions do not reduce or even become improved to some extent. However, the current studies related to material basis could not explain the changes in property, flavour and efficacy of parched Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, due to the lack of objective and specific evaluation indexes, the quality evaluation could not reflect features of parched Chinese herbal pieces. Therefore, how to break the bottleneck for the studies on parched Chinese herbal pieces, make further innovation and conduct in-depth studies on the material basis of parched Chinese herbal medicines are common problems that medical scholars are facing. According to the findings in the previous studies, the author proposed to explain the material basis of parched Chinese herbal medicines by studying Maillard reaction and establish specific quality evaluation indexes according to the features of parched Chinese herbal pieces, and conducted relevant studies.

  8. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  9. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.

  10. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Chinese Herbal Decoction for the Treatment of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pinyi; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Wu, Yazhou; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Cheng, Dixiang; Yi, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. Objectives In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. Methods We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. Results Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD):0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.67), C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.69), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: −0.02 to 0.45) and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10). However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13). Conclusions Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions. PMID:24465466

  11. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

  12. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

  13. Antiplatelet effect of active components derived from Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Da-Zhuo

    2015-10-10

    Atherothrombosis is the major cause of acute coronary syndromes and cardiovascular deaths. Platelets participate in the processes of forming and extending atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, antiplatelet therapy is a milestone in the primary and second prevention of atherothrombotic diseases. Along with the longterm use of antiplatelet agents, the safety and drug resistance has become a big concern in clinic and new drugs possessing higher effectiveness and fewer adverse effects are needed. Abundant recent data support that traditional Chinese herbs may be a good alternative and complementary choice of new antiplatelet drugs. This review highlights the progress of antiplatelet effect of active components derived from traditional Chinese herbs based on their chemical structures.

  14. [Clinical orientation of post-marketing Chinese patent drugs: an evidence-based practice].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-Cai; Zhang, Bo-Li; Li, You-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Unclear clinical orientation in practice has become one of the common problems with the effective application of famous and excellent Chinese herbal drugs, consequently restricting their development. The authors suggest that there are three aspects to be considered in dealing with this problem. Clinical evaluation and orientation of the famous and excellent Chinese herbal drugs is an important task, and it is also a requirement for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Literature evaluation-pharmacology research-clinical expertise analysis method will establish a theoretical basis and method for post-marketing development of famous and excellent Chinese patent drugs.

  15. [Survey and assessment of heavy metals in soils and herbal medicines from Chinese herbal medicine cultivated regions].

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Wen-Ju; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Duan, Yu-Hang

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils and herbal medicine samples from cultivated regions of Anguo City in Hebei Province were analyzed and assessed, and the bioconcentration factors of different herbal medicines were studied and discussed as well. The results showed that the average contents of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils from herbal medicine cultivated regions were 12.9, 0.036, 15.6, 0.118 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils were lower than class II of the soil environmental quality standard. When local soil background values of heavy metals were used as assessment standard, among the 16 cultivated regions the percentage of As, Hg, Ph, Cd belonging to lightly pollution class were 18.75%, 43.75%, 0%, 100%, respectively based on the single pollution index. And the Nemerow index results were between 1 and 2, which suggested the soils were at slight pollution level. However, when quality standard class II was used, both the single pollution index and Nemerow index did not exceed 0.7, which means that soils investigated were generally safe for cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines. The assessment of heavy metals in herbal medicines showed that the pollution indices of most herbal samples (< 95%) were lower then 1. Cd bioconcentration factors of Aster tataricus L. and Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Hg bioconcentration factors of Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. and Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq. were above 1. Therefore, the accumulation characteristic of heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicines should be fully concerned when GAP base soil quality assessment was taken.

  16. [Study on combination components and effectiveness of Chinese traditional herbal formulas].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li; Wang, Yong-yan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese herbal prescriptions enhance the clinical curative effect through the use of multi-composition formulas, and the combined use of several components from herbal extracts is an enhanced mode of formulae organization and compatibility. The research with the combination components is under the guidance of the traditional Chinese medical theory which apply medical therapy following syndrome differentiation. The purpose is to enhance drug safety, clinical suitability, and to use drugs with clearer ingredients and mechanisms of action, with more stable and controllable product quality for commercial production. So the study of combination components must establish the methodology of combining standard components, confirming the main components through trial design, removing the poisonous components, and ascertaining dosage and ratios of all the components used. The mode of combination component has three forms: the one from the combined use of prepared medicinal herbs, the one from directly combined use of components, and the one from the standard ingredient composition of single herb. These three forms strictly follow the mechanisms of multi-component and multi-target medical intervention. The significance of using combined effective components is to ensure the accuracy and safety of clinical dosage, enhance the clinical effectiveness, reduce the use of medicinal herbs, decrease the side-effects, and to promote modern Chinese medicines that have clear ingredients and mechanisms. Our study on the chemistry and pharmacology of Chinese herbs provided scientific foundation to the combination effective components. Nowadays the modern medicine is faced with the complicated disease spectra, meanwhile, the single-ingredient chemical drug is not able to achieve satisfactory curative effect. So there is a need to develop new medicine with effective combination components to meet new opportunities and challenges. Therefore, it has becomes a new mode of developing combined

  17. Chinese herbal prescriptions for osteoarthritis in Taiwan: analysis of national health insurance dataset

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male = 1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study

  18. Interactions between Transporters and Herbal Medicines/Drugs: A Focus on Hepatoprotective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Li, Quansheng; He, Xin; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and drugs are available in the clinic as potent hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of commonly occurring liver diseases. Recently, herbal medicines such as silymarin and curcumin have gained more attention and popularity for the treatment of various liver diseases because of their safety and efficacy profiles. Some of them are related to transporters for drug disposition processes, therapeutic efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions. Currently, herbal medicines and diet supplements made from natural products are widely used in patients who are being treated with conventional prescription medicines, which are related to an increasing risk of herbal-drug interactions (HDIs) and/or drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The purpose of present review is to summarize the contemporary knowledge of transporter-mediated HDIs or DDIs for herbal medicines/drugs focusing on hepatoprotective compounds. Several herbal medicines/drugs are discussed in detail in this review.

  19. Adverse drug reactions to herbal and synthetic expectorants.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Sieder, C; März, R

    1995-01-01

    Our knowledge relating to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of phytomedicines is highly fragmentary. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of ADRs following medication with herbal or synthetic expectorants. In a multicentre, comparative post-marketing surveillance study of more than 3000 patients with acute bronchitis, about half were treated with a herbal remedy (SinupretR) and the other half with various other expectorants. In ascending order of incidence, ADRs were noted during mono-medication of SinupretR (0.8%), Ambroxol (1.0%) and acetylcysteine (4.3%). When concomitant drugs were used, this rank order was unchanged but incidence rates were markedly increased (3.4, 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively). The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms. It is concluded that expectorants are associated with ADRs in roughly 1-5% of cases undergoing single drug treatment and in 3-10% when more than one medication is being used. Amongst the expectorants used in this study, the herbal preparation SinupretR is associated with the lowest incidence of ADRs.

  20. Angiogenesis in Ischemic Stroke and Angiogenic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Chang, Dennis; Jenkins, Anita; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and adult disability worldwide. The underlying pathophysiology of stroke is highly complicated, consisting of impairments of multiple signalling pathways, and numerous pathological processes such as acidosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overload, cerebral inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The current treatment for ischemic stroke is limited to thromolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA has a very narrow therapeutic window, making it suitable to only a minority of stroke patients. Hence, there is great urgency to develop new therapies that can protect brain tissue from ischemic damage. Recent studies have shown that new vessel formation after stroke not only replenishes blood flow to the ischemic area of the brain, but also promotes neurogenesis and improves neurological functions in both animal models and patients. Therefore, drugs that can promote angiogenesis after ischemic stroke can provide therapeutic benefits in stroke management. In this regard, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating stroke and the associated diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated the pro-angiogenic effects of various Chinese herbs and herbal formulations in both in vitro and in vivo settings. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on angiogenesis in the context of ischemic stroke and discuss the potential use of CHM in stroke management through modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:27275837

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C.H.; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P.; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L.; Lau, Alexander Y.L.; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T.C.; Ng, Bacon F.L.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Wu, Justin C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care. Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: −0.90, 95% CI: −1.69 to −0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research. PMID:26886628

  2. [Evaluation of the importance of herbs in the Chinese herbal compounds based on the theory of rough sets].

    PubMed

    Liu, Minbi

    2013-10-01

    The theory of rough sets has been applied to evaluate the importance of each herb in the Chinese herbal compounds in this study. This method could distinguish core herbs through different syndrome types in the same class of prescription by measuring the importance of attributes. Compared to the frequency statistical method, the rough sets method could reveal law of compatibility in categorized formula more deeply. This study gives some guidance to clinical application of herbs and the drug screening in the development of new Chinese traditional medicine.

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xue; Han, Mei; Wang, Yu-Yi; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Patients with gout referring to Chinese herbal medicine are not rare in China, and a great number of clinical trials on herbal medicine have been published. However, there has not been a systematic review to summarize the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. We searched for randomized clinical trials on Chinese herbal medicine for gout till December 2012. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality. RevMan 5.2 was used to synthesize the results. We included 57 trials involving 4,527 gout patients. The quality of trials was generally poor. No trial reported health-related quality of life in patients. There is not enough evidence showing that herbal medicine was statistically more effective than conventional medications in pain relief [mean difference (MD), -0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.06, 0.00], but herbal medicine combined with conventional medicines may have better effectiveness (MD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.59, -0.07). Trials that reported function limitation relief found herbal medicine more effective than conventional medications (MD, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.32, -0.15). There was no evidence showing that herbal medicine prevents gout recurrence better. Twenty-five out of 41 trials, involving 23 different herbal prescriptions, found statistical significance in lowering serum uric acid level, and the overall effect from Chinese herbal medicine in inflammation relief is better than conventional therapies in 19 trials with 17 different prescriptions. The current data show that herbal medicine leads to fewer side reactions compared to conventional therapies [risk ratio (RR), 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.15]. Chinese herbal medicine may have clinical effectiveness for functional recovery in patients with gout, and lead to a safe control of serum uric acid level and inflammation severity. Due to low quality of trials

  4. [Interactions between herbal medicines and drugs].

    PubMed

    Tůmová, L

    2000-07-01

    At present the use of medicaments of plant origin is on the increase. It is therefore necessary to take into consideration that there exist known as well as potential interactions between the medicament of the medicinal plant. The problematic plants include Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng, as well as Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Its use should be limited, or completely excluded in the cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g., warfarin, hepatotoxically acting medicaments, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin, as they may decrease of completely eliminate the therapeutic effect of the administered drugs, or they may cause a toxic damage to the organism.

  5. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  6. Assessment of Pharmacists Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Herbal Drug Information Services

    PubMed Central

    Atavwoda, Abere Tavs; Gabriel, Aina Ayodele

    2012-01-01

    Rational: Research suggests that increased consumption of herbal drugs is raising important public health concerns such as safety issues that may involve adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of Pharmacists in herbal drug information dissemination. Method: We investigated the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding herbal drug information and regulatory laws among Pharmacists living in the six (6) States that constitute the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Pharmacists aged 21 years and above. Findings: About half of the respondents (48.72 %) were Hospital based Pharmacists. Knowledge of herbal drugs was 46.33 % while 64 .0 % showed positive attitude towards its use. Most of the information on herbal drugs were sourced from the internet (23.08 %) while 53.48 % were aware of the laws and regulations controlling herbal drugs in Nigeria. 88.64 % were in favour of the establishment of a National Herbal Drug Research and Development Agency and 55.68 % strongly agreeing to the setting up of a Herbal Drug Information Centre. Conclusion: The availability of herbal drug information services will not only enhance the performance of the Pharmacists, but will also add value to the life of the patients. PMID:24826042

  7. Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Zhu, J

    2013-07-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM.

  8. Clearance of free silica in rat lungs by spraying with chinese herbal kombucha.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nai-Fang; Luo, Chang-Hui; Wu, Jun-Cai; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Gan, Yong-Jin; Ling, Jian-An; Liang, Heng-Qiu; Liang, Dan-Yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xian-Jun; Pan, Rui-Hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases.

  9. Clearance of Free Silica in Rat Lungs by Spraying with Chinese Herbal Kombucha

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

  10. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  11. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  12. Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan

    1993-03-01

    Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

  13. Natural formulas and the nature of formulas: Exploring potential therapeutic targets based on traditional Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianru; Yu, Hua; Qi, Jin; Tang, Daisheng; Chen, Xiaojia; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao; Hu, Yuanjia

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the target proteins (TPs) of classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas and modern drugs used for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), this study aimed to identify potential therapeutic TPs for treating CAD. Based on the theory of TCM, the Xuefu-Zhuyu decoction (XZD) and Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction (GXBD), both of which are classic herbal formulas, were selected for treating CAD. Data on the chemical ingredients and corresponding TPs of the herbs in these two formulas and data on modern drugs approved for treating CAD and related TPs were retrieved from professional TCM and bioinformatics databases. Based on the associations between the drugs or ingredients and their TPs, the TP networks of XZD, GXBD, and modern drugs approved for treating CAD were constructed separately and then integrated to create a complex master network in which the vertices represent the TPs and the edges, the ingredients or drugs that are linked to the TPs. The reliability of this master network was validated through statistical tests. The common TPs of the two herbal formulas have a higher possibility of being targeted by modern drugs in comparison with the formula-specific TPs. A total of 114 common XZD and GXBD TPs that are not yet the target of modern drugs used for treating CAD should be experimentally investigated as potential therapeutic targets for treating CAD. Among these TPs, the top 10 are NOS3, PTPN1, GABRA1, PRKACA, CDK2, MAOB, ESR1, ADH1C, ADH1B, and AKR1B1. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for further experimental investigations of therapeutic targets for CAD. The established method shows promise for searching for potential therapeutic TPs based on herbal formulas. It is crucial for this work to select beneficial therapeutic targets of TCM, typical TCM syndromes, and corresponding classic formulas.

  14. Natural formulas and the nature of formulas: Exploring potential therapeutic targets based on traditional Chinese herbal formulas

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin; Tang, Daisheng; Chen, Xiaojia; Wan, Jian-bo; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-tao; Hu, Yuanjia

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the target proteins (TPs) of classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas and modern drugs used for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), this study aimed to identify potential therapeutic TPs for treating CAD. Based on the theory of TCM, the Xuefu-Zhuyu decoction (XZD) and Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction (GXBD), both of which are classic herbal formulas, were selected for treating CAD. Data on the chemical ingredients and corresponding TPs of the herbs in these two formulas and data on modern drugs approved for treating CAD and related TPs were retrieved from professional TCM and bioinformatics databases. Based on the associations between the drugs or ingredients and their TPs, the TP networks of XZD, GXBD, and modern drugs approved for treating CAD were constructed separately and then integrated to create a complex master network in which the vertices represent the TPs and the edges, the ingredients or drugs that are linked to the TPs. The reliability of this master network was validated through statistical tests. The common TPs of the two herbal formulas have a higher possibility of being targeted by modern drugs in comparison with the formula-specific TPs. A total of 114 common XZD and GXBD TPs that are not yet the target of modern drugs used for treating CAD should be experimentally investigated as potential therapeutic targets for treating CAD. Among these TPs, the top 10 are NOS3, PTPN1, GABRA1, PRKACA, CDK2, MAOB, ESR1, ADH1C, ADH1B, and AKR1B1. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for further experimental investigations of therapeutic targets for CAD. The established method shows promise for searching for potential therapeutic TPs based on herbal formulas. It is crucial for this work to select beneficial therapeutic targets of TCM, typical TCM syndromes, and corresponding classic formulas. PMID:28182702

  15. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Combining ZHENG Theory and High-Throughput Expression Data to Predict New Effects of Chinese Herbal Formulae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuhao; Guo, Zhizhong; Guan, Yan; Lu, Yi-Yu; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue; Su, Shi-Bing

    2012-01-01

    ZHENG is the key theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and it is very important to find the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese herbal formulae. One ZHENG is related to many diseases and the herbal formulae are aiming to ZHENG. Therefore, many herbal formulae whose effects on a certain disease have been confirmed might also treat other diseases with the same ZHENG. In this study, the microarrays collected from patients with QiXuXueYu ZHENG (Qi-deficiency and Blood-stasis syndrome) before treatment and after being treated with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule were analyzed by a high-throughput gene microarrays-based drug similarity comparison method, which could find the small molecules which had similar effects with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule. Besides getting the results of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis drugs which embody the known effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule, many other small molecules were screened out and could reflect other types of effects of this formula in treating QiXuXueYu ZHENG, including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, hyposenstive effect. Then we integrated this information to display the effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule and its potential multiple-target molecular pharmacology. Moreover, through using clinical blood-tested data to verify our prediction, Fuzheng Huayu Capsule was proved to have effects on diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:22666299

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM.

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Dyslipidemia: Progress and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Shi, Da-zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The statins are a milestone in the primary and second prevention of cardiovascular diseases and significantly improved its prognosis. Along with the long-term treatment with statins in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs or alone, its safety has attracted a particular attention in clinic, such as the elevation of transaminase and rhabdomyolysis, which have raised an idea of developing the other types of lipid-lowering agents from botanic materials. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 2000 years in China and showed some beneficial effects for human health and many diseases. Recently, many studies demonstrated a favorable effect of TCM for treating dyslipidemia; however, its mechanism remains unclear or totally unknown. The progress and perspective of studies on dyslipidemia with single Chinese herb and its monomers or effective extracts during the past 10 years are discussed in the present review. PMID:24688589

  19. A Review of Potential Harmful Interactions between Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Lu, Ying-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Mahady, Gail B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions. Methodology and Findings Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric. Conclusions/Significance Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly

  20. Herbal supplements and therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on digoxin immunoassays and interactions with St. John's wort.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2008-04-01

    Herbal supplements can affect concentrations of therapeutic drugs measured in biological fluids by different mechanisms. Herbal products can either directly interfere with the methodology used in the measurement of drugs or indirectly interfere by altering the pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. The active components of Chan Su, Lu-Shen-Wan, Dan Shen, Asian and Siberian ginseng, oleander containing supplements, and Ashwagandha interfere with digoxin measurements by immunoassays, especially the polyclonal antibody-based immunoassays. Herbal supplements are sometimes contaminated with Western drugs causing drug toxicity. A therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service is very helpful for diagnosis of drug toxicity in such patients. Herbal products such as St. John's wort, a popular herbal antidepressant, increase the clearance of certain drugs either by increasing the activity of liver or intestinal cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase or through modulation of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Significantly reduced concentrations of various therapeutic drugs such as digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tricyclic antidepressants, warfarin, and protease inhibitors can be observed due to interaction of these drugs with St. John's wort, causing treatment failure. On the other hand, a few drugs such as carbamazepine, mycophenolic acid, and procainamide do not show any interaction with St. John's wort. Understanding the effect of herbal products on TDM methodologies and identification of interactions between herbal products and drugs by TDM are very important clinically.

  1. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  2. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

  3. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ma, Dik-Lung; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is "experience driven," the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like "looking for a needle in a haystack," is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  4. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  5. Comments on serious anaphylaxis caused by nine Chinese herbal injections used to treat common colds and upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kunmei; Chen, Jiajie; Li, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wang, Chunbo; Zhan, Zhengke; Wu, Xuli

    2009-11-01

    Reports describing severe allergic shock and fatality following treatment of a common cold or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with a Chinese herbal injection were collected. Our analysis of the risks associated with this treatment suggested that the potential risk of serious, or even lethal, anaphylaxis should preclude its use in treating common colds and URTIs. In light of our findings herein, we propose the following five suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections as medical treatments. First, Chinese herbal injections should not be delivered in the clinic to treat patients in accordance with Bian zheng lun zhi (broad-spectrum application based on holistic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and methodology), but rather they should be administered to target specific indicated disease processes. Second, Chinese herbal injection indications should be based on the results of double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials. Third, Chinese herbal injections should be used only in cases involving severe disease or to rescue patients in critical condition; they should not be used to treat mild, relatively innocuous diseases, such as common colds and upper respiratory tract infections, given the risk of doing harm. Fourth, Chinese herbal injection formulas should include materials from only a single or a small number of plant sources in known quantities. Fifth, more studies examining the toxicology and allergenic potential of Chinese herbal injections are needed.

  6. Lessons Learnt from Evidence-Based Approach of Using Chinese Herbal Medicines in Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhan; Cho, William Chi-Shing; Xu, Ling; Wang, Juyong; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of evidence-based studies of the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of liver cancer. After a detailed analysis of the literature, five animal studies and four human clinical trials met the criteria for inclusion. Analysis revealed that results of the clinical trials, whilst encouraging, need to be interpreted with caution as problems with study designs may lead to apparent benefits being attributable to various forms of bias. However, as each of the CHM agents used in these studies appeared to be potentially beneficial, further well-designed and controlled randomized clinical trials are warranted. The second part of this review focused on the lessons learned from the relationships between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, TCM Syndrome Differentiation, and modern scientific understanding of mechanisms of action of CHM agents. The understanding of TCM Syndrome Differentiation may allow identification of different patterns of disharmony and may provide important guidance to the prescription of CHM. Furthermore, quality control using both biological and chemical fingerprinting of CHM is important to ensure batch-to-batch consistency to deliver sustained therapeutic benefit. Also, careful assessment of herb-drug interactions is paramount for safety and integrative use of western chemotherapeutic and CHM agents. PMID:23818930

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Decoction in Type 2 Diabetes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Yu, Xiaotong; Cui, Yashan; Zhao, Tianyu; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoction in treating outpatients with T2DM. Methods. All patients enrolled received decoction for at least 6 months. The primary outcome was the control rate of HbA1c and the change in HbA1c. FPG, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were also collected and evaluated. Results. The control rates after treatment at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 were 45.07%, 52.78%, 47.22%, 45.83%, 50.00%, 57.14%, and 40.00%. Multiple linear regression showed the change of HbA1c has a significant relationship with the baseline HbA1c and duration of DM and BMI (p < 0.05). Both FPG and 2hPG levels significantly decreased compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). Chinese herbal decoction also improved islet cell function with decreased HOMA-IR and increased HOMA-β (p < 0.05). 19 and 4 subjects deactivated the antidiabetes drugs or insulin, respectively, after taking decoction. One subject developed DKD and one developed DPN, and another subject showed abnormal liver function which was irrelevant to decoction treatment. Conclusions. Chinese herbal decoction significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action and had certain effect on protecting islet cell function. As a candidate diabetes therapy, it may reduce the use of antidiabetes drugs and slow the progression to diabetes complications. PMID:27656237

  8. Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system. PMID:24106615

  9. Advanced research technology for discovery of new effective compounds from Chinese herbal medicine and their molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2016-09-01

    Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the

  11. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-04-21

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap

  12. Does the Couse of Astragalus-Containing Chinese Herbal Prescriptions and Radiotherapy Benefit to Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianmei; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy has been widely used for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), while its low efficacy and high toxicity raise big concerns. Astragalus (as a monarch drug)-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions and radiotherapy were frequently coused for NSCLC in China; however, the effects were not systematically analyzed. Objective. To evaluate the benefits of Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions combined with radiotherapy for NSCLC. Methods. The randomized controlled trials involving NSCLC treatment with Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions combined with radiotherapy were searched. The Review Manager 5.1 software was employed for data analysis. Funnel plot and Egger's test were applied to evaluate publication bias. Results. 29 eligible studies met our criteria. Of the studies, 8, 6, and 4 reported reduced risk of death at one year, two years, and three years, respectively. 26 studies revealed amended tumor response. Six studies showed improved Karnofsky performance status. Among the studies, 14 and 18 displayed a lowered white blood cells (WBC) toxicity and an ameliorated radiation pneumonia, respectively. Conclusion. Couse of Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions and radiotherapy may benefit the patients with NSCLC via increasing the therapeutic effectiveness and reducing the toxicity of radiotherapy. To confirm the exact merits, further rigorously designed trials are warranted. PMID:24454494

  13. [Case of atopic dermatitis in infant treated with Chinese herbal medicines and nsaids ointment, which induced weight loss, electrolyte disturbance and hypoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Murai, Hiroki; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Wada, Taizo; Ohshima, Yusei

    2013-07-01

    We report here a 4-month-old girl with atopic dermatitis accompanied by weight loss, electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. She has suffered from eczema since one-month of age. Although she was treated with Chinese herbal medicines, including Syosaikotokakikyosekko, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto and Jumihaidokuto and ibuprofen ointment since three-month of age, she was referred to our hospital due to deteriorated eczema, severe diarrhea and failure to thrive. Laboratory examination revealed hyponatremia, hyperpotassemia, hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated levels of serum IL-18, TARC and fecal EDN. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests were positive for the prescribed Chinese herbal medicines. Discontinuation of these medicines and application of steroid ointments improved loose bowels and skin lesions as well as laboratory data. It is suggested that the application of inadequate ointment and Chinese herbal medicines exaggerated inflammation in the skin and the intestinal mucosa leading to electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Chinese herbal medicines are depicted as an additional therapy in Japanese guideline for atopic dermatitis, whereas their indication to infants with atopic dermatitis should be carefully assessed.

  14. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  15. A method for the production and characterization of fractionated libraries from Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Li, Yun-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2008-02-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) for pharmaceutical leads requires sufficient number of samples with vast chemical diversity. In this paper, we proposed Chinese herbal formulas as an attractive source for HTS and introduced a strategy for the production of high-quality fractionated libraries. An offline two-dimension liquid chromatography protocol was developed to separate medium- and low-polar extract (MLPE) of Chinese herbal formulas, which implemented the production of semi-purified mixture libraries. HPLC coupled with diode-array detector (DAD) and mass spectrum (MS) analysis was performed to obtain MS and UV spectrum of library components. The detected components were characterized by retention, molecular weight and UV absorbance assisted by WiseProcessor, a customer-developed software to automatically process analytical data. Based on the current understanding in pathophysiology and pharmacology, multiple cell-based bioassays were performed to screening the library samples. Through validation and dereplication process, bioactive compounds could be identified rapidly. The combination of off-line two-dimension liquid chromatography separation, HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and computer-aided data processing is reliable and efficient for the utilization of Chinese herbal formulas as valuable sources for HTS. As a demonstration, a library sample set was generated from Qi-Xue-Bing-Zhi Formula, an efficient Chinese herbal formula to treat atherosclerosis. Several bioactive compounds were quickly identified from this library through the screening and dereplication process.

  16. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ≥ 3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine.

  17. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ≥3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

  18. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the

  19. Systematic Review on Chinese Herbal Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xianzhao

    2016-01-01

    Background. In recent years, with the popularity of CHM, its hepatotoxicity has also been increasingly noticed. However, there are still veils on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Aim. To systematically review data on CHM induced liver injury with particular focus on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Methods. Using terms related to CHM and liver injury, PubMed and three Chinese electronic databases were searched, which was limited to the past 5 years. Publications meeting our eligibility criteria were included and further analyzed. Results. In total, 4 single herbs, 21 patent drugs, and 4 decoctions were reported to be of hepatotoxicity, with He-Shou-Wu being the most common one (65/114). Dang-Gui and other 5 herbs were the most common ingredients of patent drugs and decoctions. All patients were assessed using the RUCAM scale, with 26 being highly probable and 28 being probable. For these 54 cases, the latent period was 30 (47) days, and 81.48% were labeled as hepatocellular injuries. Most patients (96.3%) recovered, apart from the fact that one died and one is receiving liver transplantation. Conclusions. CHM should be used carefully for hepatotoxicity. Liver injury from CHM is similar to that from conventional medicines in clinical characteristics. Details about causative herbs should be illustrated, and more RUCAM should be used in future. PMID:27651817

  20. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory.

  1. High-performance thin layer chromatography for quality control of multicomponent herbal drugs: example of cangzhu xianglian san.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Merfort, Irmgard; Reich, Eike

    2010-01-01

    Due to their complexity, multicomponent herbal drugs pose enormous analytical challenges for quality control (QC). Although they may have traditionally been used for hundreds of years, the information about their chemical composition is often still limited. Selecting suitable markers to monitor the identity and potency of the mixture is, therefore, difficult. There is also the possibility of natural variability for each plant. This paper illustrates a pragmatic and practical approach to QC of a multicomponent herbal drug by HPTLC. Cangzhu xianglian xan (CXS), composed of the herbal drugs Coptis rhizome, Aucklandia root, and Atractylodes rhizome (30 + 20 + 60, w/w/w), is used as an example. A characteristic fingerprint can be generated for CXS with toluene-ethyl acetate-methanol-isopropanol-water (60 + 30 + 20 + 15 + 3, v/v/v/v/v) mobile phase on HPTLC silica gel 60 conditioned with ammonia. While the corresponding monograph of the Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia focuses only on the detection of berberine, one of the principal components of Coptis rhizome, the proposed method of identification determines the presence of all three components in the drug after derivatization with anisaldehyde reagent. The same method can also be used to quantitatively determine the content of berberine by scanning densitometry. This paper provides details about the validation of the qualitative and quantitative determinations.

  2. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.

  3. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine based on hachimi-jio-gan on osteopenia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Masayuki; Ogirima, Takeshi; Tano, Kaori; Maenaka, Toshihiro; Ishida, Torao; Zhang, Bingli; Li, Guilan; Wang, Xiuyun; Guo, Yi

    2006-03-01

    The effects of Chinese herbal medicines including Hachimi-jio-gan (HJG) and/or Hochu-ekki-to (HEW) on osteopenia in rats were investigated. The Chinese herbal medicines were administrated for 8 weeks (7 times/week) starting from 1 week after ovariectomy. HJG and Prescription-2 (Prsc-2, the prescription based on HJG) showed protective effect on bone loss of the vertebrae after ovariectomy. However, Prescription-1 (the prescription based on HJG and HET) had no effect. Then, we made osteopenia model in rats by prednisolone and low calcium diet. Prsc-2 and HJG were administrated for 20 weeks with prednisolone. These Chinese remedies showed protective effects for osteopenia, with better indices on bone loss of the limbs than HJG alone in the osteopenia rats. It can be concluded that Prsc-2 is more effective than HJG for bone loss induced by various factors, and the additives in Prsc-2 may enhance the therapeutic effect.

  4. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  5. Potential drug interactions with dietary and herbal supplements during hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ilana; Attias, Samuel; Ben-Arye, Eran; Goldstein, Lee; Schiff, Elad

    2017-04-01

    Dietary and herbal supplements (DHS) are widely used in the general population, including during hospitalization. Yet, their potential interactions with prescription drugs have seldom been delineated among inpatients. We aimed to evaluate potentially dangerous interactions of DHS with prescribed medications among inpatients. This was a cross-sectional prospective study involving a cohort of patients hospitalized in 12 departments of a public academic medical center (Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel) from 2009 to 2014. DHS users were determined via a questionnaire. The Natural Medicine database was used to search for potential DHS-drug interactions for identified DHS, and the clinical significance was evaluated using Lexi-interact online interaction analysis. Medical files were assessed for documentation of DHS use. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to characterize potential risk factors for DHS-drug interactions. Of 927 patients consenting to answer the questionnaire, 458 (49 %) reported DHS use. Of these, 215 (47 %) had at least one potential interaction during hospitalization (759 interactions). Of these interactions, 116 (15 %) were potentially clinically significant. Older age [OR = 1.02 (1.01-1.04), p = 0.002], males [OR = 2.11 (1.35-3.29), p = 0.001] and increased number of used DHS [OR = 4.28 (2.28-8.03), p < 0.001] or drugs [OR = 1.95 (1.17-3.26), p = 0.011] were associated with potential interactions in DHS users. Physicians documented only 16.5 % of DHS involved in these interactions in patients' medical files. In conclusion, a substantial number of inpatients use DHS with potential interactions with concomitant medications. Medical staff should be aware of this, question patients on DHS usage and check for such interactions.

  6. 6-month evaluation of JinHuang Chinese herbal medicine study in asymptomatic HIV infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Bussaratid, Valai; Chamnachanan, Supat; Naksrisook, Supa; Peonim, Wantanee; Thantamnu, Narumon; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai

    2003-06-01

    Good results of in vitro study of anti-HIV effects of JinHuang, a Chinese herbal medicine led to in vivo study of safety and efficacy among asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. It was a prospective open study of 21 asymptomatic HIV infected Thai volunteers. Twelve and 9 were female and male, respectively, with mean age of 29.24 +/- 3.94 years. JinHuang preparation, 6 capsules and 2 bottles of liquid formula orally three times a day, was given on an outpatient basis initially for 6 months. Regular close monitoring and follow-up were done. The side effects reported included : increased bowel movements (81%), vague taste, and smell of drug after initiation (52%). No serious adverse event related to JinHuang was detected during study. No significant changes in terms of log viral load and CD4 count were observed after 6-months' duration. Most of the patients felt that the quality of life was better in terms of better appetite, good sleep and healthy during study participation, however, these were subjective.

