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Sample records for chinese herbal drugs

  1. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  2. Target network differences between western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients in treating cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25104437

  3. Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinsheng; Tian, Jiaher; Chan, Albert Wai-Kit

    2011-01-01

    Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property. PMID:21854570

  4. [Herbal textural analysis on the Chinese drug xuancaogen].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T J

    1993-09-01

    The results of herbal textural research showed that the original plants of Xuancaogen in ancient times were Hemerocallis fulva, H. fulva var. kwanso, H. citrina, H. lilio-asphodelus and H. minor. The cause of confusion about Xuancao, Lilu and Lucong was discriminated. The erroneous scientific names of Beihuanghuacai and Shexiangcao in contemporary literature were corrected. A suggestion that H. aurentiaca be supplemented as an independent specise was raised. PMID:8011103

  5. Concurrent Use of Conventional Drugs with Chinese Herbal Products in Taiwan: A Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Chen; Lai, Jung-Nien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-10-01

    The increased use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) worldwide has raised the concern of herb-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and utilization patterns of concurrent use of conventional drugs and CHPs in Taiwan. The usage and frequency of services in the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug were evaluated. Subjects were recruited from a simple random sample of 1,000,000 subjects from over 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in 2007. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug (CH + D) and a conventional drug alone (D-alone). The prevalence of the CH + D was 14.1%. Females, regular salary earners, and elderly (65 years and above) were more likely to consume a CHP and a conventional drug concurrently. Painkillers, especially acetaminophen, and anti-cough medicines were the top two conventional drugs that were most frequently co-prescribed with a CHP. Anti-cough medication is the most common conventional drug co-prescribed with CHP, after painkillers. We recommend that safety issues be investigated in future research and integrating both healthcare technologies may be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of patients.

  6. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper.

  7. Chinese Proprietary Herbal Medicine Listed in ‘China National Essential Drug List’ for Common Cold: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Lewith, George; Wang, Li-qiong; Ren, Jun; Xiong, Wen-jing; Lu, Fang; Liu, Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chinese proprietary herbal medicines (CPHMs) have long history in China for the treatment of common cold, and lots of them have been listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ by the Chinese Ministry of Health. The aim of this review is to provide a well-round clinical evidence assessment on the potential benefits and harms of CPHMs for common cold based on a systematic literature search to justify their clinical use and recommendation. Methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites from their inception to 31 March 2013 for clinical studies of CPHMs listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ for common cold. There was no restriction on study design. Results A total of 33 CPHMs were listed in ‘China national essential drug list 2012’ for the treatment of common cold but only 7 had supportive clinical evidences. A total of 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series (CSs) were included; no other study design was identified. All studies were conducted in China and published in Chinese between 1995 and 2012. All included studies had poor study design and methodological quality, and were graded as very low quality. Conclusions The use of CPHMs for common cold is not supported by robust evidence. Further rigorous well designed placebo-controlled, randomized trials are needed to substantiate the clinical claims made for CPHMs. PMID:25329481

  8. Exploring effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment with Chinese herbal medicine: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine is one of the most popular Chinese medicine (CM) therapies for primary insomnia. One of the important characteristics of CM is that different Chinese clinicians give different prescriptions even for the same patient. However, there must be some fixed drug patterns in every clinician’s prescriptions. This study aims to screen the effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment of three prestigious Chinese clinicians. Methods/design A triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial will be performed. Three clinicians will diagnose and treat every eligible patient individually and independently, producing three prescriptions from three clinicians for every patient. Patients will equally be randomized to one of four groups – medical group A, medical group B, medical group C, or placebo group – and observed for efficacy of treatment. The sample will include primary insomnia patients meeting DSM IV-TR criteria, Spiegel scale score >18, and age 18 to 65 years. A sequential design is employed. Interim analysis will be conducted when between 80 and 160 patients complete the study. The interim study could be stopped and treated as final if a statistically significant difference between treatment and placebo groups can be obtained and core effective drug patterns can be determined. Otherwise, the study continues until the maximum sample size reaches 300. Treatment of the CM group is one of three Chinese clinicians’ prescriptions, who provide independently prescriptions based on their own CM theory and the patient’s disease condition. Assessment will be by sleep diary and Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and CM symptoms and signs will be measured. Primary outcome is total sleep time. Assessment will be carried out at the washout period, weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 and 4th week after the end of treatment. Effectiveness analysis will be per intent to treat. A multi-dimension association rule and scale

  9. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents. PMID:20653978

  10. [Artichoke--herbal drug].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Woźniak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

  11. Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine.

  12. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  13. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research.

  14. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  15. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849

  16. Drug interactions in African herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Herbal usage remains popular as an alternative or complementary form of treatment, especially in Africa. However, the misconception that herbal remedies are safe due to their "natural" origins jeopardizes human safety, as many different interactions can occur with concomitant use with other pharmaceuticals on top of potential inherent toxicity. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly polymorphic, and pose a problem for pharmaceutical drug tailoring to meet an individual's specific metabolic activity. The influence of herbal remedies further complicates this. The plants included in this review have been mainly researched for determining their effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters. Usage of herbal remedies, such as Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens and Harpagophytum procumbensis popular in Africa. The literature suggests that there is a potential for drug-herb interactions, which could occur through alterations in metabolism and transportation of drugs. Research has primarily been conducted in vitro, whereas in vivo data are lacking. Research concerning the effect of African herbals on drug metabolism should also be approached, as specific plants are especially popular in conjunction with certain treatments. Although these interactions can be beneficial, the harm they pose is just as great. PMID:21756221

  17. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  18. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  19. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  20. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  1. [Exploration on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoqing

    2010-03-01

    For exploration on the academic thought on processing of Chinese herbal medicine the basic theory and methods, textual research of the scientific of Zhang Zhongiing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was summarized, and the historical significance on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was analyzed. Regarded Zhang Zhongjing is the ancestor of processing of Chinese herbal medicine to lay the theoretical foundation on processing of Chinese herbal medicine for later.

  2. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  3. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  4. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  5. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  6. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview.

    PubMed

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  7. Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

  8. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  9. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  10. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT. PMID:23158937

  11. Anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, science or myth?*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wen-jing; Lai, Mao-de; Zhou, Jian-guang

    2006-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area. PMID:17111471

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Acute Mountain Sickness: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Xing, Yanwei; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, Wenrui; Huang, Junyi; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess the current clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched until January 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing Chinese herbal medicine against placebo, no drugs, Western drugs, or a combination of routine treatment drugs against routine treatment drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. Nine randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as low. Two trials compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with Western drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −2.23 [−3.98, −0.49], P = 0.01). Only one trial compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with no drugs. A meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −6.00 [−6.45, −5.55], P < 0.00001). Four trials compared Chinese formula used alone with placebo. A meta-analysis also showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −1.10 [−1.64, −0.55], P < 0.0001). Two trials compared the combination of Chinese formula plus routine treatment drugs with routine treatment drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −5.99 [−11.11, −0.86], P = 0.02). Conclusions. No firm conclusion on the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS can be made. More rigorous high-quality trials are required to generate a high level of evidence and to confirm the results. PMID:24454510

  13. Chinese Herbal Products for Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hung, I-Ling; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Lin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Tseng, Ying-Jung; Kuo, Chun-En; Hu, Wen-Long; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been described in ancient medicine systems as treatments for various stroke-associated ailments. This study is aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and combinations of CHPs for ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHPs for ischemic stroke were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of ischemic stroke made during 2000-2010 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to the pattern of co-prescriptions. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess demographic and risk factors that are correlated with CHP use. The dataset of inpatient claims data contained information on 15,896 subjects who experienced ischemic stroke from 2000 to 2010. There was an average of 5.82 CHPs in a single prescription for subjects with ischemic stroke. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) (40.32%) was by far the most frequently prescribed formula CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two-formula-CHP was BYHWT with Shu-jin-huo-xue-tang (SJHXT) (4.40%). Dan Shen (16.50%) was the most commonly used single CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Shi Chang Pua with Yuan Zhi (4.79%). We found that BYHWT and Dan Shen were the most frequently prescribed formula and single CHP for ischemic stroke, respectively. These results provide information about individualized therapy and may contribute to further pharmacologic experiments and clinical trials. PMID:26477801

  14. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  15. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  16. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  17. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  18. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  19. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  20. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations. PMID:27462269

  1. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations. PMID:27462269

  2. New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

  3. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics. PMID:27062803

  4. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  5. Clinical Strategy for Optimal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Dose Selection in Disease Therapeutics: Expert Consensus on Classic TCM Herbal Formula Dose Conversion.

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.

  6. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Adulterated "Tiger King", a Chinese Herbal Medicine Containing Sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Ran; Poperno, Alina; Stein, Gideon Y; Shapira, Barak; Fuchs, Shmuel; Berkovitz, Ronny; Hess, Zipora; Arieli, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    Detection of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues in "100% natural" or "herbal" supplements have been described in numerous reports. However, few reports have been published in relation to actual harm caused by counterfeit erectile dysfunction herbal supplements. We describe a case of a 65-year old male admitted to a tertiary hospital with acute liver toxicity, possibly induced by adulterated "Chinese herbal" supplement "Tiger King" for sexual enhancement. Chemical analysis of the tablets discovered the presence of therapeutic doses of sildenafil with no other herbal components. Other medications were excluded as potential causes of the hepatic impairment. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction scale and the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) the probability of association of Hepatotoxicity with Sildenafil was "possible" and "probable" respectively (Naranjo score of 4, RUCAM score of 7). Within three days of admission, the patient's clinical status and liver function improved without any specific treatment. His liver function tests normalized 30 days post discharge. Further pharmacovigilance actions should be taken by regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical companies in order to determine the relation between sildenafil and hepatotoxicity. This case emphasizes the importance of raising public awareness on the potential dangers of "Tiger king" in particular, and other counterfeit medications or herbal supplements of unknown origin. PMID:26560492

  7. [Pain management with herbal antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Sigrun; Pollak, S

    2002-01-01

    Herbal antirheumatics are indicated in painful inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. Their mechanism of action is broader than that of synthetic antirheumatics. Particular preparations from Devils's Claw with 50 to 100 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage as well as a particular willow bark extract with 120 to 240 mg salicin in the daily dosage proved efficacy in a number of clinical studies including confirmatory ones. Exploratory studies indicate that these herbal antirheumatics were not inferior to the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib when treating acute exacerbations of chronic low back pain. For the proprietary nettle root extract IDS23 promising in vitro/in vivo results indicate an anti-inflammatory effect, however there are only 2 open uncontrolled clinical studies available and the proof of efficacy is still missing. Safety data in order to recommend use during pregnancy and lactation are only available for the herbal combination product Phytodolor prepared from aspen, ash and goldenrod. In principle, blackcurrent leaf with not less than 1.5% flavonoids may be an appropriate antirheumatic. Likewise, the seed oils of blackcurrent, evening primrose and borage offering at least 1 to 3 g gammalinolenic acid/day are recommendable. In case superiority versus placebo has been established, proprietary herbal antirheumatics should be administered before the conventional analgesics due to the lower incidence of adverse events. PMID:12017748

  8. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  9. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  10. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  11. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

  12. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  13. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  14. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.

  15. Interactions between Transporters and Herbal Medicines/Drugs: A Focus on Hepatoprotective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Li, Quansheng; He, Xin; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and drugs are available in the clinic as potent hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of commonly occurring liver diseases. Recently, herbal medicines such as silymarin and curcumin have gained more attention and popularity for the treatment of various liver diseases because of their safety and efficacy profiles. Some of them are related to transporters for drug disposition processes, therapeutic efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions. Currently, herbal medicines and diet supplements made from natural products are widely used in patients who are being treated with conventional prescription medicines, which are related to an increasing risk of herbal-drug interactions (HDIs) and/or drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The purpose of present review is to summarize the contemporary knowledge of transporter-mediated HDIs or DDIs for herbal medicines/drugs focusing on hepatoprotective compounds. Several herbal medicines/drugs are discussed in detail in this review.

  16. Chinese herbal prescriptions for osteoarthritis in Taiwan: analysis of national health insurance dataset

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male = 1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study

  17. Adverse drug reactions to herbal and synthetic expectorants.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Sieder, C; März, R

    1995-01-01

    Our knowledge relating to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of phytomedicines is highly fragmentary. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of ADRs following medication with herbal or synthetic expectorants. In a multicentre, comparative post-marketing surveillance study of more than 3000 patients with acute bronchitis, about half were treated with a herbal remedy (SinupretR) and the other half with various other expectorants. In ascending order of incidence, ADRs were noted during mono-medication of SinupretR (0.8%), Ambroxol (1.0%) and acetylcysteine (4.3%). When concomitant drugs were used, this rank order was unchanged but incidence rates were markedly increased (3.4, 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively). The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms. It is concluded that expectorants are associated with ADRs in roughly 1-5% of cases undergoing single drug treatment and in 3-10% when more than one medication is being used. Amongst the expectorants used in this study, the herbal preparation SinupretR is associated with the lowest incidence of ADRs.

  18. Angiogenesis in Ischemic Stroke and Angiogenic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Chang, Dennis; Jenkins, Anita; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and adult disability worldwide. The underlying pathophysiology of stroke is highly complicated, consisting of impairments of multiple signalling pathways, and numerous pathological processes such as acidosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overload, cerebral inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The current treatment for ischemic stroke is limited to thromolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA has a very narrow therapeutic window, making it suitable to only a minority of stroke patients. Hence, there is great urgency to develop new therapies that can protect brain tissue from ischemic damage. Recent studies have shown that new vessel formation after stroke not only replenishes blood flow to the ischemic area of the brain, but also promotes neurogenesis and improves neurological functions in both animal models and patients. Therefore, drugs that can promote angiogenesis after ischemic stroke can provide therapeutic benefits in stroke management. In this regard, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating stroke and the associated diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated the pro-angiogenic effects of various Chinese herbs and herbal formulations in both in vitro and in vivo settings. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on angiogenesis in the context of ischemic stroke and discuss the potential use of CHM in stroke management through modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:27275837

  19. Angiogenesis in Ischemic Stroke and Angiogenic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Chang, Dennis; Jenkins, Anita; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and adult disability worldwide. The underlying pathophysiology of stroke is highly complicated, consisting of impairments of multiple signalling pathways, and numerous pathological processes such as acidosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overload, cerebral inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The current treatment for ischemic stroke is limited to thromolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA has a very narrow therapeutic window, making it suitable to only a minority of stroke patients. Hence, there is great urgency to develop new therapies that can protect brain tissue from ischemic damage. Recent studies have shown that new vessel formation after stroke not only replenishes blood flow to the ischemic area of the brain, but also promotes neurogenesis and improves neurological functions in both animal models and patients. Therefore, drugs that can promote angiogenesis after ischemic stroke can provide therapeutic benefits in stroke management. In this regard, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating stroke and the associated diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated the pro-angiogenic effects of various Chinese herbs and herbal formulations in both in vitro and in vivo settings. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on angiogenesis in the context of ischemic stroke and discuss the potential use of CHM in stroke management through modulation of angiogenesis.

  20. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C.H.; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P.; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L.; Lau, Alexander Y.L.; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T.C.; Ng, Bacon F.L.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Wu, Justin C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care. Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: −0.90, 95% CI: −1.69 to −0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research. PMID:26886628

  1. [Studies on all-spectrum analysis for X-ray diffraction of Chinese herbal medicine calculus bovis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Zheng, Q; Wu, N; Zhou, J; Bao, T

    1997-10-01

    Investigation on famouse Chinese herbal medicine-Niu huang (calculus bovis) was carried out by all-spectrum X-ray diffraction analysis. Diffraction spectrums, as well as the specific symboling peaks of calculus bovis, artificial bezoar, bile ductstone, human gallstone and hog gallstone, were recognized. The error distribution curves of d-delta d for specific symboling peaks was also obtained by calculation under diffrent testing conditions, by which we identified successfully three samples provided by a pharmaceutical factory. This article shows that all-spectrum X-ray diffraction analysis can be used to identify Chinese traditional crude drug, and provides for morphological and microscopical study.

  2. Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xue; Han, Mei; Wang, Yu-Yi; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Patients with gout referring to Chinese herbal medicine are not rare in China, and a great number of clinical trials on herbal medicine have been published. However, there has not been a systematic review to summarize the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. We searched for randomized clinical trials on Chinese herbal medicine for gout till December 2012. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality. RevMan 5.2 was used to synthesize the results. We included 57 trials involving 4,527 gout patients. The quality of trials was generally poor. No trial reported health-related quality of life in patients. There is not enough evidence showing that herbal medicine was statistically more effective than conventional medications in pain relief [mean difference (MD), -0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.06, 0.00], but herbal medicine combined with conventional medicines may have better effectiveness (MD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.59, -0.07). Trials that reported function limitation relief found herbal medicine more effective than conventional medications (MD, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.32, -0.15). There was no evidence showing that herbal medicine prevents gout recurrence better. Twenty-five out of 41 trials, involving 23 different herbal prescriptions, found statistical significance in lowering serum uric acid level, and the overall effect from Chinese herbal medicine in inflammation relief is better than conventional therapies in 19 trials with 17 different prescriptions. The current data show that herbal medicine leads to fewer side reactions compared to conventional therapies [risk ratio (RR), 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.15]. Chinese herbal medicine may have clinical effectiveness for functional recovery in patients with gout, and lead to a safe control of serum uric acid level and inflammation severity. Due to low quality of trials

  3. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  4. Applications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Ajazuddin; Saraf, S

    2010-10-01

    Over the past several years, great advances have been made on development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for plant actives and extracts. The variety of novel herbal formulations like polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microsphere, transferosomes, and ethosomes has been reported using bioactive and plant extracts. The novel formulations are reported to have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of plant actives and extracts which include enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity, enhancement of pharmacological activity, enhancement of stability, improved tissue macrophages distribution, sustained delivery, and protection from physical and chemical degradation. The present review highlights the current status of the development of novel herbal formulations and summarizes their method of preparation, type of active ingredients, size, entrapment efficiency, route of administration, biological activity and applications of novel formulations. PMID:20471457

  5. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  6. An analysis of chemical ingredients network of Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development.

  7. An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

  8. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  9. Clinical herbal interactions with conventional drugs: from molecules to maladies.

    PubMed

    Chen, X-W; Serag, E S; Sneed, K B; Liang, J; Chew, H; Pan, S-Y; Zhou, S-F

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies and case reports have identified a number of herb-drug interactions potentiated by the concurrent use of herbal medicines with prescription drugs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the mechanisms and clinical implications of such herb-drug interactions by reviewing published human studies. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic components may be involved in herbdrug interactions, although metabolic induction or inhibition is a common underlying mechanism for many herb-drug interactions. Drugs that have a high potential to interact with herbal medicines usually have a narrow therapeutic index, including warfarin, digoxin, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, midazolam, indinavir, and irinotecan. Many of them are substrates of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Herbal medicines that are reported to interact with drugs include garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginseng (Panax ginseng), and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). For example, garlic has been shown to increase the clotting time and international normalized ratio (INR) of warfarin, cause hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide, and reduce the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration of saquinavir in humans. Similarly, case reports have demonstrated that ginkgo may potentiate bleeding when combined with warfarin or aspirin, increases blood pressure when combined with thiazide diuretics, and has even led to a coma when combined with trazodone, a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression. Furthermore, ginseng reduced the blood levels of warfarin and alcohol as well as induced mania if taken concomitantly with phenelzine, a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent. Lastly, multiple herb-drug interactions have been identified with St. John's wort that involve significantly reduced AUC

  10. [Research on distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular based on cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    YANG, Xu-Jie; XIAO, Shi-Ying

    2015-09-01

    To discuss the distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, the patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular were cluster analyzed by means of simple statistics and cluster analysis. Clustering variables were composed of patent applications, patent maintained number, related papers' quantity, etc. Chinese herbal compound patents' holders were divided into four categories according to their different scientific research and patent strength. It is the magic weapon for Chinese herbal compound patents' holders that have scientific research patents' transforming and make coordination of patent protection and scientific innovation.

  11. Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Dih; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Yen-Hua; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Huang, Ching-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2006-07-19

    Because tyrosinase catalyzes melanin synthesis, tyrosinase inhibitors are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health, which means antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. We examined 25 traditional Chinese herbal medicines that might be useful for skin-whitening and skin health. Extracts (100microg/mL) were tested for cytotoxicity on human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn); 12 exhibited low cytotoxicity. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging activities were further assessed. Phenolic contents were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Four herbs, Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, and Morus alba, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase (IC(50) values 24.9, 95.6, 83.9, and 78.3microg/mL, respectively). Melanin inhibition was not dose-dependent. Sophora japonica (IC(50): 14.46microg/mL, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 1.95microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) and Spatholobus suberectus (IC(50): 10.51microg/mL, DPPH; 4.36microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) showed good antioxidative activities and high phenolic contents (255 and 189mg of gallic acid/g extract, respectively). Among active anti-tyrosinase extracts, Sophora japonica and Spatholobus suberectus were especially potent in HEMn cells in terms of free radical scavenging effects and high phenolic contents, making them the strongest candidates for cosmetic application found in the current study. PMID:16497459

  12. Clearance of Free Silica in Rat Lungs by Spraying with Chinese Herbal Kombucha

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

  13. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  14. Theranostics meets traditional Chinese medicine: rational prediction of drug-herb interactions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Fan, Lan; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Herbal medicines including traditional Chinese medicine are becoming increasingly more popular worldwide. However, there is considerable potential for interaction between herbal components and drugs, as all herbal medicines contain a combination of potentially biologically active compounds possessing various inherent pharmacological activities, and the components of herbal products consumed are eliminated from the body by the same mechanisms that remove drugs. Indeed, many so-called conventional drugs are derived from plant sources. This article provides an update on the mechanisms and evidence of drug-herb interactions (DHIs) and genetic influences on DHIs. The rational prediction of clinically important DHIs is also discussed. Individualized and targeted drug therapy could be achieved by identifying the population most likely to be helped or harmed by drug-herb coadministration. PMID:23249200

  15. Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan

    1993-03-01

    Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

  16. Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

    2014-10-01

    The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant

  17. A Review of Potential Harmful Interactions between Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Lu, Ying-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Mahady, Gail B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions. Methodology and Findings Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric. Conclusions/Significance Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Dyslipidemia: Progress and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Shi, Da-zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The statins are a milestone in the primary and second prevention of cardiovascular diseases and significantly improved its prognosis. Along with the long-term treatment with statins in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs or alone, its safety has attracted a particular attention in clinic, such as the elevation of transaminase and rhabdomyolysis, which have raised an idea of developing the other types of lipid-lowering agents from botanic materials. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 2000 years in China and showed some beneficial effects for human health and many diseases. Recently, many studies demonstrated a favorable effect of TCM for treating dyslipidemia; however, its mechanism remains unclear or totally unknown. The progress and perspective of studies on dyslipidemia with single Chinese herb and its monomers or effective extracts during the past 10 years are discussed in the present review. PMID:24688589

  19. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  20. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  1. Disposable electrochemical sensor for rapid determination of heavy metals in herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, I; Mascini, M; Minunni, M; Bilia, A R; Vincieri, F F

    2003-06-01

    Analysis of herbal drugs and extracts need rapid and affordable methods to assure the quality of products. The application of the electrochemical sensors in the field of quality control of herbal drugs, herbal drug preparations and herbal medicinal products appears very promising, advantageous and alternative to conventional methods due to their inherent specificity, simplicity and for the fast response obtained. This paper presents a proposal about the application of disposable electrochemical sensors associated with electroanalytical instrumentation for the detection of heavy metal analysis in herbal drugs. In particular samples of St. John's wort were analysed applying anodic stripping voltammetry. The content of Cd and Pb were evaluated. The ICP spectroscopy was used as reference method.

  2. [Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

    2014-11-01

    Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G". PMID:25850288

  3. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine fuzhisan on aged rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu Ling; Wang, De Sheng; Zhao, Bao Quan; Li, Qian; Qu, Heng Yan; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Jian Ping; Sun, Man Ji

    2008-09-01

    Fuzhisan (FZS), a Chinese herbal complex prescription, has been used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for more than 15 years. Previous studies showed that FZS enhanced the cognitive ability in AD patients and AD model rats. FZS modulated the impaired cellular functions, and attenuated the damage caused by beta-amyloid protein, dose-dependently regulated and ameliorated the cholinergic functions of the Abeta(25-35)-induced AD-model mice. The SPECT imaging revealed that FZS improved the blood flow of the frontal and temporal lobes and the callosal gyrus in AD patients. However, little investigation of the effects of FZS on the naturally aged rats was reported. The underlying mechanism also remains to be explored. Recently we investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of FZS on the cognitive functions of the aged rats and the pharmacological basis for its therapeutic efficacy. The results showed a significant improvement made by FZS (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g/kg/d) for impaired cognitive functions of the aged rats. The rats manifested a shortened latency in Morris water maze test after intra-gavage administration (ig) of FZS for 30 consecutive days. The micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) using (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) as the tracer demonstrated that FZS promoted the glucose metabolism in the whole brains especially the temporal and parietal regions in the aged rats. The spectrophotometry and Western blot showed that FZS obviously increased the activity and the production of choline O-acetyltransferase (ChAT, EC 2.3.1.6) and the acetylcholine (ACh) contents in the hippocampus, thus regulated and ameliorated the impaired cholinergic functions of the aged rats. The therapeutical effects of FZS on the learning and memory of the aged rats were dose-dependent. The mechanism of action of FZS in ameliorating the memory dysfunction of the aged rats is ascribed to the reinforcement of the function of the cholinergic system and the

  4. Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system. PMID:24106615

  5. Analysis toward innovative herbal antibacterial and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Kumar, Manish; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Chhillar, Anil K

    2012-12-01

    The antimicrobial activities of four medicinal plants Argemona mexicana, Achyranthes aspera, Catharanthus roseus, and Syzygium cumini were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and three Aspergillus species. Extracts from Achyranthes aspera and Catharanthus roseus showed the highest antimicrobial potential (MIC 0.375-0.750 mg/ml) while extract from Argemona mexicana and Syzygium cumini, showed less activity. In disc diffusion assay, only eight out of twenty extracts showed antimicrobial activity at a concentration of 25.0 μg/ disc. The GCMS investigation reveals the existence of 2-bornanone; 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester; hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and hexatriacontane in water extract fraction of C. roseus. The present research article provides a review of some medicinal plants incorporating antimicrobial drugs, together with recent advances in emerging therapeutics in clinical development and related patents for exploitation of herbal medicine. PMID:23072646

  6. Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture. How do patients who consult family physicians use these therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. K.; Jue, P.; Lam, A.; Yeung, W.; Cham-Wah, Y.; Birtwhistle, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how a population of Chinese patients consulting family physicians in Vancouver use traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture. DESIGN: Bilingual survey (English and Chinese). SETTING: Four family practices with predominantly Chinese patients in metropolitan Vancouver. PARTICIPANTS: The 932 patients or family members who visited one of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic characteristics; frequency and reason for visiting a family physician, Chinese herbalist, or acupuncturist; choice of practitioner if affected by one of 16 common conditions. RESULTS: The study population was mostly Chinese and immigrant to Canada. Chinese herbal medicine was currently used by 28% (262/930) of respondents (more than one visit in the last year), and another 18% (172/930) were past users. Acupuncture was currently used by 7% (64/927) and had been used in the past by another 8% (71/927). Use of Chinese herbal medicine varied significantly (P < .01) according to age, sex, immigrant status, and ethnicity. Acupuncture use varied significantly only by age. The main reasons for consulting Chinese herbalists were infection (41%, 157/382), respiratory problems (11%, 42/382), and rheumatologic problems (10%, 38/382), whereas acupuncturists were consulted almost exclusively for rheumatologic problems (80%, 45/56). CONCLUSIONS: Using TCM in conjunction with visiting family physicians was very popular among this predominantly Chinese study population. Patients with acute conditions, such as influenza, consulted both their family physicians and Chinese herbalists in quick succession. On the other hand, those suffering from more chronic conditions, such as rheumatologic diseases, were more likely to start using TCM after repeated visits to their family physicians. Images p1011-a PMID:9612586

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Decoction in Type 2 Diabetes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiaxing; Lian, Fengmei; Yu, Xiaotong; Cui, Yashan; Zhao, Tianyu; Cao, Yang; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoction in treating outpatients with T2DM. Methods. All patients enrolled received decoction for at least 6 months. The primary outcome was the control rate of HbA1c and the change in HbA1c. FPG, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were also collected and evaluated. Results. The control rates after treatment at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 were 45.07%, 52.78%, 47.22%, 45.83%, 50.00%, 57.14%, and 40.00%. Multiple linear regression showed the change of HbA1c has a significant relationship with the baseline HbA1c and duration of DM and BMI (p < 0.05). Both FPG and 2hPG levels significantly decreased compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). Chinese herbal decoction also improved islet cell function with decreased HOMA-IR and increased HOMA-β (p < 0.05). 19 and 4 subjects deactivated the antidiabetes drugs or insulin, respectively, after taking decoction. One subject developed DKD and one developed DPN, and another subject showed abnormal liver function which was irrelevant to decoction treatment. Conclusions. Chinese herbal decoction significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action and had certain effect on protecting islet cell function. As a candidate diabetes therapy, it may reduce the use of antidiabetes drugs and slow the progression to diabetes complications. PMID:27656237

  8. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Decoction in Type 2 Diabetes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Yu, Xiaotong; Cui, Yashan; Zhao, Tianyu; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoction in treating outpatients with T2DM. Methods. All patients enrolled received decoction for at least 6 months. The primary outcome was the control rate of HbA1c and the change in HbA1c. FPG, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were also collected and evaluated. Results. The control rates after treatment at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 were 45.07%, 52.78%, 47.22%, 45.83%, 50.00%, 57.14%, and 40.00%. Multiple linear regression showed the change of HbA1c has a significant relationship with the baseline HbA1c and duration of DM and BMI (p < 0.05). Both FPG and 2hPG levels significantly decreased compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). Chinese herbal decoction also improved islet cell function with decreased HOMA-IR and increased HOMA-β (p < 0.05). 19 and 4 subjects deactivated the antidiabetes drugs or insulin, respectively, after taking decoction. One subject developed DKD and one developed DPN, and another subject showed abnormal liver function which was irrelevant to decoction treatment. Conclusions. Chinese herbal decoction significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action and had certain effect on protecting islet cell function. As a candidate diabetes therapy, it may reduce the use of antidiabetes drugs and slow the progression to diabetes complications. PMID:27656237

  9. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Decoction in Type 2 Diabetes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Yu, Xiaotong; Cui, Yashan; Zhao, Tianyu; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoction in treating outpatients with T2DM. Methods. All patients enrolled received decoction for at least 6 months. The primary outcome was the control rate of HbA1c and the change in HbA1c. FPG, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were also collected and evaluated. Results. The control rates after treatment at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 were 45.07%, 52.78%, 47.22%, 45.83%, 50.00%, 57.14%, and 40.00%. Multiple linear regression showed the change of HbA1c has a significant relationship with the baseline HbA1c and duration of DM and BMI (p < 0.05). Both FPG and 2hPG levels significantly decreased compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). Chinese herbal decoction also improved islet cell function with decreased HOMA-IR and increased HOMA-β (p < 0.05). 19 and 4 subjects deactivated the antidiabetes drugs or insulin, respectively, after taking decoction. One subject developed DKD and one developed DPN, and another subject showed abnormal liver function which was irrelevant to decoction treatment. Conclusions. Chinese herbal decoction significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action and had certain effect on protecting islet cell function. As a candidate diabetes therapy, it may reduce the use of antidiabetes drugs and slow the progression to diabetes complications.