  7. New Potential Pharmacological Functions of Chinese Herbal Medicines via Regulation of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Law, Betty Yuen Kwan; Mok, Simon Wing Fai; Wu, An Guo; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Yu, Margaret Xin Yi; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2016-03-17

    Autophagy is a universal catabolic cellular process for quality control of cytoplasm and maintenance of cellular homeostasis upon nutrient deprivation and environmental stimulus. It involves the lysosomal degradation of cellular components such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancers, myopathy, neurodegenerations, infections and cardiovascular diseases. In the recent decade, traditional drugs with new clinical applications are not only commonly found in Western medicines, but also highlighted in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). For instance, pharmacological studies have revealed that active components or fractions from Chaihu (Radix bupleuri), Hu Zhang (Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati), Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubesens), Hou po (Cortex magnoliae officinalis) and Chuan xiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong) modulate cancers, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease via autophagy. These findings shed light on the potential new applications and formulation of CHM decoctions via regulation of autophagy. This article reviews the roles of autophagy in the pharmacological actions of CHM and discusses their new potential clinical applications in various human diseases.

  8. A survey of Chinese herbal ingredients with liver protection activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rubin; Kong, John; Wang, Dali; Lien, Linda Lin-min; Lien, Eric Jung-chi

    2007-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted on herbs, their preparations and ingredients with reported liver protection activities, in which a total of 274 different species and hundreds of active ingredients have been examined. These ingredients can be roughly classified into two categories according to their activities: (1) the main ingredients, such as silybin, osthole, coumarin, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin A, schisandrin A, flavonoids; and (2) supporting substances, such as sugars, amino acids, resins, tannins and volatile oil. Among them, some active ingredients have hepatoprotective activities (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulating and liver cirrhosis-regulating effects). Calculation of physicochemical parameters indicates that the main ingredients with negative and positive Elumo values possibly display their hepatoprotective effects through different mechanisms, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. As the combination of herbs may achieve some treatment effects synergistically and/or additively, it is common in Chinese medicine to use mixtures of various medicinal herbs with pharmacologically active compounds to have synergistic and/or additive effects, or to reduce harmful effects of some pharmacologically active compounds. In particular, the active compounds with Clog P around 2 are suitable for passive transport across membranes and accessible to the target sites. Thus, Elumo and Clog P values are good indicators among the calculated parameters. Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, μ, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf) and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating) are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:17490493

  9. The application status of Chinese herbal medicine in military health service in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ge-Liang; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Hui-Qing; Zhai, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Military medicine has had a long history in China since the emergence of the war. Chinese medicine, especially Chinese herbs, was widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the prevention and treatment of diseases in the military for hundreds of years. However, the use of Chinese medicine in military health service has never been well studied. In this article, we briefly summarize the application status of Chinese herbal medicine in military health service in China, putting particular emphasis on special military environment, in an attempt to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and military health service and promote the quality of health service for the military and maintain world peace.

  10. Analysis of ultraviolet absorption spectrum of Chinese herbal medicine-Cortex Fraxini by double ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lifei; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Hongxia; Li, Junfeng; Lu, Lei; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Hongyan

    2006-11-01

    A fast, accurate and convenient method for the simultaneous determination of multi-component in the Chinese herbal medicine was proposed by using ultraviolet absorption spectrum. In this method, dummy components were added to training sample, and a double artificial neural network (DANN) that has the function of high self-revision and self-simulation was used. Effect of other interference components could be eliminated by adjusting concentration of dummy components. Therefore, the accuracy of concentration prediction for multi-component in the complicated Chinese herbal medicine was improved. It has been realized that two effective components of Cortex Fraxini, aesculin and aesculetin, were simultaneously determined, without any separation. The predicted accuracy was 92% within the permitted relative errors. The measurement precisions of the aesculin and aesculetin were 0.37% and 1.5%, respectively.

  11. [Applications of fast and ultra performance liquid chromatography in the analysis of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jianliang; Li, Ping

    2009-09-01

    The analysis of chemical components of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is one of the most critical issues not only for screening and analyzing the bioactive components but also for controlling their quality. However, due to the complexity of the chemical constituents of CHMs, it is difficult to separate them on column within a short time. In the recent, the fast and ultra performance liquid chromatography, including ultra high pressure liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography based on the monolithic columns and high temperature liquid chromatography, are of particular interest because of the high resolution and fast analytical speed provided by these techniques. This overview covers the principle and separation characteristics of these techniques, as well as their applications in Chinese herbal medicines.

  12. Pharmacological Effects of Active Components of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Jian-Gang; Li, Hao; Yang, Hui-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia, not only severely decreases the quality of life for its victims, but also brings a heavy economic burden to the family and society. Unfortunately, few chemical drugs designed for clinical applications have reached the expected preventive or therapeutic effect so far, and combined with their significant side-effects, there is therefore an urgent need for new strategies to be developed for AD treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine has accumulated many experiences in the treatment of dementia during thousands of years of practice; modern pharmacological studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of many active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted from Radix Ginseng, exerts a [Formula: see text]-secretase inhibitor effect so as to decrease A[Formula: see text] aggregation. It can also inhibit the apoptosis of neuron cells. Tanshinone IIA, extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, and baicalin, extracted from Radix Scutellariae[Formula: see text] can inhibit the oxidative stress injury in neuronal cells. Icariin, extracted from Epimedium brevicornum, can decrease A[Formula: see text] levels and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and can also inhibit oxidative stress and apoptosis. Huperzine A, extracted from Huperzia serrata, exerts a cholinesterase inhibitor effect. Evodiamine, extracted from Fructus Evodiae, and curcumin, extracted from Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, exert anti-inflammatory actions. Curcumin can act on A[Formula: see text] and tau too. Due to the advantages of multi-target effects and fewer side effects, Chinese medicine is more appropriate for long-term use. In this present review, the pharmacological effects of commonly used active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of AD are discussed.

  13. Study on the mechanism of regulation on peritoneal lymphatic stomata with Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shi-Ping; Li, Ji-Cheng; Xu, Jian; Mao, Lian-Gen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the prescription consists of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Codonopsitis Pilosulae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Alba and Rhizoma Alismatis, Leonurus Heterophyllus Sweet, etc) on the regulation of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and the ascites drainage. METHODS: The mouse model of live fibrosis was established with the application of intragastric installations of carbon tetrachloride once every three days; scanning electron microscope and computer image processing were used to detect the area and the distributive density of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata; and the concentrations of urinary ion and NO in the serum were analyzed in the experiment. RESULTS: Two different doses of CHM could significantly increase the area of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata, promote its distributive density and enhance the drainage of urinary ion such as sodium, potassium and chlorine. Meanwhile, the NO concentration of two different doses of CHM groups was 133.52 ± 23.57 μmol/L, and 137.2 ± 26.79 μmol/L respectively. In comparison with the control group and model groups (48.36 ± 6.83 μmol/L, and 35.22 ± 8.94 μmol/L, P < 0.01), there existed significantly marked difference, this made it clear that Chinese herbal medicine could induce high endogenous NO concentration. The effect of Chinese herbal medicine on the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and the drainage of urinary ion was altered by adding NO donor(sodium nitropurruside, SNP) or NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA) to the peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSION: There existed correlations between high NO concentration and enlargement of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata, which result in enhanced drainage of ascites. These data supported the hypothesis that Chinese herbal medicine could regulate the peritoneal lymphatic stomata by accelerating the synthesis and release of endogenous NO. PMID:11833101

  14. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  15. [Analysis on composition principles of Chinese patent drugs containing ginseng].

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Tang, Shi-Huan; Lu, Peng; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Use traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS) to analyze the composition principles of Chinese patent drugs containing Renshen (Panax ginseng) in national standard for Chinese patent drugs (NSCPD) enacted by Ministry of Public Health of China. Via analyzing the regularity of prescriptions containing Ginseng which are recorded in NSCPD, to identify composition pattern and rule. Tweenty four drugs are used more than 50 times, in which, drugs that tonify qi and nourish flood have the highest frequency, and then medicines of liver and kidney tonifying, yin enriching and yang warming follow. Then 45 commonly used core combinations are analyzed via data mining methods such as association rules, improved mutual information method, etc. Meantime, three diseases, namely, palpitation, amnesia and chest discomfort are chosen from the 24 diseases that Ginseng most frequently used to make deeper analysis, which reflect the composition principle of Chinese patent drugs containing Ginseng. Therefore, TCMISS is an important tool in composition principle exploring of herbal formulae and meanwhile, the comparative analysis method contributes a lot to the exploration as well.

  16. Pharmaco-toxicological aspects of herbal drugs used in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rosario; Autore, Giuseppina; Severino, Lorella

    2009-12-01

    Herbal drugs are more and more used both in human and veterinary medicine to mitigate and prevent minor diseases and to support conventional medicine using allopathic drugs. Nevertheless, 'natural product' does not mean lack of adverse effects, and many people and veterinarians do not know enough about the adverse reactions that can occur following the administration of such drugs in domestic animals. Moreover, herbal products can interact with each other when administered concomitantly or can agonize or antagonize the effects of synthetic drugs administered as primary therapy. The use of non-conventional medicines (NCM) should be considered as a veterinary practise. In this paper, the herbal drugs most utilized in domestic animals, both pets and large animals, are reviewed, as their use is increasing, despite the prejudices of the academic world and some of the adverse effects and interactions that can occur in domestic animals.

  17. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  19. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  20. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  1. Safety, clinical and immunologic efficacy of a Chinese herbal medicine (FAHF-2) for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie; Jones, Stacie M.; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Song, Ying; Yang, Nan; Sicherer, Scott H.; Makhija, Melanie M.; Robison, Rachel G.; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sampson, Hugh A.; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background FAHF-2 is a 9-herb formula based on Traditional Chinese Medicine that blocks peanut anaphylaxis in a murine model. In Phase I studies, FAHF-2 was found to be safe, and well tolerated. Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FAHF-2 as a treatment for food allergy. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 68 subjects, 12-45 years of age, with allergies to peanut, tree nut, sesame, fish, and/or shellfish, confirmed by baseline double-blind, placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), received FAHF-2 (n=46) or placebo (n=22). After 6 months of therapy, subjects underwent DBPCFC. For those who demonstrated increases in eliciting dose, a repeat DBPCFC was performed 3 months after stopping therapy. Results Treatment was well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. By intent-to-treat analysis, the placebo group had a higher eliciting dose and cumulative dose (p=0.05) at the end of treatment DBPCFC. There was no difference in the requirement for epinephrine to treat reactions (p=0.55). There were no significant differences in allergen-specific IgE and IgG4, cytokine production by PBMCs or basophil activation between active and placebo groups. In vitro immunological studies performed on subject baseline PBMCs incubated with FAHF-2 and food allergen produced significantly less IL-5, greater IL-10 and increased numbers of Tregs than untreated cells. Notably, 44% of subjects had poor drug adherence for at least one-third of the study period. Conclusion FAHF-2 is a safe herbal medication for food allergic individuals and shows favorable in vitro immunomodulatory effects; however, efficacy for improving tolerance to food allergens is not demonstrated at the dose and duration used. PMID:26044855

  2. Effects of Chinese herbal monomers on oxidative phosphorylation and membrane potential in cerebral mitochondria isolated from hypoxia-exposed rats in vitro★

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Weihua; Liu, Junze

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is the key pathogenic mechanism of cerebral injury induced by high-altitude hypoxia. Some Chinese herbal monomers may exert anti-hypoxic effects through enhancing the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, effects of 10 kinds of Chinese herbal monomers on mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential of cerebral mitochondria isolated from hypoxia-exposed rats in vitro were investigated to screen anti-hypoxic drugs. Rats were exposed to a low-pressure environment of 405.35 mm Hg (54.04 kPa) for 3 days to establish high-altitude hypoxic models. Cerebral mitochondria were isolated and treated with different concentrations of Chinese herbal monomers (sinomenine, silymarin, glycyrrhizic acid, baicalin, quercetin, ginkgolide B, saffron, piperine, ginsenoside Rg1 and oxymatrine) for 5 minutes in vitro. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential were measured using a Clark oxygen electrode and the rhodamine 123 fluorescence analysis method, respectively. Hypoxic exposure significantly decreased the state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control rate and mitochondrial membrane potential, and significantly increased the state 4 respiratory rate. Treatment with saffron, ginsenoside Rg1 and oxymatrine increased the respiratory control rate in cerebral mitochondria isolated from hypoxia-exposed rats in dose-dependent manners in vitro, while ginsenoside Rg1, piperine and oxymatrine significantly increased the mitochondrial membrane potential in cerebral mitochondria from hypoxia-exposed rats. The Chinese herbal monomers saffron, ginsenoside Rg1, piperine and oxymatrine could thus improve cerebral mitochondrial disorders in oxidative phosphorylation induced by hypobaric hypoxia exposure in vitro. PMID:25558222

  3. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Penthorum chinense Pursh: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Lin, Ligen; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (ganhuangcao), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and alcoholic liver damage. A wide range of investigations have been carried out on this herbal medicine from pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, as well as pharmacology. The extract of P. chinense was reported to have significant liver protective effects through anti-oxidation, reduction of key enzyme levels, inhibition of hepatitis B virus DNA replication, and promotion of bile secretion. Based on the current knowledge, flavonoids and phenols are considered to be responsible for P. chinense's bioactivities. The main purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies performed on P. chinense during the past few decades. Moreover, it intends to provide new insights into the research and development of this herbal medicine.

  4. Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine Radix isatidis (banlangen).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Radix isatidis (R. isatidis) (Banlangen) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) famous for its broad antiviral activity. Its clinical medical history spans several thousands of years in China. Many scientists and scholars have conducted systematic research on this herb from its pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, especially in China. Through our research and literature reports, we inferred that the antiviral activity of R. isatidis mostly depended on the water-soluble part, including amino acids, IRPS, nucleosides, and sulfur-containing alkaloids. By playing a role in directly killing pathogenic viruses or regulating the immune system to enhance anti-virus ability, R. isatidis's biological activities mostly depend on the synergistic effect of its multiple components. This article aims to expand understanding of R. isatidis in the following aspects including medicinal resources, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications, and separation and analytical technologies.

  5. [Interrelationship between folk plant medicine of Arhorchin Mongolian and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Khasbagan, Soyolt; Pei, Shengji

    2002-07-01

    Based on the results of investigation of Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal plants and related knowledge system, the present paper discussed the interrelationship between folk plant medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine by the items of plant species, medicinal parts, treating disease and administering methods. The results show that there are some consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine, and there are also some other inconsistency. Consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine may be illustrated the fact that the Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal knowledge and Mongolian medicine are belongs to same system. Consistency between folk medicine and Chinese herbal medicine are illustrated the fact that knowledge exchange and cultural infiltration between Arhorchin Mongolians and Han nationality. Inconsistency may be illustrated richness and exploration value of folk medicinal knowledge.

  6. Determination of toxic metals in some herbal drugs through atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hina, Bushra; Rizwani, Ghazala Hafeez; Naseem, Shahid

    2011-07-01

    This study presents a picture of occurrence of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni, Zn) in some selected valuable herbal drugs (G. glabra, O. bracteatum, V. odorata , F. vulgare, C. cyminum, C. sativum, and Z. officinalis) purchased from three different zones (southern, eastern, and western) of Karachi city using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metal concentrations in these drugs were found in the range of: 3.26-30.46 for Pb, 1.6-4.91 for Cd, 0.65-120.21 for Cu, 83.74-433.76 for Zn, 1.61-186.75 for Cr, 0.48-76.97 for Ni, 5.54-77.97 for Co and 65.68-1652.89 µg/g for Fe. Percentage of heavy metals that were found beyond the permissible limits were: 71.4% for Pb, 28.51% for Cd, 14.2% for Cu, and 9.5 % for Cr. Significant difference was noticed for each heavy metal among herbal drugs as well as their zones of collection using two way ANOVA followed by least significant (LSD) test at p<0.05.Purpose of this research is to detect each type of heavy metal contaminant of herbal drugs by environmental pollution, as well as to highlight the health risks associated with the use of such herbal drugs that contain high levels of toxic heavy metals.

  7. Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases.

  8. Regulation of human pregnane X receptor and its target gene cytochrome P450 3A4 by Chinese herbal compounds and a molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-He; Mo, Sui-Lin; Bi, Hui-Chang; Hu, Bing-Fang; Li, Chun Guang; Wang, Yi-Tao; Huang, Ling; Huang, Min; Duan, Wei; Liu, Jun-Ping; Wei, Ming Qian; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a critical role in the regulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) gene. In this study, we investigated the effect of an array of compounds isolated from Chinese herbal medicines on the activity of PXR using a luciferase reporter gene assay in transiently transfected HepG2 and Huh7 cells and on the expression of PXR and CYP3A4 in LS174T cells. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to investigate the binding modes of herbal compounds with PXR. Praeruptorin A and C, salvianolic acid B, sodium danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, emodin, morin, and tanshinone IIA significantly transactivated the CYP3A4 reporter gene construct in either HepG2 or Huh7 cells. The PXR mRNA expression in LS174T cells was significantly induced by physcion, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, and sodium danshensu. However, epifriedelanol, morin, praeruptorin D, mulberroside A, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA significantly down-regulated the expression of PXR mRNA in LS174T cells. All the herbal compounds tested can be readily docked into the ligand-binding cavity of PXR mainly through hydrogen bond and aromatic interactions with Ser247, Gln285, His407, and Arg401. These findings suggest that herbal medicines can significantly regulate PXR and CYP3A4 and this has important implication in herb-drug interactions.

  9. The Association between Traditional Chinese Dietary and Herbal Therapies and Uterine Involution in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming; Li, Tsai-Chung; Su, Shan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese postpartum care is believed to help in the recovery of women after delivery. Objective. This study investigated the association of elements in dietary and herbal therapy with uterine involution. Methods. Indices of uterine involution were measured ultrasonographically in 127 postpartum women between 4-6 weeks after delivery. A self-reported retrospective questionnaire was used to query women about their frequencies of taking herbal medicines and consuming special diets during the first month after delivery. Correlation coefficients were calculated to identify the associations, then the regression models were used to identify the predictors. Result. Among the herbal medicines and diet, consumption of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) negatively correlated with the AP diameter of the uterus and the cavity. E. ulmoides was also the only predictor of maximum AP diameter of the uterus, AP diameter of the uterus 5 cm from the fundus, and the maximum AP diameter of the cavity. Moreover, consumption of Sheng-hau-tang was significantly correlated with anteverted uterus and was a predictor of anteverted uterus. Conclusion. E. ulmoides and Sheng-hau-tang positively correlated with the degree of uterine involution after delivery, implying that both therapies might possess the pharmacological efficacy of uterine contraction in postpartum women. PMID:21584195

  10. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Prieto, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.

  11. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

  12. Effects of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction for treating osteoporosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Yu; Jia, Yu-Song; Chai, Li-Min; Mu, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Sheng; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim is to systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction (EXD) for treating osteoporosis. Materials and methods Six databases were searched from inception through September 17, 2016, without language restriction. All randomized controlled trials of EXD for osteoporosis were included. One or more outcome measures including fracture, change in bone mineral density (BMD), pain symptom improvement, bone biochemical markers, quality of life, adverse event or adverse drug reaction were evaluated. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results Eight trials including 644 patients investigated the effects of EXD in the treatment of osteoporosis. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally low. The meta-analysis from two trials showed favorable effects of EXD in improving BMD of lumbar spine (mean difference [MD]: 0.05 [0.03, 0.06]; I2=0%; P<0.00001) and BMD of femoral great trochanter (MD: 0.06 [0.02, 0.10]; I2=59%; P=0.005) compared with caltrate tablets. The other meta-analysis from two trials showed beneficial effects of EXD plus caltrate tablets and calcitriol in improving BMD of femoral neck (MD: 0.04 [0.00, 0.09]; I2=56%; P=0.04), the level of calcium (MD: 0.20 [0.15, 0.24]; I2=0%; P<0.00001), and phosphorus (MD: −0.28 [−0.39, −0.17]; I2=68%; P<0.00001) compared with caltrate tablets and calcitriol alone. The adverse drug reactions of EXD were mainly slight gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion The study provides suggestive evidence of the superiority of EXD monotherapy or combination therapy over basic supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorously designed and measured, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed to verify the current conclusions. PMID:28115834

  13. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Chemogenomics Knowledgebase-guided Target Identification and Drug Synergy Mechanism Study of an Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai; Ma, Shifan; Feng, Zhiwei; Wang, Dongyao; Li, Chengjian; Cao, Yan; Chen, Xiaofei; Liu, Aijun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Junping; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy is a popular treatment for various diseases in the clinic. Among the successful cases, Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) formulae can achieve synergistic effects in therapeutics and antagonistic effects in toxicity. However, characterizing the underlying molecular synergisms for the combination of drugs remains a challenging task due to high experimental expenses and complication of multicomponent herbal medicines. To understand the rationale of combination therapy, we investigated Sini Decoction, a well-known TCM consisting of three herbs, as a model. We applied our established diseases-specific chemogenomics databases and our systems pharmacology approach TargetHunter to explore synergistic mechanisms of Sini Decoction in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (1) We constructed a cardiovascular diseases-specific chemogenomics database, including drugs, target proteins, chemicals, and associated pathways. (2) Using our implemented chemoinformatics tools, we mapped out the interaction networks between active ingredients of Sini Decoction and their targets. (3) We also in silico predicted and experimentally confirmed that the side effects can be alleviated by the combination of the components. Overall, our results demonstrated that our cardiovascular disease-specific database was successfully applied for systems pharmacology analysis of a complicated herbal formula in predicting molecular synergetic mechanisms, and led to better understanding of a combinational therapy. PMID:27678063

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.

  17. Chinese proprietary medicine in Singapore: regulatory control of toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs.

    PubMed

    Koh, H L; Woo, S O

    2000-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining popularity as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Reports of efficacy of TCM are increasing in numbers. TCM includes both crude Chinese medicinal materials (plants, animal parts and minerals) and Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) [final dosage forms]. Despite the belief that CPM and herbal remedies are of natural origin, unlike Western medicine, and are hence safe and without many adverse effects, there have been numerous reports of adverse effects associated with herbal remedies. Factors affecting the safety of herbal medicines include intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, lack of standardisation, incorrect preparation and/or dosage and inappropriate labelling and/or advertising. Hence, new regulations on the control of CPM were enforced in Singapore with effect from 1 September 1999. These include licensing and labelling requirements, as well as control of microbial contamination. This article also reviews reports of excessive toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in CPM in Singapore between 1990 and 1997. The names, uses, toxic heavy metal or drug detected and the year of detection are tabulated. Information on the brand or manufacturer's name are provided whenever available. The public and healthcare professionals should be better informed of the basic concept of TCM and its usefulness, as well as the potential adverse effects associated with its use. Greater control over the safety and quality of CPM could be achieved through good manufacturing practice, regulatory control, research, education, reporting usage of Chinese medicine (as in drug history) as well as reporting of adverse events.

  18. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  19. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP) production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints) of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies. PMID:20175906

  20. Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2007-09-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential.

  1. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  2. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  3. Spasmolytic activity of a herbal drug isolated from Tephrosia purpurea in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Soni, Kapil K; Khare, M L; Saxena, R C

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the spasmolytic activity of herbal drugs isolated from Tephrosia purpurea on guinea pigs for the treatment of asthma in India. For this investigation, the herbal drug was extracted with 70% ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. After purification and isolution, the drug was used in experimental animals to observe prophylactic activity. For anaphylactic activity, horse serum 0.5 ml along with triple antigen (0.5 ml) was induced in guinea pigs. To observe prophylactic activity, male guinea pigs weighing about 250-450 gms were killed by cervical dislocation and the trachea was isolated. Each trachea was cut in to six segments. Each segment consists of three cartilage rings. Each end of tracheal muscles was attached to the bronchospasm transducers for isometric recording of the tension charges on a polygraph. The results of experiments clearly showed the spasmolytic activity of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical investigation, however shows the presence of glycoside saponins.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of a multicomponent herbal preparation in healthy Chinese and African volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Alolga, Raphael N.; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Lelu Kakila, Jimmy; Chen, Yan; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    K-601 is an herbal formulation for influenza consisting of Lonicera japonica, Isatis indigotica, Rheum palmatum, Phellodendron chinense, and Scutellaria baicalensis. In this work, we characterized the chemical constituents in K-601, identified the absorbed compounds and determined their pharmacokinetics in 6 Chinese and African volunteers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Similarity evaluation for chromatographic fingerprint of nine different batches showed values above 0.983. Totally, 50 components were identified in K-601. Then, 15 major prototype compounds and 17 metabolites were identified in human plasma. Major metabolic pathways included glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, demethylation, and reduction. The pharmacokinetics of the most abundant prototype compounds, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and magnoflorine were determined. Significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the African and Chinese subjects. The AUCs of the African is about 4–10 fold higher than that of the Chinese for the three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Magnoflorine, an aporphine alkaloid, was absorbed better in the Chinese than in the African. The biotransformation of K-601 by human intestinal microflora was also investigated. The major reactions included hydroxylation, methylation, demethylation, acetylation and reduction. Glucuronidation and sulfation were not observed with fecal flora. These results may be important and useful in linking data from pharmacological assays and clinical effects. PMID:26268432

  5. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal formula Zhen Wu Decoction for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zhen Wu Decoction (ZWD), a famous classic herbal formula documented in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely available in China for treating hypertensive patients with kidney yang deficiency and fluid retention syndrome. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZWD for hypertension. Methods Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched from their inception to November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of ZWD used alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs against placebo, no intervention or antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients were identified. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results Seven trials involving 472 hypertensive patients were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, ZWD showed no significant effects in lowering blood pressure (BP) (n=177; risk ratio (RR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; p=0.58); however, ZWD plus antihypertensive drugs (ZPAD) significantly lowered systolic BP (n=80; weighted mean difference (WMD) −14.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −18.84 to −9.16 mm Hg; p<0.00001), diastolic BP (n=80; WMD −8.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −11.35 to −4.65 mm Hg; p<0.00001), and BP (n=215; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; p=0.001). TCM symptoms and syndromes were significantly improved by either ZWD (n=177; RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; p<0.0001) or ZPAD (n=215; RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49; p=0.0001). Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusions This systematic review revealed no definite conclusion about the application of ZWD for hypertension due to the poor methodological quality, high risk of bias, and inadequate reporting on clinical data. More rigorously designed trials, especially addressing continuous BP

  6. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility.

  7. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Yu; Lai, Jung-Nien; Hsu, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given as a therapy for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods. The use of TCM for type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 77.9% (n = 31,289) of type 2 diabetic patients utilized TCM and 13.9% (n = 4,351) of them used TCM for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among the top ten most frequently prescribed herbal formulae, four remedies, Zhi-Bo-Di-Huang-Wan, Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan and Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan are derivative formulae of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. In other words, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan and its derivatives were found to be the most common herbal formulae prescribed by TCM doctors for the treatment of diabetes in Taiwan. Conclusion. Although some evidence does support the use TCM to treat diabetes, the results from the current study may have been confounded by placebo effect, which emphasize the need for well conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in order to further evaluate the efficacy of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan on patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23843864

  8. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; März, R; Sieder, C

    1997-12-01

    Herbal expectorants and secretolytic drugs hold a sizeable share of the European market. Therefore it is essential to test their clinical effectiveness and safety. The aim of the present study was to compare the herbal medication Bronchipret(®) with various other pharmacotherapeutical options for acute bronchitis. The study was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7783 patients. Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented. The data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The results suggest that clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret(®) was not less than with synthetic drugs. There was a tendency for better results with Bronchipret(®), particularly in the treatment of adults. Similar results were obtained with respect to adverse reactions. Particularly in the adult sub-group, these were markedly less with herbals as compared to synthetic drugs. These findings imply that a risk/benefit evaluation would favour Bronchipret(®) over synthetic drugs for acute bronchitis. Their interpretation is limited through the fact that this study could not be randomised nor blinded. The results therefore require confirmation through randomised, double-blind trials.

  9. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  10. Is the yin-yang nature of Chinese herbal medicine equivalent to antioxidation-oxidation?

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim-Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2006-12-06

    It has been suggested that yin-yang theory described in traditional Chinese medicine is somewhat equivalent to the modern theory of antioxidant-oxidant balance. Some yin-tonic Chinese herbal medicines possess antioxidant properties. In this context, the DNA protective effect of 12 yin-tonic and 13 yang-tonic herbs were tested using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Lymphocytes from three healthy subjects were pre-incubated with aqueous herb extract, and the comet assay was performed on treated, untreated, challenged and unchallenged cells in parallel, oxidant challenge being induced by 5 min exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Results using this ex vivo cellular assay showed protection by some herbs. Seven out of 12 yin-tonic Chinese herbs demonstrated decreased DNA damage after treatment while 10 out of 13 yang-tonic herbs showed protection. Among 25 herbs tested, rhizome of Ligusticum sinensis Oliv. and aerial part of Artemisia annua L. demonstrated greatest DNA protective effect. Results indicated that the yin nature of herbs may not be necessarily associated with superior antioxidative effect to yang-tonic herbs, at least in terms of DNA protection against oxidant challenge.

  11. Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan-dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-ping; Yang, Zhao-yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-an; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-hu

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: “banxia houpo” decoction, “chaihu shugansan”, “ganmaidazao” decoction, “kaixinsan”, “shuganjieyu” capsules, “sinisan”, “wuling” capsules, “xiaoyaosan”, and “yueju”. Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed. PMID:27703356

  12. Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan-Dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-Ping; Yang, Zhao-Yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-An; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: "banxia houpo" decoction, "chaihu shugansan", "ganmaidazao" decoction, "kaixinsan", "shuganjieyu" capsules, "sinisan", "wuling" capsules, "xiaoyaosan", and "yueju". Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed.

  13. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 μg/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective

  14. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non-embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Chinese herbal medicine Yougui Pill reduces exogenous glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong-zhi; Geng, Long; Zhou, Hong-bo; Wei, Hua-chen; Chen, Hong-duo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid use may result in sustained suppression of one or more secreted components from the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and often results in apoptosis. Yougui Pill (YGP), a 10-component traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown to be clinically effective for glucocorticoid-induced suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that YGP would exert an anti-apoptosis effect on dexamethasone-treated anterior pituitary cells. In vivo experiments showed that YGP significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and up-regulated mRNA expression of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that YGP reduced glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in rat anterior pituitary cells by regulating the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. PMID:28197193

  16. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG Suppresses Pulmonary Fibrosis of Mice Induced by Bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Yao, Li-Fu; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Li-Man; Guo, Peng; Yu, Meng; Cao, Bo; Li, Tan; Chen, Hong; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2016-02-15

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a serious progressive lung disease and it originates from inflammation-induced parenchymal injury with excessive extracellular matrix deposition to result in the destruction of the normal lung architecture. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect. The present study is to explore the inhibitory effects of mKG on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. mKG significantly decreased pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis scores, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-17 (IL-17), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels in lung tissue of mice compared with BLM treatment. It markedly alleviated the increase of HYP content in the lung tissues and pathologic changes of pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM instillation. In conclusion, mKG has an anti-fibrotic effect and might be employed as a therapeutic candidate agent for attenuating pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Application of Spontaneous Photon Emission in the Growth Ages and Varieties Screening of Fresh Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaolei; Fu, Jialei; Van Wijk, Eduard; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Hua; Zhang, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Ultraweak photon emission emitted by all living organisms has been confirmed to be a noninvasive indicator for their physiological and pathological characteristics. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of spontaneous photon emission (SPE) and the contents of specific active compounds of roots and flowers buds of several fresh Chinese herbal medicines (natural medicines) with different growth ages and varieties. The results revealed that the contents of specific active compounds from same species herbs with different growth ages and varieties were significantly different, and this difference could be reflected by their SPE. Because the contents of specific bioactive constituents in Chinese herbs are closely related to their quality and curative effect, the SPE measurement technique may contribute to the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine in the future. PMID:28250790

  18. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and

  19. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD.

  20. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  1. Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy Improves Survival of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Utilization of Chinese Medicine (CM) is not uncommon in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the current knowledge of the usage and efficacy of CM among CLL patients is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of integrative Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on the disease course of CLL and ascertain the herbal products most commonly prescribed to patients with CLL. A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study involving the use of Western medicine and CM services provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) was conducted. An NHI Research Database-based cohort study was performed; the timeframe of the study was January 2000 to December 2010. The end of the follow-up period was defined as December 31, 2011. A total of 808 patients were diagnosed with CLL in Taiwan within the defined study period. After randomly matching for age and sex and excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, data from 616 patients were analyzed. The 2 study groups both received standard of care treatment. In addition, 1 group also received CHM. Patients who were registered as receiving other forms of CM, such as acupuncture, were excluded. Hazard ratios of mortality were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products. In total, 616 CLL patients were included in the analyses. We found that the HR associated with the adjunctive use of CHM was less than half when compared to the non-CHM group (0.43, 95% CI 0.33–0.55, P < 0.0001) and that treatment-naive patients who used CHM had the lowest HR. We also established that this association between reduction in HR and CHM was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.001). We supplied data from a relatively large population that spanned a significant amount of time. Our data suggests that the treatment of CLL with adjunctive CHM may have a substantial positive impact on mortality, especially for

  2. Cognitive Improvement during Treatment for Mild Alzheimer’s Disease with a Chinese Herbal Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Cui, Yuanwu; Gu, Yun; Guo, Jiakui; Wu, Di; Li, Qiang; Song, Wanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal formula compared with donepezil 5mg/day in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Patients with mild AD meeting the criteria were randomized into Chinese herbal formula Yishen Huazhuo decoction (YHD) group and donepezil hydrochloride (DH) group during the 24-week trial. The outcomes were measured by ADAS-cog, MMSE, ADL, and NPI with linear mixed-effect models. Results 144 patients were randomized. The mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE in both YHD group and DH group both improved at the end of the 24-week treatment period. The results also revealed that YHD was better at improving the mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE than DH. Linear mixed-effect models with repeated measures showed statistical significance in time × group interaction effect of ADAS-cog and also in time × group interaction effect of MMSE. The data showed YHD was superior to DH in improving the scores and long term efficacy. Conclusions Our study suggests that Chinese herbal formula YHD is beneficial and effective for cognitive improvement in patients with mild AD and the mechanism might be through reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition in the hippocampus. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002846 PMID:26076022

  3. Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for athletes with nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Tao, Ji Ming; Qi, Gao Wei; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2012-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (NLBP) is an increasing health problem for athletes. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for NLBP. 110 athletes with NLBP were randomly assigned to experimental group with Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment or control group with simple massage therapy. The primary outcome was pain by Chinese Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (C-SFMPQ). The secondary outcome was local muscle stiffness by Myotonometer. After 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced significant improvements in C-SFMPQ and in local muscle stiffness compared with control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, -1.24 points, P = 0.005 in sensory scores; -3.14 points, P < 0.001 in affective scores; -4.39 points, P < 0.001 in total scores; -0.64 points, P = 0.002 in VAS; -1.04 points, P = 0.005 in local muscle stiffness during relaxation state). The difference remained at one month followup, but it was only significant in affective scores (-2.83 points, P < 0.001) at three months followup. No adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for athletes with NLBP.

  4. Anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese herbal medicinal alkaloid ingredients in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiyi; Mao, Aihua; Yu, Zhengyu; He, Kongwang

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of sinomenine, fangchinoline, stachydrine, chuanxionggzine, oxymartrine, and evodiamine alkaloids commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. In an endotoxin (LPS) control group, each mouse was challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. In high-, middle- and low-dose alkaloid groups, mice were initially challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg by IP injection and, 3 h later, dosed intramuscularly (IM) with one of the six alkaloids at one of three levels (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight). In the drug control group, mice were dosed IM with 10 mg/kg body weight of a given alkaloid; mice in a naïve control group were administered the same volume of normal saline. The results revealed the six alkaloids could reduce the incidence/severity of LPS- induced toxicities, e.g., body temperature elevation, weight loss, systemic inflammation, multiple organ dysfunction. Taken together, the data suggested to us that these alkaloids might effectively regulate inflammatory responses and have a potential to be used in anti-endotoxin therapies.

  5. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  6. Understanding traditional Chinese medicine anti-inflammatory herbal formulae by simulating their regulatory functions in the human arachidonic acid metabolic network.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; Yin, Ning; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2013-07-01

    Through history, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has adopted oriental philosophical practices of drug combination and interaction to address human diseases. To investigate this from a systems biology point of view, we analysed 28 TCM herbs for their anti-inflammatory function, using molecular docking and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network simulation. The inhibition potential of each herb toward five essential enzymes as well as their possible side effects were examined. Three commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory formulae were simulated to discover the combinatorial properties of each contained herb in regulating the whole metabolic network. We discovered that different ingredients of a formula tend to inhibit different targets, which almost covered all the targets in the whole network. We also found that herbal combinations could achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower doses compared with individual usage. New herbal combinations were also predicted based on the inhibition potentials and two types of synergistic drug combinations of TCM theory were discussed from the perspective of systems biology. Using this combined approach of molecular docking and network simulation, we were able to computationally elucidate the combinatorial effects of TCM to intervene disease networks. We expect novel TCM formulae or modern drug combinations to be developed based on this research.

  7. Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Eczema: Implications from a Nationwide Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-hung; Chen, Jiun-liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies. PMID:25685167

  8. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

  9. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine in combination with mitomycin C on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Che-Chang; Chen, Jian-Jung; Tsai, James Y; Hsueh, Chung-Tsen

    2014-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is frequently used by cancer patients in Chinese community. It remains largely unknown about the interaction between CHM and chemotherapeutic agents. Herein, we evaluated 3 commonly used CHM formulas for cancer patients: Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT), Bao-Yuan-Tang (BYT), and Ju-Yuan-Jian (JYJ). We examined the effects of these 3 formulas in human gastric cancer cells MKN-74, in terms of cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction when used alone or in combination with mitomycin C (MMC). Cytotoxicity was determined by tetrazolium dye colorimetric assay. The 10% inhibitory concentration of CHM was used in this study. Cells were first exposed to CHM or phosphate buffered saline (as control) for 48 h. Then MMC at final concentration of 0.25 μg/ml was added to media for another 24-h. Among these 3 CHM formulas, BZYQT showed the most pronounced effect in augmenting MMC-induced cytotoxicity. The viability of MKN-74 cells was decreased to 43.1% when treated with BZYQT and MMC, compared to 94.9% with MMC alone. We subsequently examined apoptosis induction by quantitative florescent microscopy and single-strand DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and found BZYQT did not enhance MMC-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate BZYQT in combination with MMC induces cell death in gastric cancer cells via non-apoptotic mechanism. Our results provide a rationale for further investigation in the interaction of CHM and anti-cancer treatment.

  10. Identifying chinese herbal medicine network for eczema: implications from a nationwide prescription database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies.

  11. Quality and safety control of tumor-shrinking decoction (TSD): A Chinese herbal preparation for the treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Lin, Wai Ling; Yeung, Wing Fai; Song, Tian-He; Lao, Li-Xing; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Meng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Reproducible efficacy assessments of Chinese herbal medicines are largely based on well-established quality control procedures. This study presents a comprehensive quality control procedure for tumor-shrinking decoction (TSD), a 15-herb preparation under study as a potential therapy for uterine fibroids. Morphological, microscopic, and physicochemical authentications were first carried out on individual herbal medicines composing TSD. Contaminant tests on TSD for the presence of heavy metals and pesticide residues were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Furthermore, batch-to-batch quality monitoring of the decoction was investigated via ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An aqueous extract of the herbal medicines was prepared and formulated into TSD. The tested contaminants were within the maximum permitted levels of the Hong Kong government in proprietary Chinese medicines. UPLC and HPLC fingerprints for quality tracking on TSD were established. The decoction was quantitatively standardized by UPLC and HPLC, respectively, with five and three chemical compounds serving as references. Collectively, the procedure established in this study will not only serve as a fundamental basis for the investigation and development of TSD as a novel therapy for uterine fibroids, but also as a protocol for studying other polycomponent herbal preparations.

  12. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  13. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

  14. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.

  15. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research.

  17. Who are the users of a traditional Chinese sanfu acupoint herbal patching therapy in China?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fen; Wu, Hong-jun; Zhai, Jun-ping; Zhang, Gui-yan; Shao, Yan; Tian, Xia; Xia, Ru-yu; Jia, Li-yan; Li, Wen-yuan; Liang, Ning; Yan, Xiao-yi; Wu, Ruo-han; Zhang, Kang; Li, Xin-lin; Wang, Cong-cong; Liu, Jian-ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sanfu acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) is a unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy, which has become popular for preventing acute attack of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in many regions of mainland China. However, the knowledge about its users is lacking, especially the characteristics of the users and their experience and perspectives. To investigate the demographics of users, conditions for its use and the previous experience of SAHP, as well as users’ perspectives to provide baseline information for its practice. A cross-sectional consecutive-sample survey was conducted at outpatient departments from 3 traditional Chinese medicine hospitals in northern China. Each participant completed a questionnaire, after informed consent. Data description and analyses were done using SPSS 20.0. Among 949 SAHP users from 3 hospitals, female was predominant (n = 592; 62.4%), aged from 2 to 96 years (median = 52 years). 64.7% (380/587) of regular users have applied consecutively for 3 years or over, and the self-perceived satisfaction rates of respiratory diseases were from 45.9% to 77.7%. Positive attitude toward traditional Chinese medicine was the top reason for choosing SAHP. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). SAHP users were mainly female adults or elderly population; more than half were regular users, who predominantly used SAHP for various chronic respiratory diseases during their stable stage. The majority of users expressed satisfaction to previous SAHP for their respiratory diseases. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). The findings from this survey deserve further clinical trials for their clinical effectiveness. PMID:27930519

  18. Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension. Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone. In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and 7 studies reported significant effects of XZD for improving symptoms compared with the control group (P < 0.00001). Meanwhile, studies reported XZD was more efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P < 0.05). No severe adverse event was reported. This meta-analysis provides evidence that XZD is beneficial for hypertension. Although concerns regarding selective bias and methodologic flaws were raised, our findings suggests XZD as a new candidate cardioprotective drug for hypertension, which should be given priority for future preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26496333

  20. Traditional Chinese herbal extracts inducing autophagy as a novel approach in therapy of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Li, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver diseases around the world due to the modern sedentary and food-abundant lifestyle, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver related with causes other than alcohol abuse. It is widely acknowledged that insulin resistance, dysfunctional lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis/necrosis may all contribute to NAFLD. Autophagy is a protective self-digestion of intracellular organelles, including lipid droplets (lipophagy), in response to stress to maintain homeostasis. Lipophagy is another pathway for lipid degradation besides lipolysis. It is reported that impaired autophagy also contributes to NAFLD. Some studies have suggested that the histological characteristics of NAFLD (steatosis, lobular inflammation, and peri-sinusoid fibrosis) might be improved by treatment with traditional Chinese herbal extracts, while autophagy may be induced. This review will provide insights into the characteristics of autophagy in NAFLD and the related role/mechanisms of autophagy induced by traditional Chinese herbal extracts such as resveratrol, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, dioscin, bergamot polyphenol fraction, capsaicin, and garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine, which may inhibit the progression of NAFLD. Regulation of autophagy/lipophagy with traditional Chinese herbal extracts may be a novel approach for treating NAFLD, and the molecular mechanisms should be elucidated further in the near future. PMID:28373762

  1. Combination of flying needle with Chinese Herbal Medicine in the treatment of Atopic dermatitis: A clinical trial.

    PubMed

    X Quan, Xiaohong; Cheng, Shenrong; Ma, Hong; Huang, Hengxuan; Wang, Bin; Chen, Xiuhua

    2014-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (Atopic dermatitis, AD) is a kind of chronic recurrent dermatitis. So far, no curative treatment has been found yet. Acupuncture, as a kind of alternative medicine, Flying Needle is a kind of acupuncture, which has a unique curative effectiveness in improving the skin lesion and itch. A single-center, prospective, randomized clinical design was conducted. The curative effect of the combination of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture for the treatment of Atopic dermatitis was assessed. Thirty (30) patients were treated with Flying Needle and Chinese herbal medicine. Because of personal reasons, one (1) dropped out. The patients accepted Flying Needle treatment 3 times a week and the internal medicine 3 times daily for in all 12 weeks. Before treatment, and after treat 4,8 and 12 weeks, assessments were performed. After treat 12 weeks, all patients of SCORAD score were dropped, with the mean SCORAD score declining to 19.58 ± 12.21. The recovery and removal rate comparison (*δx² = 5.28, P= 0.03<0.05). There are no side effects. The results hint that combine Flying Needle with Chinese herbal medicine are benefit on patients with atopic dermatitis and the effectiveness may better than oral medicine alone.

  2. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally

  3. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines. PMID:24363556

  4. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  5. Adjuvant Chinese Herbal Products for Preventing Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Liu, Chun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are widely used for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Taiwan. We investigated the effect of adjuvant CHPs in preventing ischemic stroke in patients with AF. Methods Taiwanese patients in the Health Insurance Database newly diagnosed with AF during 2000–2011 were enrolled. Medication treatment with/without CHPs was administered within 7 days after the AF diagnosis. The clinical endpoint was an ischemic stroke. The Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Student t test were used to examine differences between the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and non-TCM cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the risk for ischemic stroke between two cohorts. Results Three hundred and eleven patients underwent TCM treatment and 1715 patients did not. Compared to non-TCM users, TCM users had a lower incidence of stroke (12.59% vs. 1.93%, respectively) and lower risk of stroke [CHA2DS2-VASc score = 0–2 (hazard ratio = 0.20; 95% confidence interval = 0.06–0.65)]. Compared to non-TCM users, the stroke risk was significantly lower in TCM users with AF who were female or younger than 65 years, but not in males, people more than 65 years old, or people with comorbidities. Compared to TCM users, non-TCM users who received conventional treatment had a higher ischemic stroke risk. The risk for AF-related hospitalization was significantly lower in TCM users (0.64%) than in non-TCM users (38.1%). Conclusions Users of TCM with AF have a lower risk of new-onset ischemic stroke. Therefore, adjuvant CHP therapy may have a protective effect and may be used in AF patients to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:27428543

  6. Capillary electrophoresis of phytochemical substances in herbal drugs and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto

    2011-06-25

    This paper reviews the applications of electromigration methods in analysis of phytochemical substances in herbal drugs and medicinal plants. A short description of the basic principles of capillary electrophoretic techniques is firstly given, then the overview deals with the applications of selected methods published in the period 2005-2010. The phytochemical substances have been classified according to their chemical nature (e.g. alkaloids, polyphenols, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes) and the applied CE approaches, namely CZE, NACE, MEKC, MEEKC and CEC, together with the different detection methods, are critically discussed for each of the considered classes of natural compounds.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Chinese Herbal Formula IBS-20 In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Ip, Siu Po; Che, Chun-Tao; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Wu, Justin C.; Sung, Joseph J.; Berman, Brian; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder and the etiology is not well understood. Currently there is no cure for IBS and no existing medication induces symptom relief in all patients. IBS-20 is a 20-herb Chinese medicinal formula that offers beneficial effects in patients with IBS; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study showed that IBS-20 potently inhibited LPS- or IFNΓ-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as classically activated macrophage marker nitric oxide synthase 2. Similarly, IBS-20 or the component herb Coptis chinensis decreased LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from JAWS II dendritic cells. IBS-20 or the component herbs also blocked or attenuated the IFNΓ-induced drop in transepithelial electric resistance, an index of permeability, in fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the up-regulation of key inflammatory cytokines in inflamed colon from TNBS-treated mice was suppressed significantly by orally administrated IBS-20, including IFNΓ and IL-12p40. These data indicate that the anti-inflammatory activities of IBS-20 may contribute to the beneficial effects of the herbal extract in patients with IBS, providing a potential mechanism of action for IBS-20. In addition, IBS-20 may be a potential therapeutic agent against other Th1-dominant gut pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:22461841

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology: an improved pharmacology approach for chinese herbal medicine research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Ying-Wu; Qin, Xiu-de; Hua, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Lian; Kang, Li-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in the health maintenance of specific survival environment for neurons and glial cells, has been constructed and applied to CHM research for treating ND. In the present review, the concept and advantages of CSFP are briefly introduced. The approaches and key technologies of CSFP in CHM research are also collated and analyzed. Furthermore, the developing tendency of CSFP is summarized, and its framework in CHM research is also proposed. In summary, CSFP provides a new strategy not only to eliminate some barriers of CHM research for treating ND, but also to broaden the pharmacology research for bridging the gap between CHM and modern medicine. Moreover, the advancements in CSFP will bring about a conceptual move in active ingredients discovery of CHM and make a significant contribution to CHM modernization and globalization.

  9. Traditional chinese herbal products for coronary heart disease: an overview of cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this overview was to evaluate and summarize Cochrane reviews of traditional Chinese herbal products (TCHPs) as the treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods. We searched the Cochrane Database that was concerned with the effectiveness of TCHPs for CHD. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reviews and primary studies of TCHP as the treatment of any type of CHD were included. Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. Six Cochrane reviews were included. They related to a wide range of TCHPs for different types of CHD. Four reviews were concerned with angina pectoris (unstable or stable), one review was concerned with heart failure, and for acute myocardial infarction. No reviews concluded that TCHPs were definitely effective for CHD because of the weak evidence. Eight primary studies were TCHPs from CHD. These studies also maybe result in bias, but better than before. Conclusion. Several Cochrane reviews of TCHPs for the treatment of different types of CHD have recently been published. None of these reviews got definite conclusion favoring the effectiveness of TCHPs due to the weak evidence. With the improved quality of the new registered RCTs. The potential role of TCHPs in treating CHD is anticipated to be detected.

  10. Effectiveness and Safety of Manufactured Chinese Herbal Formula for Knee Osteoarthritis: Insights from a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liguo; Yang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shangquan; Gong, Hao; Li, Linghui; Wei, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the current clinical evidence of manufactured Chinese herbal formulae (MCHF) for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods. Seven databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of MCHF for KOA were included. Data extraction, methodological assessment, and meta-analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. A total of 17 kinds of MCHF were identified from the twenty-six included trials. Meta-analyses showed that MCHF significantly relieved the global pain of knee joints, either used alone or combined with routine treatments. Additionally, MCHF plus routine treatments significantly decreased the scores of WOMAC and Lequesne index. However, there were no statistical differences between MCHF group and routine treatment group in walk-related pain and WOMAC scores. No significant differences were found in Lysholm scores. There were twenty-one trials that mentioned adverse events. A pooled analysis showed that adverse events occurred more frequently in control group compared with MCHF group. Conclusions. Our results indicated that MCHF showed some potential benefits for KOA. However, we still cannot draw firm conclusions due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. More high-quality RCTs would help to confirm the evidence. PMID:26609310

  11. Expression Profiling and Proteomic Analysis of JIN Chinese Herbal Formula in Lung Carcinoma H460 Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Luyu; Zhang, Weiyi; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Huarong; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Yang; Chen, Meijuan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Mingyan; Cheng, Ge; Duan, Jinao; Yu, Wei; Lin, Biaoyang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been used in cancer therapy. The JIN formula is an ancient herbal formula recorded in the classic TCM book Jin Kui Yao Lue (Golden Chamber). The JIN formula significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous human H460 xenografted tumors in vivo compared with the growth of mock controls. Gene array analysis of signal transduction in cancer showed that the JIN formula acted on multiple targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways. The coformula treatment of JIN and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) affected the stress/heat shock pathway. Proteomic analysis showed 36 and 84 differentially expressed proteins between the mock and DDP groups and between the mock and JIN groups, respectively. GoMiner analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins between the JIN and mock groups were enriched during cellular metabolic processes, and so forth. The ones between the DDP and mock groups were enriched during protein-DNA complex assembly, and so forth. Most downregulated proteins in the JIN group were heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP90AA1 and HSPA1B, which could be used as markers to monitor responses to the JIN formula therapy. The mechanism of action of the JIN formula on HSP proteins warrants further investigation. PMID:24066008

  12. Chemical and Biological Assessment of Angelica Roots from Different Cultivated Regions in a Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendy L.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Zhan, Janis Y. X.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692

  13. Herbal use amongst multiethnic medical patients in Penang Hospital: pattern and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Saw, J T; Bahari, M B; Ang, H H; Lim, Y H

    2006-10-01

    A cross sectional survey on pattern and perception of herbal use among medical patients in Penang Hospital was conducted. Among 250 patients surveyed, 67.9% were using herbal medicine and conventional medicine concomitantly. A majority of the patients used herbs for health maintenance (51.3%) purpose. More than 90% of herbal users did not disclose herbal use to their physician and "Doctor never asked" was the major reason given (54.2%). The Chinese reported the highest rate of herbal use but was least likely to disclose. These findings are important for health professionals to ensure medication safety and recognise potential drug herb interaction.

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine Qi Ju Di Huang Wan for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Guoyan; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbs are potentially effective for hypertension. Qi Ju Di Huang Wan (QJDHW) is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine as a monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of QJDHW for EH. Methods and Findings. CENTRAL, PubMed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of QJDHW for essential hypertension up to January 2013 with no language restrictions. A total of 10 randomized trials involving 1024 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in lowering blood pressure and improving TCM syndrome for the treatment of essential hypertension than antihypertensive drugs used alone. No trials reported severe adverse events related to QJDHW. Conclusions. Our review suggests that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs might be an effective treatment for lowering blood pressure and improving symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the finding should be interpreted with caution because of the poor methodological quality of included trials. There is an urgent need for well-designed, long-term studies to assess the effectiveness of QJDHW in the treatment of essential hypertension. PMID:23878593

  15. Java brucea and Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cholesterol granuloma in the suprasellar and sellar regions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhe; Cao, Yang; Zhai, Lin-zhu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A cholesterol granuloma (CG) is usually found in the middle ear, papilla, orbits, petrous apex, and choroid plexus, but is highly uncommon in the skull. In spite of benign clinicopathological lesions, bone erosion can be seen occasionally in the patient with CG. The optimal treatment strategy is radical surgery, but complete excision is usually impossible due to anatomical restrictions and a risk of injury to the key structures located nearby. Here, we report a patient with CGs in the suprasellar and sellar regions who was successfully treated with Java brucea and Chinese herbal medicine. Patient concerns: A 31-year-old man presenting with progressive decreased vision in both eyes was analyzed. Diagnoses: A skull magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a low-density tumor in the uprasellar and sellar regions and histopathological examination revealed a CG. Interventions: The patient was referred the surgery and radiotherapy. In the meantime, brucea soft capsules and herbal medicine combined were administered to him. Outcomes: The related clinical symptoms and signs resolved significantly after several months, as his therapy progressed. The patient showed no sign of recurrence during the treatment period. Furthermore, he was still alive and disease-free at 37 months of follow-up visit. Lessons: Overall, brucea soft capsules and a Chinese herbal formula treatment combined could be beneficial in improving the patient's quality of life with CG in the skull. PMID:28151875

  16. Chinese Herbal Bath Therapy for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Chung, Mei; Lin, Xun; Zhang, Min; Pang, Jian; Wang, Chenchen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Chinese herbal bath therapy (CHBT) has traditionally been considered to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. We conducted the first meta-analysis evaluating its benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. We searched three English and four Chinese databases through October, 2014. Randomized trials evaluating at least 2 weeks of CHBT for knee OA were selected. The effects of CHBT on clinical symptoms included both pain level (via the visual analog scale) and total effectiveness rate, which assessed pain, physical performance, and wellness. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using mean difference. Results. Fifteen studies totaling 1618 subjects met eligibility criteria. Bath prescription included, on average, 13 Chinese herbs with directions to steam and wash around the knee for 20–40 minutes once or twice daily. Mean treatment duration was 3 weeks. Results from meta-analysis showed superior pain improvement (mean difference = −0.59 points; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −0.83 to −0.36; p < 0.00001) and higher total effectiveness rate (risk ratio = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.28; p < 0.00001) when compared with standard western treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Chinese herbal bath therapy may be a safe, effective, and simple alternative treatment modality for knee OA. Further rigorously designed, randomized trials are warranted. PMID:26483847

  17. Frequency and pattern of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009: analysis of the national health insurance database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale pharmaco-epidemiological studies of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treatment of urticaria are few, even though clinical trials showed some CHM are effective. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions for urticaria by analysing the population-based CHM database in Taiwan. Methods This study was linked to and processed through the complete traditional CHM database of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2009. We calculated the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions used for treatment of urticaria, of which the diagnosis was defined as the single ICD-9 Code of 708. Frequent itemset mining, as applied to data mining, was used to analyse co-prescription of CHM for patients with urticaria. Results There were 37,386 subjects who visited traditional Chinese Medicine clinics for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009 and received a total of 95,765 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 18 and 35 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (32.76%). In addition, women used CHM for urticaria more frequently than men (female:male = 1.94:1). There was an average of 5.54 items prescribed in the form of either individual Chinese herbs or a formula in a single CHM prescription for urticaria. Bai-Xian-Pi (Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb while Xiao-Feng San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. The most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Xiao-Feng San plus Bai-Xian-Pi while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Xiao-Feng San, Bai-Xian-Pi, and Di-Fu Zi (Kochia scoparia). Conclusions In view of the popularity of CHM such as Xiao-Feng San prescribed for the wind-heat pattern of urticaria in this study, a large-scale, randomized clinical trial is warranted to research their efficacy and safety. PMID:23947955

  18. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

  19. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models.

    PubMed

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis.

  20. Identification of marker compounds in herbal drugs on TLC with DART-MS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Jee, Eun Hye; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Choi, Hyo Sook; Jang, Young Pyo

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to provide a more versatile and specific information on Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) analysis of medicinal plants. TLC plates developed with the extract of herbal medicines were analyzed with direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source. Three well known herbal drugs were extracted and developed on a silica-coated TLC plate with the conditions pre-established in Korean Pharmacopoeia IX. The developed plate was placed between the DART ion source and TOF-MS analyzer to get real time mass spectra from the bands on the TLC plate directly. The marker coumarin compounds, decursin and decursinol were successfully identified from the TLC plate developed with Angelicae gigantis radix, along with alkaloid compounds of rutaecarpine and evodiamine from Evodiae fructus, and lignan molecules of gomisin A, N, and schisandrin from Schisandrae fructus. This hyphenation system of TLC and DART-MS could provide unique and specific information on the major constituents of crude plant drug on TLC through uncovering high resolution mass number of each band on the TLC plate directly in real time.

  1. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

  2. Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment: a review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Yang, Angela W H; Zhang, Anthony L; Owens, Michael D; Bennett, Louise; Head, Richard; Cobiac, Lynne; Li, Chun Guang; Hugel, Helmut; Story, David F; Xue, Charlie C L

    2009-04-01

    This review assesses the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). Electronic searches of English and Chinese databases and hand searches of Chinese journal holdings were conducted. Randomised controlled trials comparing orally administered CHM with placebo, no intervention or other therapy were considered. Ginkgo biloba was excluded. Ten trials met inclusion criteria. Eight different CHM were investigated. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad scale and five studies scored three or above. Two studies compared CHM with placebo and eight with another intervention. This review found an overall benefit on some outcome measures for the eight CHMs involved in the 10 RCTs but methodological and data reporting issues were evident. Meta-analysis of three studies found the effects of the CHMs were at least equivalent to piracetam on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. No severe adverse events were reported.

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine as Adjunctive Therapy to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Nian, Jia-Yun; Guo, Jiao; Yin, Yi; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yu, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yang, Guo-Wang; Yang, Lin; Cheng, Pei-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been increasingly employed during therapy for breast cancer, but its efficacy remains a matter of debate. This systematic review examined randomized controlled trials to provide a critical evaluation of this treatment. The results demonstrated that the combined use of CHM with chemotherapy may improve the immediate tumor response and reduce chemotherapy-associated adverse events. Our findings highlight the poor quality of Chinese studies, and additional well-designed randomized controlled trials addressing the role of CHM are warranted. The lack of molecular-based evidence for CHM and Zheng has resulted in a limited understanding and acceptance of CHM and traditional Chinese medicine in Western countries. We believe that researchers should immediately explore a CHM-based cure, and CHM should be applied to routine care as soon as conclusive data are available. PMID:27190531

  4. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  5. Clinical presentations and outcomes of bile duct loss caused by drugs and herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Kleiner, David E; Gu, Jiezhun; Odin, Joseph A; Russo, Mark W; Navarro, Victor M; Fontana, Robert J; Ghabril, Marwan S; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct loss during the course of drug-induced liver injury is uncommon, but can be an indication of vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS). In this work, we assess the frequency, causes, clinical features, and outcomes of cases of drug-induced liver injury with histologically proven bile duct loss. All cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled into a prospective database over a 10-year period that had undergone liver biopsies (n = 363) were scored for the presence of bile duct loss and assessed for clinical and laboratory features, causes, and outcomes. Twenty-six of the 363 patients (7%) with drug-, herbal-, or dietary-supplement-associated liver injury had bile duct loss on liver biopsy, which was moderate to severe (<50% of portal areas with bile ducts) in 14 and mild (50%-75%) in 12. The presenting clinical features of the 26 cases varied, but the most common clinical pattern was a severe cholestatic hepatitis. The implicated agents included amoxicillin/clavulanate (n = 3), temozolomide (n = 3), various herbal products (n = 3), azithromycin (n = 2), and 15 other medications or dietary supplements. Compared to those without, those with bile duct loss were more likely to develop chronic liver injury (94% vs. 47%), which was usually cholestatic and sometimes severe. Five patients died and 2 others underwent liver transplantation for progressive cholestasis despite treatment with corticosteroids and ursodiol. The most predictive factor of poor outcome was the degree of bile duct loss on liver biopsy.

  6. Mass spectrometry-driven drug discovery for development of herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2016-12-23

    Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era. It is essential to develop an efficient, high-quality, high-throughput screening method integrated with an MS platform for early screening of candidate drug molecules from natural products. We have developed a new chinmedomics strategy reliant on MS that is capable of capturing the candidate molecules, facilitating their identification of novel chemical structures in the early phase; chinmedomics-guided natural product discovery based on MS may provide an effective tool that addresses challenges in early screening of effective constituents of herbs against disease. This critical review covers the use of MS with related techniques and methodologies for natural product discovery, biomarker identification, and determination of mechanisms of action. It also highlights high-throughput chinmedomics screening methods suitable for lead compound discovery illustrated by recent successes.

  7. Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity and Prevention by Herbal Antioxidants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Cho, William C.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the center for drug and xenobiotic metabolism, which is influenced most with medication/xenobiotic-mediated toxic activity. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is common and its actual frequency is hard to determine due to underreporting, difficulties in detection or diagnosis, and incomplete observation of exposure. The death rate is high, up to about 10% for drug-induced liver damage. Endorsed medications represented >50% of instances of intense liver failure in a study from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group of the patients admitted in 17 US healing facilities. Albeit different studies are accessible uncovering the mechanistic aspects of medication prompted hepatotoxicity, we are in the dilemma about the virtual story. The expanding prevalence and effectiveness of Ayurveda and natural products in the treatment of various disorders led the investigators to look into their potential in countering drug-induced liver toxicity. Several natural products have been reported to date to mitigate the drug-induced toxicity. The dietary nature and less adverse reactions of the natural products provide them an extra edge over other candidates of supplementary medication. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism involved in drug-induced liver toxicity and the potential of herbal antioxidants as supplementary medication. PMID:26858648

  8. Effects of Chinese herbal mixture on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Wang, Z B; Xu, T S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) in laying hen diets on performance, egg quality and egg nutrition components, as well as selected blood biochemical parameters. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 24 week of age, were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments and fed for 6 week. The CHM was used at the levels of 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% in the diets of the control and two treatment groups respectively. Each dietary treatment was divided into five replicates, comprising of 18 hens each. Hens were housed in a 3-tier battery system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, mortality, eggshell thickness, albumen height, Haugh units, eggshell-breaking strength and egg-shape index. Dietary supplementation of CHM significantly improved (p < 0.05) laying rate and the lowest feed conversion ratio were observed with 1.0% CHM supplementation diets. CHM supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) cracked-egg rate, egg yolk cholesterol, blood serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and increased blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). No differences in serum total protein, serum albumen, serum glucose and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were observed in hens fed CHM. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHM improved egg production and egg quality and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Dietary supplementation of 1.0% CHM in layer diets may be a feasible means of producing eggs with lower cholesterol and higher egg yolk phospholipid contents for health conscious consumers.

  9. Heavy metal and pesticide content in commonly prescribed individual raw Chinese Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Harris, Eric S J; Cao, Shugeng; Littlefield, Bruce A; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Kaptchuk, Ted; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Woolf, Alan D; Eisenberg, David M

    2011-09-15

    Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues

  10. Updated clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaojia; Shergis, Johannah Linda; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Li, Yan; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-12-01

    This systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for people with insomnia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating oral CHM alone or in combination with conventional therapies for primary insomnia were identified by searching English and Chinese publications and databases of clinical trial registration. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2.4. Seventy-nine trials (7886 participants) were finally included in the review, and 76 were included in the meta-analysis. Twenty-seven trials reported the methods of random sequence generation, and five of them used the allocation concealment. Blinding of participants and personnel were used in 10 studies. The main meta-analysis showed that CHM alone was more effective than placebo by reducing scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (mean difference, MD: -3.06, 95% confidence interval, CI: -5.14 to -0.98, I(2) = 97%) and benzodiazepine drugs (BZDs) (MD: -1.94, 95% CI: -2.45 to -1.43, I(2) = 96%). The effect was also seen when CHM was combined with BZDs compared with placebo plus BZDs (MD: -1.88, 95% CI: -2.78 to -0.97, I(2) = 0%) or cognitive and behavioral therapy (MD: -3.80, 95% CI: -4.91 to -2.68, I(2) = 68%) alone. There was no significant difference between CHM and placebo regarding the frequency of adverse events (relative risk, RR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.67-4.10, I(2) = 0). Overall, oral CHM used as a monotherapy or as an adjunct to conventional therapies appears safe, and it may improve subjective sleep in people with insomnia. However, the typical effect of CHM for insomnia cannot be determined due to heterogeneity. Further study focusing on individual CHM formula for insomnia is needed. The development of a comparable placebo is also needed to improve the successful blinding in RCTs.