  10. Advanced research technology for discovery of new effective compounds from Chinese herbal medicine and their molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2016-09-01

    Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Advanced research technology for discovery of new effective compounds from Chinese herbal medicine and their molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2016-09-01

    Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27450294

  12. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  13. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-04-21

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap

  14. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the

  15. Systematic Review on Chinese Herbal Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xianzhao

    2016-01-01

    Background. In recent years, with the popularity of CHM, its hepatotoxicity has also been increasingly noticed. However, there are still veils on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Aim. To systematically review data on CHM induced liver injury with particular focus on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Methods. Using terms related to CHM and liver injury, PubMed and three Chinese electronic databases were searched, which was limited to the past 5 years. Publications meeting our eligibility criteria were included and further analyzed. Results. In total, 4 single herbs, 21 patent drugs, and 4 decoctions were reported to be of hepatotoxicity, with He-Shou-Wu being the most common one (65/114). Dang-Gui and other 5 herbs were the most common ingredients of patent drugs and decoctions. All patients were assessed using the RUCAM scale, with 26 being highly probable and 28 being probable. For these 54 cases, the latent period was 30 (47) days, and 81.48% were labeled as hepatocellular injuries. Most patients (96.3%) recovered, apart from the fact that one died and one is receiving liver transplantation. Conclusions. CHM should be used carefully for hepatotoxicity. Liver injury from CHM is similar to that from conventional medicines in clinical characteristics. Details about causative herbs should be illustrated, and more RUCAM should be used in future. PMID:27651817

  16. Systematic Review on Chinese Herbal Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xianzhao

    2016-01-01

    Background. In recent years, with the popularity of CHM, its hepatotoxicity has also been increasingly noticed. However, there are still veils on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Aim. To systematically review data on CHM induced liver injury with particular focus on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Methods. Using terms related to CHM and liver injury, PubMed and three Chinese electronic databases were searched, which was limited to the past 5 years. Publications meeting our eligibility criteria were included and further analyzed. Results. In total, 4 single herbs, 21 patent drugs, and 4 decoctions were reported to be of hepatotoxicity, with He-Shou-Wu being the most common one (65/114). Dang-Gui and other 5 herbs were the most common ingredients of patent drugs and decoctions. All patients were assessed using the RUCAM scale, with 26 being highly probable and 28 being probable. For these 54 cases, the latent period was 30 (47) days, and 81.48% were labeled as hepatocellular injuries. Most patients (96.3%) recovered, apart from the fact that one died and one is receiving liver transplantation. Conclusions. CHM should be used carefully for hepatotoxicity. Liver injury from CHM is similar to that from conventional medicines in clinical characteristics. Details about causative herbs should be illustrated, and more RUCAM should be used in future.

  17. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ≥3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

  18. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the

  19. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Eiji; Shimizu, Yasuharu; Masui, Ryo; Usui, Tomomi; Sudoh, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro- DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug α-methyl- DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system. PMID:25780693

  20. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized. PMID:15814268

  1. Syndrome Differentiation in Chinese Herbal Medicine for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Literature Review of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yan; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been commonly used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Syndrome differentiation is one of the important characteristics of TCM. To assess the application and basic characteristics of syndrome differentiation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS, we performed this paper. We conducted electronic searches in main Chinese and English databases till March 2012. A total of 735 RCTs involving 67,784 IBS participants were included. 224 (30.5%) studies applied syndrome differentiation. The major syndromes of IBS patients were the syndrome of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency (56.8%), spleen-stomach weakness (49.4%), spleen-kidney yang deficiency (48.1%), and cold and heat in complexity (29.6%). Herbal formulas were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation in 202 studies. Chinese patent medicine was more commonly used in studies that only enrolled patients with a specific syndrome. 15 studies compared the therapeutic effect among different syndromes, of which 6 studies showed that there were significant differences among different syndromes. The low use of TCM syndrome differentiation in randomized trials of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS results in the poor pertinence of treatment. TCM syndrome differentiation should be used in further studies at the stage of recruitment, treatment, and data analyses. PMID:23554827

  2. Progress of research in treatment of hyperlipidemia by monomer or compound recipe of Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiao-bing; Wo, Xing-de; Fan, Chun-lei

    2008-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the No.1 risk factor for patients with atherosclerosis (AS) and is directly related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, prevention and treatment of AS is of great importance and of practical significance in controlling the incidence and mortality of CAD. With its peculiar syndrome-dependent therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated abundant practical experiences in this field and good clinical effects have been achieved. Chinese herbal medicine, with its particularly unique advantages and high potentials yet to be tapped, displays its huge strength in HLP prevention and treatment. The progress of studies concerning prevention and treatment of HLP by Chinese herbal medicines, in the form of monomers or compound recipes, is reviewed in this paper.

  3. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs.

  4. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs. PMID:25956424

  5. New Potential Pharmacological Functions of Chinese Herbal Medicines via Regulation of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Law, Betty Yuen Kwan; Mok, Simon Wing Fai; Wu, An Guo; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Yu, Margaret Xin Yi; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a universal catabolic cellular process for quality control of cytoplasm and maintenance of cellular homeostasis upon nutrient deprivation and environmental stimulus. It involves the lysosomal degradation of cellular components such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancers, myopathy, neurodegenerations, infections and cardiovascular diseases. In the recent decade, traditional drugs with new clinical applications are not only commonly found in Western medicines, but also highlighted in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). For instance, pharmacological studies have revealed that active components or fractions from Chaihu (Radix bupleuri), Hu Zhang (Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati), Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubesens), Hou po (Cortex magnoliae officinalis) and Chuan xiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong) modulate cancers, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease via autophagy. These findings shed light on the potential new applications and formulation of CHM decoctions via regulation of autophagy. This article reviews the roles of autophagy in the pharmacological actions of CHM and discusses their new potential clinical applications in various human diseases. PMID:26999089

  6. Effect of Processing on the Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Flos Lonicerae: An NMR-based Chemometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Wang, Mei; Avula, Bharathi; Zhong, Lingyun; Song, Zhonghua; Xu, Qiongming; Li, Shunxiang; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-06-01

    The processing of medicinal materials, known as Pao Zhi in traditional Chinese medicine, is a unique part of traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used for the preparation of Chinese materia medica. It is believed that processing can alter the properties and functions of remedies, increase medical potency, and reduce toxicity and side effects. Both processed and unprocessed Flos Lonicerae (flowers of Lonicera japonica) are important drug ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine. To gain insights on the effect of processing factors (heating temperature and duration) on the change of chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the processing of F. Lonicerae. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data were analyzed by means of a heat map and principal components analysis. The results indicated that the composition changed significantly, particularly when processing at the higher temperature (210 °C). Five chemical components, viz. 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and myo-inositol, whose concentration changed significantly during the processing, were isolated and identified. The patterns for the concentration change observed from nuclear magnetic resonance analysis during the processing were confirmed and quantitatively determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The study demonstrated that a nuclear magnetic resonance-based chemometric approach could be a promising tool for investigation of the processing of herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. [Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae. PMID:26930953

  8. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  9. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  10. Identification of Chinese herbal medicines by fluorescence microscopy: fluorescent characteristics of medicinal bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Liang, Z; Chen, H; Zhao, Z; Li, P

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal bark refers to structures outside the vascular cambium of stems, branches and roots of gymnospermous and dicotyledonous plants that are used as medicinal materials; bark is an important type of Chinese herbal medicine. However, identification of the species from which the bark comes can be very difficult, especially when the bark is dried and sliced. In our previous studies, we have found that fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for the identification of easily confused Chinese herbal medicines, powdered Chinese herbal medicines and decoction dregs. To establish the fluorescent characteristics by which medicinal barks can be identified, for ensuring their safe and effective use, a systematic microscopic investigation by normal light and fluorescence microscope was carried out on transverse section samples of 11 medicinal barks commonly used in China. Specifically, the fluorescent characteristics of mechanical tissues, including stone cells and fibres as well as secretory tissues, have been observed. The microscopic features of medicinal bark are here systematically and comparatively described and illustrated. Under the fluorescence microscope, various tissues emitted fluorescence of different colours, and we found that both the colours and the intensity can be used to distinguish and identify these barks.

  11. [Herbal textual research on origin and development of traditional Chinese medicine "duhuo" and "qianghuo"].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the origin and development of the traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo" with medicinal literatures. Medical literatures of past dynasties were analysed and combined with the modern material. The "Duhuo" in Herbal writing Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing include traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo", "Qianghuo" was separated from "Duhuo" due to the distinguish of clinical application. The origin of "Qianghuo" is Notopterygium incisum and N. forbesii, However, The origin of "Duhuo" is very complex, Angelica pubescens f. biserrata as authentic "Duhuo" was used from Song Dynasty. "Qianghuo" was originated from "Duhuo".

  12. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  16. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  17. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Penthorum chinense Pursh: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Lin, Ligen; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (ganhuangcao), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and alcoholic liver damage. A wide range of investigations have been carried out on this herbal medicine from pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, as well as pharmacology. The extract of P. chinense was reported to have significant liver protective effects through anti-oxidation, reduction of key enzyme levels, inhibition of hepatitis B virus DNA replication, and promotion of bile secretion. Based on the current knowledge, flavonoids and phenols are considered to be responsible for P. chinense's bioactivities. The main purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies performed on P. chinense during the past few decades. Moreover, it intends to provide new insights into the research and development of this herbal medicine.

  18. Classification of Mixtures of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on a Self-organizing Map (SOM).

    PubMed

    Wang, Maolin; Li, Li; Yu, Changyuan; Yan, Aixia; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) are typically mixtures of compounds and are often categorized into cold and hot according to the theory of Chinese Medicine. This classification is essential for guiding the clinical application of CHMs. In this study, three types of molecular descriptors were used to build models for classification of 59 CHMs with typical cold/hot properties in the training set taken from the original records on properties in China Pharmacopeia as reference. The accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient of the models were validated by a test set containing other 56 CHMs. The best model produced the accuracies of 94.92 % and 83.93 % on training set and test set, respectively. The MACCS fingerprint model is robust in predicting hot/cold properties of the CHMs from their major constituting compounds. This work shows how a classification model for data consisting of multi-components can be developed. The derived model can be used for the application of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:27491920

  19. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects from Herbal Drugs Reported in Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Jun, Seung Ah; Hong, Sung Shin; Ahn, Yo Chan; Lee, Dong Soo; Son, Chang Gue

    2016-09-01

    Herbal drugs have become a popular form of healthcare, raising concerns about their safety. This study aimed to characterize the adverse effects of herbal drugs through a systematic review of results reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Using eight electronic databases including PubMed, the Cochrane library and six Korean medical databases, the frequency of reported toxicity was recorded based on drug composition and indication. Among 4957 potentially relevant articles, 242 papers comprised of 244 studies met our inclusion criteria; these included 111 studies of a single herb and 133 of multiple herbs. These studies accounted for a total 15 441 participants (male = 5590; female = 9851; 7383 for single and 8058 for multiple herb studies). There were 480 cases (3.1%) of adverse events (344 for single, 136 for multiple herb studies; p < 0.01). A total of 259 cases reported blood test abnormalities, including five cases of abnormality in hepatic functional enzymes. The most frequently reported adverse event was digestive symptoms (44.3%), followed by nervous system symptoms (17.3%) and behaviors such as loss of appetite (16.3%). This is the first systematic review of adverse effects of herbal drugs among clinical studies, and the results indicate that herbal drugs are relatively safe. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27196988

  20. Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases.

  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Bowen's Disease in a Patient with a History of Consumption of Traditional Chinese Herbal Balls

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Beom Joon; Shim, Joo Hyun; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic has been classified as a class I human carcinogen, meaning that there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity to humans. Arsenic, however, remains a common contaminant in a number of traditional Chinese herbal balls. A 64-year-old man presented with an erythematous erosive patch on the left palm, multiple yellowish scaly patches on the right palm and an erythematous hyperkeratotic patch with bleeding on the left foot dorsum. He also had similar skin lesions on the back and buttock. He had a past medical history of chronic exposure to arsenic through consumption of traditional Chinese herbal balls. Skin biopsy revealed Bowen's disease on the left palm and squamous cell carcinoma on left foot dorsum. We report this case to emphasize that we should investigate patient's history thoroughly, including the use of Chinese herbal balls to find out arsenicism. PMID:26351422

  2. [Interrelationship between folk plant medicine of Arhorchin Mongolian and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Khasbagan, Soyolt; Pei, Shengji

    2002-07-01

    Based on the results of investigation of Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal plants and related knowledge system, the present paper discussed the interrelationship between folk plant medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine by the items of plant species, medicinal parts, treating disease and administering methods. The results show that there are some consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine, and there are also some other inconsistency. Consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine may be illustrated the fact that the Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal knowledge and Mongolian medicine are belongs to same system. Consistency between folk medicine and Chinese herbal medicine are illustrated the fact that knowledge exchange and cultural infiltration between Arhorchin Mongolians and Han nationality. Inconsistency may be illustrated richness and exploration value of folk medicinal knowledge.

  3. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

  4. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Prieto, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.

  5. Pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Jie; Zhai, Ming-Ming; Yuan, Yun; Zhu, Ying; Crews, Phillip; Yuan, Cheng-Shan; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Three new pyrones, solanapyrones P-R (1-3), were afforded by the extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 isolated from the fresh root of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii, along with the known solanapyrones (4-6) and benzopyrones (7-9). Solanapyrones P (1) and Q (2) possess an unprecedented nor-solanapyrone skeleton as natural products. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The plausible biosynthetic pathways to those unknown compounds were discussed. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacteria.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Chemogenomics Knowledgebase-guided Target Identification and Drug Synergy Mechanism Study of an Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai; Ma, Shifan; Feng, Zhiwei; Wang, Dongyao; Li, Chengjian; Cao, Yan; Chen, Xiaofei; Liu, Aijun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Junping; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy is a popular treatment for various diseases in the clinic. Among the successful cases, Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) formulae can achieve synergistic effects in therapeutics and antagonistic effects in toxicity. However, characterizing the underlying molecular synergisms for the combination of drugs remains a challenging task due to high experimental expenses and complication of multicomponent herbal medicines. To understand the rationale of combination therapy, we investigated Sini Decoction, a well-known TCM consisting of three herbs, as a model. We applied our established diseases-specific chemogenomics databases and our systems pharmacology approach TargetHunter to explore synergistic mechanisms of Sini Decoction in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (1) We constructed a cardiovascular diseases-specific chemogenomics database, including drugs, target proteins, chemicals, and associated pathways. (2) Using our implemented chemoinformatics tools, we mapped out the interaction networks between active ingredients of Sini Decoction and their targets. (3) We also in silico predicted and experimentally confirmed that the side effects can be alleviated by the combination of the components. Overall, our results demonstrated that our cardiovascular disease-specific database was successfully applied for systems pharmacology analysis of a complicated herbal formula in predicting molecular synergetic mechanisms, and led to better understanding of a combinational therapy. PMID:27678063

  7. Are national quality standards for traditional Chinese herbal medicine sufficient? Current governmental regulations for traditional Chinese herbal medicine in certain Western countries and China as the Eastern origin country.

    PubMed

    Dobos, G J; Tan, L; Cohen, M H; McIntyre, M; Bauer, R; Li, X; Bensoussan, A

    2005-09-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal Medicine (TCHM) has been gaining interest and acceptance world wide. TCHM provides on the one side promising perspective of scientific interest and on the other side possible health risks if TCHM drugs are not controlled with respect to quality standards or if practitioners for TCHM are not well trained. This paper outlines an introduction to the scientific aspects and potential risks of TCHM therapy followed by a brief, exploratory overview of the current status of TCHM regulations in certain Western countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and in China as the Eastern origin country of TCHM. Legal foundations to establish quality and safety standards for TCHM crude drugs and ready-made formulas exist in some countries on a local basis but in practice are poorly enforced, where this products have no drug status. In addition practitioners treating patients with TCHM should be well versed in the pharmacology, side effects, and interactions of these substances with Western medicines and should be certified on a regular basis.

  8. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  9. [Studies on the antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver].

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Huang, X; Yang, Y; Zhang, Q

    1997-12-01

    The antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver, including Salivia miltiorrhiza, Hypericum japonicum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Callicarpa cathayana, Chrysanthemum indicum, Paeonia latiflora, Lysimachia christinae, Ligustrum lucidum (L1), Patrinia villosa (Pv) on hepatic homogenate of rat were tested. It was found that all tested medicines showed inhibition with dose-effect relationship, the inhibitory rate of L1 and Pv were lower than the other's. All results showed that these Chinese herbal medicines have strong antilipid peroxidation and are natural oxidation inhibitor. It was suggested that their function of protecting liver and others have relationship with the antioxidation. PMID:12572505

  10. Theories and practice in prevention and treatment principles in relation to Chinese herbal medicine and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Lawson, David

    2004-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a world wide problem that is increasing in significance as the global population both increases and ages. While osteoporosis has been extensively studied in recent years, the utilization of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine for the prevention and treatment of this condition have seldom been examined in the Western world. This paper reviews the theories and the literature that relate to prevention and treatment of bone loss at the time of menopause according to the principles of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine. Practical developments in these areas are also illustrated in this paper based on the authors' research findings in recent studies.

  11. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs.

  12. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  13. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Chen, Lingxiu; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs.

  14. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Chen, Lingxiu; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194

  17. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  18. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  19. Population-Based Case–Control Study of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Aristolochic Acid and Urinary Tract Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Nan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Ya-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumption of Chinese herbs that contain aristolochic acid (eg, Mu Tong) has been associated with an increased risk of urinary tract cancer. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study in Taiwan to examine the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products that contain aristolochic acid and urinary tract cancer. All patients newly diagnosed with urinary tract cancer (case subjects) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2002, and a random sample of the entire insured population from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002 (control subjects), were selected from the National Health Insurance reimbursement database. Subjects who were ever prescribed more than 500 pills of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or acetaminophen were excluded, leaving 4594 case patients and 174 701 control subjects in the final analysis. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression models for the association between prescribed Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid and the occurrence of urinary tract cancer. Models were adjusted for age, sex, residence in a township where black foot disease was endemic (an indicator of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water [a risk factor for urinary tract cancer]), and history of chronic urinary tract infection. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results Having been prescribed more than 60 g of Mu Tong and an estimated consumption of more than 150 mg of aristolochic acid were independently associated with an increased risk for urinary tract cancer in multivariable analyses (Mu Tong: at 61–100 g, OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.1, and at >200 g, OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3 to 3.4; aristolochic acid: at 151–250 mg, OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.8, and at >500 mg, OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.9). A statistically significant linear dose–response relationship was observed between the prescribed dose of Mu Tong or the estimated cumulative dose

  20. [Interactions between synthetic drugs used in treatment of selected central nervous system disorders and dietary supplements and herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The risk of interaction between dietary supplements, herbal drugs and synthetic drugs increases when patients are treated chronically, e.g. due to impairment of central nervous system (CNS)--depression, psychotic disorders, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. On the basis of scientific literature, there was shown that simultaneous intake of antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and herbal drugs or dietary supplements containing: St. John's wort, valerian root, ginkgo biloba leaf, hops, and food ingredients: dietary fiber or folic acid, may lead to interactions. Dietary fiber supplementation should be applied carefully during treatment of Parkinson's disease and in case of Alzheimer disease treatment--supplements containing ginkgo biloba leaf can increase the risk of interaction. Knowledge of these interactions is essential in effective treatment of this illness. However this area of science should be verified constantly due to growing number of new products registered as a supplements--often with complex composition. PMID:23885542

  1. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal formula Zhen Wu Decoction for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zhen Wu Decoction (ZWD), a famous classic herbal formula documented in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely available in China for treating hypertensive patients with kidney yang deficiency and fluid retention syndrome. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZWD for hypertension. Methods Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched from their inception to November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of ZWD used alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs against placebo, no intervention or antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients were identified. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results Seven trials involving 472 hypertensive patients were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, ZWD showed no significant effects in lowering blood pressure (BP) (n=177; risk ratio (RR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; p=0.58); however, ZWD plus antihypertensive drugs (ZPAD) significantly lowered systolic BP (n=80; weighted mean difference (WMD) −14.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −18.84 to −9.16 mm Hg; p<0.00001), diastolic BP (n=80; WMD −8.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −11.35 to −4.65 mm Hg; p<0.00001), and BP (n=215; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; p=0.001). TCM symptoms and syndromes were significantly improved by either ZWD (n=177; RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; p<0.0001) or ZPAD (n=215; RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49; p=0.0001). Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusions This systematic review revealed no definite conclusion about the application of ZWD for hypertension due to the poor methodological quality, high risk of bias, and inadequate reporting on clinical data. More rigorously designed trials, especially addressing continuous BP

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a multicomponent herbal preparation in healthy Chinese and African volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Alolga, Raphael N.; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Lelu Kakila, Jimmy; Chen, Yan; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    K-601 is an herbal formulation for influenza consisting of Lonicera japonica, Isatis indigotica, Rheum palmatum, Phellodendron chinense, and Scutellaria baicalensis. In this work, we characterized the chemical constituents in K-601, identified the absorbed compounds and determined their pharmacokinetics in 6 Chinese and African volunteers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Similarity evaluation for chromatographic fingerprint of nine different batches showed values above 0.983. Totally, 50 components were identified in K-601. Then, 15 major prototype compounds and 17 metabolites were identified in human plasma. Major metabolic pathways included glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, demethylation, and reduction. The pharmacokinetics of the most abundant prototype compounds, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and magnoflorine were determined. Significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the African and Chinese subjects. The AUCs of the African is about 4–10 fold higher than that of the Chinese for the three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Magnoflorine, an aporphine alkaloid, was absorbed better in the Chinese than in the African. The biotransformation of K-601 by human intestinal microflora was also investigated. The major reactions included hydroxylation, methylation, demethylation, acetylation and reduction. Glucuronidation and sulfation were not observed with fecal flora. These results may be important and useful in linking data from pharmacological assays and clinical effects. PMID:26268432

  3. Pharmacokinetics of a multicomponent herbal preparation in healthy Chinese and African volunteers.

    PubMed

    Alolga, Raphael N; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Lelu Kakila, Jimmy; Chen, Yan; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    K-601 is an herbal formulation for influenza consisting of Lonicera japonica, Isatis indigotica, Rheum palmatum, Phellodendron chinense, and Scutellaria baicalensis. In this work, we characterized the chemical constituents in K-601, identified the absorbed compounds and determined their pharmacokinetics in 6 Chinese and African volunteers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Similarity evaluation for chromatographic fingerprint of nine different batches showed values above 0.983. Totally, 50 components were identified in K-601. Then, 15 major prototype compounds and 17 metabolites were identified in human plasma. Major metabolic pathways included glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, demethylation, and reduction. The pharmacokinetics of the most abundant prototype compounds, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and magnoflorine were determined. Significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the African and Chinese subjects. The AUCs of the African is about 4-10 fold higher than that of the Chinese for the three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Magnoflorine, an aporphine alkaloid, was absorbed better in the Chinese than in the African. The biotransformation of K-601 by human intestinal microflora was also investigated. The major reactions included hydroxylation, methylation, demethylation, acetylation and reduction. Glucuronidation and sulfation were not observed with fecal flora. These results may be important and useful in linking data from pharmacological assays and clinical effects. PMID:26268432

  4. Pharmacokinetics of a multicomponent herbal preparation in healthy Chinese and African volunteers.

    PubMed

    Alolga, Raphael N; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Lelu Kakila, Jimmy; Chen, Yan; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-08-13

    K-601 is an herbal formulation for influenza consisting of Lonicera japonica, Isatis indigotica, Rheum palmatum, Phellodendron chinense, and Scutellaria baicalensis. In this work, we characterized the chemical constituents in K-601, identified the absorbed compounds and determined their pharmacokinetics in 6 Chinese and African volunteers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Similarity evaluation for chromatographic fingerprint of nine different batches showed values above 0.983. Totally, 50 components were identified in K-601. Then, 15 major prototype compounds and 17 metabolites were identified in human plasma. Major metabolic pathways included glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, demethylation, and reduction. The pharmacokinetics of the most abundant prototype compounds, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and magnoflorine were determined. Significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the African and Chinese subjects. The AUCs of the African is about 4-10 fold higher than that of the Chinese for the three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Magnoflorine, an aporphine alkaloid, was absorbed better in the Chinese than in the African. The biotransformation of K-601 by human intestinal microflora was also investigated. The major reactions included hydroxylation, methylation, demethylation, acetylation and reduction. Glucuronidation and sulfation were not observed with fecal flora. These results may be important and useful in linking data from pharmacological assays and clinical effects.

  5. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility.

  6. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  7. "Herbal incense": designer drug blends as cannabimimetics and their assessment by drug discrimination and other in vivo bioassays.

    PubMed

    Järbe, Torbjörn U C; Gifford, Roger S

    2014-02-27

    Recently, synthetic cannabinoids originally designed for testing in the laboratory only have found use recreationally in designer herbal blends, originally called "Spice". The myriad of compounds found are for the most part potent full agonists of the cannabinoid receptor 1, producing effects similar to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and marijuana. Drug discrimination of these compounds offers a specific behavioral test that can help determine whether these new synthetic compounds share a similar "subjective high" with the effects of marijuana/THC. By utilization of drug discrimination and other behavioral techniques, a better understanding of these new "designer" cannabinoids may be reached to assist in treating both the acute and chronic effects of these drugs. The paper provides a brief exposé of modern cannabinoid research as a backdrop to the recreational use of designer herbal blend cannabimimetics.

  8. Herbal incense”: Designer drug blends as cannabimimetics and their assessment by drug discrimination and other in vivo bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Järbe, Torbjörn U.C.; Gifford, Roger S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, synthetic cannabinoids originally designed for testing in the laboratory only have found use recreationally in designer herbal blends, originally called “Spice”. The myriad of compounds found are for the most part potent full agonists of the cannabinoid receptor 1, producing effects similar to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and marijuana. Drug discrimination of these compounds offers a specific behavioral test that can help determine whether these new synthetic compounds share a similar “subjective high”with the effects of marijuana/THC. By utilization of drug discrimination and other behavioral techniques, a better understanding of these new “designer” cannabinoids may be reached to assist in treating both the acute and chronic effects of these drugs. The paper provides a brief exposé of modern cannabinoid research as a backdrop to the recreational use of designer herbal blend cannabimimetics. PMID:23891559

  9. Adjunctive Chinese Herbal Medicine therapy improves survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Chang, Ching-Mao; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Despite good clinical results of current drugs, a good reason still exists to search for additional therapies for the management of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) has thus far been overlooked by researchers and no data exists on the subject. We studied the impact of adjunctive CHM on the disease course of CML, using mortality as the major outcome measurement. We used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to perform a nationwide population-based cohort study. Our study included CML patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. We matched groups according to age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score and use of imatinib, and compared the Hazard Ratios (HR) of CHM group and non-CHM users, as well as characterized trends of prescriptions used for treating CML. 1371 patients were diagnosed with CML in the years examined, of which 466 were included in to this study. We found that the HR of CHM group was significantly lower compared to non-CHM groups (0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.48, P < 0.0001). We also established that this association between reduced HR was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.01). We also analyzed the most commonly used herbal products as well as the HR associated to their use, thus providing future research candidates. Our results supply a strong reason to assume that when administered by properly trained physicians, CHM may have a substantial positive impact on the management of CML.

  10. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; März, R; Sieder, C

    1997-12-01

    Herbal expectorants and secretolytic drugs hold a sizeable share of the European market. Therefore it is essential to test their clinical effectiveness and safety. The aim of the present study was to compare the herbal medication Bronchipret(®) with various other pharmacotherapeutical options for acute bronchitis. The study was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7783 patients. Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented. The data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The results suggest that clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret(®) was not less than with synthetic drugs. There was a tendency for better results with Bronchipret(®), particularly in the treatment of adults. Similar results were obtained with respect to adverse reactions. Particularly in the adult sub-group, these were markedly less with herbals as compared to synthetic drugs. These findings imply that a risk/benefit evaluation would favour Bronchipret(®) over synthetic drugs for acute bronchitis. Their interpretation is limited through the fact that this study could not be randomised nor blinded. The results therefore require confirmation through randomised, double-blind trials.

  11. New Analytical Monographs on TCM Herbal Drugs for Quality Proof.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Melchart, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of specific national drug regulations there is an international consensus that all TCM drugs must meet stipulated high quality standards focusing on authentication, identification and chemical composition. In addition, safety of all TCM drugs prescribed by physicians has to be guaranteed. During the 25 years history of the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting, 171 TCM drugs underwent an analytical quality proof including thin layer as well as high pressure liquid chromatography. As from now mass spectroscopy will also be available as analytical tool. The findings are compiled and already published in three volumes of analytical monographs. One more volume will be published shortly, and a fifth volume is in preparation. The main issues of the analytical procedure in TCM drugs like authenticity, botanical nomenclature, variability of plant species and parts as well as processing are pointed out and possible ways to overcome them are sketched.

  12. New Analytical Monographs on TCM Herbal Drugs for Quality Proof.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Melchart, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of specific national drug regulations there is an international consensus that all TCM drugs must meet stipulated high quality standards focusing on authentication, identification and chemical composition. In addition, safety of all TCM drugs prescribed by physicians has to be guaranteed. During the 25 years history of the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting, 171 TCM drugs underwent an analytical quality proof including thin layer as well as high pressure liquid chromatography. As from now mass spectroscopy will also be available as analytical tool. The findings are compiled and already published in three volumes of analytical monographs. One more volume will be published shortly, and a fifth volume is in preparation. The main issues of the analytical procedure in TCM drugs like authenticity, botanical nomenclature, variability of plant species and parts as well as processing are pointed out and possible ways to overcome them are sketched. PMID:27271998

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Aspirin Resistance: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-ju; Li, Hui-qin; Li, Ji-huang; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin resistance (AR) is a prevalent phenomenon and leads to significant clinical consequences, but the current evidence for effective interventional strategy is insufficient. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for AR. A systematical literature search was conducted in 6 databases until December 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for AR. As a result, sixteen RCTs with a total of 1011 subjects were identified, suggesting that the interests of the medical profession and the public in the use of CHM for AR have grown considerably in the recent years. Tongxinluo capsule and Danshen-based prescriptions were the most frequently used herbal prescriptions, while danshen root, milkvetch root, Leech, and Rosewood were the most frequently used single herbs. Despite the apparent reported positive findings, it is premature to determine the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of AR due to poor methodological quality and insufficient safety data. However, CHMs appeared to be well tolerated in all included studies. Thus, CHM as a promising candidate is worthy of improvement and development for further clinical AR trials. Large sample-size and well-designed rigorous RCTs are needed. PMID:24701247

  14. Chinese herbal medicine for patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mei; Lu, Jingmin; May, Brian H; Liu, Shaonan; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of patients with vascular cognitive impairment but no dementia. Methods and analysis We will perform a comprehensive retrieval in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Wan-fang database and other sources. After screening the studies, the methodological quality of all included trials will be assessed according to the risk of bias instrument provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials will be conducted using RevMan V.5.3 software. Funnel plot analysis and Egger's test will be used to assess publication bias, if possible. The quality of evidence will be assessed by the GRADE system. Dissemination This systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and a relevant conference presentation. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD 42015023682. PMID:27016244

  15. Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan-dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-ping; Yang, Zhao-yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-an; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-hu

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: “banxia houpo” decoction, “chaihu shugansan”, “ganmaidazao” decoction, “kaixinsan”, “shuganjieyu” capsules, “sinisan”, “wuling” capsules, “xiaoyaosan”, and “yueju”. Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed. PMID:27703356

  16. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG Suppresses Pulmonary Fibrosis of Mice Induced by Bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Yao, Li-Fu; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Li-Man; Guo, Peng; Yu, Meng; Cao, Bo; Li, Tan; Chen, Hong; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a serious progressive lung disease and it originates from inflammation-induced parenchymal injury with excessive extracellular matrix deposition to result in the destruction of the normal lung architecture. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect. The present study is to explore the inhibitory effects of mKG on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. mKG significantly decreased pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis scores, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-17 (IL-17), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels in lung tissue of mice compared with BLM treatment. It markedly alleviated the increase of HYP content in the lung tissues and pathologic changes of pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM instillation. In conclusion, mKG has an anti-fibrotic effect and might be employed as a therapeutic candidate agent for attenuating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26891294

  17. Arsenic speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines and human health implication for inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Quan-Li; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul; Lu, Xiu-Jun; Cai, Jing-Zhu; Liu, Wen-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic.