  11. [Determination of Total Sulfur Dioxide in Chinese Herbal Medicines via Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-wei; Liu, Jing-fu; Guan, Hong; Wang, Xiao-yan; Shag, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Li-ping; Zhang, Ni-na

    2016-02-01

    As an important treatment method, sulfur fumigation plays an essential role in the production and preservation of traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Although there is strict regulation on the use of sulfur dioxide, the abuse of sulfur dioxide still occurred from time to time. And the public faces a high risk of exposure. Because of the poor precision and tedious preparation procedures of traditional recommended titration, the accurate and convenient determination of sulfur dioxide in Chinese herbal medicines is still a critical analytical task for medicines safety and the public health. In this study, an accurate, high-throughput, and convenient method for the absolute determination of SO₂ in Chinese herbal medicines based on triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) technique is developed. The study compared the quantitative ability for sulfur when the ICP-MS operated under traditional single quadrupole (QMS) mode and novel triple quadrupole (MS/MS) mode with three Reaction/Collision cell condition (no gas, helium, and oxygen). The result indicated that when the concentration of sulfate ranging from 0.5 to 100 mg · L⁻¹, isotopic ³⁴S can be selected as quantitative ion either the ICP-MS operated under the QMS mode or MS/MS mode. The use of helium in the Reaction/Collision cell decreased the single intensity of background ions. Better than QMS mode, the MS/MS mode can effectively reduced background interference. But there are no significant differences about the linear range and limit of detection. However, when the ICP-MS operated under MS/MS mode and oxygen was used as reaction gas in the Reaction/Collision cell, the ICP-MS/MS provided an interference-free performance, the linear range and limit of detection improved significantly. Either ³²S or ³⁴S exhibits an excellent linearity (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-100 mg · L⁻¹, with a limit of detection of 5.48 and 9.76 µg · L⁻¹ for

  12. Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although over-the-counter traditional Chinese herbal medicine (COTC) is commonly used to treat everyday illness in many parts of the world, no population-based study has been done to examine the prevalence and factors associated with COTC-related adverse events. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese adults in 2011 (n = 1100) with informed verbal consent. Stepwise logistic regression of demographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables was used to determine factors associated with past-year adverse events. Results Of study respondents, 71.7% (789/1100) reported past-year COTC use and 2.3% (25/1100) reported at least one COTC-related adverse event in the past year. Of the 27 adverse events cases reported among COTC users, the most common were allergic reactions (n = 11) dizziness (n = 5), and gastro-intestinal problems (n = 4). Pills/capsules were the dosage form that caused the highest proportion of adverse events (n = 10), followed by plasters (n = 7), creams/ointments (n = 5), and ingestible powders (n = 2). Although COTC users reporting adverse events were more likely to report greater practices to avoid adverse events (OR = 6.47; 95% CI: 1.38-30.3); they were also more likely to possess lower education levels (OR = 9.64, 95% CI: 2.20-42.3) and to have received COTC information from non-reliable, mass-media information sources such as magazines (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.01-8.50) or television (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.03-10.7). Package labels were also felt to be unclear by 42.9% of COTC users. A large proportion of COTC users demonstrated low levels of COTC-related knowledge, while the main impediment to greater information-seeking was the belief that reliable COTC information is not obtainable from Western health professionals. Conclusions Despite global movements toward more stringent complementary medicine regulation, the limited accessibility of reliable information

  13. Bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicine enhance endogenous neurogenesis in animal models of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Huang; Chen, Zi-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yan; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Chen, Shuang; Lu, Lin; Gu, Yong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to treat stroke for thousands of years. The objective of the study is to assess the current evidence for bioactive components of CHM as neurogenesis agent in animal models of ischemic stroke. Methods: We searched PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals published from the inception up to November 2015. The primary measured outcome was one of neurogenesis biomarker, including Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Results: Thirty eligible studies were identified. The score of quality assessment ranged from 2 of 10 to 7 of 10. Compared with controls, 10 studies conducting neurobehavioral evaluation showed significant effects on bioactive components of CHM for improving neurological deficits score after ischemic insults (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); 6 studies in Morris water-maze test showed bioactive components of CHM significantly decreased escape latency and increased residence time (P < 0.05); 5 studies demonstrated that bioactive components of CHM significantly reduced infarct volume after ischemic stroke (P < 0.05); 25 of 26 studies showed that bioactive components of CHM significantly increased the expression of BrdU and/or Nestin markers in rats/mice brain after ischemic injury (P < 0.05, or P < 0.01); 4 of 5 studies for promoting the expression of PSA-NCAM or DCX biomarker (P < 0.05); 5 studies for improving the expression of NeuN biomarker (P < 0.05); 6 of 7 studies for promoting the expression of GFAP biomarker in brain after ischemic stroke (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that bioactive components of CHM may improve neurological function, reduce infarct volume, and promote endogenous neurogenesis, including

  14. Rational quality assessment procedure for less-investigated herbal medicines: Case of a Congolese antimalarial drug with an analytical report.

    PubMed

    Tshitenge, Dieudonné Tshitenge; Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Lami, José Nzunzu; Ndelo-di-Phanzu, Josaphat; Mufusama, Jean-Pierre Koy Sita; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are the most globally used type of medical drugs. Their high cultural acceptability is due to the experienced safety and efficiency over centuries of use. Many of them are still phytochemically less-investigated, and are used without standardization or quality control. Choosing SIROP KILMA, an authorized Congolese antimalarial phytomedicine, as a model case, our study describes an interdisciplinary approach for a rational quality assessment of herbal drugs in general. It combines an authentication step of the herbal remedy prior to any fingerprinting, the isolation of the major constituents, the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method with internal markers, and the application of the method to several batches of the herbal medicine (here KILMA) thus permitting the establishment of a quantitative fingerprint. From the constitutive plants of KILMA, acteoside, isoacteoside, stachannin A, and pectolinarigenin-7-O-glucoside were isolated, and acteoside was used as the prime marker for the validation of an analytical method. This study contributes to the efforts of the WHO for the establishment of standards enabling the analytical evaluation of herbal materials. Moreover, the paper describes the first phytochemical and analytical report on a marketed Congolese phytomedicine.

  15. [Wood creosote: a historical study and its preparation in combination with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Tani, T

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of creosote have been found based on historical evidence of the medicinal uses and origins. One is wood creosote, and distillate of wood-tar containing guaiacol and creosol. The other type of creosote is coal-tar creosote, obtained from coal-tar, containing naphthalene and anthracene as the major constituents. Wood creosote was prepared for the first time in Germany in 1830 and was used for medicinal purposes. It had been listed officially in the German, American, and Japanese Pharmacopoeia as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diarrhea, and external injury. In recent days, it has been deleted from the Pharmacopoeia in Western countries and not officially used for medicinal purposes. However, wood creosote is still been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia and is used for the treatment of diarrhea. Since the interest of common people in herbal medicines and self-medication has been increasing, the use of wood creosote has also been modified in combination with some herbal drugs, "Seiro-gan" especially is quite popular in Japan as a self-medication for digestive trouble, including food poisoning or diarrhea.

  16. The In Vitro and In Vivo Wound Healing Properties of the Chinese Herbal Medicine “Jinchuang Ointment”

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tsung-Jung; Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Lin, Guang-Huey; Li, Tzong Shiun; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsieh, Ming-Chuan; Wu, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Hao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    “Jinchuang ointment” is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex for treatment of incised wounds. For more than ten years, it has been used at China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) for the treatment of diabetic foot infections and decubitus ulcers. Three different cases are presented in this study. “Jinchuang” ointment is a mixture of natural product complexes from nine different components, making it difficult to analyze its exact chemical compositions. To further characterize the herbal ingredients used in this study, the contents of reference standards present in a subset of the ointment ingredients (dragon's blood, catechu, frankincense, and myrrh) were determined by HPLC. Two in vitro cell based assay platforms, wound healing and tube formation, were used to examine the biological activity of this medicine. Our results show that this herbal medicine possesses strong activities including stimulation of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration, which provide the scientific basis for its clinically observed curative effects on nonhealing diabetic wounds. PMID:27200097

  17. Salmonella typhimurium A1-R tumor targeting in immunocompetent mice is enhanced by a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Su, Shibing; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a bacterial cancer therapy strategy using the genetically-engineered strain Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). A1-R is auxotrophic for leu and arg which attenuates bacterial growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human and murine cancer cell lines in clinically-relevant nude-mouse models. However, A1-R treatment of tumors in immunocompetent mouse models with high doses is limited by toxicity. The current study evaluated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture in combination with A1-R therapy in a syngeneic metastatic immunocompetent mouse model of highly aggressive lung cancer. In a model of Lewis lung carcinoma, the combination of a TCM herbal mixture and S. typhimurium A1-R enabled bacteria to be safely administered at the large dose of 2 × 10(7) colony forming units once a week i.v. with increased treatment efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to monotherapy with A1-R. The herbal mixture prevented body weight loss, spleen weight gain and liver infection by A1-R, as well as hemorrhagic lesions on the skin, liver, and spleen, all observed with A1-R monotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that the combination of A1-R and TCM has important potential for therapy of highly aggressive types of cancer, including those which are resistant to standard therapy.

  18. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2007-01-19

    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  19. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  20. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  1. Development of an Alert System to Detect Drug Interactions with Herbal Supplements using Medical Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Melissa; Proulx, Joshua; Shane-McWhorter, Laura; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    While potential medication-to-medication interaction alerting engines exist in many clinical applications, few systems exist to automatically alert on potential medication to herbal supplement interactions. We have developed a preliminary knowledge base and rules alerting engine that detects 259 potential interactions between 9 supplements, 62 cardiac medications, and 19 drug classes. The rules engine takes into consideration 12 patient risk factors and 30 interaction warning signs to help determine which of three different alert levels to categorize each potential interaction. A formative evaluation was conducted with two clinicians to set initial thresholds for each alert level. Additional work is planned add more supplement interactions, risk factors, and warning signs as well as to continue to set and adjust the inputs and thresholds for each potential interaction. PMID:25954326

  2. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Kong, X F; Yin, Y L; He, Q H; Yin, F G; Liu, H J; Li, T J; Huang, R L; Geng, M M; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Wu, G

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or 2 g/kg of the powder, or 0.2 g/kg of colistin (an antibiotic) to corn- and soybean meal-based diets (n = 20 per group). Blood samples from five piglets per group were collected on days 7, 14, and 28 to determine serum AA concentrations. In Experiment 2, 12 barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.64 kg were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, followed by surgical placement of a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. All of the diets contained 0.1% titanium oxide as a digestibility marker. The samples of terminal ileal digesta were collected on day 7 for determining AID of AA. Results show that dietary supplementation with the herbal powder increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations and AID of most AA by 10-50% and 10-16%, respectively. As an indicator of improved intestinal function, AID values of calcium were also enhanced in piglets supplemented with the herbal powder. Dietary supplementation of colistin increased serum concentrations and AID values of some AA by 8-44% and 10-15%, respectively, in comparison with the non-supplemented group. These novel findings demonstrate that the herbal powder can enhance the digestibility of dietary protein and the intestinal absorption of AA into the systemic circulation in post-weaning pigs, therefore providing a new mechanism for its growth- and immunity-promoting efficacy.

  3. Exploring in integrated quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines: the integrated quality index (IQI) for aconite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Wang, Jia-bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-07-01

    Good medicinal herbs, good drugs. Good evaluation method and indices are the prerequisite of good medicinal herbs. However, there exist numerous indices for quality evaluation and control in Chinese medicinal materials. However, most of these indices are non-interrelated each other, as well as having little relationship with efficiency and safety. The results of different evaluatior methods may not be consistent, even contradictory. Considering the complex material properties of Chinese medicinal materials, single method and index is difficult to objectively and comprehensively reflect the quality. Therefore, it is essential to explore the integrated evaluation methods. In this paper, oriented by the integrated evaluation strategies for traditional Chinese medicine quality, a new method called integrated quality index (IQI) by the integration of empirical evaluation, chemical evaluation, and biological evaluation was proposed. In addition, a study case of hypertoxic herb Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. was provided to explain this method in detail. The results suggested that in the view of specifications, the average weight of Jiangyou aconite was the greatest, followed by Weishan aconite, Butuo aconite, Hanzhong aconite, and Anxian aconite; from the point of chemical components, Jiangyou aconite had the characteristic with strong efficacy and weak toxicity, next was Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite; taking toxicity price as the index, Hanzhong aconite and Jiangyou aconite have the lower toxicity, while Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite have the relatively higher one. After the normalization and integration of evaluation results, we calculated the IQI value of Jiangyou aconite, Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite were 0.842 +/- 0.091, 0.597 +/- 0.047, 0.442 +/- 0.033, 0.454 +/- 0.038, 0.170 +/- 0.021, respectively. The quality of Jiangyou aconite is significantly better than the

  4. Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecular Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio of RA and RAS used in DBT for osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays. Moreover, the optimal concentration of DBT for bone cell culture was also determined by colorimetric, ALP activity, nodule formation, Western blotting, wound-healing, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays. Consequently, the most appropriate weight ratio of RA to RAS for the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was 5 : 1. Moreover, the most effective concentration of DBT was 1,000 μg/mL, which significantly increased the number of osteoblasts, intracellular ALP levels, and nodule numbers, while inhibiting osteoclast activity. Additionally, 1,000 μg/mL of DBT was able to stimulate p-ERK and p-JNK signal pathway. Therefore, DBT is highly promising for use in accelerating fracture healing in the middle or late healing periods. PMID:25295277

  5. Extract of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan inhibited adjuvant arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Xin; Fan, Arthur Yin; Zhou, An-Nan; Moudgil, Kamal D.; Ma, Zhong-Ze; Lee, David Yue-Wei; Fong, Harry HS; Berman, Brian M.; Lao, Lixing

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) and its modifications have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about one hundred years to alleviate pain and inflammation. Aim To investigate the effects of HLXL on complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced multiple-joint arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods Male Lewis rats, 190–210g, were immunized subcutaneously at the base of the tail with 200 µl of heat-killed M. tuberculosis in mineral oil (5 mg/ml). HLXL (2.30g/kg and 4.60g/kg) or vehicle control (n=8 per group) was administered orally (i.g.) once a day between days 16–25 post-CFA injection. The rats were observed for signs of arthritis with arthritic changes (erythema, edema, induration) being scored on a scale of 0 to 4 of increasing severity using a standard scoring system. The maximum arthritis score per rat was 16. A plethysmometer was used to measure edema volume in each paw. Adverse effects of HLXL were monitored by closely observing the animals for unusual behavioral changes. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) in local tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 25 post-CFA. Results HLXL significantly decreased arthritis scores between days 23–25 in the 2.30g/kg group and 21–25 in the 4.60g/kg group (p<0.05). It reduced paw edema on days 22 and 24 in the 2.30g/kg group and on days 20, 22 and 24 in the 4.60g/kg group compared to control (p<0.05). Local tissue TNF-α and IL-1β levels on day 25 post-CFA injection were significantly (p<0.05) lower in rats treated with HLXL than in control rats. No observable adverse effects were found. Conclusion The data suggest that HLXL produces significant anti-arthritic effects that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it appears to be safe. PMID:19100323

  6. Herbal modulation of drug bioavailability: enhancement of rifampicin levels in plasma by herbal products and a flavonoid glycoside derived from Cuminum cyminum.

    PubMed

    Sachin, B S; Sharma, S C; Sethi, S; Tasduq, S A; Tikoo, M K; Tikoo, A K; Satti, N K; Gupta, B D; Suri, K A; Johri, R K; Qazi, G N

    2007-02-01

    The bioavailability of rifampicin (RIF) in a fixed dose combination (FDC) used for the treatment of tuberculosis remains an area of clinical concern and several pharmaceutical alternatives are being explored to overcome this problem. The present study presents a pharmacological approach in which the bioavailability of a drug may be modulated by utilizing the herb-drug synergism. The pharmacokinetic interaction of some herbal products and a pure molecule isolated from Cuminum cyminum with RIF is shown in this paper. An aqueous extract derived from cumin seeds produced a significant enhancement of RIF levels in rat plasma. This activity was found to be due to a flavonoid glycoside, 3',5-dihydroxyflavone 7-O-beta-D-galacturonide 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (CC-I). CC-I enhanced the Cmax by 35% and AUC by 53% of RIF. The altered bioavailability profile of RIF could be attributed to a permeation enhancing effect of this glycoside.

  7. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products That Contain Dang-Qui and Risk of Endometrial Cancer among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Tung; Lai, Jung-Nien; Tsai, Yueh-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. Methods All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service and type of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui prescribed across the 31,970 survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios for utilization of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio of endometrial cancer associated with dang-qui use within the cohort. Results Almost one in two study subjects had used dang-qui. Among 31,938 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors, 157 cases of subsequent endometrial cancer were identified. The hazard ratio for development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 20–79 years who had taken dang-qui after tamoxifen treatment was decreased compared to survivors who had never used dang-qui (HR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44–0.84). To minimise potential confounding factors, women with breast cancer in the reproductive age were excluded from further analysis, and the negative relationship between dang-qui consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 55–79 years was still observed, although not significantly (HR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46–1.17). Conclusions Dang-qui consumption is common among breast cancer survivors aged 20–79 years and seems decrease the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer after less than a cumulative dose of 7,500 mg of tamoxifen treatment. PMID:25485843

  8. Development of a microdialysis system to monitor lamivudine in blood and liver for the pharmacokinetic application in herbal drug interaction and the gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-08-05

    The aim of study is to develop a novel multiple microdialysis technique coupled to a validated chromatographic system for the measurement of protein-unbound form lamivudine and investigation of its herb-drug interaction in rat blood and liver. Furthermore, gene expression changes of drug metabolizing enzymes in rat were evaluated by microarray analysis after being treated with a traditional Chinese herbal formulation, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang (LDXGT). The analyte was separated by a reverse-phase C18 column using the mobile phase comprising methanol and 10mM KH2PO4 (15:85, v/v, adjusted to pH 6.0 with NaOH) with the flow rate of 0.8mL/min, and the UV wavelength was set at 270nm. The processes of method validation followed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the lamivudine alone and the LDXGT pretreated group were 532±37.6 and 550±44.2minμg/mL in rat blood after lamivudine administration (10mg/kg, i.v.) and 682±196 and 642±153minμg/mL in rat liver, respectively. The herb-drug pharmacokinetic interaction showed that with either lamivudine alone or in combination with pretreated with LDXGT, the pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly changed except the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) at a high dose of lamivudine (30mg/kg). In addition, microarray analysis showed that among 70 altered genes (selection criteria: |Fold change|≧2 and p<0.05), only 11 genes were involved in drug metabolism and indicated that a relatively small portion of drug metabolizing genes in liver were altered at the genome level after the therapeutic dose of LDXGT treatment. In conclusion, these studies provide constructive information to interpret the herb-drug interactions between lamivudine and a popular Chinese herbal formulation.

  9. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2008-10-01

    The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials.

  10. Regulating effect of Chinese herbal medicine on the peritoneal lymphatic stomata in enhancing ascites absorption of experimental hepatofibrotic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Cheng; Ding, Shi-Ping; Xu, Jian

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To observe the regulatory effect of Chinese herbal medicine on peritoneal lymphatic stomata and its significance in treating ascites in liver fibrosis model mice. METHODS: Two Chinese herbal composite prescriptions were used separately to treat the carbon tetrachloride-induced mouse model of liver fibrosis. The histo-pathologic changes of the liver sections (HE and VG stainings) were observed. The peritoneal lymphatic stomata was detected by scanning electron microscopy and computer image processing. The changes of urinary volume and sodium ion concentration were measured. RESULTS: In the model group, lots of fibrous tissue formed in liver and extended into the hepatic lobules to separate them incompletely. In the treated and prevention groups, the histo-pathologic changes of liver was rather milder, only showed much less fibrous tissue proliferation in the hepatic lobules. The peritoneal lymphatic stomata enlarged with increased density in the experimental groups (diameter: PA, 3.07 ± 0.69 µm; PB, 2.82 ± 0.37 µm; TA, 3.25 ± 0.82 µm and TB, 2.82 ± 0.56 µm; density: PA, 7.11 ± 1.90 stomata·1000 µm-2; PB, 8.76 ± 1.45 stomata·1000 µm-1; TA, 6.55 ± 1.44 stomata·1000 µm-2 and TB, 8.76 ± 1.79 stomata·1000 µm-2), as compared with the model group (diameter: 2.00 ± 0.52 µm; density: 4.45 ± 1.05 stomata·1000 µm-2). After treatment, the urinary volume and sodium ion excretion increased in the experimental groups (PA, 231.28 ± 41.09 mmol·L-1; PB, 171.69 ± 27.48 mmol·L-1 and TA, 231.44 ± 34.12 mmol·L-1), which were significantly different with those in the model group (129.33 ± 36.75 mmol·L-1). CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine has marked effects in alleviating liver fibrosis, regulating peritoneal lymphatic stomata, improving the drainage of ascites from peritoneal cavity and causing increase of urinary volume and sodium ion excretion to reduce the water and sodium retention, and thus have favorable therapeutic effect in treating ascites

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Aspirin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiandong; Zhang, Haowen; Chen, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the treatment of aspirin resistance (AR). Methods A comprehensive research of seven electronic databases was performed for comparative studies evaluating CHM for AR. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data wasere synthesized by using RevMan 5.3 software. (PROSPERO Registration #CRD42015020182) Results 18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1,460 patients were included. 15 RCTs reported significant difference in the reduction of platelet aggregation rate (PAR) induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (P<0.05), and 11 reported significant effect of CHM plus aspirin to reduce PAR induced by arachidonic acid (AA) (P<0.05) compared with aspirin 100mg/d treatment. The pooling data of 3 RCTs showed the thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in patients with CHM plus aspirin versus aspirin were significantly reduced (Random Effect model (RE), Standard Deviation (SD) = -95.93, 95% Confidential Interval (CI)[-118.25,-73.61], P<0.00001). Subgroup analysis showed that TXB2 (Fixed Effect model (FE), SD = -89.23, 95%CI[-121.96,-56.49], P<0.00001) had significant difference in Tongxinluo capsule plus aspirin versus aspirin. 2 RCTs reported the clinical effective rate, and the meta-analysis result showed a significant difference in intervention and control group (FE, Relative Risk (RR) = 1.67, 95%CI[1.15, 2.42], P = 0.007<0.05). In 4 trials, CHM plus aspirin had better effects of reducing the reoccurrence of cerebral infarction than aspirin (FE, RR = 0.24, 95%CI [0.11, 0.49], P<0.0001). And one trial showed that CHM plus aspirin could decrease the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NHISS) score (P<0.05) and increase the Barthel Index (BI) score (P<0.05). 4 trials stated that there were no adverse effects occurred in intervention group, and analysis showed significant difference of CHM or

  12. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  13. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  14. Prevention and repair of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by Chinese herbal medicine, shengmai san, in rats.

    PubMed

    Xuejiang, W; Magara, T; Konishi, T

    1999-11-01

    The protective activity of Shengmai San, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was studied in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Shengmai San consists of three herbal components, Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus and Schisandra Chinensis and is routinely being used for treating coronary heart disease. When Shengmai San was injected directly into rat duodenum 2h before cerebral ischemia by bilateral carotid artery occlusion, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation during reperfusion following ischemia was almost completely suppressed in the brain. The loss of glutathione peroxidase activity after the ischemia-reperfusion was also effectively prevented by the Shengmai San pre-administration whereas the activity was considerably decreased in the damaged brain. It was found that Shengmai San also effectively suppressed the TBARS formation even when it was administered after 45 min reperfusion following ischemia, indicating that Shengmai San improves the oxidative damage already established in the brain. Likewise, the decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity was minimized in the damaged brain by the post-administration of Shengmai San. On the other hand, none of the Shengmai San components were active in protecting the ischemia-reperfusion brain damage when they were independently administered. These experiments suggest the potential of Shengmai San in both preventive and therapeutic usages for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  15. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  16. [Investigation on relationship between flavonoid content and inhibitory ability to nitrosamine synthesis for eleven Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Tian, Diying; Yang, Ronghua

    2010-08-01

    The eleven Chinese herbal medicine containing flavonoids are applied as raw materials to explore the relationship between the inhibitory ratio of nitrosamine synthesis, the scavenging ratio of nitrite and the flavonoid content in the samples. The inhibitory ratio of nitrosamine synthesis and the scavenging ratio of nitrite of the 11 herbal medicines, Vit C and rutin were determined in intro compare with Vit C and the standard ample of rutin. The results indicate that each sample exhibits certain ability to inhibitiory nitrosamine synthesis. Among these samples, Honeysuckle flower is found to be of best effects, its inhibitory ratio and scavenging ratio reaches 78.5% and 60.5%, respectively. Except kudzuvine root, the other samples with higher content of flavonoid result in a higher inhibitory or scavenging ratio, and the relative coefficient reaches a value of 0.9338 and 0.9272, respectively, displaying notable positive correlation. The concentrations of IC50 (g x L(-1)) of flavonoid extracted from honeysuckle, rutin and VC were 0.013, 0.022 and 0.187, respectively. While the inhibitory ratio of synthesis of nitrosamines reached 50%, and those were 0.042, 0.024 and 0.041, respectively. While scavenging ratio of nitrite reaches 50%. The inhibitory ratio of synthesis of nitrosamine of flavonoids extracted from honeysuckle flower is higher than that of Vit C and rutin, and the scavenging ratio of nitrite is similar to that of Vit C.

  17. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  18. Emerging Glycolysis Targeting and Drug Discovery from Chinese Medicine in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping; Shen, Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    Molecular-targeted therapy has been developed for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer cells have different metabolic properties from normal cells. Normal cells mostly rely upon the process of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce energy whereas cancer cells have developed an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates. Cancer cells could predominantly produce energy by glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. This alternative metabolic characteristic is known as the “Warburg Effect.” Although the exact mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect are unclear, recent progress indicates that glycolytic pathway of cancer cells could be a critical target for drug discovery. With a long history in cancer treatment, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is recognized as a valuable source for seeking bioactive anticancer compounds. A great progress has been made to identify active compounds from herbal medicine targeting on glycolysis for cancer treatment. Herein, we provide an overall picture of the current understanding of the molecular targets in the cancer glycolytic pathway and reviewed active compounds from Chinese herbal medicine with the potentials to inhibit the metabolic targets for cancer treatment. Combination of TCM with conventional therapies will provide an attractive strategy for improving clinical outcome in cancer treatment. PMID:22844340

  19. Towards Polypharmacokinetics: Pharmacokinetics of Multicomponent Drugs and Herbal Medicines Using a Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ke; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Determination of pharmacokinetics (PKs) of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals (polypharmacokinetics, poly-PKs) is difficult due to the vast number of compounds present in natural products, their various concentrations across a wide range, complexity of their interactions, as well as their complex degradation dynamics in vivo. Metabolomics coupled with multivariate statistical tools that focus on the comprehensive analysis of small molecules in biofluids is a viable approach to address the challenges of poly-PK. This paper discusses recent advances in the characterization of poly-PK and the metabolism of multicomponent xenobiotic agents, such as compound drugs, dietary supplements, and herbal medicines, using metabolomics strategy. We propose a research framework that integrates the dynamic concentration profile of bioavailable xenobiotic molecules that result from in vivo absorption and hepatic and gut bacterial metabolism, as well as the human metabolic response profile. This framework will address the bottleneck problem in the pharmacological evaluation of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, leading to the direct elucidation of the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of these compounds. PMID:23573155

  20. Effects of herbal drugs prescribed in wood creosote pills on the dissolution profile of guaiacol.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tatsuya; Nishino, Takao; Tani, Tadato

    2003-02-01

    Wood creosote pills (P4) containing wood creosote and four herbal drugs, Gambir, Phellodendri Cortex, Glycyrrhizae Radix, and Citri Unshiu Pericarpium (CUP), have been used to treat food poisoning and diarrhea through self-medication in Japan. The mean dissolution time (MDT) of guaiacol, one of the active constituents of wood creosote, from P4 (138.3+/-3.3 min) was significantly longer than that (42.6+/-4.3 min) from pills (P0) containing only wood creosote. The MDT of the variant pills prepared from P4 without CUP (54.3+/-12.5 min) was found to be significantly shorter than that of P4. These findings suggest that CUP plays an important role in sustaining the dissolution of guaiacol from P4. The long MDT of guaiacol is considered one of the most important factors affecting the duration of efficacy after oral administration of wood creosote pills. The present findings are considered proof that CUP has been prescribed in traditional as well as new formulations of wood creosote pills.

  1. Efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal medicine shuganjieyu with and without adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for geriatric depression: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    XIE, Minmin; JIANG, Wenhai; YANG, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment of geriatric depression is often ineffective because patients cannot tolerate adequate doses of antidepressant medications. Aim Examine the efficacy and safety of shuganjieyu – the first Chinese herbal medicine approved for the treatment of depression by China’s drug regulatory agency -- with and without adjunctive treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of geriatric depression. Methods Sixty-five inpatients 60 or older who met ICD-10 criteria for depression were randomly assigned to an experimental group (shuganjieyu + rTMS) (n=36) or a control group (shuganjieyu + sham rTMS)(n=29). All participants received 4 capsules of shuganjieyu daily for 6 weeks. rTMS (or sham rTMS) was administered 20 minutes daily, five days a week for 4 weeks. Blinded raters used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale to assess clinical efficacy and safety at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Over the six-week trial, there was only one dropout from the experimental group and two dropouts from the control group. Results None of the patients had serious side effects, but 40% in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced minor side effects that all resolved spontaneously. Both groups showed substantial stepwise improvement in depressive symptoms over the 6 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA found no differences between the two groups. After 6 weeks, 97% of the experimental group had experienced a 25% or greater drop in the level of depression, but only 20% had experience a 50% or greater drop in the level of depression; the corresponding values in the control group were 96% and 19%. There were some minor, non-significant differences in the onset of the treatment effect between the different types of depressive symptoms, but by the second week of treatment all five HAMD-17 subscale scores had improved significantly

  2. Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan) Involves Changes in Antigen-Induced Immunological and Biochemical Mediators of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Lee, David Y.-W; Ma, Zhongze; Yu, Hua; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major autoimmune diseases of global prevalence. The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. This limitation has necessitated the search for novel therapeutic products. We report here a traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal formula, Huo luo xiao ling dan (HLXL), which has potent antiarthritic activity as validated in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. HLXL (2.3 g/Kg) was fed to Lewis (RT.11) rats daily by gavage beginning at the onset of arthritis and then continued through the observation period. HLXL inhibited the severity of ongoing AA. This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). There was a reduction in the level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-1β but enhancement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. Thus, HLXL is a promising CAM modality for further testing in RA patients. PMID:20981317

  3. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy. PMID:28154825

  4. Suppression of ongoing experimental arthritis by a chinese herbal formula (huo-luo-xiao-ling dan) involves changes in antigen-induced immunological and biochemical mediators of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Lee, David Y-W; Ma, Zhongze; Yu, Hua; Fong, Harry H S; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major autoimmune diseases of global prevalence. The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. This limitation has necessitated the search for novel therapeutic products. We report here a traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal formula, Huo luo xiao ling dan (HLXL), which has potent antiarthritic activity as validated in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. HLXL (2.3 g/Kg) was fed to Lewis (RT.1(1)) rats daily by gavage beginning at the onset of arthritis and then continued through the observation period. HLXL inhibited the severity of ongoing AA. This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). There was a reduction in the level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-1β but enhancement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. Thus, HLXL is a promising CAM modality for further testing in RA patients.

  5. Activation of p53/miR-34a Tumor Suppressor Axis by Chinese Herbal Formula JP-1 in A549 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Pei-Chun; Hu, Tsai-Shu; Kuo, Hui-Ching; Huang, Jhy-Shrian

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide; the most common pathologic type is lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). In spite of the recent progress in targeted therapy, most LADC patients eventually expired due to the inevitable recurrence and drug resistance. New complementary agent with evidence-based molecular mechanism is urgently needed. MiR-34a is an important p53 downstream tumor suppressor, which regulates apoptosis, cell-cycle, EMT (epithelial mesenchymal transition), and so forth. Its expression is deficient in many types of cancers including LADC. Here, we show that a Chinese herbal formula JP-1 activates p53/miR-34a axis in A549 human LADC cells (p53 wild-type). Treatment with JP-1 induces p53 and its downstream p21 and BAX proteins as well as the miR-34a, resulting in growth inhibition, colony formation reduction, migration repression, and apoptosis induction. Accordingly, the decreases of miR-34a downstream targets such as CDK6, SIRT1, c-Myc, survivin, Snail, and AXL were observed. Moreover, JP-1 activates AMPKα and reduces mTOR activity, implying its inhibitory effect on the energy-sensitive protein synthesis and cell proliferation signaling. Our results show that JP-1 activates p53/miR-34a tumor suppressor axis and decreases proteins related to proliferation, apoptosis resistance, and metastasis, suggesting its potential as a complementary medicine for LADC treatment. PMID:28074102

  6. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy.

  7. Identification of the geographic origin of Dendrobium thyrsiflorum on Chinese herbal medicine market using trinucleotide microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying Hui; Hou, Bei Wei; Xu, Hui Jun; Luo, Jing; Ding, Xiao Yu

    2011-01-01

    The stems of Dendrobium thyrsiflorum RCHB.F. ex ANDRÉ can be processed into an important class of Traditional Chinese Medicine named "Huangcao Shihu," which has diverse curative effects, such as nourishing yin and clearing away unhealthy heat, benefiting the stomach, and promoting the production of body fluid. The identification of the geographical origin of D. thyrsiflorum is vital for preserving its natural resource and ensuring the quality of "Huangcao Shihu." In order to identify the origin of D. thyrsiflorum on Chinese herbal medicine market, 14 D. thyrsiflorum-specific microsatellite markers were developed in this study. Assignment tests were performed by the microsatellite marker analysis coupled with three new statistical approaches (partially Bayesian, frequency-based, and fully Bayesian methods) to determine the origin populations of 12 commercial samples of "Huangcao Shihu" collected from a medicine market in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Their genotypes were compared with those of 136 individuals belonging to five wild D. thyrsiflorum populations from China, Thailand, India, Myanmar, and Laos. Comparisons of the probabilities of 12 unknown individuals originating from each candidate population indicated that most of them appeared to originate from Myanmar and Laos. This suggests that the two countries may be the predominant sources of D. thyrsiflorum on the medicine market in Nanjing. In addition, the 14 microsatellite markers developed in this study may be an effective tool for identification of the origin of commercial available "Huangcao Shihu" and play an important role in its quality control.

  8. Thyroid hormone synthesis: a potential target of a Chinese herbal formula Haizao Yuhu Decoction acting on iodine-deficient goiter

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xia; Yan, Chen; Guo, Xiaodong; Guo, Qiuyan; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Haizao Yuhu Decoction (HYD), a famous multi-component herbal formula, has been widely used to treat various thyroid-related diseases, including iodine-deficient goiter. Herb pair Thallus Sargassi Pallidi (HZ) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC), one of the so-called “eighteen antagonistic medicaments”, contains in HYD. To explore pharmacological mechanisms of HYD acting on iodine-deficient goiter and to provide evidence for potential roles of herb pair HZ and GC in HYD, our genome-wide microarray detection and network analysis identified a list of goiter-related genes, mainly involved into the alterations in hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid/gonad/growth axes. Then, the disease genes-drug genes interaction network illustrated the links between HYD regulating genes and goiter-related genes, and identified the candidate targets of HYD acting on goiter. Functionally, these candidate targets were closely correlated with thyroid hormone synthesis. Moreover, the potential regulating genes of herb pair HZ and GC were revealed to be crucial components in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis. The prediction results were all verified by following experiments based on goiter rats. Collectively, this integrative study combining microarray gene expression profiling, network analysis and experimental validations offers the convincing evidence that HYD may alleviate iodine-deficient goiter via regulating thyroid hormone synthesis, and explains the necessity of herb pair HZ and GC in HYD. Our work provides a novel and powerful means to clarify the mechanisms of action for multi-component drugs such as herbal formulae in a holistic way, which may improve drug development and applications. PMID:27384475

  9. Effects of Two Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuxue; Du, Yijie; Zhang, Hongying; Luo, Qingli; Li, Bei; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Sun, Jing; Jin, Hualiang; Wei, Kai; Zhao, Zhengxiao; Kong, Lingwen; Zhou, Xianmei; Miao, Qing; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Qingwei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of stable COPD. Methods A multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. All groups were treated with additional conventional medicines. There were a 6-month treatment and a 12-month follow-up for 5 times. Primary outcomes included lung function test, exacerbation frequency, score of SGRQ. Second outcomes consisted of 6MWD, BODE index, psychological field score, inflammatory factors and cortisol. Results A total of 331 patients were randomly divided into two active treatment groups (Bushen Yiqi (BY) granule group, n = 109; Bushen Fangchuan (BF) tablet group, n = 109) and a placebo group (n = 113). Finally 262 patients completed the study. BY granule & BF tablet increased the values of VC, FEV1 (%) and FEV1/FVC (%), compared with placebo. BY granule improved PEF. Both treatments reduced acute exacerbation frequency (P = 0.067), BODE index and psychological field score, while improved 6MWD. In terms of descent rang of SGRQ score, both treatments increased (P = 0.01). Both treatments decreased inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, and IL-17(P = 0.0219). BY granule obviously descended IL-17(P<0.05), IL-1β (P = 0.05), IL-6, compared with placebo. They improved the level of IL-10 and cortisol. BY granule raised cortisol (P = 0.07) and decreased TNF-α. Both treatments slightly descended TGF-β1. In terms of safety, subject compliance and drug combination, there were no differences (P>0.05) among three groups. Conclusions BY granule and BF tablet were positively effective for the treatment of COPD, and the former performed better in general. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register center ChiCTR-TRC-09000530 PMID:25118962

  10. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from non-bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  11. Research Advances on Hepatotoxicity of Herbal Medicines in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changxiao; Fan, Huirong; Li, Yazhuo; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    In general, herbal medicines have been considered as safe by the general public, since they are naturally occurring and have been applied in treatment for over thousands of years. As the use of herbal medicine is rapidly increasing globally, the potential toxicity of herbal drugs, in particular drug-induced liver injury (DILI), has now become a serious medical issue. According to the literature, the authors analyzed and discussed the hepatotoxicity problem of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), including global overview on herbal-induced liver injury (HILI), current research progress on toxic CHM, diagnosis and treatment of HILI, and modern approaches and technologies of study of hepatotoxicity. As to promote the recognition of HILI and tackle the issue, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of HILI has recently been drafted by Chinese scientists. As suggested by the guideline, the hepatotoxicity issue of CHM, as a matter of fact, is overestimated. Up to date, the investigation of hepatotoxicity of CHM is now booming with worldwide application of CHM. This review therefore provides useful information for investigating hepatotoxicity of herbal medicine and characterizing DILI caused by CHM. In addition, authors describe in which way further efforts should be made to study the rationale of CHM and liver injury.

  12. Research Advances on Hepatotoxicity of Herbal Medicines in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huirong; Li, Yazhuo; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    In general, herbal medicines have been considered as safe by the general public, since they are naturally occurring and have been applied in treatment for over thousands of years. As the use of herbal medicine is rapidly increasing globally, the potential toxicity of herbal drugs, in particular drug-induced liver injury (DILI), has now become a serious medical issue. According to the literature, the authors analyzed and discussed the hepatotoxicity problem of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), including global overview on herbal-induced liver injury (HILI), current research progress on toxic CHM, diagnosis and treatment of HILI, and modern approaches and technologies of study of hepatotoxicity. As to promote the recognition of HILI and tackle the issue, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of HILI has recently been drafted by Chinese scientists. As suggested by the guideline, the hepatotoxicity issue of CHM, as a matter of fact, is overestimated. Up to date, the investigation of hepatotoxicity of CHM is now booming with worldwide application of CHM. This review therefore provides useful information for investigating hepatotoxicity of herbal medicine and characterizing DILI caused by CHM. In addition, authors describe in which way further efforts should be made to study the rationale of CHM and liver injury. PMID:28078299

  13. Systematic review of the methodological quality of controlled trials evaluating Chinese herbal medicine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Song, Juhee; Pratt, Gregory; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We appraised the methodological and reporting quality of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Design For this systematic review, electronic databases were searched from inception until June 2015. The search was limited to humans and non-case report studies, but was not limited by language, year of publication or type of publication. Two independent reviewers selected RCTs, evaluating CHM in RA (herbals and decoctions). Descriptive statistics were used to report on risk of bias and their adherence to reporting standards. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine study characteristics associated with high or unclear risk of bias. Results Out of 2342 unique citations, we selected 119 RCTs including 18 919 patients: 10 108 patients received CHM alone and 6550 received one of 11 treatment combinations. A high risk of bias was observed across all domains: 21% had a high risk for selection bias (11% from sequence generation and 30% from allocation concealment), 85% for performance bias, 89% for detection bias, 4% for attrition bias and 40% for reporting bias. In multivariable analysis, fewer authors were associated with selection bias (allocation concealment), performance bias and attrition bias, and earlier year of publication and funding source not reported or disclosed were associated with selection bias (sequence generation). Studies published in non-English language were associated with reporting bias. Poor adherence to recommended reporting standards (<60% of the studies not providing sufficient information) was observed in 11 of the 23 sections evaluated. Limitations Study quality and data extraction were performed by one reviewer and cross-checked by a second reviewer. Translation to English was performed by one reviewer in 85% of the included studies. Conclusions Studies evaluating CHM often fail to

  14. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved.

  15. The effect of Chinese herbal medicine Jian Ling Decoction for the treatment of essential hypertension: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Jian Ling Decoction (JLD) is often prescribed to improve hypertension-related symptoms in China. However, this treatment has not been systematically reviewed for its efficacy against essential hypertension (EH). This review aims to assess the current clinical evidence of JLD in the treatment of EH. Design Seven electronic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and the Wanfang Database, were searched up to March 2014. Randomised control trials (RCTs) comparing JLD or combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included. We assessed the methodological quality, extracted the valid data and conducted the meta-analysis according to criteria from the Cochrane group. The primary outcome was categorical or continuous blood pressure (BP), and the secondary outcome was quality of life (QOL). Results Ten trials (655 patients) with unclear-to-high risk of bias were identified. Meta-analysis showed that JLD used alone showed no BP reduction effect; however, improvement on QOL was found in the JLD group compared to antihypertensive drugs. A significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP was observed for JLD plus antihypertensive drugs when compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Owing to insufficient clinical data, it is difficult to draw a definite conclusion regarding the effectiveness and safety of JLD for EH, and better trials are needed. PMID:25652798

  16. [A Case of Lead Poisoning with Drug-induced Liver Injury after Ingestion of Herbal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Gi Jung; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Min Sung; Yu, Jong Won; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Min Sik

    2015-06-01

    A 61-year-old male patient was admitted because of unexplained abdominal pain and anemia. His past medical history was unremarkable except for having taken herbal medicine to treat facial palsy two months ago. The result of health examination performed about a month ago showed increased serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase level, and he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis by herbal medicine. When the patient presented to the outpatient department three weeks ago, follow-up liver function test results showed improvement but he complained of abdominal pain. Despite extensive blood chemistry tests and computed tomography, the cause of pain could not be found. After much deliberation, serum lead level and herbal medicines analysis was performed based on the fact that he took herbal medicine two months ago, and he could finally be diagnosed with lead poisoning. Since the serum lead level was high enough to be indicated for lead chelating therapy, conservative management was given. When a patient with toxic hepatitis due to herbal medication presents with abdominal pain, the possibility of lead poisoning should always be taken into consideration.

  17. Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-09-01

    Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San.

  18. The effects of two Chinese herbal medicinal formulae vs. placebo controls for treatment of allergic rhinitis: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when compared to a placebo control group. Methods A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with repeated-measures, three-parallel-groups design was conducted in a random sample of 249 participants recruited from one university in Hong Kong. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to CS, YS, or placebo groups (n = 83 per group). The main outcomes, including symptom severity, quality of life, and body constitution, were measured with self-administered questionnaires at baseline and immediately, 1 and 3 months after the 4-week interventions. Results 240 participants completed the trial, with 9 (3.6%) drop-outs. The results of Generalised Estimating Equations test followed by pairwise contrasts tests indicated that the participants who received CS showed significantly greater reduction of symptoms (mean difference of CS vs. placebo = 26.13–34.55, P <0.0005) and improvements in quality of life (mean difference of CS vs. placebo = 12.81–16.76, P <0.001), and body constitution in ‘Qi-deficiency’, ‘Yang-deficiency’, and ‘Inherited Special’ (mean difference of CS vs. placebo = 7.05–8.12, 7.56–8.92, and 4.48–8.10, P = 0.01– < 0.0005, 0.001–0.004, and 0.01– < 0.0005, accordingly, at three post-tests). The participants who received YS also indicated significant greater improvements in symptom severity, quality of life, and a few patterns of body constitution when compared to the placebo group. However, its effects

  19. A validated LC/UV method for the determination of four adulterating drugs in herbal slimming capsules.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Grumetto, Lucia

    2016-01-05

    A simple LC/UV method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of Fluoxetine, Tiratricol, Benfluorex and Pseudoephedrine in slimming formulation is proposed. The method demonstrated effective in the analyses of herbal mixtures marketed in Italy as slimming capsules. Sixteen different herbal mixtures, selected among the most frequently compounded in Italian pharmacies, were tested as matrices. HPLC analyses were performed in a gradient mode on a C18 stationary phase The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity and selectivity. The limits of detection (LOD) were 3.4 μg/mL for Pseudoephedrine, 1.1 μg/mL for Triac, 0.9 μg/mL for Fluoxetine, and 0.8 μg/mL for Benfluorex. Repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed as percent of relative standard deviation, ranged from 3 to 7 and from 7 to 12, respectively. Given these limits, the developed method is proposed for the simple and cost effective screening of herbal products illegally adulterated with these four drugs known to enhance slimming effects.

  20. Safety Surveillance of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed. PMID:25647717

  1. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Gromek, Kamila; Drumond, Nélio; Simas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of herbal remedies in pharmacovigilance systems is becoming one of the primary tasks, due to the constantly ascending potential of herbal products and herbal medicines worldwide. Nowadays, the drug development is focused on finding new active compounds or combinations, but costs are simultaneously growing, which makes herbal medicines an attractive, harmless and cheaper alternative to synthetic drugs.Like all drugs, herbal are not free of risk and many studies suggest for potential adverse reactions and interactions. Available statistics show that some herbal products, used in traditional medication for generations, may possess carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic and other severe actions. Evaluation of the safety should include at least in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for >3 months or intermittently for >6 months), reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in some cases and examination of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug safety of herbal medicines should be developed, focusing on specific groups of patients.

  2. Chinese Skullcap in Move Free Arthritis Supplement Causes Drug Induced Liver Injury and Pulmonary Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Renumathy

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medications are being increasingly used by the American population especially for common conditions like arthritis. They have been reported to cause adverse effects, including significant hepatotoxicity, but reporting remains sporadic. We report here a patient who developed drug induced liver injury following the intake of Move Free, which is an over-the-counter arthritis supplement. We propose that Chinese skullcap, which is one of the herbal ingredients of the medication, is responsible for the adverse event. There was a strong temporal association between the intake of supplement and onset of symptoms, and also there have been a few recent case reports implicating the same component. A unique observation in our case is the occurrence of pulmonary infiltrates simultaneously with the hepatotoxicity, and this side effect has not been well documented before. Both the hepatic and pulmonary complications completely resolved over few weeks after the patient stopped taking the medication. Since these supplements are readily available over the counter, we feel that it is important to document possible adverse outcomes to raise awareness in the medical community and also among patients. PMID:25431706

  3. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography: Quantitative Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM…

  4. Optimizing prescription of chinese herbal medicine for unstable angina based on partially observable markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root + Tangshen + Indian Bread + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root + Chinese Angelica + Safflower + Red Peony Root + Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit + Longstamen Onion Bulb + Pinellia Tuber + Dried Tangerine peel + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome + Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.

  5. Understanding interactions between Chinese medicines and pharmaceutical drugs in integrative healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin

    2015-02-01

    In the 21st century, the public are more informed, mainly via the Internet, about health and medical products and have become more knowledgeable about matters relating to their health conditions and well-being in curing and preventing illnesses. They often self-medicate themselves with various health products and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines apart from prescribed pharmaceutical drugs (PD). Some of those non-prescribed products may have doubtful quality control and contain harmful additives or unchecked ingredients; thus their usefulness is in doubt. The increasing popularity world-wide of using Chinese medicines (CM) and related OTC functional products has raised concerns over their concomitant use with PD and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the alleged causes of adverse effects are linked with herbal sources, although the authorised information on the interactions between CM-PD is not plentiful in the literature. There is an urgent need for such a data base. The future professionals in health and medical care should be knowledgeable or aware of what their patients have been taking or given. In actual practice the patients may receive both treatments intentionally or unintentionally, with or without the awareness of the practitioner. In these situations a reliable database for interactions between CM-PD will be extremely useful for consultation when treatment problems appear or during emergency situations. Their combining of medications may be involved with possible outcomes of adverse reactions or beneficial effects. Such a database will be welcomed by both practitioners of herbal medicines and orthodox medicine practitioners in the emerging trend of integrative medicine. The author has been involved in various research projects of basic and clinical aspects in mainly CM among other herbal and PD. Examples will be given largely on those related to these disciplines as illustrations in this overview.

  6. [The false positive reaction of the Triage panel drug-of-abuse by herbal drugs ma-huang (Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae))].

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, M; Kinoshita, H; Higasa, K; Taniguchi, T; Ouchi, H; Minami, T; Marukawa, S; Yoshinaga, K; Yamauchi, J; Aoki, S; Hishida, S

    2001-11-01

    We investigated false-positive reactions obtained from a drug screening test using a Triage panel. We detected 2 cases giving false-positive reaction for AMP (amphetamine, methamphetamine) during the screening of 187 normal subjects. Subsequent follow up testing by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showed both to be false-positive reactions. As both cases have a history of ingesting the herbal drug, Ma-huang (Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae)), containing ephedrine, we examined the relationship between false-positive reactions on Triage and Ma-huang. All urine samples collected from 7 healthy volunteers following administration of Ma-huang indicated AMP positive on Triage. Also a high ratio of AMP positives was observed in the patients who were administered Ma-huang-containing drugs at the hospital. However, none of them were identified as true-positives by HPLC or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The extract of Ma-huang contained in herbal drugs, which otherwise contain neither amphetamine nor its derivatives, gives (AMP) positive indications on Triage. We speculate that unidentified components of Ma-huang cause the false-positive reactions. We suggest that follow-up tests by GC/MS or HPLC are needed wherever a positive result is obtained from a screening test by Triage. Furthermore, it will be established to continue collecting information on prescribed and non-prescribed drugs.

  7. Inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators in primary and cultured cells by a Chinese herbal medicine formula for allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lenon, George B; Xue, Charlie CL; Story, David F; Thien, Frank CK; McPhee, Sarah; Li, Chun G

    2007-01-01

    Background We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. Methods Compound 48/80-induced histamine release was studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Production of leukotriene B4 induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied in porcine neutrophils using an HPLC assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production was studied in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells by immune-enzyme assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined in Raw 264.7 cells, using western blotting techniques. Results RCM-101 (1–100 μg/mL) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from Raw 264.7 cells. Over the range 1 – 10 μg/mL, it inhibited A23187-induced leukotriene B4 production in porcine neutrophils. In addition, RCM-101 (100 μg/mL) inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein but did not affect that of COX-1. Conclusion The findings indicate that RCM-101 inhibits the release and/or synthesis of histamine, leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in cultured cells. These interactions of RCM-101 with multiple inflammatory mediators are likely to be related to its ability to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis. PMID:17302969

  8. Pharmacological evaluation of several major ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, C C; Pan, S L; Teng, C M; Guh, J H

    2003-08-01

    Long-dan-tan (Chinese name) is one of the most common herbal medicines used by Chinese people with chronic liver disease. Accumulated anecdotal evidence suggests that Long-dan-tan may show a beneficial effect in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-dan-tan is made from five plants: Gentiana root, Scutellaria root, Gardenia fruit, Alisma rhizome, and Bupleurum root. In this study, we have examined the cytotoxic effects of the five major ingredients isolated from the above plants, i.e. gentiopicroside, baicalein, geniposide, alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d, respectively, on human hepatoma Hep3B cells. Annexin V immunofluorescence detection, DNA fragmentation assays and FACScan analysis of propidium iodide-staining cells showed that gentiopicroside, baicalein, and geniposide had little effect, whereas alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d profoundly induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells. Alisol B acetate, but not saikosaponin-d, induced G2/M arrest of the cell cycle as well as a significant increase in caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, baicalein by itself induced an increase in H(2)O(2) generation and the subsequent NF-kappaB activation; furthermore, it effectively inhibited the transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1))-induced caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis. We suggest that alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d induced cell apoptosis through the caspase-3-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. Instead of inducing apoptosis, baicalein inhibits TGF-beta(1)-induced apoptosis via increase in cellular H(2)O(2) formation and NF-kappaB activation in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  9. Screening and evaluation of commonly-used anti-influenza Chinese herbal medicines based on anti-neuraminidase activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Guo, Yu-Ming; Feng, Wu-Wen; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Cong-En; Zhou, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Anti-influenza Chinese herbal medicines (anti-flu CHMs) have advantages in preventing and treating influenza virus infection. Despite various data on antiviral activities of some anti-flu CHMs have been reported, most of them could not be compared using the standard evaluation methods for antiviral activity. This situation poses an obstacle to a wide application of anti-flu CHMs. Thus, it was necessary to develop an evaluation method to estimate antiviral activities of anti-flu CHMs. In the present study, we searched for anti-flu CHMs, based on clinic usage, to select study objects from commonly-used patented anti-flu Chinese medicines. Then, a neuraminidase-based bioassay, optimized and verified by HPLC method by our research group, was adopted to detect antiviral activities of selected 26 anti-flu CHMs. Finally, eight of these herbs, including Coptidis Rhizoma, Isatidis Folium, Lonicerae Flos, Scutellaria Radix, Cyrtomium Rhizome, Houttuynia Cordata, Gardeniae Fructus, and Chrysanthemi Indici Flos, were shown to have strong antiviral activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values being 2.02 to 6.78 mg·mL(-1) (expressed as raw materials). In contrast, the IC50 value of positive control peramivir was 0.38 mg·mL(-1). Considering the extract yields of CHMs, the active component in these herbs may have a stronger antiviral activity than peramivir, suggesting that these herbs could be further researched for active compounds. Moreover, the proposed neuraminidase-based bioassay was high-throughput and simple and could be used for evaluation and screening of anti-flu CHMs as well as for their quality control.

  10. Effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine for cancer palliative care: overview of systematic reviews with meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent CH; Wu, Xinyin; Hui, Edwin P.; Ziea, Eric TC; Ng, Bacon FL; Ho, Robin ST; Tsoi, Kelvin KF; Wong, Samuel YS; Wu, Justin CY

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) are often used in managing cancer related symptoms but their effectiveness and safety is controversial. We conducted this overview of meta-analyses to summarize evidence on CHM for cancer palliative care. We included systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses of CHM clinical trials on patients diagnosed with any type of cancer. Methodological quality of included meta-analyses was assessed with the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) Instrument. Fifty-one SRs with meta-analyses were included. They covered patients with lung (20 SRs), gastric (8 SRs), colorectal (6 SRs), liver (6 SRs), breast (2 SRs), cervical (1 SR), esophageal (1 SR), and nasopharyngeal (1 SR) cancers. Six SRs summarized evidence on various types of cancer. Methodological quality of included meta-analyses was not satisfactory. Overall, favorable therapeutic effects in improving quality of life among cancer patients have been reported. Conflicting evidence exists for the effectiveness of CHM in prolonging survival and in reducing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy related toxicities. No serious adverse effects were reported in all included studies. Evidence indicated that CHM could be considered as an option for improving quality of life among patients receiving palliative care. It is unclear if CHM may increase survival, or reduce therapy related toxicities. PMID:26669761

  11. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  12. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  13. Ancient records and modern research on the mechanisms of chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ming; Liang, Feng-Xia; Chen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.

  14. A Recipe Composed of Chinese Herbal Active Components Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of NAFLD In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Sheng-xi; Liu, Qian; Tang, Ya-jun; Wang, Wen-jing; Zheng, Qing-shan; Tian, Hua-jie; Yao, Dong-sheng; Liu, Lin; Peng, Jing-hua; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yi-yang; Feng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of the recipe composed of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide (named ACG) on experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). The research was divided into two parts as screening experiment and verification experiment. In the screening experiment, we used high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFL rat model and uniform design to get the recipe from five Chinese herbal active components. In the verification experiment, HFD induced fatty liver rat and mouse NAFL models and free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 cell model were used to verify the effects of ACG. According to the multiple regression equation of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents of each group in the screening experiment, the recipe ACG was obtained and the doses of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide for rats were 266.67, 3.33, and 45 mg/kg, respectively. The results of verification experiment verified that ACG could significantly reduce hepatic TG contents of NAFL rats and mice, as well as the cellular TG content of FFA-induced HepG2 cells. ACG could also improve HOMA-IR and hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure of NAFL mice. Our study verified that ACG recipe could regulate lipid metabolism of NAFL in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27069915

  15. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules' properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet.

  16. Radix Astragali-Based Chinese Herbal Medicine for Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remains a big challenge for oncologists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Radix Astragali- (RA-) based Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, including the incidence and grading of neurotoxicity, effective percentage, and nerve conduction velocity. Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were found using PubMed, Cochrane, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database of China Science Periodical Database (CSPD) by keyword search. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0. Results. A total of 1552 participants were included in 24 trials. Meta-analysis showed the incidence of all-grade neurotoxicity was significantly lower in experimental groups and high-grade neurotoxicity was also significantly less. Effective percentage was significantly higher and sensory nerve conduction velocity was improved significantly, but changes in motor nerve conduction velocity were not statistically significant. No adverse events associated with RA-based intervention were reported. Conclusion. RA-based intervention may be beneficial in relieving oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, more double-blind, multicenter, large-scale RCTs are needed to support this theory. Trial Registration. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews has registration number  CRD42015019903. PMID:27795728

  17. A Chinese herbal medicine, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, prevents dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Chang, Jung-Chen; Wu, Ya-Chieh; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.

  18. A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lo, Hsiang-Ling; Tang, Wan-Chun; Hsiao, Heidi Hao-yun; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was shown to display anticancer activity. In this study, we attempted to provide a global view of the molecular pathways associated with its anticancer effect through a gene expression-based chemical approach. BBR-induced differentially expressed genes obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were analyzed using the Connectivity Map (CMAP) database to compare similarities of gene expression profiles between BBR and CMAP compounds. Candidate compounds were further analyzed using the Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH) database to explore chemical-protein interactions. Results showed that BBR may inhibit protein synthesis, histone deacetylase (HDAC), or AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Further analyses demonstrated that BBR inhibited global protein synthesis and basal AKT activity, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy, which was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, BBR did not alter mTOR or HDAC activities. Interestingly, BBR induced the acetylation of α-tubulin, a substrate of HDAC6. In addition, the combination of BBR and SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of BBR in cancer therapy. PMID:25227736

  19. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules’ properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet. PMID:27932865

  20. Separation and determination of four active anthraquinones in Chinese herbal preparations by flow injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Fan, Liuyin; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for the separation and determination of physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin in Rhubarb, Juemingzi, and Chinese herbal preparations was developed by combination of flow injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the first time. The analysis was carried out using an unmodified fused-silica capillary (75 mm x 50 microm ID x 375 microm OD, effective separation length of 48 mm) and direct ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. By a series of optimization, the sample solvent consisted of NaOH (100 mmol/L) and ACN (1:1 v/v), and a running buffer composed of 15 mmol/L sodium borate - 12.5 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - 42% v/v ACN (pH 10.1) was applied for the separation of the four anthraquinones. The separation was rapid and highly reproducible, with complete resolution of all four compounds within 6 min. The sample throughput rate could reach up to 12 per h. The repeatability (defined as relative standard deviation) was 4.45, 4.44, 4.34, 0.61% with peak height evaluation and 1.62, 0.89, 2.49, 2.19% with peak area evaluation for physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of humic substances during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    Humification during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) was investigated to reveal its correlation with compost maturity. Food waste, sawdust and CMHRs were mixed at 5:5:1 and 1:1:1 (dry weight basis) while food waste:sawdust at 1:1 (dry wt. basis) served as control. Lime at 2.25% was added to all the treatments to alleviate low pH, and composted for 56 days. Humic acid/fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio increased to 0.5, 2.0 and 3.6 in the control and treatment at 5:5:1, and 1:1:1 mixing ratio, respectively at the end of composting. The decrease in aliphatic organics in HA demonstrated the degradation of the readily available organics, while an increase in aromatic functional groups indicated the maturity of compost. Disappearance of hemicellulose and weak intensity of lignin in the CMHRs treatments indicated that the lignin provided the nucleus for HA formation; and the CMHRs accelerated the compost maturity.

  2. Effect of tao-hong-si-wu-tang, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula, on physical fatigue in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-shan; Chen, Zi-chao; Zhang, Chao-hui

    2012-01-01

    Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula, which has traditionally been used in China for about one thousand years. The present study investigated the effect of THSWT on physical fatigue. 32 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 in each group. All were administered orally and daily for 28 days. Group I received isotonic saline solution as control; Group II, III and IV obtained 5, 10 and 20ml/ kg body weight of THSWT solutions, respectively. After 28 days, the anti-physical fatigue effect of THSWT was evaluated by using a forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The data showed that THSWT could extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, as well as decrease the BLA and BUN contents and increase the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The results support that THSWT had anti-physical fatigue effect.

  3. A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lo, Hsiang-Ling; Tang, Wan-Chun; Hsiao, Heidi Hao-yun; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-09-17

    Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was shown to display anticancer activity. In this study, we attempted to provide a global view of the molecular pathways associated with its anticancer effect through a gene expression-based chemical approach. BBR-induced differentially expressed genes obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were analyzed using the Connectivity Map (CMAP) database to compare similarities of gene expression profiles between BBR and CMAP compounds. Candidate compounds were further analyzed using the Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH) database to explore chemical-protein interactions. Results showed that BBR may inhibit protein synthesis, histone deacetylase (HDAC), or AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Further analyses demonstrated that BBR inhibited global protein synthesis and basal AKT activity, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy, which was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, BBR did not alter mTOR or HDAC activities. Interestingly, BBR induced the acetylation of α-tubulin, a substrate of HDAC6. In addition, the combination of BBR and SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of BBR in cancer therapy.

  4. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  5. [Studies on market of drug delivery system product and drug delivery system of compound Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Hong, Yan-Long; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2006-10-01

    Based on the progress in the world market of drug delivery system (DDS) product and the research profile of DDS of compound Chinese Medicine, The article puts forward a new method of studies on DDS of compound Chinese Medicine. It is expected that the theory of compatibility of compound Chinese Medicine can be shown and its role can be exerted to the largest extent with the application of pharmaceutics technology to change the mode of drug delivery of activated components of compound Chinese Medicine.

  6. Inhibition of Major Drug Metabolizing CYPs by Common Herbal Medicines used by HIV/AIDS Patients in Africa– Implications for Herb-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Bouic, Patrick J.; Masimirembwa, Collen M.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of common herbal medicines used by HIV-infected patients in Africa for herb-drug interactions (HDI). High throughput screening assays consisting of recombinant Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and fluorescent probes, and parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA) were used. The potential of herbal medicines to cause HDI was ranked according to FDA guidelines for reversible inhibition and categorization of time dependent inhibition was based on the normalized ratio. CYPs 1A2 and 3A4 were most inhibited by the herbal extracts. H. hemerocallidea (IC50 = 0.63 μg/mL and 58 μg/mL) and E. purpurea (IC50 = 20 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL) were the potent inhibitors of CYPs 1A2 and 3A4 respectively. L. frutescens and H. hemerocallidea showed clear time dependent inhibition on CYP3A4. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of both H. hemerocallidea and L. frutescens before and after PAMPA were identical. The results indicate potential HDI of H. hemerocallidea, L. frutescens and E. purpurea with substrates of the affected enzymes if maximum in vivo concentration is achieved. PMID:24475926

  7. In vitro drug release and percutaneous behavior of poloxamer-based hydrogel formulation containing traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Hui, Patrick C L; Wat, Elaine; Ng, Frency S F; Kan, Chi-Wai; Wang, Xiaowen; Wong, Eric C W; Hu, Huawen; Chan, Ben; Lau, Clara B S; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2016-12-01

    For the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), we have developed a transdermal functionalized textile therapy based on thermosensitive poloxamer 407 (P407) hydrogel containing a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study aims to investigate the effects of various formulation variables of P407/carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (P407/CMCs) composite hydrogel on the release of Cortex Moutan (CM) extract. Concentrations of P407 and CMCs showed significant influence on the release due to alteration of bulk viscosity of the system. An increase in pH values of release medium was found to appreciably impede the release of polar drug (CM) due to ionization. Elevated temperatures were also shown to facilitate the drug release. Moreover, the diffusional release behavior of CM from P407/CMCs composite hydrogel was found to follow the first-order kinetic model. Additionally, transdermal studies showed that permeability of the drug through the skin can be enhanced with addition of CMCs in the hydrogel formulation.