  18. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non-embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trails

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qian; Li, Jin-long; Sun, Yue-li; Yao, Min; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhu; Shi, Qi; Cui, Xue-jun; Wang, Yong-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is a major health problem for the elderly population. Chinese herb may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its capability. Objectives. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese medicine treatment on the patients with osteoporosis. Search Methods. Randomized controlled trials were retrieved from different 9 databases. Results. This meta analysis included 12 RCTs involving 1816 patients to compare Chinese herbs with placebo or standard anti-osteoporotic therapy in the treatment of bone loss. The pooled data showed that the percent change of increased BMD in the spine is higher with Chinese herb compared to placebo (lumber spine: WMD = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01–0.04). In the femoral, Chinese herb showed significantly higher increments of BMD compared to placebo (femoral neck: WMD = 0.06, 95% CI: −0.02–0.13). Compared to the other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs, Chinese herbs also show advantage in BMD change (lumber spine: WMD = 0.03, 95% CI: −0.01–0.08; femoral: WMD = 0.01, 95% CI: −0.01–0.02). Conclusions. Our results demonstrated that Chinese herb significantly increased lumbar spine BMD as compared to the placebo or other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs. PMID:23431336

  20. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 μg/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective

  1. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD.

  2. Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy Improves Survival of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Utilization of Chinese Medicine (CM) is not uncommon in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the current knowledge of the usage and efficacy of CM among CLL patients is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of integrative Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on the disease course of CLL and ascertain the herbal products most commonly prescribed to patients with CLL. A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study involving the use of Western medicine and CM services provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) was conducted. An NHI Research Database-based cohort study was performed; the timeframe of the study was January 2000 to December 2010. The end of the follow-up period was defined as December 31, 2011. A total of 808 patients were diagnosed with CLL in Taiwan within the defined study period. After randomly matching for age and sex and excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, data from 616 patients were analyzed. The 2 study groups both received standard of care treatment. In addition, 1 group also received CHM. Patients who were registered as receiving other forms of CM, such as acupuncture, were excluded. Hazard ratios of mortality were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products. In total, 616 CLL patients were included in the analyses. We found that the HR associated with the adjunctive use of CHM was less than half when compared to the non-CHM group (0.43, 95% CI 0.33–0.55, P < 0.0001) and that treatment-naive patients who used CHM had the lowest HR. We also established that this association between reduction in HR and CHM was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.001). We supplied data from a relatively large population that spanned a significant amount of time. Our data suggests that the treatment of CLL with adjunctive CHM may have a substantial positive impact on mortality, especially for

  3. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  4. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katrin M; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  5. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  6. Cognitive Improvement during Treatment for Mild Alzheimer’s Disease with a Chinese Herbal Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Cui, Yuanwu; Gu, Yun; Guo, Jiakui; Wu, Di; Li, Qiang; Song, Wanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal formula compared with donepezil 5mg/day in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Patients with mild AD meeting the criteria were randomized into Chinese herbal formula Yishen Huazhuo decoction (YHD) group and donepezil hydrochloride (DH) group during the 24-week trial. The outcomes were measured by ADAS-cog, MMSE, ADL, and NPI with linear mixed-effect models. Results 144 patients were randomized. The mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE in both YHD group and DH group both improved at the end of the 24-week treatment period. The results also revealed that YHD was better at improving the mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE than DH. Linear mixed-effect models with repeated measures showed statistical significance in time × group interaction effect of ADAS-cog and also in time × group interaction effect of MMSE. The data showed YHD was superior to DH in improving the scores and long term efficacy. Conclusions Our study suggests that Chinese herbal formula YHD is beneficial and effective for cognitive improvement in patients with mild AD and the mechanism might be through reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition in the hippocampus. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002846 PMID:26076022

  7. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    An herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are ... go through the testing that drugs do. Some herbs, such as comfrey and ephedra, can cause serious ...

  8. Herbal and polymeric approaches for liver-targeting drug delivery: novel strategies and their significance.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Raman; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates, which performs many functions including detoxification, protein synthesis and production of various bio-chemicals which are very important for digestion. A large number of serious liver disorders affect millions of people worldwide which are very difficult to treat properly despite many efforts. There are several factors which are responsible for liver injuries, include plants (Crotalaria Senecio Heliotropium Symphytum officinale), drugs (analgesic and antibiotics), industrial toxins (mercury and lead), water, alcohol and so on. Herbal medicinal preparations can be used for the treatment of a large number of human liver disorders like cirrhosis, hepatitis, carcinomas, etc. Indian Medicinal Practitioner's Co-operative pharmacy and Stores (IMPCPS) approved herbal-based systems (Unani, Siddha and Ayurveda) for the treatment of various chronic liver disorders. Different types of the receptors are found on the surface of hepatocytes, Kupffer cell, hepatic stellate cell and sinusoidal endothelial cells, etc., which can be used for achieving liver targeting. These receptors bind to different types of ligands (galactosylated, lactobionic acid, asialofetuin, etc.) which can be used in the formulation to achieve targeted delivery of the drug. Various novel particulate approaches (liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, micelles, nanosuspensions, etc.) can be used to enhance the targeting efficiency of systems to receptors found on the surface of different cells present in the liver. In this review, we focused on the status of liver targeting via herbal and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches. PMID:25101832

  9. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.

  10. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

  11. Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Eczema: Implications from a Nationwide Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-hung; Chen, Jiun-liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies. PMID:25685167

  12. Regression of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung by Chinese herbal medicine: a case with an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liang, H L M; Xue, C C L; Li, C G

    2004-03-01

    A 51-year-old woman diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung (T2N2M0) by cytological tests and a CT scan has survived for 8 years. During this period of time, she had been treated with Chinese herbal medicine alone for 4 years. The herbal prescription consisted of nine Chinese medicinal herbs. These herbs have been reported to possess anti-tumour and immune enhancing effects. Therefore, it is suggested that the herbal treatment for this patient might have contributed to the complete regression of her lung carcinoma. Further research on the actions of these herbs is warranted. PMID:15165095

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research.

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research. PMID:26886628

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension. Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone. In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and 7 studies reported significant effects of XZD for improving symptoms compared with the control group (P < 0.00001). Meanwhile, studies reported XZD was more efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P < 0.05). No severe adverse event was reported. This meta-analysis provides evidence that XZD is beneficial for hypertension. Although concerns regarding selective bias and methodologic flaws were raised, our findings suggests XZD as a new candidate cardioprotective drug for hypertension, which should be given priority for future preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26496333

  16. Tonkin herbal drug: a multidisciplinary approach to development.

    PubMed

    Ysrael, Mafel C

    2003-01-01

    Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq, locally known as 'Tonkin', has been used for generations by the Dominicans in the Philippines for medicinal purposes. The seeds, stems and leaves are said to be effective in treating several types of skin ailments such as chronic and gangrenous wounds, cuts and blisters due to burns. Scientific investigations to rationalize the reported medicinal uses of the plant were carried out at University of Santo Tomas. Botanists at the University did the identification and studied the cultivation and propagation of the plant. Pharmacists and chemists worked closely together on the 'Tonkin' seeds. The seeds were found to have both analgesic and antiseptic properties. Chemists identified indolizidine alkaloids in the seeds, to which the analgesic properties have been attributed. Antimicrobial and antifungal compounds were also identified. Different formulations of the crude drug have been made, namely, an ointment for the treatment of skin ailments, glycerol preparation for the treatment of pharyngitis and an otic preparation for the treatment of otitis externa. Limited clinical trials of these formulations were carried out in collaboration with the medical doctors. The clinical trial studies were supported by in vitro studies carried out by microbiologists. Basic research on this plant material is still continuing. Efforts are now underway for the commercial production of the Tonkin ointment.

  17. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines. PMID:24363556

  18. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review.

    PubMed

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Silva, Patricia Bento da; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines.

  19. [Zheng Classification in Chinese Medicine: from Its Integration with Disease Diagnosis to Clinical Effectiveness Assessment and Combinational New Drug Discovery].

    PubMed

    Lv, Ai-ping

    2015-08-01

    As the core of traditional Chinese medicine theory, Zheng (syndrome, or pattern) classification will promote personalized medicine by changing the clinical diagnosis into a more precise mode when integrating Zheng classification with disease diagnosis approaches. The author adopted rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a disease model, to explore the scientific fundamentals of Zheng classification based on disease diagnosis using systemic biological approaches and evidence-based medicine design, as well as developed novel approaches on the methodology of clinical effectiveness evaluation on Chinese medicine and R&D of combinational drugs design based on Fu Fang (Chinese herbal formula). Some unique research design and methods are herein introduced.

  20. [Zheng Classification in Chinese Medicine: from Its Integration with Disease Diagnosis to Clinical Effectiveness Assessment and Combinational New Drug Discovery].

    PubMed

    Lv, Ai-ping

    2015-08-01

    As the core of traditional Chinese medicine theory, Zheng (syndrome, or pattern) classification will promote personalized medicine by changing the clinical diagnosis into a more precise mode when integrating Zheng classification with disease diagnosis approaches. The author adopted rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a disease model, to explore the scientific fundamentals of Zheng classification based on disease diagnosis using systemic biological approaches and evidence-based medicine design, as well as developed novel approaches on the methodology of clinical effectiveness evaluation on Chinese medicine and R&D of combinational drugs design based on Fu Fang (Chinese herbal formula). Some unique research design and methods are herein introduced. PMID:26485907

  1. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally

  2. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above. PMID:23092848

  3. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  4. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetics of protein unbound aspirin and salicylic acid in rat blood and brain by microdialysis: an application to herbal-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-05-01

    Aspirin is commonly used for the prevention of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke; whereas the Chinese people employ the bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) as a routine herbal formulation for the treatment and prevention of transient ischemic stroke. The current study develops a microdialysis technique coupled to a validated liquid chromatography system to measure free-form aspirin and salicylic acid for herbal-drug interaction in rat blood and brain. The intra- and inter-day precisions in biological dialysates were within 0.1-9.4% in the concentration ranges of 0.1-50 μg/mL and the accuracies ranged from -4.7 to 6.1%. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the area under the concentration time curve (AUC) of the aspirin was 2031 ± 266 min μg/mL after aspirin administration (100mg/kg, i.v.). The AUC of salicylic acid was 12660 ± 1799 min μg/mL, which suggests that aspirin is quickly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid in blood and the metabolite can also be detected within 15 min in brain dialysate. The herbal-drug pharmacokinetic interaction showed no significant effect in blood and brain. The results of pharmacodynamics for the bleeding time suggested that there were no significant differences between the aspirin alone group and the BYHWT pretreated group. However, the bleeding time has been prolonged when compared aspirin alone or the group pretreated with BYHWT to the blank control. The conclusion provides practical information for clinical practice for the herbal formulation BYHWT and aspirin used concurrently.

  5. Evaluation of a Novel Herbal Immunomodulator Drug (IMOD) in Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Malmasi, Abdolali; Ziaie Ardestani, Bijan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Ziaie, Shadi; Masoudifard, Majid; Khorram Khorshid, Hamidreza; Nasiri, Mehdi; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Delrobai, Moin; Siavashi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity and drug resistance against pentavalent antimonials, medications of choice in treatment of leishmaniasis for more than 5 decades, have become important subjects globally. This study was a randomized, open labeled trial that was designed to determine efficacy and safety of IMOD as a novel herbal immunomodulator drug for treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty healthy mongrel dogs were infected with Iranian strain of L. Infantum amastigotes and randomly divided to 5 groups with four animals for each included on: I: negative control (non-infected) II: Glucantime® III: Glucantime® plus IMOD (immune-chemotherapy) IV: IMOD and V: positive control (non-treated). Physical examination, hematological, biochemical, serological, parasitological, pathological and imaging evaluations were performed pre-/post- interventions every month for 3 months. Comparing with control groups (I&V), immune-chemotherapy group (Glucantime® plus IMOD) showed significantly higher efficacy in resolving the clinical signs and hematobiochemistry factors. Based on our results, using IMOD in combination with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) has significantly improved CVL than the latter drug alone. So, it seems this new herbal medicine is useful as adjuvant therapy for canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25587325

  6. Adjuvant Chinese Herbal Products for Preventing Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Liu, Chun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are widely used for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Taiwan. We investigated the effect of adjuvant CHPs in preventing ischemic stroke in patients with AF. Methods Taiwanese patients in the Health Insurance Database newly diagnosed with AF during 2000–2011 were enrolled. Medication treatment with/without CHPs was administered within 7 days after the AF diagnosis. The clinical endpoint was an ischemic stroke. The Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Student t test were used to examine differences between the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and non-TCM cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the risk for ischemic stroke between two cohorts. Results Three hundred and eleven patients underwent TCM treatment and 1715 patients did not. Compared to non-TCM users, TCM users had a lower incidence of stroke (12.59% vs. 1.93%, respectively) and lower risk of stroke [CHA2DS2-VASc score = 0–2 (hazard ratio = 0.20; 95% confidence interval = 0.06–0.65)]. Compared to non-TCM users, the stroke risk was significantly lower in TCM users with AF who were female or younger than 65 years, but not in males, people more than 65 years old, or people with comorbidities. Compared to TCM users, non-TCM users who received conventional treatment had a higher ischemic stroke risk. The risk for AF-related hospitalization was significantly lower in TCM users (0.64%) than in non-TCM users (38.1%). Conclusions Users of TCM with AF have a lower risk of new-onset ischemic stroke. Therefore, adjuvant CHP therapy may have a protective effect and may be used in AF patients to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:27428543

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology: an improved pharmacology approach for chinese herbal medicine research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Ying-Wu; Qin, Xiu-de; Hua, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Lian; Kang, Li-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in the health maintenance of specific survival environment for neurons and glial cells, has been constructed and applied to CHM research for treating ND. In the present review, the concept and advantages of CSFP are briefly introduced. The approaches and key technologies of CSFP in CHM research are also collated and analyzed. Furthermore, the developing tendency of CSFP is summarized, and its framework in CHM research is also proposed. In summary, CSFP provides a new strategy not only to eliminate some barriers of CHM research for treating ND, but also to broaden the pharmacology research for bridging the gap between CHM and modern medicine. Moreover, the advancements in CSFP will bring about a conceptual move in active ingredients discovery of CHM and make a significant contribution to CHM modernization and globalization.

  8. [Application prospect and expectation of fungistatic agents of plants in preservation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Hu, Yi-chen; Zhao, Lian-hua; Yang, Shi-hai; Yang, Mei-hua

    2015-10-01

    During the process of growth, harvesting, transportation, processing and storage, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) can be easily contaminated by fungi and their metabolites like mycotoxins, which not only express negative effects on the quality and safety of CHMs and their processed products, but also pose great threats to human health. Now, some chemical synthetic fungicides have been frequently used to control the growth of fungi and accumulation of mycotoxins in the preservation of CHMs. However, the concentration and type of chemical fungicides allowed for postharvest application are restricted due to the disadvantages of their high residual toxicity, long degradation period and pollution to the environment and so on. Therefore, it is critical to research and develop some highly effective, safe and non-toxic, natural, environment-friendly fungistatic agents from plants to prevent CHMs from being contaminated by fungi and mycotoxins. The paper reviews mycotoxins and their harmfulness, the effective compounds of fungistatic plants as well as the antifungal mechanism to provide scientific evidences for developing novel and effective fungistatic agents plants. Then, the application prospect of fungistatic agents from plants in the preservation of CHMs was discussed.

  9. Effectiveness and Safety of Manufactured Chinese Herbal Formula for Knee Osteoarthritis: Insights from a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liguo; Yang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shangquan; Gong, Hao; Li, Linghui; Wei, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the current clinical evidence of manufactured Chinese herbal formulae (MCHF) for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods. Seven databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of MCHF for KOA were included. Data extraction, methodological assessment, and meta-analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. A total of 17 kinds of MCHF were identified from the twenty-six included trials. Meta-analyses showed that MCHF significantly relieved the global pain of knee joints, either used alone or combined with routine treatments. Additionally, MCHF plus routine treatments significantly decreased the scores of WOMAC and Lequesne index. However, there were no statistical differences between MCHF group and routine treatment group in walk-related pain and WOMAC scores. No significant differences were found in Lysholm scores. There were twenty-one trials that mentioned adverse events. A pooled analysis showed that adverse events occurred more frequently in control group compared with MCHF group. Conclusions. Our results indicated that MCHF showed some potential benefits for KOA. However, we still cannot draw firm conclusions due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. More high-quality RCTs would help to confirm the evidence. PMID:26609310

  10. Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

  11. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Shuo; Ju, Jian-Qing; Du, Feng; Zang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Sheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the main causes of heart failure and could increase death, hospitalization, and rehospitalization rate. The effect of conventional medicine treatment (CMT) is limited; meanwhile, the combination of CMT and Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine (OCHM) represents exciting adjunctive therapies. In this study, we ascertained the therapeutic effect of OCHM in combination with CMT for dilated cardiomyopathy by using meta-analysis methods for controlled clinical trials. We searched studies from five databases and extracted data from these studies. We also assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We evaluated the following outcome measures to estimate the prognosis in patients with DCM: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), stroke volume (SV), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and overall efficacy. The result showed that OCHM combined with CMT for the improvement of therapeutic effect in DCM patients. However, the evidence remains weak due to the small sample size, high clinical heterogeneity, and poor methodological quality of the included trials. Further, large sample size and well-designed trials are needed.

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gaomin; Tan, Shengkui

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) by performing a meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing CHM vs no treatment, placebo, conventional western medicine (CWM), or general non-specific surgical treatment for DUB were identified by electronic and manual searches. Trials of CHM treatments with CWM treatments were compared with CWM treatments alone. Jadad scale and allocation concealment were used to assess the quality of included studies. Four RCTs or quasi-RCTs involving 525 patients were included. The methodological quality was poor in all trials except one trial. No serious adverse events were reported in the included studies. With the lack of trials comparing CHM with no treatment or placebo, it is impossible to accurately evaluate the efficacy of CHM. However, CHM in these studies seem to show an encouraging comparative effectiveness with CWM. More RCTs with a higher quality are required. PMID:18955223

  13. Effectiveness and Safety of Manufactured Chinese Herbal Formula for Knee Osteoarthritis: Insights from a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liguo; Yang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shangquan; Gong, Hao; Li, Linghui; Wei, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the current clinical evidence of manufactured Chinese herbal formulae (MCHF) for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods. Seven databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of MCHF for KOA were included. Data extraction, methodological assessment, and meta-analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. A total of 17 kinds of MCHF were identified from the twenty-six included trials. Meta-analyses showed that MCHF significantly relieved the global pain of knee joints, either used alone or combined with routine treatments. Additionally, MCHF plus routine treatments significantly decreased the scores of WOMAC and Lequesne index. However, there were no statistical differences between MCHF group and routine treatment group in walk-related pain and WOMAC scores. No significant differences were found in Lysholm scores. There were twenty-one trials that mentioned adverse events. A pooled analysis showed that adverse events occurred more frequently in control group compared with MCHF group. Conclusions. Our results indicated that MCHF showed some potential benefits for KOA. However, we still cannot draw firm conclusions due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. More high-quality RCTs would help to confirm the evidence. PMID:26609310

  14. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Shuo; Ju, Jian-Qing; Du, Feng; Zang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Sheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the main causes of heart failure and could increase death, hospitalization, and rehospitalization rate. The effect of conventional medicine treatment (CMT) is limited; meanwhile, the combination of CMT and Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine (OCHM) represents exciting adjunctive therapies. In this study, we ascertained the therapeutic effect of OCHM in combination with CMT for dilated cardiomyopathy by using meta-analysis methods for controlled clinical trials. We searched studies from five databases and extracted data from these studies. We also assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We evaluated the following outcome measures to estimate the prognosis in patients with DCM: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), stroke volume (SV), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and overall efficacy. The result showed that OCHM combined with CMT for the improvement of therapeutic effect in DCM patients. However, the evidence remains weak due to the small sample size, high clinical heterogeneity, and poor methodological quality of the included trials. Further, large sample size and well-designed trials are needed. PMID:27630730

  15. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Shuo; Li, Yun-Lun; Ju, Jian-Qing; Du, Feng; Zang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Sheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the main causes of heart failure and could increase death, hospitalization, and rehospitalization rate. The effect of conventional medicine treatment (CMT) is limited; meanwhile, the combination of CMT and Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine (OCHM) represents exciting adjunctive therapies. In this study, we ascertained the therapeutic effect of OCHM in combination with CMT for dilated cardiomyopathy by using meta-analysis methods for controlled clinical trials. We searched studies from five databases and extracted data from these studies. We also assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We evaluated the following outcome measures to estimate the prognosis in patients with DCM: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), stroke volume (SV), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and overall efficacy. The result showed that OCHM combined with CMT for the improvement of therapeutic effect in DCM patients. However, the evidence remains weak due to the small sample size, high clinical heterogeneity, and poor methodological quality of the included trials. Further, large sample size and well-designed trials are needed. PMID:27630730

  16. Chemical and Biological Assessment of Angelica Roots from Different Cultivated Regions in a Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendy L.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Zhan, Janis Y. X.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692

  17. Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 μM, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 μM) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae

  18. Chinese Herbal Bath Therapy for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Chung, Mei; Lin, Xun; Zhang, Min; Pang, Jian; Wang, Chenchen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Chinese herbal bath therapy (CHBT) has traditionally been considered to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. We conducted the first meta-analysis evaluating its benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. We searched three English and four Chinese databases through October, 2014. Randomized trials evaluating at least 2 weeks of CHBT for knee OA were selected. The effects of CHBT on clinical symptoms included both pain level (via the visual analog scale) and total effectiveness rate, which assessed pain, physical performance, and wellness. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using mean difference. Results. Fifteen studies totaling 1618 subjects met eligibility criteria. Bath prescription included, on average, 13 Chinese herbs with directions to steam and wash around the knee for 20-40 minutes once or twice daily. Mean treatment duration was 3 weeks. Results from meta-analysis showed superior pain improvement (mean difference = -0.59 points; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -0.83 to -0.36; p < 0.00001) and higher total effectiveness rate (risk ratio = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.28; p < 0.00001) when compared with standard western treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Chinese herbal bath therapy may be a safe, effective, and simple alternative treatment modality for knee OA. Further rigorously designed, randomized trials are warranted. PMID:26483847

  19. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

  20. Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity and Prevention by Herbal Antioxidants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Cho, William C.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the center for drug and xenobiotic metabolism, which is influenced most with medication/xenobiotic-mediated toxic activity. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is common and its actual frequency is hard to determine due to underreporting, difficulties in detection or diagnosis, and incomplete observation of exposure. The death rate is high, up to about 10% for drug-induced liver damage. Endorsed medications represented >50% of instances of intense liver failure in a study from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group of the patients admitted in 17 US healing facilities. Albeit different studies are accessible uncovering the mechanistic aspects of medication prompted hepatotoxicity, we are in the dilemma about the virtual story. The expanding prevalence and effectiveness of Ayurveda and natural products in the treatment of various disorders led the investigators to look into their potential in countering drug-induced liver toxicity. Several natural products have been reported to date to mitigate the drug-induced toxicity. The dietary nature and less adverse reactions of the natural products provide them an extra edge over other candidates of supplementary medication. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism involved in drug-induced liver toxicity and the potential of herbal antioxidants as supplementary medication. PMID:26858648

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine as Adjunctive Therapy to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Nian, Jia-Yun; Guo, Jiao; Yin, Yi; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yu, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yang, Guo-Wang; Yang, Lin; Cheng, Pei-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been increasingly employed during therapy for breast cancer, but its efficacy remains a matter of debate. This systematic review examined randomized controlled trials to provide a critical evaluation of this treatment. The results demonstrated that the combined use of CHM with chemotherapy may improve the immediate tumor response and reduce chemotherapy-associated adverse events. Our findings highlight the poor quality of Chinese studies, and additional well-designed randomized controlled trials addressing the role of CHM are warranted. The lack of molecular-based evidence for CHM and Zheng has resulted in a limited understanding and acceptance of CHM and traditional Chinese medicine in Western countries. We believe that researchers should immediately explore a CHM-based cure, and CHM should be applied to routine care as soon as conclusive data are available. PMID:27190531

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine as Adjunctive Therapy to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Nian, Jia-Yun; Guo, Jiao; Yin, Yi; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yu, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yang, Guo-Wang; Yang, Lin; Cheng, Pei-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been increasingly employed during therapy for breast cancer, but its efficacy remains a matter of debate. This systematic review examined randomized controlled trials to provide a critical evaluation of this treatment. The results demonstrated that the combined use of CHM with chemotherapy may improve the immediate tumor response and reduce chemotherapy-associated adverse events. Our findings highlight the poor quality of Chinese studies, and additional well-designed randomized controlled trials addressing the role of CHM are warranted. The lack of molecular-based evidence for CHM and Zheng has resulted in a limited understanding and acceptance of CHM and traditional Chinese medicine in Western countries. We believe that researchers should immediately explore a CHM-based cure, and CHM should be applied to routine care as soon as conclusive data are available.

  3. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  4. Updated clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaojia; Shergis, Johannah Linda; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Li, Yan; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-12-01

    This systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for people with insomnia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating oral CHM alone or in combination with conventional therapies for primary insomnia were identified by searching English and Chinese publications and databases of clinical trial registration. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2.4. Seventy-nine trials (7886 participants) were finally included in the review, and 76 were included in the meta-analysis. Twenty-seven trials reported the methods of random sequence generation, and five of them used the allocation concealment. Blinding of participants and personnel were used in 10 studies. The main meta-analysis showed that CHM alone was more effective than placebo by reducing scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (mean difference, MD: -3.06, 95% confidence interval, CI: -5.14 to -0.98, I(2) = 97%) and benzodiazepine drugs (BZDs) (MD: -1.94, 95% CI: -2.45 to -1.43, I(2) = 96%). The effect was also seen when CHM was combined with BZDs compared with placebo plus BZDs (MD: -1.88, 95% CI: -2.78 to -0.97, I(2) = 0%) or cognitive and behavioral therapy (MD: -3.80, 95% CI: -4.91 to -2.68, I(2) = 68%) alone. There was no significant difference between CHM and placebo regarding the frequency of adverse events (relative risk, RR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.67-4.10, I(2) = 0). Overall, oral CHM used as a monotherapy or as an adjunct to conventional therapies appears safe, and it may improve subjective sleep in people with insomnia. However, the typical effect of CHM for insomnia cannot be determined due to heterogeneity. Further study focusing on individual CHM formula for insomnia is needed. The development of a comparable placebo is also needed to improve the successful blinding in RCTs.

  5. Chinese herbal medicine for obesity: a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; Chang, Bai; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Zhen, Zhong; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Sun, Xin; Zhou, Yuan; Xie, Wan-Qing; Liu, Hong-Fang; Xu, Yuan; Kong, Yi; Zhou, Li-Bo; Lian, Feng-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide. As a holistic therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have a potential in obesity management. In this controlled trial, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of xin-ju-xiao-gao-fang (XJXGF), a TCM herbal formulation, in 140 obese subjects over a 24-week period. The XJXGF formula mainly consists of rhubarb, coptis, semen cassia, and citrus aurantium. Subjects with body mass index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m(2) were recruited at 5 centers in China. We assessed the changes in subjects' body weight, its related parameters, and the reduction of insulin resistance (IR) after administration of XJXGF formula or low-dose XJXGF (10% of the XJXGF formula, as control). After 24-week treatment, among participants in the XJXGF formula group and low-dose XJXGF group, the mean ± SE changes in the body weight were -3.58 ± 0.48 and -1.91 ± 0.38 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The changes in the IR-index of two groups were -2.65 ± 1.04 and -1.58 ± 1.3, respectively (p < 0 .05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the 24-week trial. Participants reported 7 minor adverse events, 4 in the XJXGF formula group and 3 in the low-dose XJXGF group (p = 0.578). Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical utility of this TCM formulation in the treatment of obese subjects. PMID:25406653

  6. Heavy Metal and Pesticide Content in Commonly Prescribed Individual Raw Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    HARRIS, Eric S. J.; CAO, Shugeng; LITTLEFIELD, Bruce A.; CRAYCROFT, Jane A.; SCHOLTEN, Robert; KAPTCHUK, Ted; FU, Yanling; WANG, Wenquan; LIU, Yong; CHEN, Hubiao; ZHAO, Zhongzhen; CLARDY, Jon; WOOLF, Alan D.; EISENBERG, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues

  7. Chinese herbal formula QHF inhibits liver cancer cell invasion and migration

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, TAO; WANG, QUAN; LI, YUNXIAO; HUANG, HEFEI; HU, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of the Chinese herbal formula QHF (Q, Qingrejiedu; H, Huoxuehuayu; and F, Fuzhengguben) on the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells and to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms involved. HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of QHF, and scratch and Transwell® migration assays were used to qualitatively analyze differences in the migration and invasion activity of these cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors were subsequently introduced in order to study the association between QHF and the invasion of HepG2 cells. The protein expression levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in HepG2 cells in the presence and absence of QHF were additionally determined using western blot analysis. The results showed that QHF significantly inhibited the proliferation of the HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, in addition to inhibiting cell movement, which reduced the ability of the cells to invade and migrate. Western blot analysis indicated that the effects of QHF on HCC HepG2 cells after 24 h were to significantly decrease the expression of phosphorylated- (p-)ERK and to increase the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK; however, the total quantity of ERK, p38 and JNK protein remained unchanged. The administration of an inhibitor of ERK altered p38 and JNK expression and promoted the anti-invasion effects of QHF, whereas p38 and JNK inhibitors only partially reversed this effect. The results of the present study indicate, therefore, that QHF is able to inhibit the migratory and invasive activity of HepG2 cells. A possible underlying mechanism involves the activation of the p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathway and the attenuation of the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27284329

  8. Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although over-the-counter traditional Chinese herbal medicine (COTC) is commonly used to treat everyday illness in many parts of the world, no population-based study has been done to examine the prevalence and factors associated with COTC-related adverse events. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese adults in 2011 (n = 1100) with informed verbal consent. Stepwise logistic regression of demographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables was used to determine factors associated with past-year adverse events. Results Of study respondents, 71.7% (789/1100) reported past-year COTC use and 2.3% (25/1100) reported at least one COTC-related adverse event in the past year. Of the 27 adverse events cases reported among COTC users, the most common were allergic reactions (n = 11) dizziness (n = 5), and gastro-intestinal problems (n = 4). Pills/capsules were the dosage form that caused the highest proportion of adverse events (n = 10), followed by plasters (n = 7), creams/ointments (n = 5), and ingestible powders (n = 2). Although COTC users reporting adverse events were more likely to report greater practices to avoid adverse events (OR = 6.47; 95% CI: 1.38-30.3); they were also more likely to possess lower education levels (OR = 9.64, 95% CI: 2.20-42.3) and to have received COTC information from non-reliable, mass-media information sources such as magazines (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.01-8.50) or television (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.03-10.7). Package labels were also felt to be unclear by 42.9% of COTC users. A large proportion of COTC users demonstrated low levels of COTC-related knowledge, while the main impediment to greater information-seeking was the belief that reliable COTC information is not obtainable from Western health professionals. Conclusions Despite global movements toward more stringent complementary medicine regulation, the limited accessibility of reliable information

  9. [Determination of Total Sulfur Dioxide in Chinese Herbal Medicines via Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-wei; Liu, Jing-fu; Guan, Hong; Wang, Xiao-yan; Shag, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Li-ping; Zhang, Ni-na

    2016-02-01

    As an important treatment method, sulfur fumigation plays an essential role in the production and preservation of traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Although there is strict regulation on the use of sulfur dioxide, the abuse of sulfur dioxide still occurred from time to time. And the public faces a high risk of exposure. Because of the poor precision and tedious preparation procedures of traditional recommended titration, the accurate and convenient determination of sulfur dioxide in Chinese herbal medicines is still a critical analytical task for medicines safety and the public health. In this study, an accurate, high-throughput, and convenient method for the absolute determination of SO₂ in Chinese herbal medicines based on triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) technique is developed. The study compared the quantitative ability for sulfur when the ICP-MS operated under traditional single quadrupole (QMS) mode and novel triple quadrupole (MS/MS) mode with three Reaction/Collision cell condition (no gas, helium, and oxygen). The result indicated that when the concentration of sulfate ranging from 0.5 to 100 mg · L⁻¹, isotopic ³⁴S can be selected as quantitative ion either the ICP-MS operated under the QMS mode or MS/MS mode. The use of helium in the Reaction/Collision cell decreased the single intensity of background ions. Better than QMS mode, the MS/MS mode can effectively reduced background interference. But there are no significant differences about the linear range and limit of detection. However, when the ICP-MS operated under MS/MS mode and oxygen was used as reaction gas in the Reaction/Collision cell, the ICP-MS/MS provided an interference-free performance, the linear range and limit of detection improved significantly. Either ³²S or ³⁴S exhibits an excellent linearity (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-100 mg · L⁻¹, with a limit of detection of 5.48 and 9.76 µg · L⁻¹ for

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Salmeterol and Fluticasone Propionate for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C.H.; Wu, Xinyin; Ma, Polly H.X.; Ho, Robin S.T.; Poon, Simon K.; Hui, David S.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Wu, Justin C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among Chinese populations worldwide, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are often used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relative performance among different CHM is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate comparative effectiveness of different CHM when used with salmeterol and fluticasone propionate (SFP), compared with SFP alone. This study is a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with network meta-analyses (NMAs). Eight electronic databases were searched. Data from RCTs were extracted for random effect pairwise meta-analyses. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the impact of CHM and SFP on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scoring, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). NMA was used to explore the most effective CHM when used with SFP. Eleven RCTs (n = 925) assessing 11 different CHM were included. Result from pairwise meta-analyses indicated favorable, clinically relevant benefit of CHM and SFP on FEV1 [7 studies, pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.20 L, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34 L], SGRQ scoring (5 studies, pooled WMD = −4.99, 95% CI: −7.73 to −2.24), and 6MWT (3 studies, pooled WMD = 32.84 m, 95% CI: 18.26–47.42). Results from NMA showed no differences on the comparative effectiveness among CHM formulations for improving FEV1. For SGRQ, NMA suggested that Runfeijianpibushen decoction and Renshenbufei pills performed best. Use of CHM on top of SFP can provide clinically relevant benefit for COPD patients on FEV1 and SGRQ. Additional use of Runfeijianpibushen decoction and Renshenbufei pills showed better effect on improving SGRQ. Use of CHM and SFP may provide clinically relevant benefit for COPD patients on FEV1, SGRQ, and 6MWT. Use of different CHM formulae included in this NMA showed similar effect for increasing FEV1, while the

  11. Bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicine enhance endogenous neurogenesis in animal models of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Huang; Chen, Zi-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yan; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Chen, Shuang; Lu, Lin; Gu, Yong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to treat stroke for thousands of years. The objective of the study is to assess the current evidence for bioactive components of CHM as neurogenesis agent in animal models of ischemic stroke. Methods: We searched PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals published from the inception up to November 2015. The primary measured outcome was one of neurogenesis biomarker, including Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Results: Thirty eligible studies were identified. The score of quality assessment ranged from 2 of 10 to 7 of 10. Compared with controls, 10 studies conducting neurobehavioral evaluation showed significant effects on bioactive components of CHM for improving neurological deficits score after ischemic insults (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); 6 studies in Morris water-maze test showed bioactive components of CHM significantly decreased escape latency and increased residence time (P < 0.05); 5 studies demonstrated that bioactive components of CHM significantly reduced infarct volume after ischemic stroke (P < 0.05); 25 of 26 studies showed that bioactive components of CHM significantly increased the expression of BrdU and/or Nestin markers in rats/mice brain after ischemic injury (P < 0.05, or P < 0.01); 4 of 5 studies for promoting the expression of PSA-NCAM or DCX biomarker (P < 0.05); 5 studies for improving the expression of NeuN biomarker (P < 0.05); 6 of 7 studies for promoting the expression of GFAP biomarker in brain after ischemic stroke (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that bioactive components of CHM may improve neurological function, reduce infarct volume, and promote endogenous neurogenesis, including

  12. A Critical Approach to Evaluating Clinical Efficacy, Adverse Events and Drug Interactions of Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Hoon-Kim, Sung; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent the uppermost ladders in the hierarchy of evidence. Systematic reviews/meta-analyses suggest preliminary or satisfactory clinical evidence for agnus castus (Vitex agnus castus) for premenstrual complaints, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) for hypertension, feverfew (Tanacetum partenium) for migraine prevention, ginger (Zingiber officinalis) for pregnancy-induced nausea, ginseng (Panax ginseng) for improving fasting glucose levels as well as phytoestrogens and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the relief of some symptoms in menopause. However, firm conclusions of efficacy cannot be generally drawn. On the other hand, inconclusive evidence of efficacy or contradictory results have been reported for Aloe vera in the treatment of psoriasis, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in cystitis prevention, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) for tinnitus and intermittent claudication, echinacea (Echinacea spp.) for the prevention of common cold and pomegranate (Punica granatum) for the prevention/treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A critical evaluation of the clinical data regarding the adverse effects has shown that herbal remedies are generally better tolerated than synthetic medications. Nevertheless, potentially serious adverse events, including herb-drug interactions, have been described. This suggests the need to be vigilant when using herbal remedies, particularly in specific conditions, such as during pregnancy and in the paediatric population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887532

  13. Rational quality assessment procedure for less-investigated herbal medicines: Case of a Congolese antimalarial drug with an analytical report.

    PubMed

    Tshitenge, Dieudonné Tshitenge; Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Lami, José Nzunzu; Ndelo-di-Phanzu, Josaphat; Mufusama, Jean-Pierre Koy Sita; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are the most globally used type of medical drugs. Their high cultural acceptability is due to the experienced safety and efficiency over centuries of use. Many of them are still phytochemically less-investigated, and are used without standardization or quality control. Choosing SIROP KILMA, an authorized Congolese antimalarial phytomedicine, as a model case, our study describes an interdisciplinary approach for a rational quality assessment of herbal drugs in general. It combines an authentication step of the herbal remedy prior to any fingerprinting, the isolation of the major constituents, the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method with internal markers, and the application of the method to several batches of the herbal medicine (here KILMA) thus permitting the establishment of a quantitative fingerprint. From the constitutive plants of KILMA, acteoside, isoacteoside, stachannin A, and pectolinarigenin-7-O-glucoside were isolated, and acteoside was used as the prime marker for the validation of an analytical method. This study contributes to the efforts of the WHO for the establishment of standards enabling the analytical evaluation of herbal materials. Moreover, the paper describes the first phytochemical and analytical report on a marketed Congolese phytomedicine.

  14. The In Vitro and In Vivo Wound Healing Properties of the Chinese Herbal Medicine “Jinchuang Ointment”

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tsung-Jung; Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Lin, Guang-Huey; Li, Tzong Shiun; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsieh, Ming-Chuan; Wu, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Hao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    “Jinchuang ointment” is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex for treatment of incised wounds. For more than ten years, it has been used at China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) for the treatment of diabetic foot infections and decubitus ulcers. Three different cases are presented in this study. “Jinchuang” ointment is a mixture of natural product complexes from nine different components, making it difficult to analyze its exact chemical compositions. To further characterize the herbal ingredients used in this study, the contents of reference standards present in a subset of the ointment ingredients (dragon's blood, catechu, frankincense, and myrrh) were determined by HPLC. Two in vitro cell based assay platforms, wound healing and tube formation, were used to examine the biological activity of this medicine. Our results show that this herbal medicine possesses strong activities including stimulation of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration, which provide the scientific basis for its clinically observed curative effects on nonhealing diabetic wounds. PMID:27200097

  15. Salmonella typhimurium A1-R tumor targeting in immunocompetent mice is enhanced by a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Su, Shibing; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a bacterial cancer therapy strategy using the genetically-engineered strain Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). A1-R is auxotrophic for leu and arg which attenuates bacterial growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human and murine cancer cell lines in clinically-relevant nude-mouse models. However, A1-R treatment of tumors in immunocompetent mouse models with high doses is limited by toxicity. The current study evaluated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture in combination with A1-R therapy in a syngeneic metastatic immunocompetent mouse model of highly aggressive lung cancer. In a model of Lewis lung carcinoma, the combination of a TCM herbal mixture and S. typhimurium A1-R enabled bacteria to be safely administered at the large dose of 2 × 10(7) colony forming units once a week i.v. with increased treatment efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to monotherapy with A1-R. The herbal mixture prevented body weight loss, spleen weight gain and liver infection by A1-R, as well as hemorrhagic lesions on the skin, liver, and spleen, all observed with A1-R monotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that the combination of A1-R and TCM has important potential for therapy of highly aggressive types of cancer, including those which are resistant to standard therapy.

  16. Identification of individual herbal drugs in tea mixtures using restriction analysis of ITS DNA and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Slanc, P; Ravnikar, M; Strukelj, B

    2006-11-01

    We have studied a sedative tea made of Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.), Lupuli strobuli (Humulus lupulus L.), Melissae folium (Melissa officinalis L.) and Menthae piperitae folium (Mentha piperita L.). In order to identify the constituent drugs a method was established involving amplification of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA on the basis of restriction analysis and real-time PCR. ITS regions of individual drugs were amplified and sequenced. Restriction analysis was performed with selected restriction endonucleases Nae I, PshA I and Xcm I. Real-time PCR was carried out, using primers specifically designed for each individual herbal drug. Real-time PCR proved to be a method for identifying individual herbal drugs in a tea mixture with a single DNA extraction in a single PCR run, since its limit of detection is lower than that for restriction analysis. PMID:17152982

  17. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  18. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  19. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  20. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kylie A.; Ling, Shanhong; Abbas, Estelle; Dai, Aozhi; Zhang, Jiansheng; Wang, Wen Cheng; Bensoussan, Alan; Luo, Ruizhi; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Komesaroff, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs), surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP) (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”), containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin)) in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03) and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004). There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:18955365

  1. Extract of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan inhibited adjuvant arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Xin; Fan, Arthur Yin; Zhou, An-Nan; Moudgil, Kamal D.; Ma, Zhong-Ze; Lee, David Yue-Wei; Fong, Harry HS; Berman, Brian M.; Lao, Lixing

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) and its modifications have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about one hundred years to alleviate pain and inflammation. Aim To investigate the effects of HLXL on complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced multiple-joint arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods Male Lewis rats, 190–210g, were immunized subcutaneously at the base of the tail with 200 µl of heat-killed M. tuberculosis in mineral oil (5 mg/ml). HLXL (2.30g/kg and 4.60g/kg) or vehicle control (n=8 per group) was administered orally (i.g.) once a day between days 16–25 post-CFA injection. The rats were observed for signs of arthritis with arthritic changes (erythema, edema, induration) being scored on a scale of 0 to 4 of increasing severity using a standard scoring system. The maximum arthritis score per rat was 16. A plethysmometer was used to measure edema volume in each paw. Adverse effects of HLXL were monitored by closely observing the animals for unusual behavioral changes. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) in local tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 25 post-CFA. Results HLXL significantly decreased arthritis scores between days 23–25 in the 2.30g/kg group and 21–25 in the 4.60g/kg group (p<0.05). It reduced paw edema on days 22 and 24 in the 2.30g/kg group and on days 20, 22 and 24 in the 4.60g/kg group compared to control (p<0.05). Local tissue TNF-α and IL-1β levels on day 25 post-CFA injection were significantly (p<0.05) lower in rats treated with HLXL than in control rats. No observable adverse effects were found. Conclusion The data suggest that HLXL produces significant anti-arthritic effects that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it appears to be safe. PMID:19100323

  2. Herbal modulation of drug bioavailability: enhancement of rifampicin levels in plasma by herbal products and a flavonoid glycoside derived from Cuminum cyminum.

    PubMed

    Sachin, B S; Sharma, S C; Sethi, S; Tasduq, S A; Tikoo, M K; Tikoo, A K; Satti, N K; Gupta, B D; Suri, K A; Johri, R K; Qazi, G N

    2007-02-01

    The bioavailability of rifampicin (RIF) in a fixed dose combination (FDC) used for the treatment of tuberculosis remains an area of clinical concern and several pharmaceutical alternatives are being explored to overcome this problem. The present study presents a pharmacological approach in which the bioavailability of a drug may be modulated by utilizing the herb-drug synergism. The pharmacokinetic interaction of some herbal products and a pure molecule isolated from Cuminum cyminum with RIF is shown in this paper. An aqueous extract derived from cumin seeds produced a significant enhancement of RIF levels in rat plasma. This activity was found to be due to a flavonoid glycoside, 3',5-dihydroxyflavone 7-O-beta-D-galacturonide 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (CC-I). CC-I enhanced the Cmax by 35% and AUC by 53% of RIF. The altered bioavailability profile of RIF could be attributed to a permeation enhancing effect of this glycoside.

  3. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Maliakal, P P; Wanwimolruk, S

    2001-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of herbal teas (peppermint, chamomile and dandelion) on the activity of hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes using rat liver microsomes. Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 5 each). Three groups had free access to a tea solution (2%) while the control group had water. Two groups received either green tea extract (0.1%) or aqueous caffeine solution (0.0625%). After four weeks of pretreatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of liver microsomes or cytosol with appropriate substrates. Activity of CYP1A2 in the liver microsomes of rats receiving dandelion, peppermint or chamomile tea was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to 15%, 24% and 39% of the control value, respectively. CYP1A2 activity was significantly increased by pretreatment with caffeine solution. No alterations were observed in the activities of CYP2D and CYP3A in any group of the pretreated rats. Activity of CYP2E in rats receiving dandelion or peppermint tea was significantly lower than in the control group, 48% and 60% of the control, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (244% of control) in the activity of phase II detoxifying enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the dandelion tea-pretreated group. There was no change in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. The results suggested that, like green and black teas, certain herbal teas can cause modulation of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes.

  4. Studies of the cellular mechanisms underlying the vasorelaxant effects of rutaecarpine, a bioactive component extracted from an herbal drug.

    PubMed

    Chiou, W F; Shum, A Y; Liao, J F; Chen, C F

    1997-04-01

    We conducted studies to investigate the nature and underlying mechanisms of the vascular effects of rutaecarpine (Rut), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal drug Evodia rutaecarpa. By using largely the effects on phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in the isolated rat aorta as the experimental index and by comparison with several known vascular muscle relaxants such as acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, and A23187, Rut relaxed PE-precontracted aorta in concentration-(10(-7)-10(-4) M) and endothelium-dependent manners. Studies with appropriate antagonists indicated that this was coupled to nitric oxide (NO) and guanylyl cyclase. Extracellular Ca2+ removal and treatment with the intracellular Ca2+ antagonist, 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8), suggested that influx of extracellular Ca2+ was the major factor contributing to the action of Rut. Pertussis toxin suppressed the relaxation potency of histamine but had no effects on the actions of Rut. NaF, the G proteins activator, attenuated the actions of ACh, but only minimally affected Na-NP, A23187, and Rut. 1-[6-{[17 beta-3-methoxyestra-1,2,3(10)-trien-17-yl]amino} hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), the phospholipase C inhibitor, again suppressed the actions of ACh but had few effects on A23187 and Rut. Taken together, these results suggest that these vasorelaxants had different cellular mechanisms and that neither pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi protein, other G proteins, nor phospholipase C activation was involved in the cellular response to rutaecarpine. PMID:9156359

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Type A H1N1 Influenza: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Kang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese herbs are thought to be effective for type A H1N1 influenza. Series of Chinese herbs have been authorized recommended by the Chinese government, and until now a number of clinical trials of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza have been conducted. However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on potential benefits and harms of medicinal herbs for H1N1 influenza to justify their clinical use and their recommendation. Methods and Findings CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza till 31 August, 2011. A total of 26 RCTs were identified and reviewed. Most of the RCTs were of high risk of bias with flawed study design and poor methodological quality. The combination of several Chinese herbal medicines with or without oseltamivir demonstrated positive effect on fever resolution, relief of symptoms, and global effectiveness rate compared to oseltamivir alone. However, only one herbal medicine showed positive effect on viral shedding. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of herbal medicines is still uncertain. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines demonstrated potential positive effect for 2009 type A H1N1 influenza; however, due to the lack of placebo controlled trial and lack of repeated test of the intervention, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on the beneficial effect of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza. More rigorous trials are warranted to support their clinical use. PMID:22164232

  6. Systems pharmacology-based approach for dissecting the active ingredients and potential targets of the Chinese herbal Bufei Jianpi formula for the treatment of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Li, Jiansheng; Li, Ya; Tian, Yange; Wang, Yonghua; Zheng, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese herbal Bufei Jianpi formula (BJF) provides an effective treatment option for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the systems-level mechanism underlying the clinical effects of BJF on COPD remains unknown. Methods In this study, a systems pharmacology model based on absorption filtering, network targeting, and systems analyses was applied specifically to clarify the active compounds and therapeutic mechanisms of BJF. Then, a rat model of cigarette smoke- and bacterial infection-induced COPD was used to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of BJF on COPD and its comorbidity. Results The pharmacological system successfully identified 145 bioactive ingredients from BJF and revealed 175 potential targets. There was a significant target overlap between the herbal constituents of BJF. These results suggested that each herb of BJF connected with similar multitargets, indicating potential synergistic effects among them. The integrated target–disease network showed that BJF probably was efficient for the treatment of not only respiratory tract diseases but also other diseases, such as nervous system and cardiovascular diseases. The possible mechanisms of action of BJF were related to activation of inflammatory response, immune responses, and matrix metalloproteinases, among others. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BJF treatment could effectively prevent COPD and its comorbidities, such as ventricular hypertrophy, by inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production, matrix metalloproteinases expression, and other cytokine production in vivo. Conclusion This study using the systems pharmacology method, in combination with in vivo experiments, helped us successfully dissect the molecular mechanism of BJF for the treatment of COPD and predict the potential targets of the multicomponent BJF, which provides a new approach to illustrate the synergetic mechanism of the complex prescription and discover more effective drugs against COPD

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Aspirin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiandong; Zhang, Haowen; Chen, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the treatment of aspirin resistance (AR). Methods A comprehensive research of seven electronic databases was performed for comparative studies evaluating CHM for AR. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data wasere synthesized by using RevMan 5.3 software. (PROSPERO Registration #CRD42015020182) Results 18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1,460 patients were included. 15 RCTs reported significant difference in the reduction of platelet aggregation rate (PAR) induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (P<0.05), and 11 reported significant effect of CHM plus aspirin to reduce PAR induced by arachidonic acid (AA) (P<0.05) compared with aspirin 100mg/d treatment. The pooling data of 3 RCTs showed the thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in patients with CHM plus aspirin versus aspirin were significantly reduced (Random Effect model (RE), Standard Deviation (SD) = -95.93, 95% Confidential Interval (CI)[-118.25,-73.61], P<0.00001). Subgroup analysis showed that TXB2 (Fixed Effect model (FE), SD = -89.23, 95%CI[-121.96,-56.49], P<0.00001) had significant difference in Tongxinluo capsule plus aspirin versus aspirin. 2 RCTs reported the clinical effective rate, and the meta-analysis result showed a significant difference in intervention and control group (FE, Relative Risk (RR) = 1.67, 95%CI[1.15, 2.42], P = 0.007<0.05). In 4 trials, CHM plus aspirin had better effects of reducing the reoccurrence of cerebral infarction than aspirin (FE, RR = 0.24, 95%CI [0.11, 0.49], P<0.0001). And one trial showed that CHM plus aspirin could decrease the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NHISS) score (P<0.05) and increase the Barthel Index (BI) score (P<0.05). 4 trials stated that there were no adverse effects occurred in intervention group, and analysis showed significant difference of CHM or

  8. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  9. Usefulness of traditionally defined herbal properties for distinguishing prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine from non-prescription recipes.

    PubMed

    Ung, C Y; Li, H; Kong, C Y; Wang, J F; Chen, Y Z

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely practiced and is considered as an attractive to conventional medicine. Multi-herb recipes have been routinely used in TCM. These have been formulated by using TCM-defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs), the scientific basis of which is unclear. The usefulness of TCM-HPs was evaluated by analyzing the distribution pattern of TCM-HPs of the constituent herbs in 1161 classical TCM prescriptions, which shows patterns of multi-herb correlation. Two artificial intelligence (AI) methods were used to examine whether TCM-HPs are capable of distinguishing TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes. Two AI systems were trained and tested by using 1161 TCM prescriptions, 11,202 non-TCM recipes, and two separate evaluation methods. These systems correctly classified 83.1-97.3% of the TCM prescriptions, 90.8-92.3% of the non-TCM recipes. These results suggest that TCM-HPs are capable of separating TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes, which are useful for formulating TCM prescriptions and consistent with the expected correlation between TCM-HPs and the physicochemical properties of herbal ingredients responsible for producing the collective pharmacological and other effects of specific TCM prescriptions. PMID:16884871

  10. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  11. Post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematologic disorders: Chinese herbal medicine for an unmet need.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-09-01

    While much progress has been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), headway in the promotion of recovery following this procedure has been limited. Data regarding the potential of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for patients with hematologic disorders who received HSCT are gradually increasing; however, these data are mostly in Chinese. Therefore, we set out to summarize the existing data. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and retrieved 9 clinical studies related to this group of patients, in whom CHM was used as an intervention. Of the 9 papers, 6 were published by the same group of researchers. The focus of the reviewed studies was heterogeneous, and the objectives varied widely. With the exception of one randomized control trial, all of the studies were retrospective and observational; the median number of patients was 11.5, with the largest study containing 104 patients. CHM treatment was largely divided into two stages: (1) pre-HSCT, which was initiated as soon as conditioning chemotherapy was administered and aimed to counterbalance the adverse effects of these potent agents; (2) post-HSCT, which began immediately after transplantation and was intended to promote engraftment, control graft-versus-host disease and prolong survival. In addition, the 9 Chinese materia medica most commonly prescribed (appearing in four studies) were: Shengdihuang (Rehmannia glutinosa), Baizhu (Atractylodes macrocephala), Renshen (Panax ginseng), Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula), Maimendong (Ophiopogon japonicus), Danggui (Angelica sinensis), Taizishen (Pseudostellaria heterophylla), Huangqi (Astragalus membranaceus) and Ejiao (Equus asinus). PMID:27641605

  12. Mechanistic Study on the Antidepressant-Like Effect of Danggui-Shaoyao-San, a Chinese Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Zhong, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhao-Yi; Qiu, Feng-Mei; Ip, Siu-Po

    2012-01-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been widely used in the treatment of various diseases. Previous studies have shown that DSS produces antidepressant-like effect in rodents. This study aims to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like action of DDS. The results showed that DSS treatment significantly antagonized reserpine-induced ptosis in mice. In addition, DSS treatment significantly increased sucrose consumption in chronic unpredictable stress- (CUS-) treated mice. DSS treatment also markedly attenuated CUS-induced decreases in noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations in mouse brain. Furthermore, DSS treatment significantly reversed CUS-induced increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in mice. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like activity of DSS is probably mediated by the modulation of central monoamine neurotransmitter systems and the reduction of oxidative stress. PMID:22924052

  13. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  14. Effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in treating liver fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies on the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating liver fibrosis (LF) were not consistent. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of CHM on treating LF patients. Methods Databases including MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, TCMOnline, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Chinese Medical Current Contents were searched up to March 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving LF patients receiving CHM, Western medicine, combined CHM and Western medicine compared with placebo, Western medicine or no intervention were included. LF markers including serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC-III), type IV collagen (IV-C), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) were measured as primary outcomes. Liver biochemistry, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartarte aminotransferase (AST), and improvement of related clinical symptoms were measured as secondary outcomes. Risk of bias of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, and other biases were assessed. Results Twenty-three RCTs with 2123 participants were analyzed in subgroups of types of comparison and study quality. Fifteen studies were graded as good quality. CHM alone and combined with Western medicine showed significant improvements in HA, LN, PC-III and IV-C compared with Western medicine alone. However, there were no significant differences observed between CHM and placebo treatments. Conclusion The current inconclusive results in determining the effectiveness of CHM treatment on LF, due to the poor methodological quality and high heterogeneity of the studies, suggests that large RCTs using standardized Chinese medicine syndrome diagnosis and CHM formulae with longer follow-up are required for further evaluation. PMID

  15. Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan) Involves Changes in Antigen-Induced Immunological and Biochemical Mediators of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Lee, David Y.-W; Ma, Zhongze; Yu, Hua; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major autoimmune diseases of global prevalence. The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. This limitation has necessitated the search for novel therapeutic products. We report here a traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal formula, Huo luo xiao ling dan (HLXL), which has potent antiarthritic activity as validated in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. HLXL (2.3 g/Kg) was fed to Lewis (RT.11) rats daily by gavage beginning at the onset of arthritis and then continued through the observation period. HLXL inhibited the severity of ongoing AA. This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). There was a reduction in the level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-1β but enhancement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. Thus, HLXL is a promising CAM modality for further testing in RA patients. PMID:20981317

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of

  17. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  18. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC.

  19. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from non-bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  20. [A Case of Lead Poisoning with Drug-induced Liver Injury after Ingestion of Herbal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Gi Jung; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Min Sung; Yu, Jong Won; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Min Sik

    2015-06-01

    A 61-year-old male patient was admitted because of unexplained abdominal pain and anemia. His past medical history was unremarkable except for having taken herbal medicine to treat facial palsy two months ago. The result of health examination performed about a month ago showed increased serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase level, and he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis by herbal medicine. When the patient presented to the outpatient department three weeks ago, follow-up liver function test results showed improvement but he complained of abdominal pain. Despite extensive blood chemistry tests and computed tomography, the cause of pain could not be found. After much deliberation, serum lead level and herbal medicines analysis was performed based on the fact that he took herbal medicine two months ago, and he could finally be diagnosed with lead poisoning. Since the serum lead level was high enough to be indicated for lead chelating therapy, conservative management was given. When a patient with toxic hepatitis due to herbal medication presents with abdominal pain, the possibility of lead poisoning should always be taken into consideration.

  1. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Auxiliary Therapy for Childhood Cough Variant Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 20 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Song, Ping; Zeng, Lingfeng; Liang, Zhaohui; Wang, Qi; Ou, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine auxiliary therapy (CHMAT) in treating childhood cough variant asthma (CVA). A systematic literature review was conducted on RCTs that compared CHMAT, i.e., Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus pharmacotherapy (PT), versus the same PT alone in the treatment of CVA. All included trials were assessed for quality and risk bias and analyzed according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook based on the Review Manager 5.3 software program. Twenty studies were identified and the CHMAT group had a positive effect on the total effective rate and a lower recurrence rate compared with the control group. CHMAT may have positive effects on CVA, leading to better improvement in disorders of cough and asthma and less adverse effects. However, the methodology and reporting quality of current studies are generally low. Further studies should include larger sample sizes with a strict design to confirm these findings. PMID:27522988

  2. Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-09-01

    Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San.

  3. Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San. PMID:27598107

  4. Safety Surveillance of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed. PMID:25647717

  5. Safety surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine: current and future.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed.

  6. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Selection of Acupoints in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Insomnia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Poon, Maggie Man-Ki; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi; Wong Taam, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern differentiation, treatment principle, and pattern-based treatment for insomnia has therefore been conducted. A total of 227 studies, 17916 subjects, and 87 TCM patterns were analyzed. There was a limited consistency in pattern-based TCM treatment of insomnia across practitioners. Except for Gui Pi Tang, An Shen Ding Zhi Wan, and Wen Dan Tang which were used more commonly for deficiency of both the heart and spleen, internal disturbance of phlegm-heat, and qi deficiency of the heart and gallbladder, respectively, the selection of herbal formula for other patterns and pattern-based prescription of individual herbs and acupoints were not consistent. Suanzaoren (Semen Z. spinosae), Fuling (Poria), Yejiaoteng (Caulis P. multiflori), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Baishao (Radix P. alba), Shenmen (HT7), Yintang (EX-HN3), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Baihui (GV20), Anmian (EX-HN22), and Sishencong (EX-HN1) were commonly used, but nonspecifically for many patterns. Treatment principles underlying herb and acupoint selection were seldom reported. Although many studies were reviewed, the study quality and diagnostic process were inadequate. More high quality studies are needed to examine the additional benefits of pattern differentiation and pattern-based TCM treatment. PMID:23259001

  7. Chinese skullcap in move free arthritis supplement causes drug induced liver injury and pulmonary infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Owens, Victoria; Sanchez, William

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medications are being increasingly used by the American population especially for common conditions like arthritis. They have been reported to cause adverse effects, including significant hepatotoxicity, but reporting remains sporadic. We report here a patient who developed drug induced liver injury following the intake of Move Free, which is an over-the-counter arthritis supplement. We propose that Chinese skullcap, which is one of the herbal ingredients of the medication, is responsible for the adverse event. There was a strong temporal association between the intake of supplement and onset of symptoms, and also there have been a few recent case reports implicating the same component. A unique observation in our case is the occurrence of pulmonary infiltrates simultaneously with the hepatotoxicity, and this side effect has not been well documented before. Both the hepatic and pulmonary complications completely resolved over few weeks after the patient stopped taking the medication. Since these supplements are readily available over the counter, we feel that it is important to document possible adverse outcomes to raise awareness in the medical community and also among patients. PMID:25431706

  8. Chinese Skullcap in Move Free Arthritis Supplement Causes Drug Induced Liver Injury and Pulmonary Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Renumathy

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medications are being increasingly used by the American population especially for common conditions like arthritis. They have been reported to cause adverse effects, including significant hepatotoxicity, but reporting remains sporadic. We report here a patient who developed drug induced liver injury following the intake of Move Free, which is an over-the-counter arthritis supplement. We propose that Chinese skullcap, which is one of the herbal ingredients of the medication, is responsible for the adverse event. There was a strong temporal association between the intake of supplement and onset of symptoms, and also there have been a few recent case reports implicating the same component. A unique observation in our case is the occurrence of pulmonary infiltrates simultaneously with the hepatotoxicity, and this side effect has not been well documented before. Both the hepatic and pulmonary complications completely resolved over few weeks after the patient stopped taking the medication. Since these supplements are readily available over the counter, we feel that it is important to document possible adverse outcomes to raise awareness in the medical community and also among patients. PMID:25431706

  9. Understanding interactions between Chinese medicines and pharmaceutical drugs in integrative healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin

    2015-02-01

    In the 21st century, the public are more informed, mainly via the Internet, about health and medical products and have become more knowledgeable about matters relating to their health conditions and well-being in curing and preventing illnesses. They often self-medicate themselves with various health products and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines apart from prescribed pharmaceutical drugs (PD). Some of those non-prescribed products may have doubtful quality control and contain harmful additives or unchecked ingredients; thus their usefulness is in doubt. The increasing popularity world-wide of using Chinese medicines (CM) and related OTC functional products has raised concerns over their concomitant use with PD and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the alleged causes of adverse effects are linked with herbal sources, although the authorised information on the interactions between CM-PD is not plentiful in the literature. There is an urgent need for such a data base. The future professionals in health and medical care should be knowledgeable or aware of what their patients have been taking or given. In actual practice the patients may receive both treatments intentionally or unintentionally, with or without the awareness of the practitioner. In these situations a reliable database for interactions between CM-PD will be extremely useful for consultation when treatment problems appear or during emergency situations. Their combining of medications may be involved with possible outcomes of adverse reactions or beneficial effects. Such a database will be welcomed by both practitioners of herbal medicines and orthodox medicine practitioners in the emerging trend of integrative medicine. The author has been involved in various research projects of basic and clinical aspects in mainly CM among other herbal and PD. Examples will be given largely on those related to these disciplines as illustrations in this overview.