  8. Risk of Liver Injury Associated with Chinese Herbal Products Containing Radix bupleuri in 639,779 Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal products (CHPs) containing Radix bupleuri are often prescribed for chronic hepatitis. There have been no epidemiological studies in populations with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Our study was conducted to determine the association between the use of CHPs containing Radix bupleuri and the risk of hospitalisation related to liver injury among HBV-infected patients in Taiwan. Methods From a total of 639,779 patients with diagnoses related to HBV infection, we included hospitalised adult cases with a primary diagnosis of liver injury in the database of Taiwan's national health insurance during the period 1997–2004. Case-control and case-crossover designs were used to assess the risk of hospitalisation with conditional logistic regression models constructed and adjusted for 270 conventionally hepatotoxic drugs. Cumulative doses of these CHPs and Radix bupleuri were assessed for any dose-response relationship. Findings In total, we collected 1,080 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In the case-control design, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30 to 2.77). The risks from prescribing the CHPs Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang were significantly high, and dose-response relationships were found. The risk of adding each 19 gm dose of Radix bupleuri was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.66 to 2.89). The results using the case-crossover design remained similar. Conclusions Prescribing Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, or CHPs containing more than 19 gram of Radix bupleuri in HBV-infected patients might increase their risks of liver injury. Further studies are indicated to corroborate the above findings. PMID:21264326

  9. Investigation of adverse effects of interactions between herbal drugs and natural blood clotting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Adhyapak, M S; Kachole, M S

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the world, herbal medicines are consumed by most of the patients without considering their adverse effects. Many herbal medicines/plant extracts have been reported to interact with the natural blood clotting system. In continuation to this effort, thirty medicinal plant extracts were allowed to interact with citrated human blood and the clotting time was measured after re-calcification in vitro using Lee and White method. The aq. leaf ext. of Syzygium cumini and Camellia sinensis significantly prolonged the clotting time. In response to the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time tests, the ext. of C. sinensis showed normal APTT and marginally prolonged the PT to 16.7 s (control-15.2 s) while S. cumini showed normal PT but significantly prolonged the APTT to 66.9 s (control-20.7 s). This suggests that, C. sinensis acts on the extrinsic pathway while S. cumini on the intrinsic pathway. There are some common herbal formulations that are frequently used by the patients which contain above plant materials, like, Syzygium cumin in anti-diabetic formulations, while the ext. of C. sinensis is consumed frequently as beverage in many part of the world. Hence, patients having known bleeding tendency or haemophilia disease should take into account the interaction potential of these plants with the natural blood clotting system while taking herbal formulations containing above plants; specially, the patients suffering from intrinsic pathway factor deficiency should keep a limit on the consumption of S. cumini while extrinsic pathway factor deficiency patients should limit C. sinensis. Also, the medical practitioners should consider the patient's food consumption history before doing any major surgical procedures.

  10. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research.

  11. The Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG on Allergic Asthma by Regulating Lung and Plasma Metabolic Alternations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Meng; Jia, Hong-Mei; Cui, Feng-Xia; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Mao-Hua; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway and is characterized by airway remodeling, hyperresponsiveness, and shortness of breath. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCM), has been demonstrated to have good therapeutic effects on experimental allergic asthma. However, its anti-asthma mechanism remains currently unknown. In the present work, metabolomics studies of biochemical changes in the lung tissue and plasma of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mice with mKG treatment were performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Partial least squares–discriminate analysis (PLS−DA) indicated that the metabolic perturbation induced by OVA was reduced after mKG treatment. A total of twenty-four metabolites involved in seven metabolic pathways were identified as potential biomarkers in the development of allergic asthma. Among them, myristic acid (L3 or P2), sphinganine (L6 or P4), and lysoPC(15:0) (L12 or P16) were detected both in lung tissue and plasma. Additionally, l-acetylcarnitine (L1), thromboxane B2 (L2), 10-HDoHE (L10), and 5-HETE (L11) were first reported to be potential biomarkers associated with allergic asthma. The treatment of mKG mediated all of those potential biomarkers except lysoPC(15:0) (P16). The anti-asthma mechanism of mKG can be achieved through the comprehensive regulation of multiple perturbed biomarkers and metabolic pathways. PMID:28287417

  12. The Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG on Allergic Asthma by Regulating Lung and Plasma Metabolic Alternations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meng; Jia, Hong-Mei; Cui, Feng-Xia; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Mao-Hua; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2017-03-10

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway and is characterized by airway remodeling, hyperresponsiveness, and shortness of breath. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCM), has been demonstrated to have good therapeutic effects on experimental allergic asthma. However, its anti-asthma mechanism remains currently unknown. In the present work, metabolomics studies of biochemical changes in the lung tissue and plasma of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mice with mKG treatment were performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the metabolic perturbation induced by OVA was reduced after mKG treatment. A total of twenty-four metabolites involved in seven metabolic pathways were identified as potential biomarkers in the development of allergic asthma. Among them, myristic acid (L3 or P2), sphinganine (L6 or P4), and lysoPC(15:0) (L12 or P16) were detected both in lung tissue and plasma. Additionally, l-acetylcarnitine (L1), thromboxane B2 (L2), 10-HDoHE (L10), and 5-HETE (L11) were first reported to be potential biomarkers associated with allergic asthma. The treatment of mKG mediated all of those potential biomarkers except lysoPC(15:0) (P16). The anti-asthma mechanism of mKG can be achieved through the comprehensive regulation of multiple perturbed biomarkers and metabolic pathways.

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 10 High-Quality Randomized Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chi-zi; Wu, Fan; Lu, Lin; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yi; Liu, Ai-ju; Liao, Wei-jing; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is very common in people with diabetes. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) therapy has been developed for DPN empirically over the years. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of CHMs for patients suffering from DPN. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of CHM on DPN. Six databases were searched up to November 2012. The primary outcome measures were the absolute values or changing of motor or sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and the secondary outcome measurements were clinical symptoms improvements and adverse events. The methodological quality was assessed by Jadad scale and the twelve criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results One hundred and sixty-three studies claimed RCTs. Ten studies with 653 individuals were further identified based on the Jadad score ≥3. These 10 studies were all of high methodological quality with a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed the effects of NCV favoring CHMs when compared with western conventional medicines (WCM) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There is a significant difference in the total efficacy rate between the two groups (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in all of the ten included studies, and well tolerated in all patients with DPN. Conclusion Despite of the apparently positive findings and low risk of bias, it is premature to conclude the efficacy of CHMs for the treatment of DPN because of the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample sizes of the included studies. However, CHM therapy was safe for DPN. Further standardized preparation, large sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required. PMID:24146822

  14. Chinese herbal recipe versus diclofenac in symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN70292892

    PubMed Central

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Kunanusorn, Puongtip; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Sananpanich, Kanit; Pojchamarnwiputh, Suwalee; Lhieochaiphunt, Sorasak; Pruksakorn, Sumalee

    2004-01-01

    Background Duhuo Jisheng Wan (DJW) is perhaps the best known and most widely used Chinese herbal recipe for arthralgia, but the clinical study to verify its efficacy is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of DJW versus diclofenac in symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, controlled trial. The 200 patients suffering from OA of the knee, were randomized into the DJW and diclofenac group. The patients were evaluated after a run-in period of one week (week 0) and then weekly during 4 weeks of treatment. The clinical assessments included visual analog scale (VAS) score that assessed pain and stiffness, Lequesne's functional index, time for climbing up 10 steps, as well as physician's and patients' overall opinions on improvement. Results Ninety four patients in each group completed the study. In the first few weeks of treatment, the mean changes in some variables (VAS, which assessed walking pain, standing pain and stiffness, as well as Lequesne's functional index) of the DJW group were significantly lower than those of the diclofenac group. Afterwards, these mean changes became no different throughout the study. Most of the physician's and patients' overall opinions on improvement at each time point did not significantly differ between the two groups. Approximately 30% of patients in both groups experienced mild adverse events. Conclusion DJW demonstrates clinically comparable efficacy to diclofenac after 4 weeks of treatment. However, the slow onset of action as well as approximately equal rate of adverse events to diclofenac might limit its alternative role in treatment of OA of the knee. PMID:15588333

  15. Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Su, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Zi-Song; Li, Yi-Jie; Yang, Yang; Hou, Li-Wei; Wang, Qing-Guo; Wei, Ru-Han; Yang, Jian-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Methods. Four English and four Chinese databases were searched through November, 2015. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials were selected. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed by two authors independently. RevMan 5.2.0 software was applied to analyze the data of included trials. Results. A total of 14 trials involving 1551 patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated superior global symptom improvement (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.31, 2.00; P < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 3.6), abdominal pain improvement (RR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.61, 2.35; P < 0.00001), diarrhea improvement (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.60, 2.20; P < 0.00001), pain threshold assessment (MD = 54.53; 95% CI 38.76, 70.30; P < 0.00001), and lower IBS Symptom Severity Score (SMD = −1.01; 95% CI −1.72, −0.30; P = 0.005), when compared with placebo, while for defecation threshold assessment, quality of life, and adverse events, no differences were found between treatment groups and controlled groups. Conclusion. This meta-analysis shows that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe treatment for D-IBS. However, due to the small sample size and high heterogeneity, further studies are required. PMID:27547226

  16. Coprescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Western Medications among Prostate Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2012-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine is popular among cancer patients. This study aimed to explore the coprescription of CHM and WM among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. This cross-sectional retrospective study used a population-based database containing one million beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Claims and prescriptions were analyzed. In 2007, 218 (22.4%) prostate cancer patients were CHM users. Among CHM users, 200 (91.7%) patients with 5618 (79.5%) CHM prescriptions were on coprescription of CHM and WM. A total of 484 types of CHM and 930 types of WM were used. The most commonly used CHMs on coprescription were Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang, Ma Zi Ren Wan, and Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang. The most commonly used WMs on coprescription were magnesium oxide, amlodipine, and aspirin. The average number of prescriptions per user per year was 261.2 versus 151.7 in all (P < 0.001), 123.6 versus 76.9 in WM (P = 0.033), and 34.8 versus 5.1 in CHM (P < 0.001) for patients with and without coprescription, respectively. In conclusion, use of CHM among prostate cancer patients was popular in Taiwan. Most CHMs were used with WM concurrently. The potential drug-herb interactions should be investigated, especially for patients with more prescriptions. PMID:21792368

  17. Treatment and prevention of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome using Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Lin, Rong Jing; Hong, Xuchu; Ye, Lin; Lin, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). A total of 60 patients with OSAHS were randomly divided into two groups (n=30/group): The experimental group, who received the conventional treatment + oral administration of the traditional Chinese herbal formula, Jiawei Di Tan Tang; and the control group, who received the conventional treatment only. OSAHS patients were included in the current study if they presented with snoring and had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >30 in a polysomnography study, without comorbidities. The therapeutic course lasted 12 weeks in both groups. Alterations to the mean clinical symptom score, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and AHI scores, lowest nocturnal blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) and the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) prior to and following treatment were observed. The mean clinical symptom score was significantly decreased in the experimental group post-treatment compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the clinical symptoms in the experimental group were significantly improved following treatment compared with pre-treatment symptoms (P<0.05). Furthermore, the ESS and AHI scores, lowest nocturnal SaO2 and serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were significantly improved in the experimental group post-treatment compared with the control group (P<0.05). These parameters in the experimental group were also significantly improved post-treatment compared with those pre-treatment (P<0.05). The results of the present study suggested that oral administration of the traditional Chinese herbal formula Jiawei Di Tan Tang was able to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in patients with OSAHS, and thus may

  18. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  19. Will the Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) be against traditional Chinese medicine in EU market?

    PubMed

    Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie

    2013-05-01

    As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM.

  20. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    1999-01-01

    More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

  1. Isolation and identification of flavonoids, including flavone rotamers, from the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn).

    PubMed

    Rayyan, S; Fossen, T; Solheim Nateland, H; Andersen, O M

    2005-01-01

    Twelve flavonoids, including seven flavones, four flavonols and one flavanone, were isolated from methanolic extract of the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn leaves and flowers) by a combination of CC (over Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20) and preparative HPLC. Their structures, including that of the novel flavonol 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(6"-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), were elucidated by homo- and heteronuclear NMR and electrospray/MS. The 1H- and 13C-NMR of all compounds, including rotameric pairs of five flavone C-glycosides, were assigned. The presence and relative proportion of each rotamer was shown by various NMR experiments, including two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, to depend on solvent, linkage position and structure of the C-glycosyl substituent.

  2. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  3. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  4. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  5. Identifying Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome: implications from a nationwide database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs in women during their reproductive age with a quite negative impact on their daily lives. Women with PMS experience a wide range of physical or psychological symptoms and seek treatment for them. Chinese herb medicine (CHM) is commonly used for PMS and the goal of this study is to investigate the prescription patterns of CHM for PMS by using a nationwide database. Methods Prescriptions of CHM were obtained from two million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide database in Taiwan. The ICD-9 code 625.4 was used to identify patients with PMS. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to explore both the combinations and the core treatments for PMS. Results During 1998-2011, a total of 14,312 CHM prescriptions for PMS were provided. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) was the CHM which had the highest prevalence (37.5% of all prescriptions) and also the core of prescription network for PMS. For combination of two CHM, JWXYS with Cyperus rotundus L. was prescribed most frequently, 7.7% of all prescriptions, followed by JWXYS with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.9%, and Cyperus rotundus L. with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.6%. Conclusions JWXYS-centered CHM combinations were most commonly prescribed for PMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pharmaco-epidemiological study to review CHM treatments for PMS. However, the efficacy and safety of these commonly used CHM were still lacking. The results of this study provide valuable references for further clinical trials and bench studies. PMID:24969368

  6. Treatment with qibaomeiran, a kidney-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, antagonizes estrogen decline in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ma, Xiao-ping; Ding, Jie; Liu, Zhen-li; Song, Zhi-qian; Liu, Hong-ning; Lin, Na

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) contain multi-interactive compounds that have been used for treatment of peri-menopausal syndrome and have become a new phytoestrogens resource. The QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR), including Polygoni multiflori radix, Angelicae sinensis radix, Achyranthis bidentatae radix, semen Cuscutae, fructus Lycii, Poria, and fructus Psoraleae, has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function. However, no evidence base links QBMR to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertook a characterization of estrogenic activity of QBMR using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were treated with QBMR at doses of 0.875, 1.75, and 3.5 grams/kg per day for 8 weeks. QBMR treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by vaginal cornification, reversal of atrophy of uterus, vagina, and mammary gland, and up-regulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in the reproductive target tissues, where ERβ up-regulation was stronger than that of ERα. Meanwhile, treatment with QBMR significantly increased adrenal weight and serum estradiol levels and tended to decrease serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QBMR significantly decreased weight gain and rectal temperature increase caused by ovariectomy, and the largest changes in rectal temperature were found at the lowest dose. The data suggest that QBMR's estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QBMR components. This study demonstrates that QBMR activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QBMR treatment of post-menopausal symptoms.

  7. Determination and pharmacokinetic study of gentiopicroside, geniposide, baicalin, and swertiamarin in Chinese herbal formulae after oral administration in rats by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-12-22

    A sensitive and efficient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of gentiopicroside, geniposide, baicalin, and swertiamarin in rat plasma. To avoid the stress caused by restraint or anesthesia, a freely moving rat model was used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of herbal medicine after the administration of a traditional Chinese herbal prescription of Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang (10 g/kg, p.o.). Analytes were separated by a C18 column with a gradient system of methanol-water containing 1 mM ammonium acetate with 0.1% formic acid. The linear ranges were 10-500 ng/mL for gentiopicroside, geniposide, and baicalin, and 5-250 ng/mL for swertiamarin in biological samples. The intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) ranged from 0.9% to 11.4% and 0.3% to 14.4%, respectively. The accuracy (relative error) was from -6.3% to 10.1% at all quality control levels. The analytical system provided adequate matrix effect and recovery with good precision and accuracy. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) values of gentiopicroside, geniposide, baicalin, and swertiamarin were 1417 ± 83.8, 302 ± 25.8, 753 ± 86.2, and 2.5 ± 0.1 min µg/mL. The pharmacokinetic profiles provide constructive information for the dosage regimen of herbal medicine and also contribute to elucidate the absorption mechanism in herbal applications and pharmacological experiments.

  8. Application of two-dimensional near-infrared correlation spectroscopy to the discrimination of Chinese herbal medicine of different geographic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Xiang, Bingren; Liu, Hao; Xiang, Suyun; Xie, Shaofei; Deng, Haishan

    2008-02-01

    Fructus Lycii is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. The objective of this paper was to apply two-dimensional (2D) near-infrared (NIR) correlation spectroscopy to the discrimination of Fructus Lycii of four different geographic regions. Generalized 2D-NIR correlation spectroscopy was able to enhance spectral resolution, simplify the spectrum with overlapped bands, and provide information about temperature-induced spectral intensity variations that was hard to obtain from one-dimensional NIR spectroscopy. The 2D synchronous and asynchronous spectra showed remarkable differences within the range of 4950-5700 cm -1 between samples of different geographic regions. Using NIR instead of IR made the 2D approach more convenient and fast, and it can be applied to more area like process control. This approach can also be applied analogously to the discrimination of other Chinese herbal medicine of different geographic regions.

  9. HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients’ metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. Description HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski’s Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients’ targets databases). Conclusions A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/. PMID:23721660

  10. Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104

  11. [Regulative mechanisms of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in glomerular hypertrophy in diabetic nephropathy and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yan-ru; Wan, Yi-gang; Shen, Shan-mei; Mao, Zhi-min; Wu, Wei; Yao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy is the main pathological characteristic in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and its regulatory mechanism is closely related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. mTOR includes mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2(mTORC2), in which, the upstream pathway of mTORC1 is phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt)/adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase(AMPK), and the representative signaling molecules in the downstream pathway of mTORC1 are 4E-binding proteins(4EBP) and phosphoprotein 70 S6Kinase(p70S6K). Some Chinese herbal extracts could improve cell proliferation via intervening the expressions of the key molecules in the upstream or downstream of PIK/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in vivo. As for glomerular mesangial cells(MC) and podocyte, mTOR plays an important role in regulating glomerular inherent cells, including adjusting cell cycle, energy metabolism and matrix protein synthesis. Rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR, could suppress glomerular inherent cell hypertrophy, cell proliferation, glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and mesangial matrix deposition in model rats with DN. Some Chinese herbal extracts could alleviate glomerular lesions by intervening mTOR signaling pathway activity in renal tissue of DN animal models or in renal inherent cells in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Role of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Xianhuayin on the Reversal of Premalignant Mucosal Lesions in the Golden Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-zhi; Qiu, Yong-le; An, Zhi-guang; Yang, Feng-ying

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters. Methodology The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin. Results In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in

  13. [Survey of arsenic concentrations in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and preliminary risk assessment of As in CHMs on human health].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Ju; Lin, Ai-Jun; Liu, Yun-Xia

    2010-12-01

    Characteristics and concentrations of As in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) from Hebei province (including samples collected from fields and from medicine markets) were investigated, and the ADI (allowable daily intake) standard value from FAO/WHO was used for preliminary assessment of As risk on human health. The results showed that the average of As concentrations in different roots which were used as medicines, ranged from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.54 mg/kg,while for shoots which were used as medicines, average value of As concentrations in Dendranthema morifolium was 1.42 mg/kg, and the range in other species was from 0.09 mg/kg to 0.27 mg/kg. Based on Green Standards of Medicinal Plants and Preparations for Foreign Trade and Economy (2.0 mg/kg), the percentage of samples with As concentrations exceeding standard was 3.27% (n = 153) in roots and 9.09% (n = 44) in shoots,and 4.57% (n = 197) in total CHMs samples. As concentrations in CHMs from fields ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.73 mg/kg,which were all lower than 2.0 mg/kg. However, As concentrations in CHMs from markets ranged from 0.05 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg, and the concentrations of As in 6.36% of samples exceeded the limited standard. Arsenic concentrations in samples from markets were significantly higher than those from fields (p < 0.05). As concentrations in Compositae were distributed widely from 0.08 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg,and the average at 0.87 mg/kg,while the average of As concentrations in other six families were between 0.21 mg/kg and 0.41 mg/kg, and As levels in 75% of samples for each family were below 0.5 mg/kg. Compared to Compositae samples, the CHMs from other families have higher security. ADI regulated by FAO/WHO was used to assess As risk in CHMs on human health in this study as well. As daily intake through CHMs from markets varied from 0.90 microg/d to 19.7 microg/d, and percentages of the daily intake of As in CHMs to ADI were in the range of 0.70% to 15.4%, which indicated that As in CHMs from markets

  14. Concurrent use of veterinary drugs and herbal medicines in racing Standardbreds

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Standardbred trainers from 1 racetrack and 7 off-track training facilities were surveyed to determine the most common drugs, and prevalence of concurrent herb administration. Furosemide (on-track) and anti-inflammatory drugs (off-track) were the most common drugs administered. Among horses on-track, 9.8% received herbs compared with 13.8% off-track horses; 67% and 58% of these horses, respectively, received concurrent drugs. PMID:20190979

  15. Concurrent use of veterinary drugs and herbal medicines in racing standardbreds.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Wendy

    2009-12-01

    Standardbred trainers from 1 racetrack and 7 off-track training facilities were surveyed to determine the most common drugs, and prevalence of concurrent herb administration. Furosemide (on-track) and anti-inflammatory drugs (off-track) were the most common drugs administered. Among horses on-track, 9.8% received herbs compared with 13.8% off-track horses; 67% and 58% of these horses, respectively, received concurrent drugs.

  16. Systematic Understanding of Mechanisms of a Chinese Herbal Formula in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome by an Integrated Pharmacology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is becoming a worldwide health problem. Wendan decoction (WDD)—a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula—has been extensively employed to relieve syndromes related to MS in clinical practice in China. However, its pharmacological mechanisms still remain vague. In this study, a comprehensive approach that integrated chemomics, principal component analysis, molecular docking simulation, and network analysis was established to elucidate the multi-component and multi-target mechanism of action of WDD in treatment of MS. The compounds in WDD were found to possess chemical diversity, complexity and drug-likeness compared to MS drugs. Six nuclear receptors were obtained to have strong binding affinity with 217 compounds of five herbs in WDD. The importance roles of targets and herbs were also identified due to network parameters. Five compounds from Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata can hit all six targets, which can assist in screening new MS drugs. The pathway network analysis demonstrated that the main pharmacological effects of WDD might lie in maintaining lipid and glucose metabolisms and anticancer activities as well as immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects. This study provided a comprehensive system approach for understanding the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanisms of WDD during the treatment of MS. PMID:27999264

  17. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-04-27

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  18. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  19. Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation.

  20. [Validation of the Chinese version of "the Drug Attitude Inventory"].

    PubMed

    Cheng, H L; Yu, Y W

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Chinese version of "the Drug Attitude Inventory" and determine whether it was an effective tool for clinical evaluation. In this study, we enlisted 183 patients, 94 male and 89 female, with an average age of 34.6 years. They included outpatients, rehabilitation program patients as well as inpatients. Upon analysis of the collected data, three factors related well to the Chinese version of "the Drug Attitude Inventory", namely: subjective positive, dysphoric response, and subjective negative attitudes. In order to test the discriminant validity, we separated 53 patients into two groups, compliant and non-compliant, by appointed compliance relating to the outpatient clinic who were recent hospitalized inpatients and outpatients. These three factors correlated with each other well for most patients except for those with psychotic symptoms. These three factors demonstrated acceptable inter-item reliability (Kuder-Richardson formula 20), coefficient r and test-retest coefficient r. Construct validity was established and was capable of differentiating between compliant and non-compliant groups of patients. In short we have found the Chinese version of "the Drug Attitude Inventory" to be an effective, clinically evaluative tool. To test its predictive validity, however, further follow-up studies to determine whether these three factors discussed here can be used to predict drug compliance.

  1. nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR marker to authenticate Aconitum heterophyllum and Cyperus rotundus in Ayurvedic raw drug source and prepared herbal products.

    PubMed

    Seethapathy, Gopalakrishnan Saroja; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-02-15

    To authenticate Ayurvedic medicinal plants Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum) and Musta (Cyperus rotundus) at the raw drug source and in prepared herbal products, nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR markers were designed and validated spp.-specific SCAR primers gave amplicon of 415 bp and 134 bp, respectively, in authentic species. The SCAR primers (Cyr-FP and Cyr-RP) could identify tissue sample containing 750 μg to 4.76 mg/100mg of Musta in complex mixtures of DNA extracted from commercial herbal drugs. Ativisha could not be identified through SCAR markers suggesting that authentic species may not been used to prepare herbal drugs despite its being labelled as one of the ingredients in formulations. Analysis of individual tubers of Ativisha and Musta assures the presence of admixtures in raw drug trade of Ativisha, indicates the need to monitor the basic raw material supply and concludes, supplying plant materials through cultivation to manufacturing industries can minimize the risks of adulteration.

  2. [Pharmacovigilance idea should be introduced sufficiently into the safety monitoring and evaluation process of Chinese drugs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2009-09-01

    Along with the general improving of public consciousness on drugs' safety and the increasing of new Chinese drugs' manufacture and application, the safety of Chinese drugs has become a more prominent concern and a focus of attention. The scientific identification, analysis and evaluation of this affairs greatly impacts the scientific decision-making for ensuring the public use of drugs in security, also influences the healthy development of Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, the different meanings of "adverse reaction" and "adverse events" of Chinese drugs were introduced from pharmacovigilance idealistic view, and the influencing factors on safety of Chinese drugs were analyzed from the perspective of pharmacovigilance. The authors proposed that "Chinese medicine safety monitoring and evaluation" is a much more practical concept in consistency with the current situation. They pointed out that introducing sufficiently the concept of pharmaco vigilance idea into the safety monitoring and evaluation process is the basis for overall evaluation and effective risk controlling of Chinese drugs.

  3. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner. PMID:23822656

  4. Interference-free spectrofluorometric quantification of aristolochic acid I and aristololactam I in five Chinese herbal medicines using chemical derivatization enhancement and second-order calibration methods.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Gu, Hui-Wen; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Li; Fang, Huan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2017-03-15

    A rapid interference-free spectrofluorometric method combined with the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and the second-order calibration methods based on the alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) and the self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition (SWATLD) algorithms, was proposed for the simultaneous determination of nephrotoxic aristolochic acid I (AA-I) and aristololactam I (AL-I) in five Chinese herbal medicines. The method was based on a chemical derivatization that converts the non-fluorescent AA-I to high-fluorescent AL-I, achieving a high sensitive and simultaneous quantification of the analytes. The variables of the derivatization reaction that conducted by using zinc powder in acetose methanol aqueous solution, were studied and optimized for best quantification results of AA-I and AL-I. The satisfactory results of AA-I and AL-I for the spiked recovery assay were achieved with average recoveries in the range of 100.4-103.8% and RMSEPs <0.78ngmL(-1), which validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The contents of AA-I and AL-I in five herbal medicines obtained from the proposed method were also in good accordance with those of the validated LC-MS/MS method. In light of high sensitive fluorescence detection, the limits of detection (LODs) of AA-I and AL-I for the proposed method compare favorably with that of the LC-MS/MS method, with the LODs <0.35 and 0.29ngmL(-1), respectively. The proposed strategy based on the APTLD and SWATLD algorithms by virtue of the "second-order advantage", can be considered as an attractive and green alternative for the quantification of AA-I and AL-I in complex herbal medicine matrices without any prior separations and clear-up processes.

  5. Interference-free spectrofluorometric quantification of aristolochic acid I and aristololactam I in five Chinese herbal medicines using chemical derivatization enhancement and second-order calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Gu, Hui-Wen; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Li; Fang, Huan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2017-03-01

    A rapid interference-free spectrofluorometric method combined with the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and the second-order calibration methods based on the alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) and the self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition (SWATLD) algorithms, was proposed for the simultaneous determination of nephrotoxic aristolochic acid I (AA-I) and aristololactam I (AL-I) in five Chinese herbal medicines. The method was based on a chemical derivatization that converts the non-fluorescent AA-I to high-fluorescent AL-I, achieving a high sensitive and simultaneous quantification of the analytes. The variables of the derivatization reaction that conducted by using zinc powder in acetose methanol aqueous solution, were studied and optimized for best quantification results of AA-I and AL-I. The satisfactory results of AA-I and AL-I for the spiked recovery assay were achieved with average recoveries in the range of 100.4-103.8% and RMSEPs < 0.78 ng mL- 1, which validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The contents of AA-I and AL-I in five herbal medicines obtained from the proposed method were also in good accordance with those of the validated LC-MS/MS method. In light of high sensitive fluorescence detection, the limits of detection (LODs) of AA-I and AL-I for the proposed method compare favorably with that of the LC-MS/MS method, with the LODs < 0.35 and 0.29 ng mL- 1, respectively. The proposed strategy based on the APTLD and SWATLD algorithms by virtue of the "second-order advantage", can be considered as an attractive and green alternative for the quantification of AA-I and AL-I in complex herbal medicine matrices without any prior separations and clear-up processes.

  6. A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lan Lan Liang; Liu, Jah-Yao; Lin, Kao-Si; Liu, Yu-Shen; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Liang, Kung-Yee; Tsai, Te-Feng; Wang, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Huang, Ching-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Background Most traditional Chinese herbal formulas consist of at least four herbs. Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) is a documented eight hundred year old formula containing four herbs and has been widely used to relieve menstrual discomfort in Taiwan. However, no specific effect had been systematically evaluated. We applied Western methodology to assess its effectiveness and safety for primary dysmenorrhoea and to evaluate the compliance and feasibility for a future trial. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial was conducted in an ad hoc clinic setting at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Seventy-eight primary dysmenorrheic young women were enrolled after 326 women with self-reported menstrual discomfort in the Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan were screened by a questionnaire and subsequently diagnosed by two gynaecologists concurrently with pelvic ultrasonography. A dosage of 15 odorless capsules daily for five days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain was administered. Participants were followed with two to four cycles for an initial washout interval, one to two baseline cycles, three to four treatment cycles, and three follow-up cycles. Study outcome was pain intensity measured by using unmarked horizontal visual analog pain scale in an online daily diary submitted directly by the participants for 5 days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain of each menstrual cycle. Overall-pain was the average pain intensity among days in pain and peak-pain was the maximal single-day pain intensity. At the end of treatment, both the overall-pain and peak-pain decreased in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group and increased in the placebo group; however, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The trends persisted to follow-up phase. Statistically significant differences in both peak-pain and overall-pain appeared in the first follow-up cycle, at which

  7. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopiński, P.; Bałan, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopińska-Różewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect. PMID:23935247

  9. [Recent progress of international harmonization of crude drugs and medicinal plants--activity of FHH (The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines)].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuo

    2011-03-01

    The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH) was established in 2002. The general proposed objective of the FHH is to promote public health by recognizing and developing standards and technical guidelines that aim to improve the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. At a sub-committee meeting of FHH nomenclature and standardization held in Tokyo, all the participants recognized the importance of comparing the descriptions of herbal medicines contained in member countries' pharmacopoeias or monograph standards as the first step in the harmonization of nomenclature and standardization. It was agreed to set up five expert working groups (EWG) to carry out the following specific tasks: 1) Nomenclature, 2) Testing Methods in Monographs, 3) List of Chemical Reference Standards (CRS) and Reference of Medicinal Plant Materials (RMPM), 4) List of Analytically Validated Methods, and 5) Information on General Tests. In this review, we report four topics of FHH activities from 2002-2009 as follows: 1) Comparative study on testing methods and specification values for crude drugs used in monographs among four Western Pacific regional countries (Japan, China, Korea and Vietnam), 2) Comparative study on TLC conditions for identification, chemical assay conditions for component quantification used in monographs among the four countries, 3) Comparative study on general testing methods for crude drugs among the four countries, 4) Comparative study on TLC identification for crude drugs used in monographs among the four countries considering harmonization and clean analysis.

  10. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent

    PubMed Central

    Zierau, Oliver; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Vollmer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. PMID:25214874

  11. Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

    2013-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

  12. Quality assessment of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction, Kaixinsan, by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry: A chemical evaluation of different historical formulae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Fu, Q; Xie, Heidi Q; Xu, Sherry L; Cheung, Anna W H; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Luk, Wilson K W; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Dong, Tina T X; Jiang, Zhi Y; Chen, Ji J; Tsim, Karl W K

    2010-12-01

    Kaixinsan is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction mainly prescribed for patients suffering from mental depression. This decoction was created by Sun Si-miao of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 600) in ancient China, and was composed of four herbs: Radix and Rhizome Ginseng, Radix Polygalae, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii and Poria. Historically, this decoction has three different formulations, each recorded at a different point in time. In this study, the chemical compositions of all three Kaixinsan formulae were analyzed. By using rapid resolution LC coupled with a diode-array detector and an ESI triple quadrupole tandem MS (QQQ-MS/MS), the Radix and Rhizome Ginseng-derived ginsenosides including Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), the Radix Polygalae-derived 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, the Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii-derived α- and β-asarone and the Poria-derived pachymic acid were compared among the three different formulations. The results showed variations in the solubility of different chemicals between one formula and the others. This systematic method developed could be used for the quality assessment of this herbal decoction.