  10. [Discovery of potential nicotinic acid receptor agonists from Chinese herbal medicines based on molecular simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-Di; He, Yu-Su; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinic acid could increase high density lipoprotein and reduce serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in human bodies, thus is frequently applied in treating low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia in clinic. However, according to the findings, nicotinic acid could also cause adverse effects, such as skin flush, beside its curative effects. In this study, bioisosterism, fragment-based search and Lipinski's Rule of Five were used to preliminarily screen out potential TCM ingredients that may have similar pharmacological effects with nicotinic acid from Traditional Chinese medicine database (TCMD). Afterwards, homology modeling and flexible docking were used to further screen out potential nicotinic acid receptor agonists. As a result, eleven candidate compounds were derived from eight commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. Specifically, all of the candidate compounds' interaction with nicotinic acid receptor was similar to nicotinic acid, and their docking scores were all higher than that of nicotinic acid, but their druggability remained to be further studied. Some of the eight source traditional Chinese medicines were used to lower lipid according to literature studies, implying that they may show effect through above means. In summary, this study provides basis and reference for extracting new nicotinic acid receptor agonists from traditional Chinese medicines and improving the medication status of hyperlipidemia.

  11. Optimizing prescription of chinese herbal medicine for unstable angina based on partially observable markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root + Tangshen + Indian Bread + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root + Chinese Angelica + Safflower + Red Peony Root + Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit + Longstamen Onion Bulb + Pinellia Tuber + Dried Tangerine peel + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome + Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine. PMID:24078826

  12. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography: Quantitative Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM preparation in powder…

  13. Inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators in primary and cultured cells by a Chinese herbal medicine formula for allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lenon, George B; Xue, Charlie CL; Story, David F; Thien, Frank CK; McPhee, Sarah; Li, Chun G

    2007-01-01

    Background We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. Methods Compound 48/80-induced histamine release was studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Production of leukotriene B4 induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied in porcine neutrophils using an HPLC assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production was studied in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells by immune-enzyme assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined in Raw 264.7 cells, using western blotting techniques. Results RCM-101 (1–100 μg/mL) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from Raw 264.7 cells. Over the range 1 – 10 μg/mL, it inhibited A23187-induced leukotriene B4 production in porcine neutrophils. In addition, RCM-101 (100 μg/mL) inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein but did not affect that of COX-1. Conclusion The findings indicate that RCM-101 inhibits the release and/or synthesis of histamine, leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in cultured cells. These interactions of RCM-101 with multiple inflammatory mediators are likely to be related to its ability to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis. PMID:17302969

  14. The study on mechanism of the modified Chinese herbal compound, jianpijiedu, on a mouse model of hepatic carcinoma cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baoguo; Luo, Haoxuan; Deng, Liuxiang; Zhang, Shijun; Chen, Zexiong

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have investigated hepatic carcinoma cachexia, however, there is little published information regarding the effect of Chinese Medicine carcinoma cachexia. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of modified Chinese herbal compound jianpijiedu (MJPJD) on a mouse model of ascites-induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia. C57BL/6 mice were randomized to five groups: Control (Group A); xenograft tumor (Group B); low concentration of MJPJD (Group C); high concentration of MJPJD (Group D) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) combined with indometacin (IND; Group E). The mouse model of ascites-induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia was established by abdominal injection of H22 hepatic carcinoma cells. Subsequently, the body weight, food intake and gastrocnemius weight were recorded, and the levels of interleukin (IL)-lα, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in ascites were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MU-RF1) and atrogin 1 were detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and the mRNA levels in gastrocnemius were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the xenograft tumor group, the administration of MJPJD inhibited the increase in body weight and the volume of ascites, the consumption of gastrocnemius was reduced, the net weight of ascites was maintained, the food intake was enhanced and the levels of the cytokines IL-lα, IL-6, TNF-α in ascites and the levels of MU-RF1 and atrogin 1 proteins were reduced. These results indicated that MJPJD delays the pathological process of ascites-induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia, and the mechanism of action may be correlated with a reduction in the levels of IL-lα, IL-6, TNF-α and inhibiting the activation of the ubiquitin proteosome pathway. PMID:27511050

  15. Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients affect secretion of NO, IL-10, ICAM-1 and IL-2 by endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiyi; He, Kongwang; Zhu, Haodan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-endotoxin effects of sinomenine, fangchinoline, stachydrine, chuanxionggzine, oxymartrine and evodiamine alkaloids commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. Porcine endothelial cells were challenged with 1 μg LPS/ml for 3 h and then treated with one of the six alkaloids at three concentrations (1, 5 or 10 μg/ml) for a further 21 h. The supernatants of the cultures were then collected and analyzed for levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-10, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and IL-2 using ELISA kits. The results revealed that sinomenine, stachydrine and chuanxionggzine inhibited production of NO; stachydrine and evodiamine inhibited secretion of IL-10; sinomenine and chuanxionggzine down-regulated ICAM-1 expression; oxymartrine and evodiamine decreased production of IL-2 by the LPS-stimulated endothelial cells. Overall, the data from these studies suggested to us that these six alkaloids might effectively reduce inflammatory responses in situ via changes in the formation of these key regulatory molecules/proteins. PMID:25986990

  16. A Recipe Composed of Chinese Herbal Active Components Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of NAFLD In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Sheng-xi; Liu, Qian; Tang, Ya-jun; Wang, Wen-jing; Zheng, Qing-shan; Tian, Hua-jie; Yao, Dong-sheng; Liu, Lin; Peng, Jing-hua; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yi-yang; Feng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of the recipe composed of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide (named ACG) on experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). The research was divided into two parts as screening experiment and verification experiment. In the screening experiment, we used high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFL rat model and uniform design to get the recipe from five Chinese herbal active components. In the verification experiment, HFD induced fatty liver rat and mouse NAFL models and free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 cell model were used to verify the effects of ACG. According to the multiple regression equation of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents of each group in the screening experiment, the recipe ACG was obtained and the doses of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide for rats were 266.67, 3.33, and 45 mg/kg, respectively. The results of verification experiment verified that ACG could significantly reduce hepatic TG contents of NAFL rats and mice, as well as the cellular TG content of FFA-induced HepG2 cells. ACG could also improve HOMA-IR and hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure of NAFL mice. Our study verified that ACG recipe could regulate lipid metabolism of NAFL in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27069915

  17. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Myelosuppression Induced by Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Youji; Du, Huihui; Yao, Min; Cui, Xuejun; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yongjun; Yang, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Background. Myelosuppression is one of the major side effects of chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients and there are no effective interventions to prevent it currently. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) may be helpful due to its multidrug targets. Objectives. This study was designed to evaluate effectiveness of CHM on preventing patients from experiencing myelosuppression by chemo- or radiotherapy. Search Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from seven different databases from the date of database creation to April 2014. We assessed all included studies using Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and performed statistical analysis using RevMan 5.2.1. Results. Eight RCTs were included (818 patients). Pooled data showed that increase of white blood cells (WBCs) is higher with CHM plus chemotherapy/radiotherapy than with chemotherapy/radiotherapy only. Both CHM compared to placebo and CHM combined with chemotherapy/radiotherapy compared to chemotherapy/radiotherapy lacked significant differences in the peripheral platelets, red blood cells (RBCs), and hemoglobin changes. Conclusions. Our results demonstrated that CHM significantly protected peripheral blood WBCs from a decrease caused by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. There were no significant protective effects on peripheral RBCs, hemoglobin, or platelets, which may be related to low quality and small sample of included studies. PMID:25802542

  18. Add-On Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Bath to Phototherapy for Psoriasis Vulgaris: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jason Jingjie; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is the most common form of psoriasis. Phototherapy has been proven effective for psoriasis, but side effects have become a concern. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) bath combined with phototherapy has been used in clinical settings, but the additional benefit requires evaluation. This review aims to evaluate the additional benefit and safety of adding CHM bath to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and CQVIP were searched from their inceptions to 6 August 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM bath plus phototherapy to phototherapy alone for psoriasis vulgaris were included. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.0. Thirteen RCTs were included in the review, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed higher efficacy of CHM bath plus phototherapy when compared with phototherapy alone in terms of PASI 60 (RR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18–1.32). Mild adverse events were reported in ten studies, but these could be alleviated by reducing UV dosage or applying emollient. In conclusion, CHM bath appears to be a beneficial and safe adjunctive therapy to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low methodological quality of the included studies. PMID:23983796

  19. Clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for Wilson's disease: a systematic review of 9 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Cheng-long; Fu, Deng-lei; Lu, Lin; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-qian; Wang, Xiao-tong; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2012-06-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Despite being treatable, there is no universally accepted treatment regimen. Currently, various Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used in the treatment of Wilson's disease in China, but there is a lack of reliable scientific evidence for the effectiveness of such therapies. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of CHM as an alternative or/and adjuvant therapy for Wilson's disease. A systematic literature search in different medical databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials comparing CHM as monotherapy or CHM as adjuvant therapy with western conventional medical therapy in the treatment of Wilson's disease. A total of 687 participants were included in nine eligible studies. The main findings are that CHM as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy for Wilson's disease may be able to improve the clinical symptoms, to promote the urinary copper excretion, to ameliorate liver function and/or liver cirrhosis, and has fewer adverse effects in comparison with western conventional medication. Furthermore, CHM generally appeared to be safe and well tolerated in patients with Wilson's disease. However, the evidence presented in this review are insufficient to warrant a clinical recommendation due to the generally low methodological quality of the included studies. In conclusion, CHM seems to be beneficial and safe for Wilson's disease, but high-quality evidences are still needed to further evaluate this therapy. Therefore, additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed.

  20. Evaluation of humic substances during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    Humification during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) was investigated to reveal its correlation with compost maturity. Food waste, sawdust and CMHRs were mixed at 5:5:1 and 1:1:1 (dry weight basis) while food waste:sawdust at 1:1 (dry wt. basis) served as control. Lime at 2.25% was added to all the treatments to alleviate low pH, and composted for 56 days. Humic acid/fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio increased to 0.5, 2.0 and 3.6 in the control and treatment at 5:5:1, and 1:1:1 mixing ratio, respectively at the end of composting. The decrease in aliphatic organics in HA demonstrated the degradation of the readily available organics, while an increase in aromatic functional groups indicated the maturity of compost. Disappearance of hemicellulose and weak intensity of lignin in the CMHRs treatments indicated that the lignin provided the nucleus for HA formation; and the CMHRs accelerated the compost maturity.

  1. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  2. Evaluation of humic substances during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    Humification during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) was investigated to reveal its correlation with compost maturity. Food waste, sawdust and CMHRs were mixed at 5:5:1 and 1:1:1 (dry weight basis) while food waste:sawdust at 1:1 (dry wt. basis) served as control. Lime at 2.25% was added to all the treatments to alleviate low pH, and composted for 56 days. Humic acid/fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio increased to 0.5, 2.0 and 3.6 in the control and treatment at 5:5:1, and 1:1:1 mixing ratio, respectively at the end of composting. The decrease in aliphatic organics in HA demonstrated the degradation of the readily available organics, while an increase in aromatic functional groups indicated the maturity of compost. Disappearance of hemicellulose and weak intensity of lignin in the CMHRs treatments indicated that the lignin provided the nucleus for HA formation; and the CMHRs accelerated the compost maturity. PMID:24951275

  3. Capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection of curcumin in Chinese herbal medicine pretreated by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuhua; Gao, Changlu; Cao, Weidong; Yang, Xiurong; Wang, Erkang

    2002-07-12

    In the present study, curcumin from Chinese herbal medicine turmeric was determined by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CE-AD) pretreated by a self-designed, simple, inexpensive solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge based on the material of tributyl phosphate resin. An average concentration factor of 9 with the recovery of > 80% was achieved when applied to the analysis of curcumin in extracts of tumeric. Under the optimized CE-AD conditions: a running buffer composed of 15 mM phosphate buffer at a pH 9.7, separation voltage at 16 kV, injection for 6 s at 9 kV and detection at 1.20 V, CE-AD with SPE exhibited low detection limit as 3 x 10(-8) mol/l (S/N = 3), high efficiency of 1.0 x 10(5) N, linear range of 7 x 10(-4) -3 x 10(-6) mol/l (r = 0.9986) for curcumin extracted from light petroleum. The method developed resulted in enhancement of the detection sensitivity and reduction of interference from sample matrix in complicated samples and exhibited the potential application for routine analysis, especially in food, because a relatively complete process of sample treatment and analysis was described.

  4. Radix Astragali-Based Chinese Herbal Medicine for Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remains a big challenge for oncologists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Radix Astragali- (RA-) based Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, including the incidence and grading of neurotoxicity, effective percentage, and nerve conduction velocity. Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were found using PubMed, Cochrane, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database of China Science Periodical Database (CSPD) by keyword search. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0. Results. A total of 1552 participants were included in 24 trials. Meta-analysis showed the incidence of all-grade neurotoxicity was significantly lower in experimental groups and high-grade neurotoxicity was also significantly less. Effective percentage was significantly higher and sensory nerve conduction velocity was improved significantly, but changes in motor nerve conduction velocity were not statistically significant. No adverse events associated with RA-based intervention were reported. Conclusion. RA-based intervention may be beneficial in relieving oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, more double-blind, multicenter, large-scale RCTs are needed to support this theory. Trial Registration. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews has registration number  CRD42015019903. PMID:27795728

  5. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  6. Effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine for cancer palliative care: overview of systematic reviews with meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Hui, Edwin P; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Ho, Robin S T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) are often used in managing cancer related symptoms but their effectiveness and safety is controversial. We conducted this overview of meta-analyses to summarize evidence on CHM for cancer palliative care. We included systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses of CHM clinical trials on patients diagnosed with any type of cancer. Methodological quality of included meta-analyses was assessed with the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) Instrument. Fifty-one SRs with meta-analyses were included. They covered patients with lung (20 SRs), gastric (8 SRs), colorectal (6 SRs), liver (6 SRs), breast (2 SRs), cervical (1 SR), esophageal (1 SR), and nasopharyngeal (1 SR) cancers. Six SRs summarized evidence on various types of cancer. Methodological quality of included meta-analyses was not satisfactory. Overall, favorable therapeutic effects in improving quality of life among cancer patients have been reported. Conflicting evidence exists for the effectiveness of CHM in prolonging survival and in reducing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy related toxicities. No serious adverse effects were reported in all included studies. Evidence indicated that CHM could be considered as an option for improving quality of life among patients receiving palliative care. It is unclear if CHM may increase survival, or reduce therapy related toxicities.

  7. [Herbological study of the botanical origin of Chinese crude drugs "Du-hua" and "Qiang-hua" in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Mikage, Masayuki; Ochimori, Akane

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese crude drug Qiang-hua was listed as an alias of Du-hua in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing, an herbal journal written during the Han Dynasty, China. Du-hua and Qiang-hua are recognized as different herbs in China these days; the main botanical origin of Du-hua is Angelica spp. and that of Qiang-hua is Notopterygium spp., of the family Umbelliferae. To make clear the botanical origins of Du-hua and Qiang-hua in ancient China, the authors made a herbological study. The findings were as follows: the name of Qiang-hua was given to the genuine Du-hua, which is produced in Qiang Province, an ancient province located in northwest China; the botanical origin of Qiang-hua is presumed to be Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H.T. Chang and N. forbesii Boissieu based on both the morphology and habitat written in ancient herbal journals. Both species are prescribed as having the plant origin of Qiang-hua in the present Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Therefore, we concluded that Du-hua and Qiang-hua were essentially the same drug, and were originally derived from the Notopterygium species in ancient China.

  8. Inhibition of Major Drug Metabolizing CYPs by Common Herbal Medicines used by HIV/AIDS Patients in Africa– Implications for Herb-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Bouic, Patrick J.; Masimirembwa, Collen M.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of common herbal medicines used by HIV-infected patients in Africa for herb-drug interactions (HDI). High throughput screening assays consisting of recombinant Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and fluorescent probes, and parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA) were used. The potential of herbal medicines to cause HDI was ranked according to FDA guidelines for reversible inhibition and categorization of time dependent inhibition was based on the normalized ratio. CYPs 1A2 and 3A4 were most inhibited by the herbal extracts. H. hemerocallidea (IC50 = 0.63 μg/mL and 58 μg/mL) and E. purpurea (IC50 = 20 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL) were the potent inhibitors of CYPs 1A2 and 3A4 respectively. L. frutescens and H. hemerocallidea showed clear time dependent inhibition on CYP3A4. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of both H. hemerocallidea and L. frutescens before and after PAMPA were identical. The results indicate potential HDI of H. hemerocallidea, L. frutescens and E. purpurea with substrates of the affected enzymes if maximum in vivo concentration is achieved. PMID:24475926

  9. Investigation of adverse effects of interactions between herbal drugs and natural blood clotting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Adhyapak, M S; Kachole, M S

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the world, herbal medicines are consumed by most of the patients without considering their adverse effects. Many herbal medicines/plant extracts have been reported to interact with the natural blood clotting system. In continuation to this effort, thirty medicinal plant extracts were allowed to interact with citrated human blood and the clotting time was measured after re-calcification in vitro using Lee and White method. The aq. leaf ext. of Syzygium cumini and Camellia sinensis significantly prolonged the clotting time. In response to the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time tests, the ext. of C. sinensis showed normal APTT and marginally prolonged the PT to 16.7 s (control-15.2 s) while S. cumini showed normal PT but significantly prolonged the APTT to 66.9 s (control-20.7 s). This suggests that, C. sinensis acts on the extrinsic pathway while S. cumini on the intrinsic pathway. There are some common herbal formulations that are frequently used by the patients which contain above plant materials, like, Syzygium cumin in anti-diabetic formulations, while the ext. of C. sinensis is consumed frequently as beverage in many part of the world. Hence, patients having known bleeding tendency or haemophilia disease should take into account the interaction potential of these plants with the natural blood clotting system while taking herbal formulations containing above plants; specially, the patients suffering from intrinsic pathway factor deficiency should keep a limit on the consumption of S. cumini while extrinsic pathway factor deficiency patients should limit C. sinensis. Also, the medical practitioners should consider the patient's food consumption history before doing any major surgical procedures. PMID:26340850

  10. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  11. Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Stickel, F; Schuppan, D

    2007-04-01

    Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is widespread. Licensing regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal products are still incomplete and clearcut proof of their efficacy in liver diseases is sparse. Nevertheless, a number of herbals show promising activity including silymarin for antifibrotic treatment, phyllantus amarus in chronic hepatitis B, glycyrrhizin to treat chronic viral hepatitis, and a number of herbal combinations from China and Japan that deserve testing in appropriate studies. Apart from therapeutic properties, reports are accumulating about liver injury after the intake of herbals, including those advertised for liver diseases. Acute and/or chronic liver damage occurred after ingestion of some Chinese herbs, herbals that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, germander, greater celandine, kava, atractylis gummifera, callilepsis laureola, senna alkaloids, chaparral and many others. Since the evidence supporting the use of botanicals to treat chronic liver diseases is insufficient and only few of them are well standardised and free of potential serious side effects, most of these medications are not recommended outside clinical trials. Particularly with regard to the latter, adequately powered randomised-controlled clinical trials with well-selected end points are needed to assess the role of herbal therapy for liver diseases. PMID:17331820

  12. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research.

  13. The Therapeutic Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicine, Lang Chuang Fang Granule, on Lupus-Prone MRL/lpr Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kai-Peng; Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Li, Rui-Ming; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to severe multiorgan damage. Lang Chuang Fang (LCF) is a Chinese herbal medicine that is clinically prescribed for treating SLE. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of LCF granule on lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. Female mice were randomly separated into six groups, and LCF treatment groups received LCF granule at the dosage of 0.97 g/kg/d, 1.95 g/kg/d, and 3.90 g/kg/d, respectively. Here, we found that, compared to the MRL/lpr mice, both the spleen coefficient and thymus coefficient were reduced in the LCF granule-treated mice. There was a marked downregulation in CRP and anti-dsDNA autoantibody and an evident upregulation of CH50 in LCF granule-treated mice. LCF granule treatment also obviously reduced the proteinuria, BUN, and SCr levels in MRL/lpr mice at the dosage of 0.97 g/kg/d, 1.95 g/kg/d, and 3.90 g/kg/d, indicating that LCF granule alleviated the renal injury of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, LCF granule decreased p65 NF-κB levels and increased Sirt1 and Nrf2 levels in the kidney tissues of MRL/lpr mice, which might elucidate the beneficial effects of LCF on lupus nephritis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that LCF granule has therapeutic effects on lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. PMID:27034698

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Libing; Li, Lingru; Li, Yingshuai; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for breast cancer, while its efficacy remains unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with chemotherapy for breast cancer. The study results showed that CHM combined with chemotherapy significantly increased tumor response and KPS as compared to using chemotherapy alone (RR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.24–1.48; P < 0.00001; RR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.26–1.52; P < 0.00001, resp.). Besides, CHM as an adjunctive therapy significantly reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.27–0.52; P < 0.00001). Moreover, the combined therapy significantly prevented the decline of WBC in patients under chemotherapy at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.34–0.69; P < 0.00001) and prevented the decline of platelet at toxicity grade of III–IV or I–IV (RR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12–0.73; P = 0.008; RR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.63–0.94; P = 0.009, resp.). This study suggests that CHM combined with chemotherapy in comparison with chemotherapy alone can significantly enhance tumor response, improve KPS, and alleviate toxicity induced by chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. However, a firm conclusion could not be reached due to the lack of high quality trials and large-scale RCTs, so further trials with higher quality and larger scale are needed. PMID:27239216

  15. Source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy for comprehensively profiling Chinese herbal formula: Ganmaoling granule as a case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Shi, Ziyi; Song, Yuelin; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-09-16

    Chinese herbal formula (CHF) has extremely complex chemical composition. Herein, a source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy was established based on reductionism for rapidly and comprehensively profiling CHF, and Ganmaoling granule (GMLG) was selected as a representative case to illustrate such a strategy and to confirm its applicability. Firstly, comprehensive data acquisition was achieved using neutral losses along with full scan on a liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometer (LC-IT-TOF-MS). Then, the detected precursor and product ions were paired to construct a list of ion transitions for profiling GMLG and its constituent herbs using the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) mode on a LC coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-Q-Trap-MS). The mass parameters of sMRM were optimized using an online optimization strategy to achieve the highest sensitivity, and the automated source attribution was performed with the assistant of the "Quantitate" function of Analyst software. The target peaks were then structurally classified into seven classes through integrating the mass defect filtering (MDF) and diagnostic fragment ion filtering (DFIF), and identified by combination of the mass fragmentation rules and a 'structure extension' approach. Using this strategy, 261 components, including 148 trace ones (with the intensity lower than 100,000 cps), were tentatively characterized. The findings demonstrated that such a comprehensive source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy is qualified to be an efficient approach for rapidly and globally characterizing the chemical profile of CHF.

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 10 High-Quality Randomized Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chi-zi; Wu, Fan; Lu, Lin; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yi; Liu, Ai-ju; Liao, Wei-jing; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is very common in people with diabetes. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) therapy has been developed for DPN empirically over the years. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of CHMs for patients suffering from DPN. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of CHM on DPN. Six databases were searched up to November 2012. The primary outcome measures were the absolute values or changing of motor or sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and the secondary outcome measurements were clinical symptoms improvements and adverse events. The methodological quality was assessed by Jadad scale and the twelve criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results One hundred and sixty-three studies claimed RCTs. Ten studies with 653 individuals were further identified based on the Jadad score ≥3. These 10 studies were all of high methodological quality with a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed the effects of NCV favoring CHMs when compared with western conventional medicines (WCM) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There is a significant difference in the total efficacy rate between the two groups (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in all of the ten included studies, and well tolerated in all patients with DPN. Conclusion Despite of the apparently positive findings and low risk of bias, it is premature to conclude the efficacy of CHMs for the treatment of DPN because of the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample sizes of the included studies. However, CHM therapy was safe for DPN. Further standardized preparation, large sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required. PMID:24146822

  17. Source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy for comprehensively profiling Chinese herbal formula: Ganmaoling granule as a case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Shi, Ziyi; Song, Yuelin; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-09-16

    Chinese herbal formula (CHF) has extremely complex chemical composition. Herein, a source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy was established based on reductionism for rapidly and comprehensively profiling CHF, and Ganmaoling granule (GMLG) was selected as a representative case to illustrate such a strategy and to confirm its applicability. Firstly, comprehensive data acquisition was achieved using neutral losses along with full scan on a liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometer (LC-IT-TOF-MS). Then, the detected precursor and product ions were paired to construct a list of ion transitions for profiling GMLG and its constituent herbs using the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) mode on a LC coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-Q-Trap-MS). The mass parameters of sMRM were optimized using an online optimization strategy to achieve the highest sensitivity, and the automated source attribution was performed with the assistant of the "Quantitate" function of Analyst software. The target peaks were then structurally classified into seven classes through integrating the mass defect filtering (MDF) and diagnostic fragment ion filtering (DFIF), and identified by combination of the mass fragmentation rules and a 'structure extension' approach. Using this strategy, 261 components, including 148 trace ones (with the intensity lower than 100,000 cps), were tentatively characterized. The findings demonstrated that such a comprehensive source attribution and structure classification-assisted strategy is qualified to be an efficient approach for rapidly and globally characterizing the chemical profile of CHF. PMID:27543387

  18. Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Su, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Zi-Song; Li, Yi-Jie; Yang, Yang; Hou, Li-Wei; Wang, Qing-Guo; Wei, Ru-Han; Yang, Jian-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Methods. Four English and four Chinese databases were searched through November, 2015. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials were selected. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed by two authors independently. RevMan 5.2.0 software was applied to analyze the data of included trials. Results. A total of 14 trials involving 1551 patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated superior global symptom improvement (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.31, 2.00; P < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 3.6), abdominal pain improvement (RR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.61, 2.35; P < 0.00001), diarrhea improvement (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.60, 2.20; P < 0.00001), pain threshold assessment (MD = 54.53; 95% CI 38.76, 70.30; P < 0.00001), and lower IBS Symptom Severity Score (SMD = −1.01; 95% CI −1.72, −0.30; P = 0.005), when compared with placebo, while for defecation threshold assessment, quality of life, and adverse events, no differences were found between treatment groups and controlled groups. Conclusion. This meta-analysis shows that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe treatment for D-IBS. However, due to the small sample size and high heterogeneity, further studies are required. PMID:27547226

  19. Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Jie; Liu, Shan; Su, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Zi-Song; Guo, Yu; Li, Yi-Jie; Yang, Yang; Hou, Li-Wei; Wang, Qing-Guo; Wei, Ru-Han; Yang, Jian-Qin; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Methods. Four English and four Chinese databases were searched through November, 2015. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials were selected. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed by two authors independently. RevMan 5.2.0 software was applied to analyze the data of included trials. Results. A total of 14 trials involving 1551 patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated superior global symptom improvement (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.31, 2.00; P < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 3.6), abdominal pain improvement (RR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.61, 2.35; P < 0.00001), diarrhea improvement (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.60, 2.20; P < 0.00001), pain threshold assessment (MD = 54.53; 95% CI 38.76, 70.30; P < 0.00001), and lower IBS Symptom Severity Score (SMD = -1.01; 95% CI -1.72, -0.30; P = 0.005), when compared with placebo, while for defecation threshold assessment, quality of life, and adverse events, no differences were found between treatment groups and controlled groups. Conclusion. This meta-analysis shows that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe treatment for D-IBS. However, due to the small sample size and high heterogeneity, further studies are required. PMID:27547226

  20. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and

  1. Treatment and prevention of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome using Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Lin, Rong Jing; Hong, Xuchu; Ye, Lin; Lin, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). A total of 60 patients with OSAHS were randomly divided into two groups (n=30/group): The experimental group, who received the conventional treatment + oral administration of the traditional Chinese herbal formula, Jiawei Di Tan Tang; and the control group, who received the conventional treatment only. OSAHS patients were included in the current study if they presented with snoring and had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >30 in a polysomnography study, without comorbidities. The therapeutic course lasted 12 weeks in both groups. Alterations to the mean clinical symptom score, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and AHI scores, lowest nocturnal blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) and the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) prior to and following treatment were observed. The mean clinical symptom score was significantly decreased in the experimental group post-treatment compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the clinical symptoms in the experimental group were significantly improved following treatment compared with pre-treatment symptoms (P<0.05). Furthermore, the ESS and AHI scores, lowest nocturnal SaO2 and serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were significantly improved in the experimental group post-treatment compared with the control group (P<0.05). These parameters in the experimental group were also significantly improved post-treatment compared with those pre-treatment (P<0.05). The results of the present study suggested that oral administration of the traditional Chinese herbal formula Jiawei Di Tan Tang was able to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in patients with OSAHS, and thus may

  2. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents.

  3. Spice drugs are more than harmless herbal blends: a review of the pharmacology and toxicology of synthetic cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Seely, Kathryn A; Lapoint, Jeff; Moran, Jeffery H; Fattore, Liana

    2012-12-01

    "K2" and "Spice" drugs (collectively hereafter referred to as Spice) represent a relatively new class of designer drugs that have recently emerged as popular alternatives to marijuana, otherwise characterized as "legal highs". These drugs are readily available on the Internet and sold in many head shops and convenience stores under the disguise of innocuous products like herbal blends, incense, or air fresheners. Although package labels indicate "not for human consumption", the number of intoxicated people presenting to emergency departments is dramatically increasing. The lack of validated and standardized human testing procedures and an endless supply of potential drugs of abuse are primary reasons why researchers find it difficult to fully characterize clinical consequences associated with Spice. While the exact chemical composition and toxicology of Spice remains to be determined, there is mounting evidence identifying several synthetic cannabinoids as causative agents responsible for psychoactive and adverse physical effects. This review provides updates of the legal status of common synthetic cannabinoids detected in Spice and analytical procedures used to test Spice products and human specimens collected under a variety of clinical circumstances. The pharmacological and toxicological consequences of synthetic cannabinoid abuse are also reviewed to provide a future perspective on potential short- and long-term implications.

  4. Spice drugs are more than harmless herbal blends: a review of the pharmacology and toxicology of synthetic cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Seely, Kathryn A.; Lapoint, Jeff; Moran, Jeffery H.; Fattore, Liana

    2014-01-01

    “K2” and “Spice” drugs (collectively hereafter referred to as Spice) represent a relatively new class of designer drugs that have recently emerged as popular alternatives to marijuana, otherwise characterized as “legal highs”. These drugs are readily available on the Internet and sold in many head shops and convenience stores under the disguise of innocuous products like herbal blends, incense, or air fresheners. Although package labels indicate “not for human consumption”, the number of intoxicated people presenting to emergency departments is dramatically increasing. The lack of validated and standardized human testing procedures and an endless supply of potential drugs of abuse are primary reasons why researchers find it difficult to fully characterize clinical consequences associated with Spice. While the exact chemical composition and toxicology of Spice remains to be determined, there is mounting evidence identifying several synthetic cannabinoids as causative agents responsible for psychoactive and adverse physical effects. This review provides updates of the legal status of common synthetic cannabinoids detected in Spice and analytical procedures used to test Spice products and human specimens collected under a variety of clinical circumstances. The pharmacological and toxicological consequences of synthetic cannabinoid abuse are also reviewed to provide a future perspective on potential short- and long-term implications. PMID:22561602

  5. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  6. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    1999-01-01

    More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

  7. Screening for anti-inflammatory and bronchorelaxant activities of 12 commonly used Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Yue, Grace G L; Chan, Ben C L; Kwok, Hin-Fai; To, Ming-Ho; Hon, Kam-Lun; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara B S; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2012-06-01

    The use of health supplements derived from medicinal herbs as self-medication for the relief of respiratory tract pathology symptoms is increasing in Chinese communities as air pollution is worsening. Twelve herbs from two formulae of our previous studies were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and bronchorelaxant activities in this study. Among the extracts tested, those of Herba Schizonepetae and Radix Glycyrrhizae showed significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide production (p < 0.05) in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, suggesting their anti-inflammatory activities. Radix Scutellariae and Radix Glycyrrhizae extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on phytohaemagglutinin-induced proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p < 0.05). These extracts also showed inhibition of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 production. For the bronchorelaxant assay, Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii and Radix Glycyrrhizae extracts showed potent attenuation of the acetylcholine- and carbachol-induced contractions in rat trachea (p < 0.05), implying their relaxant activities. In conclusion, Herba Schizonepetae, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Radix Scutellariae and Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii extracts were demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and bronchorelaxant activities, which may help to ameliorate the symptoms of respiratory tract pathologies. The findings have thus provided some scientific evidence on the efficacy and mechanisms of action of these herbs, which are useful for the further development of clinical applications. PMID:22105892

  8. Characterization of the Anti-Influenza Activity of the Chinese Herbal Plant Paeonia lactiflora

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Hui-Wen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Liu, Chien-Jou; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Bai Shao (BS, the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.), a common Chinese herb in many recipes used to treat viral infection and liver diseases, is recognized for its ability to nourish menstruation, its Yin convergence, and as an antiperspirant. However, the mechanism and components for its antiviral function remain to be elucidated. In this study, an ethanolic extract of BS was further partitioned into aqueous and organic parts (EAex) for in vitro functional study and in vivo efficacy testing. EAex exhibited an IC50 of 0.016 ± 0.005 mg/mL against influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), with broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against different strains of human influenza A viruses, including clinical oseltamivir-resistant isolates and an H1N1pdm strain. The synthesis of both viral RNA and protein was profoundly inhibited when the cells were treated with EAex. A time-of-addition assay demonstrated that EAex exerted its antiviral activity at various stages of the virus replication cycle. We addressed its antiviral activity at virus entry and demonstrated that EAex inhibits viral hemagglutination and viral binding to and penetration into host cells. In vivo animal testing showed that 200 mg/kg/d of EAex offered significant protection against viral infection. We conclude that BS possesses antiviral activity and has the potential for development as an anti-influenza agent. PMID:24762393

  9. Characterization of the anti-influenza activity of the Chinese herbal plant Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Hui-Wen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Liu, Chien-Jou; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2014-04-01

    Bai Shao (BS, the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.), a common Chinese herb in many recipes used to treat viral infection and liver diseases, is recognized for its ability to nourish menstruation, its Yin convergence, and as an antiperspirant. However, the mechanism and components for its antiviral function remain to be elucidated. In this study, an ethanolic extract of BS was further partitioned into aqueous and organic parts (EAex) for in vitro functional study and in vivo efficacy testing. EAex exhibited an IC50 of 0.016 ± 0.005 mg/mL against influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), with broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against different strains of human influenza A viruses, including clinical oseltamivir-resistant isolates and an H1N1pdm strain. The synthesis of both viral RNA and protein was profoundly inhibited when the cells were treated with EAex. A time-of-addition assay demonstrated that EAex exerted its antiviral activity at various stages of the virus replication cycle. We addressed its antiviral activity at virus entry and demonstrated that EAex inhibits viral hemagglutination and viral binding to and penetration into host cells. In vivo animal testing showed that 200 mg/kg/d of EAex offered significant protection against viral infection. We conclude that BS possesses antiviral activity and has the potential for development as an anti-influenza agent. PMID:24762393

  10. An Epidemiological Study of Concomitant Use of Chinese Medicine and Antipsychotics in Schizophrenic Patients: Implication for Herb-Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tan, Qing-Rong; Tong, Yao; Wang, Xue-Yi; Wang, Huai-Hai; Ho, Lai-Ming; Wong, Hei Kiu; Feng, Yi-Bin; Wang, Di; Ng, Roger; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Wong, Vivian Taam

    2011-01-01

    Background Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. Methods and Findings In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM) use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 34.2%–38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.80–4.24). However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 2.06–4.83). Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusions Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated. PMID:21359185

  11. Use of bodily sensations as a risk assessment tool: exploring people with Multiple Sclerosis’ views on risks of negative interactions between herbal medicine and conventional drug therapies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) combine it with conventional medicine. Recent risk assessment studies have shown risks of negative interactions between CAM and conventional medicine, particularly when combining herbal medicine and conventional drug therapies (CDT). Little is known about the way users consider such risks. The present paper aims to gain knowledge about this issue by exploring views on risks of negative interactions when combining herbal medicine and CDT among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This paper draws on a qualitative follow-up study on a survey among members of the Danish MS Society. Semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a strategic selection from the survey respondents. The study was inspired by a phenomenological approach and emerging themes were extracted from the data through meaning condensation. Results Four themes characterized the informants’ views on risks of negative interactions when combining herbal medicine and CDT: 1) ‘naturalness’ in herbal medicine; 2) ‘bodily sensations’ as guidelines; 3) trust in the CAM practitioner; 4) lack of dialogue with medical doctor. Conclusions Generally, the combination of herbal medicine and CDT was considered by the informants to be safe. In particular, they emphasized the ‘non-chemical’ nature of herbal medicine and of their own bodily sensations as warrants of safety. A trustful relation to the CAM practitioner furthermore made some of them feel safe in their use of herbal medicine and CDT in combination. The informants’ use of bodily sensations as a non-discursive risk assessment may be a relevant element in understanding these issues. PMID:24533750

  12. Identifying Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome: implications from a nationwide database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs in women during their reproductive age with a quite negative impact on their daily lives. Women with PMS experience a wide range of physical or psychological symptoms and seek treatment for them. Chinese herb medicine (CHM) is commonly used for PMS and the goal of this study is to investigate the prescription patterns of CHM for PMS by using a nationwide database. Methods Prescriptions of CHM were obtained from two million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide database in Taiwan. The ICD-9 code 625.4 was used to identify patients with PMS. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to explore both the combinations and the core treatments for PMS. Results During 1998-2011, a total of 14,312 CHM prescriptions for PMS were provided. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) was the CHM which had the highest prevalence (37.5% of all prescriptions) and also the core of prescription network for PMS. For combination of two CHM, JWXYS with Cyperus rotundus L. was prescribed most frequently, 7.7% of all prescriptions, followed by JWXYS with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.9%, and Cyperus rotundus L. with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.6%. Conclusions JWXYS-centered CHM combinations were most commonly prescribed for PMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pharmaco-epidemiological study to review CHM treatments for PMS. However, the efficacy and safety of these commonly used CHM were still lacking. The results of this study provide valuable references for further clinical trials and bench studies. PMID:24969368

  13. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  14. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  15. A chinese herbal formula to improve general psychological status in posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial on sichuan earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Ze; Wu, Feng; Wei, Pin-Kang; Xiu, Li-Juan; Shi, Jun; Pang, Bin; Sun, Da-Zhi; Qin, Zhi-Feng; Huang, Yi; Lao, Lixing

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by poor general psychological status (GPS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of a Chinese herbal formula on GPS in earthquake survivors with PTSD. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared a Chinese herbal formula, Xiao-Tan-Jie-Yu-Fang (XTJYF), to placebo in 2008 Sichuan earthquake survivors with PTSD. Patients were randomized into XTJYF (n = 123) and placebo (n = 122) groups. Baseline-to-end-point score changes in the three global indices of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and rates of response in the SCL global severity index (GSI) were the primary endpoints. A subanalysis of the nine SCL factors and the sleep quality score were secondary endpoints. Results and Discussion. Compared to placebo, the XTJYF group was significantly improved in all three SCL global indices (P = 0.001~0.028). More patients in the XTJYF group reported "much improved" than the placebo group (P = 0.001). The XTJYF group performed significantly better than control in five out of nine SCL factors (somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, anxiety, and hostility (P = 0.001~0.036)), and in sleep quality score (P < 0.001). XTJYF produced no serious adverse events. These findings suggest that XTJYF may be an effective and safe treatment option for improving GPS in patients with PTSD.

  16. Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104

  17. Nephrokeli, a Chinese Herbal Formula, May Improve IgA Nephropathy through Regulation of the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xianwen; Cai, Xiaofan; Chen, Yiping; Deng, Yueyi

    2015-01-01

    Nephrokeli (NPKL) is a Chinese herbal formula that has been used to treat patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) for improvement of proteinuria and kidney injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors S1PR2 and S1PR3 are known to play an important role in kidney disease. Here, we tested whether NPKL is able to regulate the S1P pathway in the kidney of IgAN rats. Four groups of rats were included in the study: Control, IgAN, IgAN treated with losartan, and IgAN treated with NPKL. The IgAN model was generated by injection of bovine serum albumin and staphylococcus enterotoxin B. We found that IgAN rats had increased staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the mesangial area and increased mRNA and protein levels of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in the kidney compared to control rats. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream growth factor in the S1P pathway, was also elevated in the kidney of IgAN rats. Treatment with either NPKL or losartan was able to reduce PCNA staining and the expression of both S1PR2 and S1PR3 in the kidney of IgAN rats. However, NPKL (but not losartan treatment) reduced the expression of CTGF in the kidney of IgAN rats. In addition, we treated rat mesangial cells with sera collected from either NPKL-treated rats or control rats and found that NPKL-serum was able to reduce S1P-induced mesangial cell proliferation and the expression of S1PR2/S1PR3 and CTGF. NPKL also attenuates expression of fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers in the kidney of IgAN rats. Our studies provide the mechanism by which NPKL attenuates kidney injury in IgAN rats. PMID:25633986

  18. [Survey of arsenic concentrations in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and preliminary risk assessment of As in CHMs on human health].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Ju; Lin, Ai-Jun; Liu, Yun-Xia

    2010-12-01

    Characteristics and concentrations of As in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) from Hebei province (including samples collected from fields and from medicine markets) were investigated, and the ADI (allowable daily intake) standard value from FAO/WHO was used for preliminary assessment of As risk on human health. The results showed that the average of As concentrations in different roots which were used as medicines, ranged from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.54 mg/kg,while for shoots which were used as medicines, average value of As concentrations in Dendranthema morifolium was 1.42 mg/kg, and the range in other species was from 0.09 mg/kg to 0.27 mg/kg. Based on Green Standards of Medicinal Plants and Preparations for Foreign Trade and Economy (2.0 mg/kg), the percentage of samples with As concentrations exceeding standard was 3.27% (n = 153) in roots and 9.09% (n = 44) in shoots,and 4.57% (n = 197) in total CHMs samples. As concentrations in CHMs from fields ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.73 mg/kg,which were all lower than 2.0 mg/kg. However, As concentrations in CHMs from markets ranged from 0.05 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg, and the concentrations of As in 6.36% of samples exceeded the limited standard. Arsenic concentrations in samples from markets were significantly higher than those from fields (p < 0.05). As concentrations in Compositae were distributed widely from 0.08 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg,and the average at 0.87 mg/kg,while the average of As concentrations in other six families were between 0.21 mg/kg and 0.41 mg/kg, and As levels in 75% of samples for each family were below 0.5 mg/kg. Compared to Compositae samples, the CHMs from other families have higher security. ADI regulated by FAO/WHO was used to assess As risk in CHMs on human health in this study as well. As daily intake through CHMs from markets varied from 0.90 microg/d to 19.7 microg/d, and percentages of the daily intake of As in CHMs to ADI were in the range of 0.70% to 15.4%, which indicated that As in CHMs from markets

  19. [Discussion on the complementation of different effects of acupuncture and Chinese drugs and clinical application].

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Wu, Zhong-Chao

    2013-10-01

    Complementation of different effects of acupuncture and Chinese drugs generalizes not only the objective interrelations between acupuncture and Chinese drugs with varied actions when the two therapies are applied simultaneously but also the clinical therapeutic efficacy produced either by acupuncture or Chinese drugs singly. This view of complementation has been promoted on the basis of the understanding of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture and Chinese drugs as well as their interrelations concerning the different actions complementary most appropriately to one another in treatment of diseases. The presented view will be of theoretical value in working out the efficacy and mechanism of acupuncture and Chinese drugs applied at the same time and help the clinical doctors understand further the properties of actions of acupuncture and Chinese drugs so as to strengthen more specifically the integration of acupuncture with Chinese drugs and improve the clinical therapeutic effect.

  20. Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation. PMID:26142503

  1. Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation.

  2. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: A Quality-Adjusted Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Michael; Ly, Helen; Broffman, Michael; See, Caylie; Clemons, Jen; Chang, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicines reportedly increase efficacy and minimize toxicity of chemotherapy; however, little attention has been paid to how poor study quality can bias outcomes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, TCMLARS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines combined with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone. We screened for eligibility, extracted data, and pooled data with random-effects meta-analysis. Outcome measures were survival, toxicity, tumor response, performance status, quality of life, and Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) criteria to critically evaluate the quality of reporting in the randomized trials included in the meta-analysis. Results We found 36 potentially eligible studies, with only 3 (those with low ROB) qualifying for meta-analysis. Two reported chemotherapy-related diarrhea reduced by 57% (relative risk [RR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.19-1.01; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with nonsignificant results. Two reported white blood cell toxicity reduced by 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.72; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with statistically significant results. Stratifying analysis by studies with high versus low ROB, we found substantial overestimation of benefit: Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of platelet toxicity by Chinese herbal medicines (RR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.84 vs RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.11-3.92). Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of vomiting toxicity (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.33-0.61 vs RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.48-1.58). And, studies with high ROB overestimated by 21% the reduction in diarrhea toxicity (RR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.58 vs RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19-1.01). Studies with high ROB also overestimated by 16% improvement in tumor response (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.63 vs RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.81-1.79). Not accounting for

  4. nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR marker to authenticate Aconitum heterophyllum and Cyperus rotundus in Ayurvedic raw drug source and prepared herbal products.

    PubMed

    Seethapathy, Gopalakrishnan Saroja; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-02-15

    To authenticate Ayurvedic medicinal plants Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum) and Musta (Cyperus rotundus) at the raw drug source and in prepared herbal products, nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR markers were designed and validated spp.-specific SCAR primers gave amplicon of 415 bp and 134 bp, respectively, in authentic species. The SCAR primers (Cyr-FP and Cyr-RP) could identify tissue sample containing 750 μg to 4.76 mg/100mg of Musta in complex mixtures of DNA extracted from commercial herbal drugs. Ativisha could not be identified through SCAR markers suggesting that authentic species may not been used to prepare herbal drugs despite its being labelled as one of the ingredients in formulations. Analysis of individual tubers of Ativisha and Musta assures the presence of admixtures in raw drug trade of Ativisha, indicates the need to monitor the basic raw material supply and concludes, supplying plant materials through cultivation to manufacturing industries can minimize the risks of adulteration.

  5. nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR marker to authenticate Aconitum heterophyllum and Cyperus rotundus in Ayurvedic raw drug source and prepared herbal products.

    PubMed

    Seethapathy, Gopalakrishnan Saroja; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-02-15

    To authenticate Ayurvedic medicinal plants Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum) and Musta (Cyperus rotundus) at the raw drug source and in prepared herbal products, nrDNA ITS sequence based SCAR markers were designed and validated spp.-specific SCAR primers gave amplicon of 415 bp and 134 bp, respectively, in authentic species. The SCAR primers (Cyr-FP and Cyr-RP) could identify tissue sample containing 750 μg to 4.76 mg/100mg of Musta in complex mixtures of DNA extracted from commercial herbal drugs. Ativisha could not be identified through SCAR markers suggesting that authentic species may not been used to prepare herbal drugs despite its being labelled as one of the ingredients in formulations. Analysis of individual tubers of Ativisha and Musta assures the presence of admixtures in raw drug trade of Ativisha, indicates the need to monitor the basic raw material supply and concludes, supplying plant materials through cultivation to manufacturing industries can minimize the risks of adulteration. PMID:24128578

  6. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-10-01

    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used.

  7. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530

  8. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-10-01

    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530

  9. Pharmacokinetic interactions between warfarin and kangen-karyu, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, and their synergistic action.

    PubMed

    Makino, Toshiaki; Wakushima, Hannosuke; Okamoto, Takuya; Okukubo, Yasuhiro; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2002-09-01

    Kangen-Karyu (KGK), containing six herbs, is a formula created under the theory of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM) to invigorate the 'blood' and dispel 'blood stasis', which arises from poor blood circulation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the interactions between KGK and warfarin. Warfarin was administered orally or intravenously to KGK-treated rats, and plasma warfarin concentration and prothrombin time were measured. Although KGK did not influence the absorption or serum protein binding of warfarin, KGK significantly suppressed the metabolism and elimination of warfarin. This interaction depends on the dosage of KGK, and ten times the amount of the human daily dose of KGK did not exhibit pharmacokinetic interaction with warfarin, suggesting that KGK did not influence the effect of warfarin unless the daily dose was strictly maintained. Warfarin alone significantly prolonged mice tail-bleeding time, which was further prolonged significantly by KGK at a dose that did not exhibit pharmacokinetic interactions with warfarin, suggesting that KGK and warfarin might synergistically prevent thrombosis, and that combined use of these drugs could be therapeutically valuable. When physicians or pharmacists utilize combined therapy using warfarin and KGK, they must make a careful effort to check the coagulative status and regulate the dosage of each drug. PMID:12169403

  10. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Chowdhry, Ayush; Jaiswal, Sarita; Sharma, Anamika; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Jyoti; Priyadarshi, Smruti Sagar; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner. PMID:23822656

  11. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner. PMID:23822656

  12. Elemental and structural analysis of silicon forms in herbal drugs using silicon-29 MAS NMR and WD-XRF spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Pajchel, L; Nykiel, P; Kolodziejski, W

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study concentration of silicon and its structural forms present in herbal drugs. Equisetum arvense and Urtica dioica L. from teapot bags, dietary supplements (tablets and capsules) containing those herbs, dry extract obtained from a teapot bag of E. arvense, and samples of the latter herb harvested in wild habitat over four months were studied using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WD-XRF) and high-resolution solid-state (29)Si NMR. The highest concentration of Si, ca. 27mg/g, was found in the herbal material from the teapot bags containing E. arvense. The Si content in natural E. arvense (whole plants) increased from May to August by ca. 7mg/g, reaching value 26mg/g. Three different silicon forms were detected in the studied herbal samples: Si(OSi)4 (Q(4)), Si(OH)(OSi)3 (Q(3)) and Si(OH)2(OSi)2 (Q(2)). Those sites were populated in E. arvense in the following order: Q(4)≫Q(3)>Q(2). A dramatic, ca. 50-fold decrease of the Si concentration during the infusion process was observed. The infusion process and the subsequent drying procedure augmented population of the Q(4) sites at the cost of the Q(2) sites. The WD-XRF and (29)Si NMR methods occurred useful and complementary in the study of herbal materials.

  13. [Recent progress of international harmonization of crude drugs and medicinal plants--activity of FHH (The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines)].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuo

    2011-03-01

    The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH) was established in 2002. The general proposed objective of the FHH is to promote public health by recognizing and developing standards and technical guidelines that aim to improve the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. At a sub-committee meeting of FHH nomenclature and standardization held in Tokyo, all the participants recognized the importance of comparing the descriptions of herbal medicines contained in member countries' pharmacopoeias or monograph standards as the first step in the harmonization of nomenclature and standardization. It was agreed to set up five expert working groups (EWG) to carry out the following specific tasks: 1) Nomenclature, 2) Testing Methods in Monographs, 3) List of Chemical Reference Standards (CRS) and Reference of Medicinal Plant Materials (RMPM), 4) List of Analytically Validated Methods, and 5) Information on General Tests. In this review, we report four topics of FHH activities from 2002-2009 as follows: 1) Comparative study on testing methods and specification values for crude drugs used in monographs among four Western Pacific regional countries (Japan, China, Korea and Vietnam), 2) Comparative study on TLC conditions for identification, chemical assay conditions for component quantification used in monographs among the four countries, 3) Comparative study on general testing methods for crude drugs among the four countries, 4) Comparative study on TLC identification for crude drugs used in monographs among the four countries considering harmonization and clean analysis.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopiński, P.; Bałan, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopińska-Różewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect. PMID:23935247

  15. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae).

  16. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae). PMID:16084679

  17. Yu Ping Feng San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix, Regulates the Release of Cytokines in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction, is composed of Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu) and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng) in a weight ratio of 1∶2∶1. Clinically, YPFS has been widely used to regulate immune functions; however, the action mechanism of it is not known. Here, we addressed this issue by providing detail analyses of chemical and biological properties of YPFS. By using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, fifteen chemicals deriving from different herbs of YPFS were determined, and which served as a control for the standardization of the herbal extract of YPFS. In general, the amounts of chosen chemical markers were higher in a preparation of YPFS as compared to that of single herb or two-herb compositions. In order to reveal the immune functions of YPFS, the standardized extract was applied onto cultured murine macrophages. The treatment of YPFS stimulated the mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines via activation of NF-κB by enhancing IκBα degradation. In contrast, the application of YPFS suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic inflammation model. In addition, YPFS could up regulate the phagocytic activity in cultured macrophages. These results therefore supported the bi-directional immune-modulatory roles of YPFS in regulating the releases of cytokines from macrophages. PMID:24244327

  18. The spectrum-effect relationship-a rational approach to screening effective compounds, reflecting the internal quality of Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chun-Sheng; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Xiao, Ming-Liang; Niu, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Since the chromatographic fingerprint was introduced, it has been accepted by many countries to assess the quality and authenticity of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). However, solely using the chromatographic fingerprint to assay numerous chemicals is not suitable for the assessment of the whole internal quality and pharmacodynamics of CHM. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a rational approach to connecting the chromatographic fingerprint with effective components to assess the internal quality of CHM. For this purpose, a spectrum-effect relationship theory was proposed and accepted as a new method for the assessment of CHM because of its potential use to screen effective components from CHM. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the application of the spectrum-effect relationship theory in the research of CHM, including research mentality, different chromatographic analysis techniques, data processing technologies, and structure determination. PMID:27025364

  19. Effect of Chinese medicinal herbal residues on microbial community succession and anti-pathogenic properties during co-composting with food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) during its co-composting with food waste (FW) in two different ratios along with a control. Inhibition on total microbial population were assessed while the numerically dominant microbes were isolated and their antagonistic effects were assessed. Results indicate that the active ingredients persist in the composting mass did not affect the microbes unspecifically as revealed from almost similar bacterial and fungal populations. Rather specific inhibitory activities against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum were observed. Apart from the CMHR-born active compounds, CMHR-induced changes in the antagonistic and mycoparasitic abilities of the bacteria and fungi also contribute to the specific inhibition against the tested pathogens. Therefore use of CMHRs during the composting of CMHRs enhances its antipathogenic property resulting in an anti-pathogenic compost. PMID:27039351

  20. Effect of Chinese medicinal herbal residues on microbial community succession and anti-pathogenic properties during co-composting with food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) during its co-composting with food waste (FW) in two different ratios along with a control. Inhibition on total microbial population were assessed while the numerically dominant microbes were isolated and their antagonistic effects were assessed. Results indicate that the active ingredients persist in the composting mass did not affect the microbes unspecifically as revealed from almost similar bacterial and fungal populations. Rather specific inhibitory activities against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum were observed. Apart from the CMHR-born active compounds, CMHR-induced changes in the antagonistic and mycoparasitic abilities of the bacteria and fungi also contribute to the specific inhibition against the tested pathogens. Therefore use of CMHRs during the composting of CMHRs enhances its antipathogenic property resulting in an anti-pathogenic compost.

  1. Therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease: the ancient meets the future--traditional Chinese herbal medicine, electroacupuncture, gene therapy and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Liang, Xi-Bin; Li, Feng-Qiao; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Liu, Xian-Yu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2008-10-01

    In China, it has been estimated that there are more than 2.0 million people suffering from Parkinson's disease, which is currently becoming one of the most common chronic neurodegenerative disorders during recent years. For many years, scientists have struggled to find new therapeutic approaches for this disease. Since 1994, our research group led by Drs. Ji-Sheng Han and Xiao-Min Wang of Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University has developed several prospective treatment strategies for the disease. These studies cover the traditional Chinese medicine-herbal formula or acupuncture, and modern technologies such as gene therapy or stem cell replacement therapy, and have achieved some original results. It hopes that these data may be beneficial for the research development and for the future clinical utility for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Comparative evaluation of fosinopril and herbal drug Dioscorea bulbifera in patients of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, R G; Rajak, M; Ghosh, B; Agrawal, A; Dubey, G P

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide, diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure. This hospital-based single-center prospective open-label randomized case-control interventional study was performed to evaluate and compare the native drug Dioscorea bulbifera with fosinopril in the management of diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria >500 mg/day or albuminuria >300 mg/ day, S Cr ≤2.5 mg/dL and hypertension controlled with a single drug were included into the study and were divided into three groups according to the interventional drugs that they were given; group A (n = 46) on fosinopril (5-40 mg/day), group B (n = 45) on Dioscorea bulbifera (500 mg BD) and group C (n = 46) on neither of these drugs. All necessary laboratory investigations needed to assess the effect of both the drugs were carried out. Patients were followed-up for six months. The study included 137 patients (M:F 2.61:1) with an age range of 19-76 years. At the sixth-month follow-up, a significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure was noted in all three groups whereas the diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in group B. There was significantly better control of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in group B than in the other groups. Although fasting blood sugar was poorly controlled in the initial visit in all three groups, there was a significant decrease at the sixth-month follow-up in all three groups. Moreover, the decrease was significantly more pronounced in group B than in the other two groups. Low-density lipoprotein decreased significantly only in group B. Proteinuria, serum transforming growth factor-β, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein decreased in both group A and group B, more so in the latter, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Importantly, proteinuria and serum IL-6 showed an increasing trend in group C. It can be concluded that Dioscorea bulbifera was more

  3. Demographic and Prescribing Patterns of Chinese Herbal Products for Individualized Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease in Taiwan: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Long; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Ping; Huang, Meng-Hsuan; Su, Fang-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Combinations of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are widely used for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwan. We analyzed the usage and frequency of CHPs prescribed for patients with IHD. Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, 53531 patients from a random sample of one million in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 2000 to 2010 were enrolled. Descriptive statistics, the multiple logistic regression method and Poisson regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for utilization of CHPs. Results The mean age of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) nonusers was significantly higher than that of TCM users. Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang (24.85%) was the most commonly prescribed formula CHPs, followed by Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang (16.53%) and Sheng-Mai-San (16.00%). The most commonly prescribed single CHPs were Dan Shen (29.30%), Yu Jin (7.44%), and Ge Gen (6.03%). After multivariate adjustment, patients with IHD younger than 29 years had 2.62 times higher odds to use TCM than those 60 years or older. Residents living in Central Taiwan, having hyperlipidemia or cardiac dysrhythmias also have higher odds to use TCM. On the contrary, those who were males, who had diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) were less likely to use TCM. Conclusions Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang and Dan Shen are the most commonly prescribed CHPs for IHD in Taiwan. Our results should be taken into account by physicians when devising individualized therapy for IHD. Further large-scale, randomized clinical trials are warranted in order to determine the effectiveness and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:26322893

  4. Chinese herbal medicine formula tao hong si wu decoction protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Na; Nin, Ling; Zhao, Zhilong; Chen, Lu; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Zhuyun; Zhong, Zhendong; Zeng, Daiwen; Qi, Hongyi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD) is traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of phase II enzymes and is known as the major mechanism of cellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of THSWD on the Nrf2 signaling pathway and the consequent effect during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that THSWD reduced infarct volume and improved neurological function in a rat stroke model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Additionally, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a key endogenous antioxidant enzyme regulated by Nrf2, was significantly further induced by THSWD in this in vivo model. In neuronal-like PC12 cells, THSWD remarkably up-regulated HO-1 expression and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase was found to be involved in the upstream of Nrf2 regulation. In an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD-Rep) model, THSWD treatment significantly reduced cell death induced by OGD-Rep insult. Importantly, the protective action was attenuated while PI3K activity was inhibited by a specific inhibitor, LY294002, and the Nrf2 signaling pathway was blocked by antioxidant response element (ARE) decoy oligonucleotides. Collectively, these results demonstrated that THSWD exhibited notable neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo and activation of PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway may be, at least in part, responsible for the protection. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of the Chinese herbal medicine formula THSWD.