  13. A novel sensitive detection platform for antitumor herbal drug aloe-emodin based on the graphene modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Chen, Jinghua; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Lu, Chun-Hua; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2010-12-15

    This paper has presented a novel strategy to carry out direct and sensitive determination of antitumor herbal drug aloe-emodin in complex matrices based on the graphene-Nafion modified glassy carbon (GN/GC) electrode. This proposed modified electrode showed good electrochemical response towards aloe-emodin (AE). Compared with the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified electrode, the GN/GC electrode has the advantages of higher sensitivity and lower cost. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve for AE concentration was linear in the range from 5 nmol/L to 1 μmol/L with the detection limit of 2 nmol/L. In addition, the practical analytical performance of the GN/GC electrode was examined by evaluating the selective detection of AE in natural aloe extracts and human urine samples with satisfied recovery. Therefore, the GN/GC electrode may hold great promise for fast, simple and sensitive detection and biomedical analysis of AE in complex matrices.

  14. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae).

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine Baoyuan Jiedu Decoction Inhibited Muscle Atrophy of Cancer Cachexia through Atrogin-l and MuRF-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, YaNan; Han, XiaoChun; Ouyang, Bing; Wu, ZhiChun; Yu, HuaYun; Wang, Yuan; Liu, GuoWei

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine called “Baoyuan Jiedu” (BYJD for short) decoction, improving life quality and preventing muscle atrophy of cancer cachexia model mice. We showed that the effect of BYJD decoction increased body weights of mice and reduced tumor volume and tumor mass. Furthermore, BYJD decoction increased the gastrocnemii mass and the transverse diameter of muscle fiber morphology. Moreover, BYJD reduced the expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 protein. Collectively, our results show that BYJD decoction improves the life quality of cancer cachexia mice and prevents muscle atrophy by downregulating expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. PMID:28286533

  16. Selected Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicines: Their Effect on NF-κB, PPARα and PPARγ and the Respective Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, E.; Atanasov, A. G.; Fakhrudin, N.; Singhuber, J.; Namduang, U.; Heiss, E. H.; Reznicek, G.; Huck, C. W.; Bonn, G. K.; Dirsch, V. M.; Kopp, B.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicinal (CHM) extracts from fourteen plants were investigated in cell-based in vitro assays for their effect on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a key regulator of inflammation, as well as on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) being key regulators of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. 43% of the investigated CHMs showed NF-κB inhibitory and 50% PPARα and PPARγ activating effects. Apolar extracts from cortex and flos of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. and processed rhizomes of Arisaema sp. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. that effectively inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and dose-dependently activated PPARα and PPARγ were further investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation and analysis by GC-MS led to the identification of fatty acids as PPAR agonists, including linoleic and palmitic acid. PMID:22675394

  17. [Chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under six Chinese herbal medicines on Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Jun; Geng, Zeng-Chao; Yin, Jin-Yan; Wang, Hai-Tao; Ji, Peng-Fei

    2012-10-01

    This paper studied the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in different habitats of six Chinese herbal medicines, including Pyrola decorata, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Polygonatum odoratum, Potentilla glabra, Polygonum viviparum, and Potentilla fruticosa, on the Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains. In the rhizosphere soils of the herbs, the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus and the soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) were higher, presenting an obvious rhizosphere aggregation, and the soil enzyme activities also showed an overall stronger characteristics, compared with those in non-rhizosphere soils. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the rhizosphere soils had significant positive correlations with soil neutral phosphatase activity, and the soil CEC had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. In the non-rhizosphere soils, the soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil urease, catalase and neutral phosphatase, and the soil CEC showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of soil urease, catalase, neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The comprehensive fertility level of the rhizosphere soils was higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils, and the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of P. fruticosa, P. viviparum, and P. glabra had higher comprehensive fertility level than those of P. decorata, P. odoratum and C. fortunei. In the evaluation of the fertility levels of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under the six Chinese herbal medicines, soil organic matter content and CEC played important roles, and soil neutral phosphatase could be the preferred soil enzyme indicator.

  18. Comparative evaluation of fosinopril and herbal drug Dioscorea bulbifera in patients of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, R G; Rajak, M; Ghosh, B; Agrawal, A; Dubey, G P

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide, diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure. This hospital-based single-center prospective open-label randomized case-control interventional study was performed to evaluate and compare the native drug Dioscorea bulbifera with fosinopril in the management of diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria >500 mg/day or albuminuria >300 mg/ day, S Cr ≤2.5 mg/dL and hypertension controlled with a single drug were included into the study and were divided into three groups according to the interventional drugs that they were given; group A (n = 46) on fosinopril (5-40 mg/day), group B (n = 45) on Dioscorea bulbifera (500 mg BD) and group C (n = 46) on neither of these drugs. All necessary laboratory investigations needed to assess the effect of both the drugs were carried out. Patients were followed-up for six months. The study included 137 patients (M:F 2.61:1) with an age range of 19-76 years. At the sixth-month follow-up, a significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure was noted in all three groups whereas the diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in group B. There was significantly better control of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in group B than in the other groups. Although fasting blood sugar was poorly controlled in the initial visit in all three groups, there was a significant decrease at the sixth-month follow-up in all three groups. Moreover, the decrease was significantly more pronounced in group B than in the other two groups. Low-density lipoprotein decreased significantly only in group B. Proteinuria, serum transforming growth factor-β, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein decreased in both group A and group B, more so in the latter, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Importantly, proteinuria and serum IL-6 showed an increasing trend in group C. It can be concluded that Dioscorea bulbifera was more

  19. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2 h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

  20. Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy Improves Survival of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-05-01

    Utilization of Chinese Medicine (CM) is not uncommon in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the current knowledge of the usage and efficacy of CM among CLL patients is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of integrative Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on the disease course of CLL and ascertain the herbal products most commonly prescribed to patients with CLL.A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study involving the use of Western medicine and CM services provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) was conducted.An NHI Research Database-based cohort study was performed; the timeframe of the study was January 2000 to December 2010. The end of the follow-up period was defined as December 31, 2011.A total of 808 patients were diagnosed with CLL in Taiwan within the defined study period. After randomly matching for age and sex and excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, data from 616 patients were analyzed.The 2 study groups both received standard of care treatment. In addition, 1 group also received CHM. Patients who were registered as receiving other forms of CM, such as acupuncture, were excluded.Hazard ratios of mortality were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products.In total, 616 CLL patients were included in the analyses. We found that the HR associated with the adjunctive use of CHM was less than half when compared to the non-CHM group (0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55, P < 0.0001) and that treatment-naive patients who used CHM had the lowest HR. We also established that this association between reduction in HR and CHM was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.001).We supplied data from a relatively large population that spanned a significant amount of time. Our data suggests that the treatment of CLL with adjunctive CHM may have a substantial positive impact on mortality, especially for treatment-naive patients

  1. Old and new oral anticoagulants: Food, herbal medicines and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Di Minno, Alessandro; Frigerio, Beatrice; Spadarella, Gaia; Ravani, Alessio; Sansaro, Daniela; Amato, Mauro; Kitzmiller, Joseph P; Pepi, Mauro; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano

    2017-02-05

    The most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulants worldwide are the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of VKAs are important because deviations from their narrow therapeutic window can result in bleedings due to over-anticoagulation or thrombosis because of under-anticoagulation. In addition to pharmacodynamic interactions (e.g., augmented bleeding risk for concomitant use of NSAIDs), interactions with drugs, foods, herbs, and over-the-counter medications may affect the risk/benefit ratio of VKAs. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) including Factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) are poised to replace warfarin. Phase-3 studies and real-world evaluations have established that the safety profile of DOACs is superior to those of VKAs. However, some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions are expected. Herein we present a critical review of VKAs and DOACs with focus on their potential for interactions with drugs, foods, herbs and over-the-counter medications.

  2. Fixed herbal drug combination with and without butterbur (Ze 185) for the treatment of patients with somatoform disorders: randomized, placebo-controlled pharmaco-clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jörg; Schrader, Ewald; Brattström, Axel; Schellenberg, Rüdiger; Saller, Reinhard

    2009-09-01

    Herbal drugs are often used in patients with somatoform disorders yet, the available evidence is limited. The aim of the present short-term study was to evaluate in a pharmaco-clinical trial the additional benefit of butterbur in a fixed herbal drug combination (Ze 185 = 4-combination versus 3-combination without butterbur and placebo) in patients with somatoform disorders.For a 2-week treatment in patients with somatization disorder (F45.0) and undifferentiated somatoform disorder (F45.1), 182 patients were randomized for a 3-arm trial (butterbur root, valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus placebo). Anxiety (visual analogue scale - VAS) and depression (Beck's Depression Inventory - BDI) served as primary parameters, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was a secondary parameter.The 4-combination was significantly superior to the 3-combination and placebo (4-combination > 3-combination > placebo) in all the primary and secondary parameters (PP-population). Analysis of the ITT population confirmed these results. As to safety, no serious adverse events occurred. In total 9 non-serious adverse events were documented but the distribution did not differ significantly between the treatment groups.This herbal preparation (Ze185) showed to be an efficacious and safe short-term treatment in patients with somatoform disorders.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of a Chinese Herbal Formula (Invigorating Kidney and Strengthening Spleen) in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Carrier: Results from a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinsong; Zhou, Daqiao; Tong, Guangdong; Xing, Yufeng; Chen, Yingjie; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhan, Bolin; Gao, Hui; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Xiong, Yiqun; Liu, Xinliang; Peng, Lisheng; Qiu, Mei; Zheng, Yingjun

    2013-01-01

    A Chinese Herbal Formula (CHF) has acquired a certain therapeutic effect on chronic HBV infection. To assess the efficacy and safety of CHF on HBV replication in chronic HBV carriers, we performed a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial involving patients from 16 centers. A total of 300 confirmed chronic HBV carriers were randomized at baseline in a ratio of 2 : 1 to receive either CHF or placebo for 52 weeks. The results showed that a greater proportion of CHF than placebo treated patients achieved virological response at week 52; the mean decline of serum HBsAg levels in the CHF group dropped more obviously than that in the control group at all stages of the treatment; however, the rates of HBeAg loss and seroconversion had no difference between the two groups. Meanwhile, were presented significant increases in IFN-γ; IL-2 levels and reductions in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the treatment group compared to the control group at week 52. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, the treatment with 52-week CHF is safe and effective in inhibiting HBV replication in chronic HBV carriers. The ability of the compound to modulate host immune function probably contributed to this effect. PMID:23935692

  4. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  5. Targeting PML-RARα and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways by Chinese Herbal Mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia NB4 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chih-Jung; Yang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Shuang-En; Yan, Jiann-Long; Liu, Chun-Yen; Chen, Suz-Wen; Yan, Kun-Huang; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Lai, Gi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL) is a Chinese herbal mixture that has been used worldwide as complementary treatment for cancer patients in the past decade. Recently, THL has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of solid tumor cells in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well elucidated. In this study, we explored the effects of THL on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells, which could be effectively treated by some traditional Chinese remedies containing arsenic trioxide. The results showed THL could induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in NB4 cells. Accordingly, the decrease of cyclin A and B1 were observed in THL-treated cells. The THL-induced apoptosis was accompanied with caspase-3 activation and decrease of PML-RARα fusion protein. Moreover, DNA methyltransferase 1 and oncogenic signaling pathways such as Akt/mTOR, Stat3 and ERK were also down-regulated by THL. By using ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography, an active fraction of THL named as EAS5 was isolated. At about 0.5–1% of the dose of THL, EAS5 appeared to have most of THL-induced multiple molecular targeting effects in NB4 cells. Based on the findings of these multi-targeting effects, THL might be regarding as a complementary and alternative therapeutic agent for refractory APL. PMID:19897545

  6. Chinese Herbal Decoction Based on Syndrome Differentiation as Maintenance Therapy in Patients with Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Exploratory and Small Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; He, Shu lin; Zhao, Yuan chen; Zheng, Hong gang; Li, Cong huang; Bao, Yan ju; Qin, Ying gang; Hou, Wei; Hua, Bao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the treatment effect and treatment length of Chinese herbal decoction (CHD) as maintenance therapy on patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) and to reflect the real syndrome differentiation (Bian Zheng) practices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Patients and Methods. Different CHDs were prescribed for each patient based on syndrome differentiation. The length of CHD treatment was divided into two phases for analyzing progression-free survival (PFS) and postprogression survival (PPS). Results. Three hundred and fifty-seven CHDs were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation during the study period. Median PFS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >3 months than patients who received CHD ≤3 months in the first phase (8.7 months versus 4.5 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41–0.99; P = 0.0009). Median PPS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >7 months than patients who received CHD ≤7 months in the second phase (11.7 months versus 5.1 months; HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.90–2.74; P = 0.002). Conclusion. CHD could improve PFS and PPS, which are closely related to treatment time and deepness of response of first-line therapy. In addition, CHD could improve body function and keep patients in a relatively stable state. PMID:25815038

  7. Chinese herbal decoction based on syndrome differentiation as maintenance therapy in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: an exploratory and small prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; He, Shu Lin; Zhao, Yuan Chen; Zheng, Hong Gang; Li, Cong Huang; Bao, Yan Ju; Qin, Ying Gang; Hou, Wei; Hua, Bao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the treatment effect and treatment length of Chinese herbal decoction (CHD) as maintenance therapy on patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) and to reflect the real syndrome differentiation (Bian Zheng) practices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Patients and Methods. Different CHDs were prescribed for each patient based on syndrome differentiation. The length of CHD treatment was divided into two phases for analyzing progression-free survival (PFS) and postprogression survival (PPS). Results. Three hundred and fifty-seven CHDs were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation during the study period. Median PFS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >3 months than patients who received CHD ≤3 months in the first phase (8.7 months versus 4.5 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.99; P = 0.0009). Median PPS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >7 months than patients who received CHD ≤7 months in the second phase (11.7 months versus 5.1 months; HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.90-2.74; P = 0.002). Conclusion. CHD could improve PFS and PPS, which are closely related to treatment time and deepness of response of first-line therapy. In addition, CHD could improve body function and keep patients in a relatively stable state.

  8. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles.

  9. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, J E; Roufogalis, B D; Chrubasik, S

    2007-07-01

    Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in Europe. In order to get information on the evidence of effectiveness of oral herbal medicines in the treatment of pain in the joints or lower back, OVID(MEDLINE), PUBMED and COCHRANE COLLABORATION LIBRARY were searched back to 1985 for systematic reviews. The level of evidence of effectiveness was defined as strong - at least two confirmatory studies demonstrating a clinical relevant effect, moderate - one confirmatory study with a clinical relevant effect and/or multiple exploratory studies of good quality; otherwise the evidence was insufficient or conflicting in the case of inconsistent findings. Fifteen systematic reviews were identified. The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing > 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract. Further rigorous studies are required to confirm the usefulness of herbal medicines in the treatment of osteoarthritic complaints and chronic low back pain in order to enable acceptance of the herbal medicines into the treatment guidelines.

  10. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  11. Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cathy W C; Xu, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Jian; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Lau, Chi Wai; Lau, David T W; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Huang, Yu; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-01-01

    Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS) were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+) and a reduction of ROS.

  12. Hepatoprotective Effects of a Chinese Herbal Formula, Longyin Decoction, on Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunguang; Zhang, Tie; Cui, Xuemei; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Xinghua; Zhong, Xiuhui

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish poultry liver injury model induced by (CCl4) and seek effective hepatoprotective herbals for clinical application. Different doses of CCl4 dissolved in vegetable oil (1 : 1, V/V) were injected via pectoral muscle to induce acute liver injury model in chickens. An herbal formula, Longyin decoction, was prepared for hepatoprotection test on chicken acute liver injury models. The pathologic changes of the liver were observed, and the activities of ALT and AST were, respectively, detected to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Longyin decoction on chickens. The chicken acute liver injury model was successfully established by injecting CCl4 via pectoral muscle. The best dose of CCl4 inducing chicken liver injury was 4.0 mL/kg·BW (body weight). The results of qualitative determination by HPTLC showed that the components of Longyin decoction contained Gentian, Capillaries, Gardenia, and Bupleurum root. In the high-dose Longyin group and the middle-dose Longyin group, the pathological changes of the damaged liver were mitigated and the activities of ALT and AST in serum were reduced significantly. Longyin decoction has obvious hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injury induced by CCl4. PMID:23533478

  13. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  14. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  15. Pharmacophore, QSAR, and binding mode studies of substrates of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) using molecular docking and virtual mutations and an application to chinese herbal medicine screening.

    PubMed

    Mo, Sui-Lin; Liu, Wei-Feng; Li, Chun-Guang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Luo, Hai-Bin; Chew, Helen; Liang, Jun; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2012-07-01

    The highly polymorphic human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes about 25% of currently used drugs. In this study, we have explored the interaction of a large number of substrates (n = 120) with wild-type and mutated CYP2D6 by molecular docking using the CDOCKER module. Before we conducted the molecular docking and virtual mutations, the pharmacophore and QSAR models of CYP2D6 substrates were developed and validated. Finally, we explored the interaction of a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Fangjifuling decoction, with CYP2D6 by virtual screening. The optimized pharmacophore model derived from 20 substrates of CYP2D6 contained two hydrophobic features and one hydrogen bond acceptor feature, giving a relevance ratio of 76% when a validation set of substrates were tested. However, our QSAR models gave poor prediction of the binding affinity of substrates. Our docking study demonstrated that 117 out of 120 substrates could be docked into the active site of CYP2D6. Forty one out of 117 substrates (35.04%) formed hydrogen bonds with various active site residues of CYP2D6 and 53 (45.30%) substrates formed a strong π-π interaction with Phe120 (53/54), with only carvedilol showing π-π interaction with Phe483. The active site residues involving hydrogen bond formation with substrates included Leu213, Lys214, Glu216, Ser217, Gln244, Asp301, Ser304, Ala305, Phe483, and Phe484. Furthermore, the CDOCKER algorithm was further applied to study the impact of mutations of 28 active site residues (mostly non-conserved) of CYP2D6 on substrate binding modes using five probe substrates including bufuralol, debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, sparteine, and tramadol. All mutations of the residues examined altered the hydrogen bond formation and/or aromatic interactions, depending on the probe used in molecular docking. Apparent changes of the binding modes have been observed with the Glu216Asp and Asp301Glu mutants. Overall, 60 compounds out of 130 from Fangjifuling decoction

  16. Inhibition of Release of Vasoactive and Inflammatory Mediators in Airway and Vascular Tissues and Macrophages By a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula for Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie Changli; Thien, Francis Chung Kong; Story, David Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Herbal therapies are being used increasingly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pharmacological actions and cellular targets of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101), which was previously shown to be effective in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rat and guinea pig isolated tissues (trachea and aorta) were used to study the effects of RCM-101 on responses to various mediators. Production of leukotriene B4 in porcine neutrophils and of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO) in Raw 264.7 cells were also measured. In rat and guinea pig tracheal preparations, RCM-101 inhibited contractile responses to compound 48/80 but not those to histamine (guinea pig preparations) or serotonin (rat preparations). Contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal preparations to carbachol and leukotriene C4, and relaxant responses to substance P and prostaglandin E2 were not affected by RCM-101. In rat aortic preparations, precontracted with phenylephrine, endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were not affected by RCM-101. However, RCM-101 inhibited relaxations to l-arginine in endothelium-denuded rat aortic preparations, which had been pre-incubated with lipopolysaccharide. RCM-101 did not affect leukotriene B4 formation in isolated porcine neutrophils, induced by the calcium ionophore A23187; however, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells).The findings indicate that RCM-101 may have multiple inhibitory actions on the release and/or synthesis of inflammatory mediators involved in allergic rhinitis. PMID:17549238

  17. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  20. Factors related to Psychosocial Barriers to Drug Treatment among Chinese Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Liu, Tieqiao; Zhang, Guanbai; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2014-01-01

    Although substance abuse treatment has been considerably scaled up in China, impediments to accessing these services remain among drug users. The authors examine the primary psychosocial barriers to drug treatment in this population and evaluate factors associated with these barriers. Barriers to accessing drug treatment were measured using the Barriers to Treatment Inventory (BTI). A Structural Equation Model was used to examine whether the internal barriers were associated with treatment history and frequent methamphetamine use as well as how demographic characteristics influence such barriers. We found four primary factors of internal barriers to drug treatment – absence of problem, negative social support, fear of treatment, and privacy concerns – to fit well. Demographic factors, notably age and employment status, indirectly influence barriers to treatment via other factors. Frequency of methamphetamine use and drug treatment history are directly associated with the absence of problem and negative social support dimensions of the BTI, and it is through these pathways that demographic factors such as age and employment status shape barriers to treatment. The findings indicate that perceived absence of a problem and negative social support are the barriers most influenced by the personal domains of Chinese drug users’ lives. Efforts to engage drug users in China about drug treatment options may consider how these barriers are differentially perceived in order to effectively reach this population. PMID:24813554

  1. Network target for screening synergistic drug combinations with application to traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multicomponent therapeutics offer bright prospects for the control of complex diseases in a synergistic manner. However, finding ways to screen the synergistic combinations from numerous pharmacological agents is still an ongoing challenge. Results In this work, we proposed for the first time a “network target”-based paradigm instead of the traditional "single target"-based paradigm for virtual screening and established an algorithm termed NIMS (Network target-based Identification of Multicomponent Synergy) to prioritize synergistic agent combinations in a high throughput way. NIMS treats a disease-specific biological network as a therapeutic target and assumes that the relationship among agents can be transferred to network interactions among the molecular level entities (targets or responsive gene products) of agents. Then, two parameters in NIMS, Topology Score and Agent Score, are created to evaluate the synergistic relationship between each given agent combinations. Taking the empirical multicomponent system traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an illustrative case, we applied NIMS to prioritize synergistic agent pairs from 63 agents on a pathological process instanced by angiogenesis. The NIMS outputs can not only recover five known synergistic agent pairs, but also obtain experimental verification for synergistic candidates combined with, for example, a herbal ingredient Sinomenine, which outperforms the meet/min method. The robustness of NIMS was also showed regarding the background networks, agent genes and topological parameters, respectively. Finally, we characterized the potential mechanisms of multicomponent synergy from a network target perspective. Conclusions NIMS is a first-step computational approach towards identification of synergistic drug combinations at the molecular level. The network target-based approaches may adjust current virtual screen mode and provide a systematic paradigm for facilitating the development of

  2. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: Herb–drug interactions mediated via P-gp

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue Hu, Jinping Wang, Baolian Sheng, Li Liu, Zhihao Yang, Shuang Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb–drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F{sub 1} [20(S)-GF{sub 1}] exhibited significant inhibition (> 50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC{sub 50} = 9.42 μM), followed by 18β-GA (IC{sub 50} = 21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF{sub 1} (IC{sub 50} = 76.08 μM) and DAG (IC{sub 50} = 77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure–inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC{sub 0−t} and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF{sub 1} and Rh{sub 1} at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb–drug interactions in humans. - Highlights: • Emodin, 18

  3. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  4. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  5. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  6. Authentication of Chinese crude drug gecko by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hai-Feng; Xia, Yun; Penga, Rui; Mo, Bang-Hui; Li, Li; Zenga, Xiao-Mao

    2011-01-01

    Gekko gecko, an animal used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for over 2000 years. Due to localized habitat destruction, the amount of G. gecko has dramatically decreased in recent years. As a result, more and more adulterants have been detected in the traditional medicine, which has resulted in a chaotic market. Therefore, a correct identification method is badly needed. In this study, we employed a new molecular method of DNA barcoding for discriminating gecko from its adulterants. Fifty-seven specimens of gecko and its adulterants were collected as test samples. The full-barcode and mini-barcode sequences of these specimens were separately amplified and sequenced separately. Together with other published barcode sequences, we detected that the intra-specific sequence diversity was far lower than the inter-specific diversity in G. gecko and its adulterants (3% compared with 35% in full-length barcode; 4% compared with 33.5% in mini-barcode). These results showed that both the full-length and mini-barcodes were effective for identifying gecko, which suggested that the DNA barcode could be an effective and powerful tool for identifying the Chinese crude drug gecko.

  7. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Improvement of Quality of Life in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    An, Xuedong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.; Lin, Lin; Xu, Yinji

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This study evaluates published clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that employ a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome measure. Methods Searches were conducted in April 2011 on MEDLINE®, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL, Scopus, and Chinese databases (CNKI, CQVIP, WANFANG). Randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM formulae or single herb, with or without blinding, compared to placebo, no treatment, routine pharmacotherapy control, or CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy, with a HRQoL questionnaire as an outcome measure were identified. The methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Results A total of 27 studies involving 1966 patients were identified. St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) or Cai's QoLQ were used in 13 and 14 studies, respectively. Assessment of the Cochrane risk of bias revealed adequate sequence of generation in 10 studies and adequate allocation concealment in 1 study; double blinding was not described adequately in any studies. Seventeen (17) studies addressed incomplete outcome data, and 17 studies were free of selective reporting. The main results of meta-analysis showed improvement of total HRQoL scores (SGRQ and Cai's QoLQ) when CHM was compared to no treatment (−6.07 [−9.21, −2.93] and −0.20 [−32, −0.07], respectively) and for CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy (−5.15 [−7.26, −3.05]) and (−0.25 [−0.37, −0.13]). Conclusions While the results of CHM on HRQoL for stable COPD sufferers were promising, they need to be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems, which should be addressed in future trials. PMID:22803654

  8. Long-term treatment with a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula produces generalized tissue protection against oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Siu, Ada Hoi Ling; Chen, Na; Poon, Michel K T; Ko, Kam Ming

    2008-02-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that long-term treatment with Vigconic 28 (VI-28), a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula used for the promotion of overall wellness in Chinese medicine, can enhance the mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity in various tissues of both male and female rats. To investigate whether the VI-28 treatment regimen could afford tissue protection against oxidative injury, the effects of long-term VI-28 treatment (80 or 240 mg/kg/d x 30) on oxidative stress-induced tissue damage in various organs (brain, heart, liver, and kidney) were examined in female rats. The results indicated that long-term VI-28 treatment invariably protected against oxidative tissue damage in the rat models of cerebral/myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, CCl4 hepatotoxicity, and gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The tissue protection was associated with increases in the levels and activities of mitochondrial antioxidant components as well as with the preservation of mitochondrial structural integrity. This was evidenced by decreases in the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-induced permeability transition, and in the levels of mitochondrial malondialdehyde production, Ca2+ loading, and cytochrome c release in the tissues examined. Interestingly, the VI-28 treatment increased red cell CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) levels, and these levels correlated positively with the degree of tissue protection afforded by long-term VI-28 treatment in rats. The generalized tissue protection afforded by long-term VI-28 treatment may have clinical implications in the prevention of age-related diseases, and VI-28 treatment may possibly delay the aging process.

  9. Associations between prescribed Chinese herbal medicine and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lin, I -Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are reported to exhibit higher risk of subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear if Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), an important category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), may lower HCC risk in this population. So this study aimed to investigate the effects of CHM on HCC risk among patients with CHB. Methods This cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 21 020 newly diagnosed patients with CHB from 1998 to 2007. Among them, 8640 received CHM products after CHB onset (CHM users), and the remaining 12 380 patients were designated as a control group (non-CHM users). All enrolees were followed until the end of 2012 to measure the incidence rate and HR of HCC. Results During 15 years of follow-up, 371 CHM users and 958 non-CHM users developed HCC, representing an incidence rate of 5.28% and 10.18% per 1000 person-years, respectively. CHM users had significantly lower HCC risk compared with non-CHM users (adjusted HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.72). The predominant effect was observed in those receiving CHM products for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52). Some CHM products, such as Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Isatis tinctoria, Yi Guan Jian, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Wu Ling San and Gan Lu Yin, were significantly associated with lower risk of HCC. Conclusions The use of CHM was associated with a significantly reduced HCC risk in patients with CHB, which supports the integration of TCM with CHM into clinical practice to influence a favourable prognosis. PMID:28122837

  10. Preventive Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities on Sciatic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengsong; Bian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hong; Jia, Aiming

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia and hypoxia are important physiological changes in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Chinese herbal medicine prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities (TDFE) is useful for increasing blood flow. To help determine whether TDFE could protect the peripheral nerves of diabetic patients from the degeneration caused by high blood glucose, TDFE was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 6 or 12 weeks. Plantar thermal stimulation reaction time thresholds, sciatic nerve conduction velocities, and the levels of HIF-1α mRNA, HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and the endothelial marker vWF in sciatic nerves were measured at the end of the sixth and twelfth weeks. The thermal thresholds and sciatic nerve conduction velocities of the rats differed after 12 weeks, and the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats that were given TDFE displayed higher levels of HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and HIF-1α mRNA than those of the diabetic model rats. The results at 6 weeks differed from those at 12 weeks. These results suggest that the early preventive application of TDFE effectively delayed the development of DPN and that TDFE increased HIF-1α mRNA levels in the sciatic nerves of diabetic rats through 12 weeks of treatment. PMID:27057201

  11. Fuzhisan, a chinese herbal medicine, suppresses beta-secretase gene transcription via upregulation of SIRT1 expression in N2a-APP695 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ran; Wang, Ye; Pan, Qingge; Huang, Gaoya; Li, Nan; Mou, Jing; Wang, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide plaques is the major pathogenic event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves APP at the first amino acid of the Aβ domain and is the rate-limiting enzyme for Aβ peptide generation, the level of this aspartic protease is a focus of AD research. Fuzhisan (FZS), a Chinese herbal complex prescription that has been used for the treatment of AD for over 20 years, is known to enhance metabolic activity and cognitive ability in aged rats and AD patients. To confirm whether FZS’s therapeutic effect related to BACE1 pathway, we investigated the intracellular molecules expression change after FZS treatment in N2a-APP695 cell line. In this study, we demonstrated that BACE1 transcription and translation were reduced, and SIRT1 expression was elevated in the N2a-APP695 cells treated with FZS. The therapeutic efficacy of FZS in AD may be derived from the downregulation of BACE1 expression. PMID:26221262

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26699542

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine Fuzheng Kang-Ai Decoction Inhibited Lung Cancer Cell Growth through AMPKα-Mediated Induction and Interplay of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Xiong; Tang, Qing; Yang, LiJun; Yang, Xiaobing; Wu, WanYin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the actions of Chinese herbal medicine, called “Fuzheng Kang-Ai” (FZKA for short) decoction, against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. We showed that the effect of FZKA decoction significantly inhibited growth of A549 and PC9 cells. Furthermore, FZKA increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and induced protein expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and forkhead homeobox type O3a (FOXO3a). The specific inhibitor of AMPKα (Compound C) blocked FZKA-induced protein expression of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a. Interestingly, silencing of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a overcame the inhibitory effect of FZKA on cell growth. Moreover, silencing of IGFBP1 attenuated the effect of FZKA decoction on FOXO3a expression, and exogenous expression of FOXO3a enhanced the FZKA-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPKα. Accordingly, FZKA inhibited the tumor growth in xenograft nude mice model. Collectively, our results show that FZKA decoction inhibits proliferation of NSCLC cells through activation of AMPKα, followed by induction of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a proteins. Exogenous expression of FOXO3a feedback enhances FZKA decoction-stimulated IGFBP1 expression and phosphorylation of AMPKα. The reciprocal interplay of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a contribute to the overall responses of FAKA decoction. PMID:27057199

  14. Identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines from Zingiberaceae Family Using Feature Extraction and Cascade Classifier Based on Response Signals from E-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lian; Zou, Hui-Qin; Bauer, Rudolf; Liu, Yong; Tao, Ou; Yan, Su-Rong; Han, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) by human experience is often inaccurate because individual ability and external factors may influence the outcome. However, it might be promising to employ an electronic nose (E-nose) to identify them. This paper presents a rapid and reliable method for identification of ten different species of CHMs from Zingiberaceae family based on their response signals from E-nose. Ten Zingiberaceae CHMs were measured and their maximum response values were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Result shows that E Zhu (Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.) and Yi Zhi (Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.) could not be distinguished completely by PCA. Two solutions were proposed: (i) using BestFirst+CfsSubsetEval (BC) method to extract more discriminative features to select sensors with higher contribution rate and remove the redundant signals; (ii) employing a novel cascade classifier with two stages to enhance the distinguishing-positive rate (DPR). Based on these strategies, six features were extracted and used in different stages of the cascade classifier with higher DPRs. PMID:25114708

  15. Determination and comparison of mineral elements in traditional Chinese herbal formulae at different decoction times used to improve kidney function--chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Archana; Xu, Hong; Millikan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal formulae Liu wei di huang (LW) (six-ingredient pill with Rehmannia) and Jin gui shen qi wan (JG) (kidney Qi pill from the golden cabinet) were analysed for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, K and Zn at different decoction intervals by atomic absorption spectroscopy. LW and JG were used to improve the kidney function. JG was higher in all elements than LW. K (1691.29 - 2372.71 mg l(-1)) was highest in both formulae LW and JG followed by Ca (245.31 - 562.91 mg l(-1)). Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and K were highest at 40 min for LW and Fe, Mn, Na and K were highest at 40 min for JG. Chemometrics such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminate analysis were applied to classify the data and to understand the relation between the elements. Metal intake related to the consumption of decoction has also been studied. Mn made the highest contribution to average daily dietary intakes from the formulae.