  5. Fixed herbal drug combination with and without butterbur (Ze 185) for the treatment of patients with somatoform disorders: randomized, placebo-controlled pharmaco-clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jörg; Schrader, Ewald; Brattström, Axel; Schellenberg, Rüdiger; Saller, Reinhard

    2009-09-01

    Herbal drugs are often used in patients with somatoform disorders yet, the available evidence is limited. The aim of the present short-term study was to evaluate in a pharmaco-clinical trial the additional benefit of butterbur in a fixed herbal drug combination (Ze 185 = 4-combination versus 3-combination without butterbur and placebo) in patients with somatoform disorders.For a 2-week treatment in patients with somatization disorder (F45.0) and undifferentiated somatoform disorder (F45.1), 182 patients were randomized for a 3-arm trial (butterbur root, valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus placebo). Anxiety (visual analogue scale - VAS) and depression (Beck's Depression Inventory - BDI) served as primary parameters, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was a secondary parameter.The 4-combination was significantly superior to the 3-combination and placebo (4-combination > 3-combination > placebo) in all the primary and secondary parameters (PP-population). Analysis of the ITT population confirmed these results. As to safety, no serious adverse events occurred. In total 9 non-serious adverse events were documented but the distribution did not differ significantly between the treatment groups.This herbal preparation (Ze185) showed to be an efficacious and safe short-term treatment in patients with somatoform disorders. PMID:19274698

  6. Fixed herbal drug combination with and without butterbur (Ze 185) for the treatment of patients with somatoform disorders: randomized, placebo-controlled pharmaco-clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jörg; Schrader, Ewald; Brattström, Axel; Schellenberg, Rüdiger; Saller, Reinhard

    2009-09-01

    Herbal drugs are often used in patients with somatoform disorders yet, the available evidence is limited. The aim of the present short-term study was to evaluate in a pharmaco-clinical trial the additional benefit of butterbur in a fixed herbal drug combination (Ze 185 = 4-combination versus 3-combination without butterbur and placebo) in patients with somatoform disorders.For a 2-week treatment in patients with somatization disorder (F45.0) and undifferentiated somatoform disorder (F45.1), 182 patients were randomized for a 3-arm trial (butterbur root, valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus placebo). Anxiety (visual analogue scale - VAS) and depression (Beck's Depression Inventory - BDI) served as primary parameters, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was a secondary parameter.The 4-combination was significantly superior to the 3-combination and placebo (4-combination > 3-combination > placebo) in all the primary and secondary parameters (PP-population). Analysis of the ITT population confirmed these results. As to safety, no serious adverse events occurred. In total 9 non-serious adverse events were documented but the distribution did not differ significantly between the treatment groups.This herbal preparation (Ze185) showed to be an efficacious and safe short-term treatment in patients with somatoform disorders.

  7. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2 h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

  8. Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy Improves Survival of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-05-01

    Utilization of Chinese Medicine (CM) is not uncommon in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the current knowledge of the usage and efficacy of CM among CLL patients is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of integrative Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on the disease course of CLL and ascertain the herbal products most commonly prescribed to patients with CLL.A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study involving the use of Western medicine and CM services provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) was conducted.An NHI Research Database-based cohort study was performed; the timeframe of the study was January 2000 to December 2010. The end of the follow-up period was defined as December 31, 2011.A total of 808 patients were diagnosed with CLL in Taiwan within the defined study period. After randomly matching for age and sex and excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, data from 616 patients were analyzed.The 2 study groups both received standard of care treatment. In addition, 1 group also received CHM. Patients who were registered as receiving other forms of CM, such as acupuncture, were excluded.Hazard ratios of mortality were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products.In total, 616 CLL patients were included in the analyses. We found that the HR associated with the adjunctive use of CHM was less than half when compared to the non-CHM group (0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55, P < 0.0001) and that treatment-naive patients who used CHM had the lowest HR. We also established that this association between reduction in HR and CHM was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.001).We supplied data from a relatively large population that spanned a significant amount of time. Our data suggests that the treatment of CLL with adjunctive CHM may have a substantial positive impact on mortality, especially for treatment-naive patients

  9. Chinese herbal medicine Guizhi Fuling Formula for treatment of uterine fibroids: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Guizhi Fuling Formula is widely applied for uterine fibroids in China. Many clinical trials are reported. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of Guizhi Fuling Formula for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, and four Chinese databases were searched through May 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that tested Guizhi Fuling Formula for uterine fibroids, compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmaceutical medication, or other Chinese patent medicines approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Authors extracted data and assessed the quality independently. We applied RevMan 5.2.0 software to analyse data of included randomised trials. Results A total of 38 RCTs involving 3816 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that Guizhi Fuling Formula plus mifepristone were more effective than mifepristone alone in reducing the volume of fibroids (in total volume of multiple fibroids, MD −19.41 cm3, 95% CI −28.68 to −10.14; in average volume of multiple fibroids, MD −1.00 cm3, 95% CI −1.23 to −0.76; in average volume of maximum fibroids, MD −3.35 cm3, 95% CI −4.84 to −1.87, I2 = 93%, random effects model). Guizhi Fuling Formula significantly improved symptoms of dysmenorrhea either when it was used alone (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.97) or in combination with mifepristone (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.82). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Guizhi Fuling Formula appears to have additional benefit based on mifepristone treatment in reducing volume of fibroids. However, due to high risk of bias of the trials, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on its benefit. Future clinical trials should be well-designed and avoid the issues that are identified in this study. PMID:24383676

  10. A reappraisal of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah; Da-Costa-Rocha, Ines; Lawrence, M Jayne; Cable, Colin; Heinrich, Michael

    Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly popular, and encompasses a number of systems and therapies based on diverse theories and practices, such as homoeopathy, traditional herbalism, reiki, ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. While many are based on metaphysical concepts for which there is no sound evidence, for herbal medicines there is a rational, scientific basis and increasing clinical evidence. This article suggests herbal medicines should no longer be considered part of CAM, but instead sit alongside conventional medicines. PMID:23155905

  11. Systematic chemical profiling of a multicomponent Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupoletime-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenrong; Ai, Yu; Wu, Yun; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2015-03-01

    Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan, a Chinese herbal formula consisting of 11 different herbs, has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the chemical compositions of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan are not completely characterized. In the present study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method in positive and negative ion modes was employed to identify biochemical constitutes in Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan. As a result, a total of 76 compounds including alkaloids, monoterpene glycosides, iridoids, phenolic acids, and tanshinones, coumarins, lactones, flavones, and their glycosides, triterpenes, and triterpene saponins were characterized by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with reference standards within 5 ppm error or by reference to the reference literature. These results would provide the basis for a further in vivo study of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan and information for potential new drug candidates for treating arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles.

  13. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. PMID:25481086

  14. Comparison between Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhui; Zhang, Xi; Ding, Jianbo; Xu, Yi; Wei, Dan; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jihan; Wen, Tao; Li, Shuangjie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was made to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines, Reduning injection, and a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) granule, in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial. Methods. 355 severe HFMD patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional therapy alone, Reduning injection plus conventional therapy, or TCM enema plus conventional therapy for 7-10 days. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major complications between the groups. Median time to fever clearance was 20 hours (95% CI: 6.0-25.0) for conventional therapy recipients, 18 hours (95% CI: 4.0-24.0) for Reduning combination-treated patients, and 6 hours (95% CI: 4.0-16.0) for TCM combination-treated patients. Only the difference in time to fever clearance between TCM combination group and conventional group reached statistical significance (P = 0.048). Reduning combination group showed a significant reduction in sedative administration compared with conventional therapy group (P = 0.008). No HFMD-related death and no important adverse events were observed. Conclusions. Reduning injection plus conventional therapy significantly reduced the concomitant use of sedatives, which may help decrease HFMD-related neurologic complications in children. TCM effectively reduced time to fever clearance and may become a complementary therapy for relieving the symptoms of severe HFMD. PMID:24719639

  15. Effect of Combining Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Psychotherapy and Herbal Medicines in Women with Menopausal Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2012-01-01

    This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

  16. Comparison between Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhui; Zhang, Xi; Ding, Jianbo; Xu, Yi; Wei, Dan; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jihan; Li, Shuangjie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was made to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines, Reduning injection, and a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) granule, in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial. Methods. 355 severe HFMD patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional therapy alone, Reduning injection plus conventional therapy, or TCM enema plus conventional therapy for 7–10 days. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major complications between the groups. Median time to fever clearance was 20 hours (95% CI: 6.0–25.0) for conventional therapy recipients, 18 hours (95% CI: 4.0–24.0) for Reduning combination-treated patients, and 6 hours (95% CI: 4.0–16.0) for TCM combination-treated patients. Only the difference in time to fever clearance between TCM combination group and conventional group reached statistical significance (P = 0.048). Reduning combination group showed a significant reduction in sedative administration compared with conventional therapy group (P = 0.008). No HFMD-related death and no important adverse events were observed. Conclusions. Reduning injection plus conventional therapy significantly reduced the concomitant use of sedatives, which may help decrease HFMD-related neurologic complications in children. TCM effectively reduced time to fever clearance and may become a complementary therapy for relieving the symptoms of severe HFMD. PMID:24719639

  17. A Study of the Effect of Shiunko, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Fibroblasts and Its Implication on Wound Healing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future. PMID:24688831

  18. Chinese Herbal Decoction Based on Syndrome Differentiation as Maintenance Therapy in Patients with Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Exploratory and Small Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; He, Shu lin; Zhao, Yuan chen; Zheng, Hong gang; Li, Cong huang; Bao, Yan ju; Qin, Ying gang; Hou, Wei; Hua, Bao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the treatment effect and treatment length of Chinese herbal decoction (CHD) as maintenance therapy on patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) and to reflect the real syndrome differentiation (Bian Zheng) practices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Patients and Methods. Different CHDs were prescribed for each patient based on syndrome differentiation. The length of CHD treatment was divided into two phases for analyzing progression-free survival (PFS) and postprogression survival (PPS). Results. Three hundred and fifty-seven CHDs were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation during the study period. Median PFS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >3 months than patients who received CHD ≤3 months in the first phase (8.7 months versus 4.5 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41–0.99; P = 0.0009). Median PPS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >7 months than patients who received CHD ≤7 months in the second phase (11.7 months versus 5.1 months; HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.90–2.74; P = 0.002). Conclusion. CHD could improve PFS and PPS, which are closely related to treatment time and deepness of response of first-line therapy. In addition, CHD could improve body function and keep patients in a relatively stable state. PMID:25815038

  19. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  20. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, J E; Roufogalis, B D; Chrubasik, S

    2007-07-01

    Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in Europe. In order to get information on the evidence of effectiveness of oral herbal medicines in the treatment of pain in the joints or lower back, OVID(MEDLINE), PUBMED and COCHRANE COLLABORATION LIBRARY were searched back to 1985 for systematic reviews. The level of evidence of effectiveness was defined as strong - at least two confirmatory studies demonstrating a clinical relevant effect, moderate - one confirmatory study with a clinical relevant effect and/or multiple exploratory studies of good quality; otherwise the evidence was insufficient or conflicting in the case of inconsistent findings. Fifteen systematic reviews were identified. The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing > 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract. Further rigorous studies are required to confirm the usefulness of herbal medicines in the treatment of osteoarthritic complaints and chronic low back pain in order to enable acceptance of the herbal medicines into the treatment guidelines. PMID:17444576

  1. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, J E; Roufogalis, B D; Chrubasik, S

    2007-07-01

    Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in Europe. In order to get information on the evidence of effectiveness of oral herbal medicines in the treatment of pain in the joints or lower back, OVID(MEDLINE), PUBMED and COCHRANE COLLABORATION LIBRARY were searched back to 1985 for systematic reviews. The level of evidence of effectiveness was defined as strong - at least two confirmatory studies demonstrating a clinical relevant effect, moderate - one confirmatory study with a clinical relevant effect and/or multiple exploratory studies of good quality; otherwise the evidence was insufficient or conflicting in the case of inconsistent findings. Fifteen systematic reviews were identified. The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing > 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract. Further rigorous studies are required to confirm the usefulness of herbal medicines in the treatment of osteoarthritic complaints and chronic low back pain in order to enable acceptance of the herbal medicines into the treatment guidelines.

  2. Development of in Silico Models for Predicting P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors Based on a Two-Step Approach for Feature Selection and Its Application to Chinese Herbal Medicine Screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Chen, Jialei; Shi, Xiufeng; Xu, Liwen; Xi, Zhijun; You, Lisha; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2015-10-01

    by developing an ensemble classification model to obtain more reliable predictions. Finally, we employed these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying potential P-gp inhibitors in Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database containing a total of 13 051 unique compounds from 498 herbs, resulting in 875 potential P-gp inhibitors and 15 inhibitor-rich herbs. These predictions were partly supported by a literature search and are valuable not only to develop novel P-gp inhibitors from TCM in the early stages of drug development, but also to optimize the use of herbal remedies.

  3. Development of in Silico Models for Predicting P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors Based on a Two-Step Approach for Feature Selection and Its Application to Chinese Herbal Medicine Screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Chen, Jialei; Shi, Xiufeng; Xu, Liwen; Xi, Zhijun; You, Lisha; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2015-10-01

    by developing an ensemble classification model to obtain more reliable predictions. Finally, we employed these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying potential P-gp inhibitors in Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database containing a total of 13 051 unique compounds from 498 herbs, resulting in 875 potential P-gp inhibitors and 15 inhibitor-rich herbs. These predictions were partly supported by a literature search and are valuable not only to develop novel P-gp inhibitors from TCM in the early stages of drug development, but also to optimize the use of herbal remedies. PMID:26376206

  4. Factors related to psychosocial barriers to drug treatment among Chinese drug users.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Liu, Tieqiao; Zhang, Guanbai; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2014-08-01

    Although substance abuse treatment has been considerably scaled up in China, impediments to accessing these services remain among drug users. The authors examine the primary psychosocial barriers to drug treatment in this population and evaluate factors associated with these barriers. Barriers to accessing drug treatment were measured using the Barriers to Treatment Inventory (BTI). A Structural Equation Model was used to examine whether the internal barriers were associated with treatment history and frequent methamphetamine use as well as how demographic characteristics influence such barriers. We found four primary factors of internal barriers to drug treatment--absence of problem, negative social support, fear of treatment, and privacy concerns--to fit well. Demographic factors, notably age and employment status, indirectly influence barriers to treatment via other factors. Frequency of methamphetamine use and drug treatment history are directly associated with the absence of problem and negative social support dimensions of the BTI, and it is through these pathways that demographic factors such as age and employment status shape barriers to treatment. The findings indicate that perceived absence of a problem and negative social support are the barriers most influenced by the personal domains of Chinese drug users' lives. Efforts to engage drug users in China about drug treatment options may consider how these barriers are differentially perceived in order to effectively reach this population.

  5. Fo Shou San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction, Protects Endothelial Function through Increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Cathy W. C.; Xu, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Jian; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Lau, Chi Wai; Lau, David T. W.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Huang, Yu; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) in a ratio of 2∶3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS) were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels in HUVECs, and the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca2+ and a reduction of ROS. PMID:23284736

  6. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  7. Inhibition of Release of Vasoactive and Inflammatory Mediators in Airway and Vascular Tissues and Macrophages By a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula for Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie Changli; Thien, Francis Chung Kong; Story, David Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Herbal therapies are being used increasingly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pharmacological actions and cellular targets of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101), which was previously shown to be effective in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rat and guinea pig isolated tissues (trachea and aorta) were used to study the effects of RCM-101 on responses to various mediators. Production of leukotriene B4 in porcine neutrophils and of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO) in Raw 264.7 cells were also measured. In rat and guinea pig tracheal preparations, RCM-101 inhibited contractile responses to compound 48/80 but not those to histamine (guinea pig preparations) or serotonin (rat preparations). Contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal preparations to carbachol and leukotriene C4, and relaxant responses to substance P and prostaglandin E2 were not affected by RCM-101. In rat aortic preparations, precontracted with phenylephrine, endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were not affected by RCM-101. However, RCM-101 inhibited relaxations to l-arginine in endothelium-denuded rat aortic preparations, which had been pre-incubated with lipopolysaccharide. RCM-101 did not affect leukotriene B4 formation in isolated porcine neutrophils, induced by the calcium ionophore A23187; however, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells).The findings indicate that RCM-101 may have multiple inhibitory actions on the release and/or synthesis of inflammatory mediators involved in allergic rhinitis. PMID:17549238

  8. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  9. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  10. Does the taste matter? Taste and medicinal perceptions associated with five selected herbal drugs among three ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, Northern England.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Torry, Bren

    2007-05-03

    In recent years, diverse scholars have addressed the issue of the chemosensory perceptions associated with traditional medicines, nevertheless there is still a distinct lack of studies grounded in the social sciences and conducted from a cross-cultural, comparative perspective. In this urban ethnobotanical field study, 254 informants belonging to the Gujarati, Kashmiri and English ethnic groups and living in Western Yorkshire in Northern England were interviewed about the relationship between taste and medicinal perceptions of five herbal drugs, which were selected during a preliminary study. The herbal drugs included cinnamon (the dried bark of Cinnamomum verum, Lauraceae), mint (the leaves of Mentha spp., Lamiaceae), garlic (the bulbs of Allium sativum, Alliaceae), ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae), and cloves (the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtaceae). The main cross-cultural differences in taste perceptions regarded the perception the perception of the spicy taste of ginger, garlic, and cinnamon, of the bitter taste of ginger, the sweet taste of mint, and of the sour taste of garlic. The part of the study of how the five selected herbal drugs are perceived medicinally showed that TK (Traditional Knowledge) is widespread among Kashmiris, but not so prevalent among the Gujarati and especially the English samples. Among Kashmiris, ginger was frequently considered to be helpful for healing infections and muscular-skeletal and digestive disorders, mint was chosen for healing digestive and respiratory troubles, garlic for blood system disorders, and cinnamon was perceived to be efficacious for infectious diseases. Among the Gujarati and Kashmiri groups there was evidence of a strong link between the bitter and spicy tastes of ginger, garlic, cloves, and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal properties, whereas there was a far less obvious link between the sweet taste of mint and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal

  11. The Evaluation of CP-001 (a Standardized Herbal Mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus) for Cytochrome P450-Related Herb-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Hyun; Kim, Sun-A; Kim, In Sook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of CP-001, a standardized herbal mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to evaluate the potential for herb-drug interactions. CP-001 was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100  μ g/mL. A CYP-specific substrate mixture was incubated with CP-001 in human liver microsomes, and the metabolites generated by each CYP-specific metabolic reaction were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CP-001 seemed to slightly inhibit some CYP isozymes, but the IC50 values for all CYP isozymes were greater than 100  μ g/mL. Furthermore, CP-001 did not exhibit time-dependent CYP inhibitory activities, indicating that it does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP enzymes. In conclusion, the effects of CP-001 on CYP isozyme activities were negligible at the concentrations tested. Therefore, the likelihood of herbal mixture-drug interaction is considered minimal. PMID:23935684

  12. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-10-01

    The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension.Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone.In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and 7 studies reported significant effects of XZD for improving symptoms compared with the control group (P < 0.00001). Meanwhile, studies reported XZD was more efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P < 0.05). No severe adverse event was reported.This meta-analysis provides evidence that XZD is beneficial for hypertension. Although concerns regarding selective bias and methodologic flaws were raised, our findings suggests XZD as a new candidate cardioprotective drug for hypertension, which should be given priority for future preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26496333

  13. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  14. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-06-19

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed.

  15. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  16. [Discussion on polysaccharide determination methods in new Chinese drug research].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Ping

    2014-09-01

    According to existing problems in polysaccharide determination methods in new Chinese drug applications, the method suitability, chemical reference selection, components interference and method research were introduced. The author suggests that suitable determination method should be selected according to the structure and property of the polysaccharide, and validated. Some influent factors should be examined to assure the accuracy of the method, such as the stability and using amount of the visualizing reagent, visualizing time, maximum detection wavelength etc. Monosaccharide and other water soluble components should be removed from polysaccharide sample, and suitable reference substance and detection wavelength should be selected. It should pay attention to mutual interference of neutral and acidic saccharide, and use inhibitor to eliminate the interference. Because the slopes of the standard curves are different for different monosaccharide, it is proposed that the types and ratios of the monosaccharide in heteroglycan should be understood, and mixed reference substance solution in the ratio is prepared for determination. PMID:25522636

  17. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  18. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: Herb–drug interactions mediated via P-gp

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue Hu, Jinping Wang, Baolian Sheng, Li Liu, Zhihao Yang, Shuang Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb–drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F{sub 1} [20(S)-GF{sub 1}] exhibited significant inhibition (> 50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC{sub 50} = 9.42 μM), followed by 18β-GA (IC{sub 50} = 21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF{sub 1} (IC{sub 50} = 76.08 μM) and DAG (IC{sub 50} = 77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure–inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC{sub 0−t} and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF{sub 1} and Rh{sub 1} at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb–drug interactions in humans. - Highlights: • Emodin, 18

  19. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  20. Drug-likeness analysis of traditional Chinese medicines: 1. property distributions of drug-like compounds, non-drug-like compounds and natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this work, we analyzed and compared the distribution profiles of a wide variety of molecular properties for three compound classes: drug-like compounds in MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR), non-drug-like compounds in Available Chemical Directory (ACD), and natural compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Database (TCMCD). Results The comparison of the property distributions suggests that, when all compounds in MDDR, ACD and TCMCD with molecular weight lower than 600 were used, MDDR and ACD are substantially different while TCMCD is much more similar to MDDR than ACD. However, when the three subsets of ACD, MDDR and TCMCD with similar molecular weight distributions were examined, the distribution profiles of the representative physicochemical properties for MDDR and ACD do not differ significantly anymore, suggesting that after the dependence of molecular weight is removed drug-like and non-drug-like molecules cannot be effectively distinguished by simple property-based filters; however, the distribution profiles of several physicochemical properties for TCMCD are obviously different from those for MDDR and ACD. Then, the performance of each molecular property on predicting drug-likeness was evaluated. No single molecular property shows good performance to discriminate between drug-like and non-drug-like molecules. Compared with the other descriptors, fractional negative accessible surface area (FASA-) performs the best. Finally, a PCA-based scheme was used to visually characterize the spatial distributions of the three classes of compounds with similar molecular weight distributions. Conclusion If FASA- was used as a drug-likeness filter, more than 80% molecules in TCMCD were predicted to be drug-like. Moreover, the principal component plots show that natural compounds in TCMCD have different and even more diverse distributions than either drug-like compounds in MDDR or non-drug-like compounds in ACD. PMID:23181938

  1. [Discovery, research and development for innovative drug of traditional Chinese medicine under new situations].

    PubMed

    Tu, Peng-fei; Jiang, Yong; Guo, Xiao-yu

    2015-09-01

    Referring to the rapid developed life science and the higher requirements for the approval of innovative Chinese drugs in recent years, this paper described systematically the discovery, research and development (R&D) approaches for the innovative Chinese drugs under the new situation from the following five aspects, i. e., active components discovered from TCMs, the discovery of effective fractions of TCMs and their formulae, the R&D of TCM innovative drugs based on famous classic prescriptions and famous Chinese patent drugs, and the transformation of clinical effective prescriptions, on the basis of analysing the advantages of innovative drugs derived from natural products based on TCM theories and the problems existed in current R&D of new TCM drugs. Moreover, five suggestions are also given for the rapid development of TCM innovative drugs in China. All these will provide reference for the R&D of TCM innovative drugs.

  2. Why is Research on Herbal Medicinal Products Important and How Can We Improve Its Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Pelkonen, Olavi; Xu, Qihe; Fan, Tai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Research on herbal medicinal products is increasingly published in “Western” scientific journals dedicated primarily to conventional medicines. Publications are concerned mainly not only on the issues of safety and interactions, but also on efficacy. In reviews, a recurring complaint has been a lack of quality studies. In this opinion article, we present the case of Chinese herbal medicines as an example, as they have been extensively used in the global market and increasingly studied worldwide. We analyze the potential reasons for problems and propose some ways forward. As in the case of any drug, clinical trials for safety, efficacy, and/or effectiveness are the ultimate demonstration of therapeutic usefulness of herbal products. These will only make scientific sense when the tested herbal products are authentic, standardized, and quality controlled, if good practice guidelines of evidence-based medicine are followed, and if relevant controls and outcome measures are scientifically defined. Herbal products are complex mixtures, and for such complexity, an obvious approach for mechanistic studies is network pharmacology based on omic tools and approaches, which has already begun to revolutionize the study of conventional drugs, emphasizing networks, interactions, and polypharmacological features behind the action of many drugs. PMID:24872927

  3. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  4. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  5. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Improvement of Quality of Life in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    An, Xuedong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.; Lin, Lin; Xu, Yinji

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This study evaluates published clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that employ a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome measure. Methods Searches were conducted in April 2011 on MEDLINE®, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL, Scopus, and Chinese databases (CNKI, CQVIP, WANFANG). Randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM formulae or single herb, with or without blinding, compared to placebo, no treatment, routine pharmacotherapy control, or CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy, with a HRQoL questionnaire as an outcome measure were identified. The methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Results A total of 27 studies involving 1966 patients were identified. St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) or Cai's QoLQ were used in 13 and 14 studies, respectively. Assessment of the Cochrane risk of bias revealed adequate sequence of generation in 10 studies and adequate allocation concealment in 1 study; double blinding was not described adequately in any studies. Seventeen (17) studies addressed incomplete outcome data, and 17 studies were free of selective reporting. The main results of meta-analysis showed improvement of total HRQoL scores (SGRQ and Cai's QoLQ) when CHM was compared to no treatment (−6.07 [−9.21, −2.93] and −0.20 [−32, −0.07], respectively) and for CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy (−5.15 [−7.26, −3.05]) and (−0.25 [−0.37, −0.13]). Conclusions While the results of CHM on HRQoL for stable COPD sufferers were promising, they need to be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems, which should be addressed in future trials. PMID:22803654

  6. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiankun; May, Brian; Di, Yuan Ming; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP) on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP) from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as 'low' risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.94, -0.47) and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92) in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials. PMID:24622390

  7. Extraction and purification of a lectin from red kidney bean and preliminary immune function studies of the lectin and four Chinese herbal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yufang; Hou, Yubao; Yanyan, Liu; Qin, Guang; Li, Jichang

    2010-01-01

    Reversed micelles were used to extract lectin from red kidney beans and factors affecting reverse micellar systems (pH value, ionic strength and extraction time) were studied. The optimal conditions were extraction at pH 4-6, back extraction at pH 9-11, ion strength at 0.15 M NaCl, extraction for 4-6 minutes and back extraction for 8 minutes. The reverse micellar system was compared with traditional extraction methods and demonstrated to be a time-saving method for the extraction of red kidney bean lectin. Mitogenic activity of the lectin was reasonably good compared with commercial phytohemagglutinin (extracted from Phaseolus vulgaris) Mitogenic properties of the lectin were enhanced when four Chinese herbal polysaccharides were applied concurrently, among which 50 μg/mL Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharides (APS) with 12.5 μg/mL red kidney bean lectin yielded the highest mitogenic activity and 100 mg/kg/bw APS with 12.5 mg/kg/bw red kidney bean lectin elevated mouse nonspecific immunity.

  8. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26699542

  9. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Lung; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Wu, Chien-Tung; Lai, Jung-Nien

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs) containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX) users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC) survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox's proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors. PMID:25815031

  10. Effect of Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Western Medicine on Mortality in Patients after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenxiu; Lu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dalong; Chen, Tuo; Fan, Zhiwei; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment combined with conventional western therapy has been widely used and reported in many clinical trials in China, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of this combination in the treatment of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This systematic review aimed to assess whether the risk of mortality has decreased comparing the combination of CHM treatment with conventional western therapy. Methods. To identify relevant studies, the literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of patients after CPR taking combination of CHM treatment with those taking just conventional western therapy. Results. This meta-analysis showed that patients randomly assigned to combined CHM treatment group had a statistically significant 23% reduction in mortality compared with those randomly assigned to conventional western therapy group (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70–0.84). Conclusions. This meta-analysis provides evidence suggesting that a combined CHM therapy is associated with a decreased risk of mortality compared with conventional western therapy in patients after CPR. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence to prove or refute our conclusion and identify reasons for the reduction of mortality. PMID:26952966

  11. Yifei Xuanfei Jiangzhuo formula, a Chinese herbal decoction, improves memory impairment through inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing PKA/CREB signal transduction in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    WU, LIN; ZHAO, QING-SHAN; LI, TIAN-WEI; LI, HAI-YUAN; WANG, QING-BI; BI, XIN-YA; CAI, XIN-KUN; TANG, NONG

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis and the dysfunction of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway have a key role in memory impairment in vascular dementia (VaD), a challenging clinical problem. Yifei Xuanfei Jiangzhuo formula (YXJF), a Chinese herbal decoction, has been used to treat VaD in clinical practice and has produced positive outcomes; however, convincing evidence is currently lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of YXJF on memory impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and to explore the underlying mechanism. YXJF ameliorated memory impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, inhibited hippocampal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated increases in the protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein as well as c-Jun and a reduction in Bcl-2 protein expression in the hippocampal tissue of the rats. Furthermore, administration of YXJF significantly increased the protein expression of PKA C-α and CREB, and promoted CREB phosphorylation. The results indicated that YXJF improves memory impairment through inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing PKA/CREB signal transduction in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:26094797

  12. Efficacy and Safety of a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula (RCM-104) in the Management of Simple Obesity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lenon, George Binh; Li, Kang Xiao; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Yang, Angela Weihong; Da Costa, Clifford; Li, Chun Guang; Cohen, Marc; Mann, Neil; Xue, Charlie C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (RCM-104) for the management of simple obesity. Method. Obese subjects aged between 18 and 60 years were selected for 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to take 4 capsules of either the RCM-104 formula (n = 59) or placebo (n = 58), 3 times daily for 12 weeks. Measures of BW, BMI and WC, HC, WHR and BF composition were assessed at baseline and once every four weeks during the 12 week treatment period. Results. Of the 117 subjects randomised, 92 were included in the ITT analysis. The weight, BMI and BF in RCM-104 group were reduced by 1.5 kg, 0.6 kg/m2 and 0.9% and those in the placebo group were increased by 0.5 kg, 0.2 kg/m2 and 0.1% respectively. There were significant differences in BW and BMI (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Eleven items of the WLQOQ were significantly improved in the RCM-104 group while only 2 items were significantly improved in the placebo group. Adverse events were minor in both groups. Conclusion. RCM-104 treatment appears to be well tolerated and beneficial in reducing BW and BMI in obese subjects. PMID:22550541

  13. Determination and comparison of mineral elements in traditional Chinese herbal formulae at different decoction times used to improve kidney function--chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Archana; Xu, Hong; Millikan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal formulae Liu wei di huang (LW) (six-ingredient pill with Rehmannia) and Jin gui shen qi wan (JG) (kidney Qi pill from the golden cabinet) were analysed for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, K and Zn at different decoction intervals by atomic absorption spectroscopy. LW and JG were used to improve the kidney function. JG was higher in all elements than LW. K (1691.29 - 2372.71 mg l(-1)) was highest in both formulae LW and JG followed by Ca (245.31 - 562.91 mg l(-1)). Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and K were highest at 40 min for LW and Fe, Mn, Na and K were highest at 40 min for JG. Chemometrics such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminate analysis were applied to classify the data and to understand the relation between the elements. Metal intake related to the consumption of decoction has also been studied. Mn made the highest contribution to average daily dietary intakes from the formulae.

  14. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S. H.; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  15. Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy on in-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tuo; Zhan, Libin; Fan, Zhiwei; Bai, Lizhi; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjunctive therapy on in-hospital mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods. We did a systematic review of articles published in any language up until Jun 23, 2015, by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, and CNKI. We included all RCTs that compared outcomes of patients with AKI taking CHM plus Western treatment (WT) with those taking WT alone. We applied Cochrane risk-of-bias tool to assess the methodological quality of the included trials. Results. Of 832 citations, 15 studies involving 966 patients met inclusion criteria. The methodological quality was assessed with unclear risk of bias. In the primary outcome of meta-analysis, pooled outcome of in-hospital mortality showed that patients randomly assigned to CHM treatment group were associated with low risk of in-hospital mortality compared with those randomly assigned to WT alone (RR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.24 to 0.71; P = 0.001). Conclusions. CHM as an adjunctive therapy is associated with a decreased risk of in-hospital mortality compared with WT in patients with AKI. Further studies with high quality and large sample size are needed to verify our conclusions. PMID:27127528

  16. Comparison of efficacy and toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ and conventional chemotherapy on lung cancer metastasis and survival in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer.