  16. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Lung; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Wu, Chien-Tung; Lai, Jung-Nien

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs) containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX) users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC) survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox's proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors. PMID:25815031

  17. Identification of powdered Chinese herbal medicines by fluorescence microscopy, Part 1: Fluorescent characteristics of mechanical tissues, conducting tissues, and ergastic substances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Qiong; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Li, Qin; Yang, Hua; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Li, Ping

    2011-03-01

    The light microscope has been successfully used in identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for more than a century. However, positive identification is not always possible. Given the popularity of fluorescence microscopy in bioanalysis, researchers dedicated to finding new ways to identify CHMs more effectively are now turning to fluorescence microscopy for authentication purposes. Some studies on distinguishing confused species from the same genus and on exploring distributions of chemicals in tissues of CHMs by fluorescence microscopy have been reported; however, no systematic investigations on fluorescent characteristics of powdered CHMs have been reported. Here, 46 samples of 16 CHMs were investigated. Specifically, the mechanical tissues including stone cells and fibers, the conducting tissues including three types of vessels, and ergastic substances including crystals of calcium oxalate and secretions, in various powdered CHMs were investigated by both light microscope and fluorescence microscope. The results showed many microscopic features emit fluorescence that makes them easily observed, even against complex backgrounds. Under the fluorescence microscope, different microscopic features from the same powdered CHM or some same features from different powdered CHMs emitted the different fluorescence, making this information very helpful for the authentication of CHMs in powder form. Moreover, secretions with unique chemical profiles from different powdered CHMs showed different fluorescent characteristics. Hence, fluorescence microscopy could be a useful additional method for the authentication of powdered CHMs if the fluorescent characteristics of specific CHMs are known.

  18. Extraction and purification of a lectin from red kidney bean and preliminary immune function studies of the lectin and four Chinese herbal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yufang; Hou, Yubao; Yanyan, Liu; Qin, Guang; Li, Jichang

    2010-01-01

    Reversed micelles were used to extract lectin from red kidney beans and factors affecting reverse micellar systems (pH value, ionic strength and extraction time) were studied. The optimal conditions were extraction at pH 4-6, back extraction at pH 9-11, ion strength at 0.15 M NaCl, extraction for 4-6 minutes and back extraction for 8 minutes. The reverse micellar system was compared with traditional extraction methods and demonstrated to be a time-saving method for the extraction of red kidney bean lectin. Mitogenic activity of the lectin was reasonably good compared with commercial phytohemagglutinin (extracted from Phaseolus vulgaris) Mitogenic properties of the lectin were enhanced when four Chinese herbal polysaccharides were applied concurrently, among which 50 μg/mL Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharides (APS) with 12.5 μg/mL red kidney bean lectin yielded the highest mitogenic activity and 100 mg/kg/bw APS with 12.5 mg/kg/bw red kidney bean lectin elevated mouse nonspecific immunity.

  19. JCM-16021, a Chinese Herbal Formula, Attenuated Visceral Hyperalgesia in TNBS-Induced Postinflammatory Irritable Bowel Syndrome through Reducing Colonic EC Cell Hyperplasia and Serotonin Availability in Rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Leung, Fung-Ping; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Justin C Y; Sung, Joseph J Y; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of JCM-16021, a revised traditional Chinese herbal formula, on postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) in rats. The trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid-induced PI-IBS model rats were orally administrated with different doses of JCM-16021 (1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 g/kg/d) for 14 consecutive days. The results showed that JCM-16021 treatment dose-dependently attenuated visceral hyperalgesia in PI-IBS rats. Further, the colonic enterochromaffin (EC) cell number, serotonin (5-HT) content, tryptophan hydroxylase expression, and mechanical-stimuli-induced 5-HT release were significantly ameliorated. Moreover, the decreased levels of mucosal cytokines in PI-IBS, especially the helper T-cell type 1- (T(h)1-) related cytokine TNF-α, were also elevated after JCM-16021 treatment. These data demonstrate that the analgesic effect of JCM-16021 on TNBS-induced PI-IBS rats may be medicated via reducing colonic EC cell hyperplasia and 5-HT availability.

  20. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S. H.; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  1. Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-106) for atopic dermatitis: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C; Chen, Dacan; Da Costa, Cliff; Lenon, George B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin rash that greatly affects quality of life. The current therapies are inadequate in managing atopic dermatitis and often have associated adverse effects or drug tolerance development. Chinese medicine is expected to have promising prospects in the management of atopic dermatitis and recent studies have shown encouraging results. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a newly formulated Chinese herbal formula, RMIT Chinese Medicine-106 (RCM-106), in the management of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in children aged 6–18 years. Methods The study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-armed clinical trial. Participant, investigator and assessors will remain blinded to the treatment assignment until after the study has been completed. After a 2-week run-in period, 90 participants will be randomised, using block randomised sequences generated by computer, to receive either RCM-106 or matching placebo capsules, twice daily, for a treatment period of 8 weeks and followed up for 4 weeks. Primary outcome measures include the evaluation of disease severity and extent using two validated scoring instruments—Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Patient-Oriented Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD). Secondary outcome measures include the evaluation of quality of life using the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI); occurrence of adverse events and total usage of other therapies as recorded in the participants’ daily diary and laboratory studies which include eosinophil count, total IgE, full blood count and liver and kidney function tests. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied to all data analyses. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received human ethics approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) of RMIT University (Project number 15/12). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at the

  3. [Indirect determination of rare earth elements in Chinese herbal medicines by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Lu, Jian-Ping; Xue, Min-Hua; Tan, Fang-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    Based on their similarity in chemical properties, rare earth elements were able to form stable coordinated compounds with arsenazo III which were extractable into butanol in the presence of diphenylguanidine. The butanol was removed under reduced pressure distillation; the residue was dissolved with diluted hydrochloric acid. As was released with the assistance of KMnO4 and determined by hydrogen generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry in terms of rare earth elements. When cesium sulfate worked as standard solution, extraction conditions, KMnO4 amount, distillation temperature, arsenazo III amount, interfering ions, etc were optimized. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated using national standard certified materials, showing a good agreement. Under optimum condition, the linear relationship located in 0.2-25 microg x mL(-1) and detection limit was 0.44 microg x mL(-1). After the herbal samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, the rare earth elements were determined by this method, showing satisfactory results with relative standard deviation of 1.3%-2.5%, and recoveries of 94.4%-106.0%. The method showed the merits of convenience and rapidness, simple instrumentation and high accuracy. With the rare earths enriched into organic phase, the separation of analytes from matrix was accomplished, which eliminated the interference. With the residue dissolved by diluted hydrochloric acid after the solvent was removed, aqueous sample introduction eliminated the impact of organic phase on the tubing connected to pneumatic pump.

  4. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  5. Herbal supplements: Facts and myths--talking to your patients about herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Messina, Barbara Ann M

    2006-08-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the United States is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions. These potential drug interactions are of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia. This article provides a review of literature on the 10 most popular herbal supplements and addresses the herbal supplements' reported use, possible adverse effect(s), patient teaching, possible drug interaction(s), and recommendations regarding discontinuation before surgery.

  6. [Discovery, research and development for innovative drug of traditional Chinese medicine under new situations].

    PubMed

    Tu, Peng-fei; Jiang, Yong; Guo, Xiao-yu

    2015-09-01

    Referring to the rapid developed life science and the higher requirements for the approval of innovative Chinese drugs in recent years, this paper described systematically the discovery, research and development (R&D) approaches for the innovative Chinese drugs under the new situation from the following five aspects, i. e., active components discovered from TCMs, the discovery of effective fractions of TCMs and their formulae, the R&D of TCM innovative drugs based on famous classic prescriptions and famous Chinese patent drugs, and the transformation of clinical effective prescriptions, on the basis of analysing the advantages of innovative drugs derived from natural products based on TCM theories and the problems existed in current R&D of new TCM drugs. Moreover, five suggestions are also given for the rapid development of TCM innovative drugs in China. All these will provide reference for the R&D of TCM innovative drugs.

  7. Standardised versus individualised multiherb Chinese herbal medicine for oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised feasibility and pilot study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Andrew; Prescott, Philip; Wing, Trevor; Moore, Michael; Lewith, George

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore feasibility of a randomised study using standardised or individualised multiherb Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), to pilot study methods and to obtain clinical data to support sample size calculations. Design Prospective, pragmatic, randomised feasibility and pilot study with participant and practitioner blinding. Setting 2 private herbal practices in the UK. Participants 40 women diagnosed with PCOS and oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea following Rotterdam criteria. Intervention 6 months of either standardised CHM or individualised CHM, 16 g daily taken orally as a tea. Main outcome measures Our primary objective was to determine whether oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea were appropriate as the primary outcome measures for the main study. Estimates of treatment effects were obtained for menstrual rate, body mass index (BMI), weight and hirsutism. Data were collected regarding safety, feasibility and acceptability. Results Of the 40 participants recruited, 29 (72.5%) completed the study. The most frequently cited symptoms of concern were hirsutism, weight and menstrual irregularity. Statistically significant improvements in menstrual rates were found at 6 months within group for both standardised CHM (mean difference (MD) 0.18±0.06, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.29; p=0.0027) and individualised CHM (MD 0.27±0.06, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.39; p<0.001), though not between group (p=0.26). No improvements were observed for BMI nor for weight in either group. Improvements in hirsutism scores found within group for both groups were not statistically significant between group (p=0.09). Liver and kidney function and adverse events data were largely normal. Participant feedback suggests changing to tablet administration could facilitate adherence. Conclusions A CHM randomised controlled trial for PCOS is feasible and preliminary data suggest that both individualised and standardised

  8. Herbal teas and populace health care in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Hu, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Commercial Chinese herbal tea is the development of the populace in tropical and subtropical China consequential to their fight against infectious diseases and their struggle to explore local plants to relieve fever, to alleviate pain, to restore strength and to modulate immunity against viral epidemics. From these ethnomedical experiences, two types of herbal teas were commercialized, namely, liangcha and medicated teas. Liangcha refers to a ready-made decoction infused from wild plants served in simple stores in cities and towns. Medicated teas are parcelled material prepared from crude drugs with or without tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Ktze,), sold in colorful boxes and bags to people for use at home. Investigations of liangcha were made in Hong Kong and Macao, and studies for medicated teas were done from samples obtained in Chinese stores at Boston. A total of 127 source species of these herbal teas were identified and arranged in two alphabetical lists by the botanical names, each followed by an English common name in parenthesis, part used, frequency in samples, and family. External recognizing characters of medicated teas, discussions of problems encountered in identifying source species, relevant toxicities, and potential new vegetal pharmaceutical resources are given.

  9. The Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Gualouxiebaibanxia Decoction for the Treatment of Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We systematically assess the current clinical evidence of Gualouxiebaibanxia (GLXBBX) decoction for the treatment of angina pectoris (AP). We included RCTs testing GLXBBX against conventional drugs and GLXBBX combined with conventional drugs versus conventional drugs. 19 RCTs involving 1730 patients were finally identified, and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. The results of the meta-analysis showed that GLXBBX alone had significant effect on improving angina symptoms (RR: 1.24, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.35; P < 0.00001), ECG (RR: 1.28 [1.13,1.44]; P < 0.0001), and HDL-C (MD: 0.56 [0.54,0.58]; P < 0.00001) compared with anti-arrhythmic drugs. A significant improvement in angina symptoms (RR: 1.17 [1.12,1.22]; P < 0.00001) and ECG (RR = 1.22; 95% CI = [1.14,1.30]; P < 0.00001) was observed for GLXBBX plus conventional drugs when compared with conventional drugs. Eight trials reported adverse events without serious adverse effects. GLXBBX appears to have beneficial effects on improvement of ECG and reduction of angina symptoms in participants with AP. However, the evidence remains weak due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies. More rigorous trials are needed to confirm the results. PMID:27777598

  10. In Vitro Co-Delivery Evaluation of Novel Pegylated Nano-Liposomal Herbal Drugs of Silibinin and Glycyrrhizic Acid (Nano-Phytosome) to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Mohammad Mahdi; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Ebrahimi, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate a co-encapsulated pegylated nano-liposome system based on two herbal anti-tumor drugs, silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid, for delivery to a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (HepG2). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, co-encapsulated nano-liposomes by the thin layer film hydration method with HEPES buffer and sonication at 60% amplitude. Liposomes that co-encapsulated silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid were prepared with a specified molar ratio of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol (CHOL), and methoxy-polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG2000)–derived distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (mPEG2000-DSPE). We used the MTT technique to assess cytotoxicity for various concentrations of co-encapsulated nano-liposomes, free silibinin (25% w/v) and glycyrrhizic acid (75% w/v) on HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines over a 48-hour period. Results Formulation of pegylated nano-liposomes showed a narrow size distribution with an average diameter of 46.3 nm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) for silibinin was 24.37%, whereas for glycyrrhizic acid it was 68.78%. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity showed significantly greater co-encapsulated nano-liposomes on the HepG2 cell line compared to the fibroblast cell line. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for co-encapsulated pegylated nanoliposomal herbal drugs was 48.68 µg/ml and free silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid was 485.45 µg/ml on the HepG2 cell line. Conclusion This in vitro study showed that nano-liposome encapsulation of silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid increased the biological activity of free drugs, increased the stability of silibinin, and synergized the therapeutic effect of silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid. The IC50 of the co-encapsulated nano-liposomes was lower than the combination of free silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid on the HepG2 cell line. PMID:27540518

  11. Epigenetic regulation of active Chinese herbal components for cancer prevention and treatment: A follow-up review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiying; Huang, Qiuju; Ji, Liyan; Wang, Ying; Qi, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhongqiu; Lu, Linlin

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and other patterns. These processes are associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Thus, epigenetic modification-related enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone demethylases (HDMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs), as well as some related proteins, including methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBPs) and DNMT1-associated protein (DMAP 1), are considered as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy. Numerous natural compounds, mainly derived from Chinese herbs and chemically ranging from polyphenols and flavonoids to mineral salts, inhibit the growth and development of various cancers by targeting multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes the epigenetic mechanisms by which active compounds from Chinese herbs exert their anti-cancer effect. A subset of these compounds, such as curcumin and resveratrol, affect multiple epigenetic processes, including DNMT inhibition, HDAC inactivation, MBP suppression, HAT activation, and microRNA modulation. Other compounds also regulate epigenetic modification processes, but the underlying mechanisms and clear targets remain unknown. Accordingly, further studies are required.

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction) Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhua; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15) studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1), arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2), clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-8) when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled), and mucolytics. PMID:25165477

  13. [Study on method on post-marketing traditonal Chinese medicine safety assessment].

    PubMed

    Kou, Qiuai; Zhao, Suping; Feng, Guoshuang; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) safety assessment is an important content of post-marketing Chinese herbal medicine assessment and the primary question. It includes safety monitoring and safety evaluation. China has established the elementary system for the TCM safety monitoring, but did few things on safety evaluation. People have knew that the methods of pharmacoepidemiology have good practicability on drug safety assessment in recent years. This article analyzed three methods of pharmacoepidemiology used in post-marketing Chinese herbal medicine safety assessment. There are three examples that may give some suggestions to fellow doctors working for safety monitoring and evaluation of TCM.

  14. Triptolide, a Chinese herbal extract, protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-mediated damage through inhibition of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Qiao; Lu, Xiu-Zhi; Liang, Xi-Bin; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Xue, Bing; Liu, Xian-Yu; Niu, Dong-Bin; Han, Ji-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2004-03-01

    Mounting lines of evidence have suggested that brain inflammation participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Triptolide is one of the major active components of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. We found that triptolide concentration-dependently attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in primary mesencephalic neuron/glia mixed culture. Triptolide also blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and excessive production of TNFalpha and NO. Our data suggests that triptolide may protect dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced injury and its efficiency in inhibiting microglia activation may underlie the mechanism.

  15. [Application of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Recent years, the pathogenesis of hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been changed. Kidney-deficiency has become the key of modern pathogenesis, and the new problem of treating hypertension. It has become the new strategy for treating hypertension with kidney-nourishing herbal medicine. This article reviewed the clinical and experimental researches of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine, including single herb, herbal formulae and traditional Chinese patent medicine, in order to strengthen the evidence of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension.

  16. Dihuang Yinzi, a Classical Chinese Herbal Prescription, for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A 12-Year Follow-up Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hui; Li, Ji-huang; Yin, Su-bing; Ke, Jiang-qiong; Qiu, Chang-lin; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment and death within 2 to 5 years after symptom onset. Here, we reported a case of ALS patient using modified Dihuang Yinzi (DHYZ), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, who has survived 12 years with significant improvement in bulbar paralysis. A 41-year-old Chinese Han nationality woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of weakened bilateral grip, slurred speech, stumbling, and muscle twitching for 3 years. The electromyography showed neurogenic injury in bilateral upper limbs and tongue. She was diagnosed with ALS according to the revised El escorial criteria. The patient was orally administrated with Riluzole 100 mg daily for 10 months and then stopped. Subsequently, she resorted to TCM. Based on the TCM theory, the patient was diagnosed with Yinfei syndrome because of kidney deficiency. DHYZ was chosen because it has the function of replenishing kidney essence to treat Yinfei syndrome. Up to now, she has been using modified DHYZ continuously for 12 years. The patient survived with ALS and did not require permanent continuous ventilator. In addition, the symptoms of choking on liquids are improved, and the utility of 30 mL water swallow test was improved with grade 2. The symptoms of muscle fibrillations of limbs are also reduced. However, muscle strength worsened slowly. The repeated electromyography showed motor conduction amplitude reducing gradually and velocity not changing more when compared with the initial electromyography. Our findings suggested that DHYZ can be potentially used in ALS patients because of its multi-targeted neuroprotection and general safety, although ALS does not have a cure. In addition, we identified the area that is worthy of further study and DHYZ as a promising candidate for further clinical application and ALS trials. Rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed in

  17. Dihuang Yinzi, a Classical Chinese Herbal Prescription, for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A 12-Year Follow-up Case Report.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hui; Li, Ji-Huang; Yin, Su-Bing; Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Qiu, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment and death within 2 to 5 years after symptom onset. Here, we reported a case of ALS patient using modified Dihuang Yinzi (DHYZ), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, who has survived 12 years with significant improvement in bulbar paralysis.A 41-year-old Chinese Han nationality woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of weakened bilateral grip, slurred speech, stumbling, and muscle twitching for 3 years. The electromyography showed neurogenic injury in bilateral upper limbs and tongue. She was diagnosed with ALS according to the revised El escorial criteria. The patient was orally administrated with Riluzole 100 mg daily for 10 months and then stopped. Subsequently, she resorted to TCM. Based on the TCM theory, the patient was diagnosed with Yinfei syndrome because of kidney deficiency. DHYZ was chosen because it has the function of replenishing kidney essence to treat Yinfei syndrome. Up to now, she has been using modified DHYZ continuously for 12 years. The patient survived with ALS and did not require permanent continuous ventilator. In addition, the symptoms of choking on liquids are improved, and the utility of 30 mL water swallow test was improved with grade 2. The symptoms of muscle fibrillations of limbs are also reduced. However, muscle strength worsened slowly. The repeated electromyography showed motor conduction amplitude reducing gradually and velocity not changing more when compared with the initial electromyography.Our findings suggested that DHYZ can be potentially used in ALS patients because of its multi-targeted neuroprotection and general safety, although ALS does not have a cure. In addition, we identified the area that is worthy of further study and DHYZ as a promising candidate for further clinical application and ALS trials. Rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed in the future.

  18. Merging traditional Chinese medicine with modern drug discovery technologies to find novel drugs and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2010-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements.

  19. Merging Traditional Chinese Medicine with Modern Drug Discovery Technologies to Find Novel Drugs and Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements. PMID:20156139

  20. Treatment with SiMiaoFang, an Anti-Arthritis Chinese Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cartilage Matrix Degradation in Osteoarthritis Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Qian; Liu, Zhen-li; Lim, Li; Chen, Wei-heng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Chinese herbal preparation, SiMiaoFang (SMF), has been used clinically for treating arthralgia by virtue of its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving activities. However, no evidence base links SMF to anti-osteoarthritis (OA), particularly its link to inhibiting cartilage matrix degradation. In this study, we undertook a characterization of anti-OA activity of SMF using an in vivo rat model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscus resection (ACLT+MMx) together with in vitro studies with chondrocytes for further molecular characterization. ACLT+MMx rats were treated with SMF at doses of 0.63, 1.25, and 2.5 grams/kg per day for 6 weeks. SMF treatments significantly inhibited cartilage matrix degradation, as indicated by increasing proteoglycan and collagen content, particularly type II collagen expression in articular cartilage, decreasing CTX-II (collagen type II degradation marker), and increasing CPII (collagen type II synthesis marker) in circulation. Moreover, SMF suppressed synovial inflammation and inhibited release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum. The levels of serum prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide productions were decreased via suppression of the production of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively. Importantly, SMF interfered with OA-augmented expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -3 and -13 and aggrecanases (ADAMTS) -4 and -5, which are considered to be key enzymes in cartilage matrix degradation, and simultaneously augmented OA-reduced tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) -1 and -3 expression in the joints. The largest changes in these parameters were found at the highest dose. Meanwhile, SMF significantly decreased MMP-3 and -13 and increased TIMP-1 and -3 at mRNA and protein levels in IL-1β–induced chondrocytes. These findings provide the first evidence that SMF effectively treats OA by inhibiting cartilage matrix degradation

  1. Are herb-pairs of traditional Chinese medicine distinguishable from others? Pattern analysis and artificial intelligence classification study of traditionally defined herbal properties.

    PubMed

    Ung, Choong Yong; Li, Hu; Cao, Zhi Wei; Li, Yi Xue; Chen, Yu Zong

    2007-05-04

    Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit features consistent with their claimed unique synergistic combinations. We analyzed distribution patterns of TCM-HPs of TCM herb-pairs to detect signs indicative of possible synergy and used artificial intelligence (AI) methods to examine whether combination of their TCM-HPs are distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs assembled by random combinations and by modification of known TCM herb-pairs. Patterns of the majority of 394 known TCM herb-pairs were found to exhibit signs of herb-pair correlation. Three AI systems, trained and tested by using 394 TCM herb-pairs and 2470 non-TCM herb-pairs, correctly classified 72.1-87.9% of TCM herb-pairs and 91.6-97.6% of the non-TCM herb-pairs. The best AI system predicted 96.3% of the 27 known non-TCM herb-pairs and 99.7% of the other 1,065,100 possible herb-pairs as non-TCM herb-pairs. Our studies suggest that TCM-HPs of known TCM herb-pairs contain features distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs consistent with their claimed synergistic or modulating combinations.

  2. Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang, a Chinese herbal formula, enhances anticancer effects of 5 - Fluorouracil in CT26 colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in colorectal cancer treatment. There is a great need to establish effective herbal formula for colorectal cancer treatment. Based on TCM principles and clinical practices, we have established an eight herbs composed formula for colorectal cancer treatment, which is Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang (TLBZT). We have demonstrated the anticancer effects of TLBZT against colorectal carcinoma in vitro. In present study, we evaluated the anticancer potential of TLBZT, used alone or in combination with low dose of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), in CT26 colon carcinoma in vivo. Methods CT26 colon carcinoma was established in BALB/c mice and treated with TLBZT, 5-Fu, or TLBZT plus 5-Fu. The tumor volumes were observed. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspases activities were detected by colorimetric assay. Cell senescence was indentified by senescence β-galactosidase staining. Gene expression and angiogenesis was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results TLBZT significantly inhibited CT26 colon carcinoma growth. TLBZT elicited apoptosis in CT26 colon carcinoma, accompanied by Caspase-3, 8, and 9 activation and PARP cleavage, and downregulation of XIAP and Survivin. TLBZT also induced cell senescence in CT26 colon carcinoma, with concomitant upregulation of p16 and p21 and downregulation of RB phosphorylation. In addition, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in CT26 colon carcinoma was significantly inhibited by TLBZT treatment. Furthermore, TLBZT significantly enhanced anticancer effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma. Conclusions TLBZT exhibited significantly anticancer effect, and enhanced the effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma, which may correlate with induction of apoptosis and cell senescence, and angiogenesis inhibition. The present study provides new insight into TCM approaches for colon cancer treatment

  3. Discovery of Anti-inflammatory Ingredients in Chinese Herbal Formula Kouyanqing Granule based on Relevance Analysis between Chemical Characters and Biological Effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei

    2015-12-10

    Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson's correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role.

  4. Discovery of Anti-inflammatory Ingredients in Chinese Herbal Formula Kouyanqing Granule based on Relevance Analysis between Chemical Characters and Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson’s correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role. PMID:26657159

  5. Protective effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction, the water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gou, H; Gu, L Y; Shang, B Z; Xiong, Y; Wang, C

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a serious toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used in chemotherapy in Asia as an alternative treatment to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy. However, the mechanism is unknown. To evaluate its mechanism, we investigated the effect of BZYQD on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially with regard to apoptosis in the intestinal mucosal epithelia. In the present study, mice were divided into three groups: control, 5-FU, and 5-FU + BZYQD. Mice in the 5-FU and 5-FU + BZYQD groups were administered 5-FU (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for 6 days, and the mice in the latter group were given BZYQD (8 g/kg/day, intragastrically) beginning 4 days before 5-FU and continuing until the termination of the experiment. Loss in body weight and diarrhea during the 5-FU treatment were significantly attenuated by administration of BZYQD. The morphological signs of intestinal damage, including shortened villi height, crypt destruction, apoptosis, and necrosis, in intestinal mucosal epithelia were also reversed, accompanied by reduced neutrophil infiltration, nitrite levels, and inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β) and increased levels of reduced glutathione. These results suggest that BZYQD inhibits 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis, and this effect may be due to the reduction in apoptosis and necrosis in intestinal mucosal epithelia via the suppression of inflammatory cytokine upregulation. In conclusion, inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis or necrosis can be the molecular mechanism by which BZYQD reduces the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy.

  6. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine – Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Hongliang; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF) is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively) and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE. PMID:26186537

  7. A prescribed Chinese herbal medicine improves glucose profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in Goto-Kakisaki rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Hongguang; Xu, Ping; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn't show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation "Qing Huo Yi Hao" (QHYH) improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD) in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20) and chow diet feeding group (n = 10). Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d) or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT) and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its antioxidant effect.

  8. Structural changes of gut microbiota in a rat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease model treated with a Chinese herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaochen; Peng, Jinghua; Zhao, Liping; Yu, Yunpeng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Ping; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yiyang; Pang, Xiaoyan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that disruption of the gut microbiota by a high-fat diet (HFD) may play a pivotal role in the progression of metabolic disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, the structural changes of gut microbiota were analyzed in an HFD-induced NAFLD rat model during treatment with an ancient Chinese herbal formula (CHF) used in clinical practice -Qushi Huayu Fang. CHF treatment significantly reduced body weight, alleviated hepatic steatosis, and decreased the content of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the livers of the rats. Gut microbiota of treated and control rats were profiled with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Both analyses indicated that the CHF-treated group harbored significantly different gut microbiota from that of model rats. Partial least squares discriminant analysis and taxonomy-based analysis were further employed to identify key phylotypes responding to HFD and CHF treatment. Most notably, the genera Escherichia/Shigella, containing opportunistic pathogens, were significantly enriched in HFD-fed rats compared to controls fed normal chow (P<0.05) but they decreased to control levels after CHF treatment. Collinsella, a genus with short chain fatty acid producers, was significantly elevated in CHF-treated rats compared to HFD-fed rats (P<0.05). The results revealed that the bacterial profiles of HFD-induced rats could be modulated by the CHF. Elucidation of these differences in microbiota composition provided a basis for further understanding the pharmacological mechanism of the CHF.

  9. A new strategy in drug design of Chinese medicine: theory, method and techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Jun; Shen, Dan; Xu, Hai-Yu; Lu, Peng

    2012-11-01

    The research and development (R&D) process of Chinese medicine, with one notable feature, clinical application based, is significantly different from which of chemical and biological medicine, from laboratory research to clinics. Besides, compound prescription is another character. Therefore, according to different R&D theories between Chinese and Western medicine, we put forward a new strategy in drug design of Chinese medicine, which focuses on "combination-activity relationship (CAR)", taking prescription discovery, component identification and formula optimization as three key points to identify the drugs of high efficacy and low toxicity. The method of drug design of Chinese medicine includes: new prescription discovery based on clinical data and literature information, component identification based on computing and experimental research, as well as formula optimization based on system modeling. This paper puts forward the concept, research framework and techniques of drug design of Chinese medicine, which embodies the R&D model of Chinese medicine, hoping to support the drug design of Chinese medicine theoretically and technologically.

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Improving Quality of Life Among Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Overview of Systematic Reviews and Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C H; Lu, Ping; Poon, Simon K; Hui, Edwin P; Lau, Alexander Y L; Balneaves, Lynda G; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-01-01

    For patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy, current clinical evidence has indicated add-on benefit of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in improving quality of life (QoL). However, the relative performance among different CHM is unknown. The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) and network meta-analyses (NMA) is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of different CHM. Seven electronic databases including both international databases and Chinese databases were searched. SRs focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with comparison of CHM plus chemotherapy against chemotherapy alone on QoL among NSCLC patients were considered eligible. Data from RCTs were extracted for random effect pairwise meta-analyses. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the impact of CHM on QoL. NMA was used to explore the most effective CHM for improving QoL when used with chemotherapy. From 14 SRs, 61 RCTs (n = 4247) assessing 11 different CHM were included. Result from pairwise meta-analyses showed 6 CHM (Kang-lai-te injection, Shei-qi-fu-zheng injection, Compound ku-shen injection, Kang-ai injection, Zi-jin-long tablet, and Shen-fu injection) has significant beneficial effect on QoL among NSCLC patients when used with chemotherapy, even after adjustment for publication bias. Pooled RR varied from 1.38 (95% CI: 1.11-1.72, I2 = 0.0%, Kang-lai-te injection) to 3.36 (95% CI: 1.30-8.66, I2 = 0.0%, Zi-jin-long tablet). One trial comparing Hai-shen-su (a protein extract from Tegillarca granosa L.) plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy also demonstrated beneficial effect of combined treatment (RR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.41-6.98). Results from NMA showed no differences on the comparative effectiveness among CHM, but Hai-shen-su plus chemotherapy has the highest probability (62.3%) of being the best option for improving QoL. Use of CHM on top of chemotherapy can significantly improve QoL in NSCLC patients. Although Hai

  11. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  12. Chinese herbal medicine Yi-Gan-San decreases the lipid accumulation in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes by modulating the activities of transcription factors SREBP-1c and FoxO1.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masayuki; Seki, Takashi; Iwasaki, Koh; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2009-09-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolism in adipose tissue is closely related to the occurrence and progression of a wide variety of metabolic syndromes. We have analyzed the pharmacological effects of Chinese herbal medicines on cell differentiation and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Yi-Gan-San (YGS) is a Chinese herbal medicine that is effective in treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia; however, its physiological mechanism remains unclear. We analyzed the effects of YGS on lipid accumulation in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was induced in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by treatment with the mixture of dexamethasone, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine, and insulin, and cells were cultured for 8 days with Chinese herbal medicines, including YGS. YGS effectively reduced the lipid accumulation in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on cell viability. YGS also reduced the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in lipid synthesis. In contrast, YGS gave no noticeable effect on glucose uptake and fatty acid uptake in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, we established the stably transfected 3T3-L1 cell lines, each of which expresses the luciferase reporter gene under the control of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) or FoxO1. SREBP-1c is a transcription factor involved in fatty acid synthesis, and FoxO1 is a forkhead-type transcription factor involved in adipocyte differentiation. Using these cell lines, we showed that YGS reduced the transcriptional activity of SREBP-1c, whereas YGS increased the activity of FoxO1. Thus, YGS may suppress lipid synthesis and fat accumulation in adipocytes through modulating the activities of SREBP-1c and FoxO1.

  13. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.

  14. Sustained antidiabetic effects of a berberine-containing Chinese herbal medicine through regulation of hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Lu; Sui, Yi; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yip, Kevin Y; Leung, Ross K K; Tsui, Stephen K W; Lee, Heung-Man; Wong, Harriet K T; Zhu, Xun; Siu, Jennifer J; He, Lan; Guan, Jing; Liu, Li-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Peter C Y; Chan, Juliana C N

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this study, we used a three-herb, berberine-containing TCM to treat male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TCM showed sustained glucose-lowering effects for 1 week after a single-dose treatment. Two-week treatment attenuated insulin resistance and fatty degeneration, with hepatocyte regeneration lasting for 1 month posttreatment. These beneficial effects persisted for 1 year after 1-month treatment. Two-week treatment with TCM was associated with activation of AMPK, Akt, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)1 pathways, with downregulation of miR29-b and expression of a gene network implicated in cell cycle, intermediary, and NADPH metabolism with normalization of CYP7a1 and IGFBP1 expression. These concerted changes in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins may explain the sustained effects of TCM in favor of cell survival, increased glucose uptake, and lipid oxidation/catabolism with improved insulin sensitivity and liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that multicomponent TCM may be a useful tool to unravel genome regulation and expression in complex diseases.

  15. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management