  17. Extraction and purification of a lectin from red kidney bean and preliminary immune function studies of the lectin and four Chinese herbal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yufang; Hou, Yubao; Yanyan, Liu; Qin, Guang; Li, Jichang

    2010-01-01

    Reversed micelles were used to extract lectin from red kidney beans and factors affecting reverse micellar systems (pH value, ionic strength and extraction time) were studied. The optimal conditions were extraction at pH 4-6, back extraction at pH 9-11, ion strength at 0.15 M NaCl, extraction for 4-6 minutes and back extraction for 8 minutes. The reverse micellar system was compared with traditional extraction methods and demonstrated to be a time-saving method for the extraction of red kidney bean lectin. Mitogenic activity of the lectin was reasonably good compared with commercial phytohemagglutinin (extracted from Phaseolus vulgaris) Mitogenic properties of the lectin were enhanced when four Chinese herbal polysaccharides were applied concurrently, among which 50 μg/mL Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharides (APS) with 12.5 μg/mL red kidney bean lectin yielded the highest mitogenic activity and 100 mg/kg/bw APS with 12.5 mg/kg/bw red kidney bean lectin elevated mouse nonspecific immunity. PMID:20976304

  18. Effects of Danggui Buxue Tang, a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, on high glucose-induced proliferation and expression of extracellular matrix proteins in glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hao-Liang; Zhang, Ying-Wen; Zhou, Bi-Fa; Zhen, Rui-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage failure of the kidney, but the efficacy of currently available strategies for the prevention of DN remains unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effects of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae sinensis (RAS), on high glucose-induced proliferation and expression of laminin, type IV collagen (collagen IV) and fibronectin in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). The cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay, and the expression of collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin in GMCs was detected by ELISA assay. It was shown that high glucose clearly induced the proliferation of GMCs and increased the release of collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin. Treatment with RA, RAS and DBT inhibited cell proliferation and the expression of collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin induced by high glucose, with DBT, especially at the highest concentration (DBT20), exhibiting a stronger effect than RA and RAS alone. Thus, it is concluded that DBT inhibits increased cell proliferation and the expression of major extracellular matrix proteins that are induced by high glucose, indicating its value for prophylaxis and therapy of DN at the early stages.

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction, on olaquindox-induced hepatopancreas injury in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jishu; Li, Chao; Wang, Lihong; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Tianhe

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify effective hepatoprotective herbs for clinical application in fish farming, 200 mg/kg olaquindox (OLA) was added to a basal diet (group 1, control) to form OLA diet (group 2), then 1.35, 2.7 and 5.4 % (w/w) of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction (YCD), were added to the OLA diet to form three additional diets for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A total of 375 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (52.12 ± 2.95 g/tail) were divided into five groups (triplicates per group) and fed the five diets mentioned above, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the termination of feeding experiment, serum biochemical indexes, viability of hepatocytes and the hepatopancreas microstructure for each group were detected and observed. The results showed that serum ALT and AST in group 2 were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). Plasma membranes hepatocyte nuclei in group 2 were found to be mostly indistinct, compared to group 1, and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The viability of isolated hepatocytes in group 2 was the lowest and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The results suggest that YCD protected the Jian carp hepatopancreas against injury from OLA, and that 5.4 % YCD would be the optimum dosage in a Jian carp diet.

  20. Involvement of the Cerebral Monoamine Neurotransmitters System in Antidepressant-Like Effects of a Chinese Herbal Decoction, Baihe Dihuang Tang, in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Li; Gao, Jie; He, Xin-Rong; Chen, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Baihe Dihuang Tang (BDT) is a renowned Chinese herbal formula which is commonly used for treating patients with mental instability, absentmindedness, insomnia, deficient dysphoria, and other psychological diseases. These major symptoms closely associated with the depressive disorders. BDT was widely popular use for treating emotion-thought disorders for many years in China. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effect of BDT in mice was investigated by using the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). The underlying mechanism was explored by determining the effect of BDT on the level of cerebral monoamine neurotransmitters. BDT (9 and 18 g/kg, p.o. for 14 days) administration significantly reduced the immobility time in both the FST and the TST without changing locomotion in the open field-test (OFT). Moreover, BDT treatment at the dose of 18 g/kg inhibited reserpine-induced ptosis. Meanwhile, BDT enhanced 5-HT and NA levels in mouse cerebrum as well as decreased the ratio of 5-HT compared to its metabolite, 5-HIAA, (turnover, 5-HIAA/5-HT) after TST. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of BDT is mediated, at least partially, via the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter system. PMID:22956973

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine Fuzheng Kang-Ai Decoction Inhibited Lung Cancer Cell Growth through AMPKα-Mediated Induction and Interplay of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Xiong; Tang, Qing; Yang, LiJun; Yang, Xiaobing; Wu, WanYin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the actions of Chinese herbal medicine, called “Fuzheng Kang-Ai” (FZKA for short) decoction, against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. We showed that the effect of FZKA decoction significantly inhibited growth of A549 and PC9 cells. Furthermore, FZKA increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and induced protein expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and forkhead homeobox type O3a (FOXO3a). The specific inhibitor of AMPKα (Compound C) blocked FZKA-induced protein expression of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a. Interestingly, silencing of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a overcame the inhibitory effect of FZKA on cell growth. Moreover, silencing of IGFBP1 attenuated the effect of FZKA decoction on FOXO3a expression, and exogenous expression of FOXO3a enhanced the FZKA-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPKα. Accordingly, FZKA inhibited the tumor growth in xenograft nude mice model. Collectively, our results show that FZKA decoction inhibits proliferation of NSCLC cells through activation of AMPKα, followed by induction of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a proteins. Exogenous expression of FOXO3a feedback enhances FZKA decoction-stimulated IGFBP1 expression and phosphorylation of AMPKα. The reciprocal interplay of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a contribute to the overall responses of FAKA decoction. PMID:27057199

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction, on olaquindox-induced hepatopancreas injury in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jishu; Li, Chao; Wang, Lihong; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Tianhe

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify effective hepatoprotective herbs for clinical application in fish farming, 200 mg/kg olaquindox (OLA) was added to a basal diet (group 1, control) to form OLA diet (group 2), then 1.35, 2.7 and 5.4 % (w/w) of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction (YCD), were added to the OLA diet to form three additional diets for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A total of 375 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (52.12 ± 2.95 g/tail) were divided into five groups (triplicates per group) and fed the five diets mentioned above, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the termination of feeding experiment, serum biochemical indexes, viability of hepatocytes and the hepatopancreas microstructure for each group were detected and observed. The results showed that serum ALT and AST in group 2 were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). Plasma membranes hepatocyte nuclei in group 2 were found to be mostly indistinct, compared to group 1, and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The viability of isolated hepatocytes in group 2 was the lowest and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The results suggest that YCD protected the Jian carp hepatopancreas against injury from OLA, and that 5.4 % YCD would be the optimum dosage in a Jian carp diet. PMID:25477196

  3. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Lung; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Wu, Chien-Tung; Lai, Jung-Nien

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs) containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX) users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC) survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox's proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors. PMID:25815031

  4. Effect of Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Western Medicine on Mortality in Patients after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxiu; Lu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dalong; Chen, Tuo; Fan, Zhiwei; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment combined with conventional western therapy has been widely used and reported in many clinical trials in China, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of this combination in the treatment of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This systematic review aimed to assess whether the risk of mortality has decreased comparing the combination of CHM treatment with conventional western therapy. Methods. To identify relevant studies, the literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of patients after CPR taking combination of CHM treatment with those taking just conventional western therapy. Results. This meta-analysis showed that patients randomly assigned to combined CHM treatment group had a statistically significant 23% reduction in mortality compared with those randomly assigned to conventional western therapy group (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70-0.84). Conclusions. This meta-analysis provides evidence suggesting that a combined CHM therapy is associated with a decreased risk of mortality compared with conventional western therapy in patients after CPR. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence to prove or refute our conclusion and identify reasons for the reduction of mortality.

  5. Zebrafish models of cardiovascular diseases and their applications in herbal medicine research.

    PubMed

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Kiat, Hosen; Lee, Simon M Y; Bensoussan, Alan; Sun, Yu-Ting; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chang, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a powerful animal model for cardiovascular research and drug discovery due to its ease of maintenance, genetic manipulability and ability for high-throughput screening. Recent advances in imaging techniques and generation of transgenic zebrafish have greatly facilitated in vivo analysis of cellular events of cardiovascular development and pathogenesis. More importantly, recent studies have demonstrated the functional similarity of drug metabolism systems between zebrafish and humans, highlighting the clinical relevance of employing zebrafish in identifying lead compounds in Chinese herbal medicine with potential beneficial cardiovascular effects. This paper seeks to summarise the scope of zebrafish models employed in cardiovascular studies and the application of these research models in Chinese herbal medicine to date.

  6. [Indirect determination of rare earth elements in Chinese herbal medicines by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Lu, Jian-Ping; Xue, Min-Hua; Tan, Fang-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    Based on their similarity in chemical properties, rare earth elements were able to form stable coordinated compounds with arsenazo III which were extractable into butanol in the presence of diphenylguanidine. The butanol was removed under reduced pressure distillation; the residue was dissolved with diluted hydrochloric acid. As was released with the assistance of KMnO4 and determined by hydrogen generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry in terms of rare earth elements. When cesium sulfate worked as standard solution, extraction conditions, KMnO4 amount, distillation temperature, arsenazo III amount, interfering ions, etc were optimized. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated using national standard certified materials, showing a good agreement. Under optimum condition, the linear relationship located in 0.2-25 microg x mL(-1) and detection limit was 0.44 microg x mL(-1). After the herbal samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, the rare earth elements were determined by this method, showing satisfactory results with relative standard deviation of 1.3%-2.5%, and recoveries of 94.4%-106.0%. The method showed the merits of convenience and rapidness, simple instrumentation and high accuracy. With the rare earths enriched into organic phase, the separation of analytes from matrix was accomplished, which eliminated the interference. With the residue dissolved by diluted hydrochloric acid after the solvent was removed, aqueous sample introduction eliminated the impact of organic phase on the tubing connected to pneumatic pump. PMID:25269316

  7. [Indirect determination of rare earth elements in Chinese herbal medicines by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Lu, Jian-Ping; Xue, Min-Hua; Tan, Fang-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    Based on their similarity in chemical properties, rare earth elements were able to form stable coordinated compounds with arsenazo III which were extractable into butanol in the presence of diphenylguanidine. The butanol was removed under reduced pressure distillation; the residue was dissolved with diluted hydrochloric acid. As was released with the assistance of KMnO4 and determined by hydrogen generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry in terms of rare earth elements. When cesium sulfate worked as standard solution, extraction conditions, KMnO4 amount, distillation temperature, arsenazo III amount, interfering ions, etc were optimized. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated using national standard certified materials, showing a good agreement. Under optimum condition, the linear relationship located in 0.2-25 microg x mL(-1) and detection limit was 0.44 microg x mL(-1). After the herbal samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, the rare earth elements were determined by this method, showing satisfactory results with relative standard deviation of 1.3%-2.5%, and recoveries of 94.4%-106.0%. The method showed the merits of convenience and rapidness, simple instrumentation and high accuracy. With the rare earths enriched into organic phase, the separation of analytes from matrix was accomplished, which eliminated the interference. With the residue dissolved by diluted hydrochloric acid after the solvent was removed, aqueous sample introduction eliminated the impact of organic phase on the tubing connected to pneumatic pump.

  8. Detection of Synthetic Drugs as Adulterants in Natural and Herbal Slimming Products by LC-ESI-MS/MS with Polarity Switching.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Phyllis; Masse, Claude

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an LC-tandem MS method for the simultaneous detection of common synthetic drugs as adulterants in natural and herbal slimming products. Sixteen drugs belonging to a wide range of pharmaceutical classes were studied. Included in the list of drugs were anorexics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives, and stimulants. The method used a C18 column (4.6 × 50 mm and 1.8 μm particle size). Separation of the drugs was achieved by gradient elution using 4 mM ammonium formate in water + 0.1% formic acid as the aqueous component and 4 mM ammonium formate in methanol + 0.1% formic as the organic component of the mobile phase. As not all of the analytes ionized in the positive mode, the mass spectrometer was operated in the electrospray ionization mode with polarity switching. The samples were extracted with methanol and the use of 50% acetonitrile in water and 50% methanol in water were investigated as diluents for injection into the LC-MS system. Utilizing both diluents, the validation parameters including accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ were assessed. The validation results and utilization of the method to analyze a variety of weight-loss supplements indicate that the two diluents give similar results and can be used interchangeably. This knowledge provides the user with the option of selecting either diluent for sample preparation depending on the sample matrix without having to revalidate the method. The method was applied to the analysis of weight-loss supplements available in local pharmacies, herbal pharmacies, and over the Internet. PMID:27143234

  9. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  10. The Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Gualouxiebaibanxia Decoction for the Treatment of Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We systematically assess the current clinical evidence of Gualouxiebaibanxia (GLXBBX) decoction for the treatment of angina pectoris (AP). We included RCTs testing GLXBBX against conventional drugs and GLXBBX combined with conventional drugs versus conventional drugs. 19 RCTs involving 1730 patients were finally identified, and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. The results of the meta-analysis showed that GLXBBX alone had significant effect on improving angina symptoms (RR: 1.24, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.35; P < 0.00001), ECG (RR: 1.28 [1.13,1.44]; P < 0.0001), and HDL-C (MD: 0.56 [0.54,0.58]; P < 0.00001) compared with anti-arrhythmic drugs. A significant improvement in angina symptoms (RR: 1.17 [1.12,1.22]; P < 0.00001) and ECG (RR = 1.22; 95% CI = [1.14,1.30]; P < 0.00001) was observed for GLXBBX plus conventional drugs when compared with conventional drugs. Eight trials reported adverse events without serious adverse effects. GLXBBX appears to have beneficial effects on improvement of ECG and reduction of angina symptoms in participants with AP. However, the evidence remains weak due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies. More rigorous trials are needed to confirm the results. PMID:27777598

  11. In Vitro Co-Delivery Evaluation of Novel Pegylated Nano-Liposomal Herbal Drugs of Silibinin and Glycyrrhizic Acid (Nano-Phytosome) to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Mohammad Mahdi; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Ebrahimi, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate a co-encapsulated pegylated nano-liposome system based on two herbal anti-tumor drugs, silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid, for delivery to a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (HepG2). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, co-encapsulated nano-liposomes by the thin layer film hydration method with HEPES buffer and sonication at 60% amplitude. Liposomes that co-encapsulated silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid were prepared with a specified molar ratio of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol (CHOL), and methoxy-polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG2000)–derived distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (mPEG2000-DSPE). We used the MTT technique to assess cytotoxicity for various concentrations of co-encapsulated nano-liposomes, free silibinin (25% w/v) and glycyrrhizic acid (75% w/v) on HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines over a 48-hour period. Results Formulation of pegylated nano-liposomes showed a narrow size distribution with an average diameter of 46.3 nm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) for silibinin was 24.37%, whereas for glycyrrhizic acid it was 68.78%. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity showed significantly greater co-encapsulated nano-liposomes on the HepG2 cell line compared to the fibroblast cell line. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for co-encapsulated pegylated nanoliposomal herbal drugs was 48.68 µg/ml and free silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid was 485.45 µg/ml on the HepG2 cell line. Conclusion This in vitro study showed that nano-liposome encapsulation of silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid increased the biological activity of free drugs, increased the stability of silibinin, and synergized the therapeutic effect of silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid. The IC50 of the co-encapsulated nano-liposomes was lower than the combination of free silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid on the HepG2 cell line. PMID:27540518

  12. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2. PMID:27582327

  13. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction) Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhua; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15) studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1), arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2), clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-8) when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled), and mucolytics. PMID:25165477

  15. Pharmacological classification of herbal extracts by means of comparison to spectral EEG signatures induced by synthetic drugs in the freely moving rat.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, Wilfried

    2013-09-16

    Herbal extracts targeting at the brain remain a continuous challenge to pharmacology. Usually, a number of different animal tests have to be performed in order to find a potential clinical use. Due to manifold possibly active ingredients biochemical approaches are difficult. A more holistic approach using a neurophysiological technique has been developed earlier in order to characterise synthetic drugs. Stereotactic implantation of four semi-microelectrodes into frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and reticular formation of rats allowed continuous wireless monitoring of field potentials (EEG) before and after drug intake. After frequency analysis (Fast Fourier Transformation) electric power was calculated for 6 ranges (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2). Data from 14 synthetic drugs - tested earlier and representative for different clinical indications - were taken for construction of discriminant functions showing the projection of the frequency patterns in a six-dimensional graph. Quantitative analysis of the EEG frequency pattern from the depth of the brain succeeded in discrimination of drug effects according to their known clinical indication (Dimpfel and Schober, 2003). Extracts from Valerian root, Ginkgo leaves, Paullinia seed, Hop strobile, Rhodiola rosea root and Sideritis scardica herb were tested now under identical conditions. Classification of these extracts based on the matrix from synthetic drugs revealed that Valerian root and hop induced a pattern reminiscent of physiological sleep. Ginkgo and Paullinia appeared in close neighbourhood of stimulatory drugs like caffeine or to an analgesic profile (tramadol). Rhodiola and Sideritis developed similar frequency patterns comparable to a psychostimulant drug (methylphenidate) as well to an antidepressive drug (paroxetine). PMID:23899454

  16. Drug resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: from the traditional Chinese view to modern systems biology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuhui; Zhang, Zongde; Sun, Zhaogang

    2015-01-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is a well-evolved, organized pathogen that has developed drug resistance, specifically multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR). This review primarily summarizes the mechanisms of drug resistance by M. tuberculosis according to the traditional Chinese view. The traditional Chinese view of drug resistance includes: the physical barrier of the cell wall; mutations relating to current anti-TB agents; drug efflux pumps; and drug stress, including the SOS response systems, the mismatch repair systems and the toxin-antitoxin systems. In addition, this review addresses the integrated systems biology of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and interactomics. Development of the various levels of systems biology has enabled determination of the anatomy of bacteria. Finally, the current review proposes that further investigation regarding the population of individuals with a high drug metabolic speed is vital to further understand drug resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  17. Dihuang Yinzi, a Classical Chinese Herbal Prescription, for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A 12-Year Follow-up Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hui; Li, Ji-huang; Yin, Su-bing; Ke, Jiang-qiong; Qiu, Chang-lin; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment and death within 2 to 5 years after symptom onset. Here, we reported a case of ALS patient using modified Dihuang Yinzi (DHYZ), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, who has survived 12 years with significant improvement in bulbar paralysis. A 41-year-old Chinese Han nationality woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of weakened bilateral grip, slurred speech, stumbling, and muscle twitching for 3 years. The electromyography showed neurogenic injury in bilateral upper limbs and tongue. She was diagnosed with ALS according to the revised El escorial criteria. The patient was orally administrated with Riluzole 100 mg daily for 10 months and then stopped. Subsequently, she resorted to TCM. Based on the TCM theory, the patient was diagnosed with Yinfei syndrome because of kidney deficiency. DHYZ was chosen because it has the function of replenishing kidney essence to treat Yinfei syndrome. Up to now, she has been using modified DHYZ continuously for 12 years. The patient survived with ALS and did not require permanent continuous ventilator. In addition, the symptoms of choking on liquids are improved, and the utility of 30 mL water swallow test was improved with grade 2. The symptoms of muscle fibrillations of limbs are also reduced. However, muscle strength worsened slowly. The repeated electromyography showed motor conduction amplitude reducing gradually and velocity not changing more when compared with the initial electromyography. Our findings suggested that DHYZ can be potentially used in ALS patients because of its multi-targeted neuroprotection and general safety, although ALS does not have a cure. In addition, we identified the area that is worthy of further study and DHYZ as a promising candidate for further clinical application and ALS trials. Rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed in

  18. Discovery of Anti-inflammatory Ingredients in Chinese Herbal Formula Kouyanqing Granule based on Relevance Analysis between Chemical Characters and Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson’s correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role. PMID:26657159

  19. A double-blind comparative study of Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets in combination with conventional therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    He, L-Y; Zhang, G-L; Yan, S-Y; Liu, Y; Zhao, C-S; Wang, X-L; Li, Y; Mi, Y-Q; Liu, Y-M; Li, C-P; Kou, Y-H; Li, Y; Chang, K; Meng, X-L; Sun, X-J; Zhao, T; Li, J; Wang, Y-Y; Liu, B-Y

    2014-08-01

    Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets (JET) are the recommended control measure for uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by the Ministry of Health of China. However, high-quality evidence to support this recommendation is limited. A total of 288 patients ranging in age from 1 to 13 years were randomly assigned to JET in combination with conventional therapy (mainly including the reduction of temperature by applying physical cooling paste or warm bathing), or conventional therapy with placebo group for 7 days. The objective was to test the hypothesis that JET combination therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for uncomplicated HFMD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed. Our study showed that, compared with conventional therapy, the median time to fever resolution was significantly shorter in the JET combination therapy (8 vs. 80 h; p < 0.0001); the risk of fever resolution increased in the JET combination therapy [hazard ratio, 19.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12.8 to 30.7]; the median healing time of rash or oral ulcer was significantly shorter in the JET combination therapy (14 vs. 74 h; p < 0.0001); and the median symptom score for skin or oral mucosa lesions improved more rapidly in the JET combination therapy during the follow-up period. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days in the JET combination therapy and 7 days in the conventional therapy (p < 0.0001). No significant adverse events and complications were found in both groups. The addition of JET to conventional therapy reduced fever clearance time, healing time of skin or oral mucosa lesions, and duration of hospital stay in children with uncomplicated HFMD. PMID:24643639

  20. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bih-Ru; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Jing Chong; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions. Results There were 868 (80.0%) patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM prescriptions were prescribed concurrently. Among these coprescriptions, the most frequently used CHM was jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (21.2%), and the most frequently coprescribed WM was acetaminophen (38.9%), followed by tamoxifen (25.5%). There were 346 patients using systemic adjuvant therapy and CHM concurrently. The most commonly coprescribed CHM with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab was xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, and zhi-gan-cao-tang, respectively. Conclusion The combined use of CHM with WM is prevalent. The main purpose of combining CHM with systemic cancer treatment is to alleviate the treatment-related adverse effects. However, the combination may result in the potential risk of drug–herb interactions. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CHM and WM coprescriptions for FBC patients. PMID:24855343

  1. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine – Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Hongliang; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF) is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively) and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE. PMID:26186537

  2. Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang, a Chinese herbal formula, enhances anticancer effects of 5 - Fluorouracil in CT26 colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in colorectal cancer treatment. There is a great need to establish effective herbal formula for colorectal cancer treatment. Based on TCM principles and clinical practices, we have established an eight herbs composed formula for colorectal cancer treatment, which is Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang (TLBZT). We have demonstrated the anticancer effects of TLBZT against colorectal carcinoma in vitro. In present study, we evaluated the anticancer potential of TLBZT, used alone or in combination with low dose of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), in CT26 colon carcinoma in vivo. Methods CT26 colon carcinoma was established in BALB/c mice and treated with TLBZT, 5-Fu, or TLBZT plus 5-Fu. The tumor volumes were observed. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspases activities were detected by colorimetric assay. Cell senescence was indentified by senescence β-galactosidase staining. Gene expression and angiogenesis was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results TLBZT significantly inhibited CT26 colon carcinoma growth. TLBZT elicited apoptosis in CT26 colon carcinoma, accompanied by Caspase-3, 8, and 9 activation and PARP cleavage, and downregulation of XIAP and Survivin. TLBZT also induced cell senescence in CT26 colon carcinoma, with concomitant upregulation of p16 and p21 and downregulation of RB phosphorylation. In addition, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in CT26 colon carcinoma was significantly inhibited by TLBZT treatment. Furthermore, TLBZT significantly enhanced anticancer effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma. Conclusions TLBZT exhibited significantly anticancer effect, and enhanced the effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma, which may correlate with induction of apoptosis and cell senescence, and angiogenesis inhibition. The present study provides new insight into TCM approaches for colon cancer treatment

  3. A Prescribed Chinese Herbal Medicine Improves Glucose Profile and Ameliorates Oxidative Stress in Goto-Kakisaki Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Hongguang; Xu, Ping; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn’t show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation “Qing Huo Yi Hao” (QHYH) improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD) in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20) and chow diet feeding group (n = 10). Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d) or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT) and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its antioxidant

  4. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests.

  5. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  6. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Improving Quality of Life Among Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Overview of Systematic Reviews and Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C H; Lu, Ping; Poon, Simon K; Hui, Edwin P; Lau, Alexander Y L; Balneaves, Lynda G; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-01-01

    For patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy, current clinical evidence has indicated add-on benefit of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in improving quality of life (QoL). However, the relative performance among different CHM is unknown. The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) and network meta-analyses (NMA) is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of different CHM. Seven electronic databases including both international databases and Chinese databases were searched. SRs focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with comparison of CHM plus chemotherapy against chemotherapy alone on QoL among NSCLC patients were considered eligible. Data from RCTs were extracted for random effect pairwise meta-analyses. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the impact of CHM on QoL. NMA was used to explore the most effective CHM for improving QoL when used with chemotherapy. From 14 SRs, 61 RCTs (n = 4247) assessing 11 different CHM were included. Result from pairwise meta-analyses showed 6 CHM (Kang-lai-te injection, Shei-qi-fu-zheng injection, Compound ku-shen injection, Kang-ai injection, Zi-jin-long tablet, and Shen-fu injection) has significant beneficial effect on QoL among NSCLC patients when used with chemotherapy, even after adjustment for publication bias. Pooled RR varied from 1.38 (95% CI: 1.11-1.72, I2 = 0.0%, Kang-lai-te injection) to 3.36 (95% CI: 1.30-8.66, I2 = 0.0%, Zi-jin-long tablet). One trial comparing Hai-shen-su (a protein extract from Tegillarca granosa L.) plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy also demonstrated beneficial effect of combined treatment (RR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.41-6.98). Results from NMA showed no differences on the comparative effectiveness among CHM, but Hai-shen-su plus chemotherapy has the highest probability (62.3%) of being the best option for improving QoL. Use of CHM on top of chemotherapy can significantly improve QoL in NSCLC patients. Although Hai

  8. Hair Growth: Focus on Herbal Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview on plants identified to possess hair growth activity in various ethno-botanical studies and surveys of tradition medicinal plants. It also highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies from 1926 till-date and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. There are various causes for hair loss and the phenomenon is still not fully understood. The treatments offered include both natural or synthetic products to treat the condition of hair loss (alopecia), nonetheless natural products are continuously gaining popularity mainly due to their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies for natural product extracts. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. This review covers information about different herbs and herbal formulation that are believed to be able to reduce the rate of hair loss and at the same time stimulate new hair growth. A focus is placed on their mechanism of action and the review also covers various isolated phytoconstituents possessing hair growth promoting effect. PMID:26058803

  9. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.

  10. Quality fluctuation detection of an herbal injection based on biological fingerprint combined with chemical fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lele; Ma, Lina; Feng, Wuwen; Zhang, Congen; Sheng, Feiya; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Chen; Dong, Gang; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yan, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Herbal injection is one of the most important preparations of traditional Chinese medicine. More than 130 types of herbal injections are used clinically for 400 million patients annually with total sales of over four billion US dollars per year. However, the current quality control (QC) methods relying mainly on chemical fingerprints (CF) can hardly ensure quality and safety of the herbal injections with complex chemical composition and have resulted in an increase in serious adverse drug reactions. In this study, a comprehensive approach for the QC of a controversial herbal injection Shuang-Huang-Lian lyophilized powder (SHL) was established based on the quality fluctuation detection by a combination of CF and biological fingerprint (BF). High-performance liquid chromatography and the impedance-based xCELLigence system were applied to establish the CF and BF, respectively. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminant ability of the two methods. The results showed that being subjected to environmental influence like oxygen/air, high temperature, and extreme illumination could lead to quality fluctuation of SHL. The combination of chemical and biological fingerprint method is a more powerful tool for the QC of SHL because it can clearly discriminate different groups of abnormal samples. This method can be used for the detection of quality fluctuation of SHL and can provide reference for the quality control of other herbal injections.

  11. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Lu; Tong, Peter C Y; Chan, Juliana C N

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Included were 84 controlled clinical studies of type-2 diabetes treated with Chinese medicine for at least 1 month. Reported outcomes were: symptom relief; improvement in glycemia, insulin resistance and secondary failure, and adverse events. Symptom relief was achieved in most (>80%) of the patients receiving Chinese medicine. Compared with orthodox drugs, Chinese medicine had a 1.2-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.3) increase in symptom relief. The relative risk of achieving a fasting blood glucose of <7.3 mmol/l or a postprandial blood glucose of <8.2 mmol/l was: 3.0 (95% CI 1.4-6.5) for Chinese medicine plus diet versus diet; 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-3.0) for Chinese medicine versus placebo; 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.3) for combined Chinese medicine and orthodox drugs versus Yuquan Wan (a classic Chinese herbal formula for diabetes), 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7) for combined Chinese medicine and orthodox drugs vs. orthodox drugs, and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.5) for Chinese medicine versus orthodox drugs. A fasting blood glucose of <8.2 mmol/l plus symptom relief was observed in 71-100% of the patients with secondary failure to oral anti-diabetic drugs. Serious adverse events including hypoglycemic coma and death were caused by adulteration with orthodox drugs, erroneous substitution, self-meditation, overdoses, and improper preparation. Chinese herbal medicine should be used cautiously with doctors' prescription and follow-up. Long-term clinical studies may disclose the effectiveness of Chinese medicine in reducing the mortality and morbidity of diabetic complications.

  12. Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme of a filarial worm Setaria digitata: some properties and effects of drugs and herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Banu, M J; Nellaiappan, K; Dhandayuthapani, S

    1992-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and malic enzyme (mME) of a filarial worm Setaria digitata were studied. mMDH exhibited the highest activities in the oxidation and reduction reactions at pH 9.5 and pH 6.2, respectively, while mME did so in the malate decarboxylation reaction at pH 6.8. mME showed no detectable activity on the pyruvate carboxylation direction. The Km values for malate (1.7 mM) and oxaloacetate (0.17 mM) and the ratio of Vmax oxidation: Vmax reduction (2.73) tend to favor the oxaloacetate reduction by mMDH. mME showed a relatively high Km value of 8.3 mM, for malate decarboxylation. A drug, diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C), did not change appreciably the activity of either mMDH or mME, while filarin (a drug of herbal origin) effectively inhibited mMDH. The leaf extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis and Calotropis gigantea and leaf and flower extracts of Azadirachta indica were, however, found to inhibit both mMDH and mME.

  13. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  14. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  15. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  16. The Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ou-Yang, Chen Sheng; Wang, Xi-Xin; Yang, Zhen-Jiang; Tong, Yao; Cho, William C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Many published studies reflect the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) use in combination with conventional cancer therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with conventional chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Publications in 11 electronic databases were extensively searched, and 24 trials were included for analysis. A sum of 2,109 patients was enrolled in these studies, at which 1,064 patients participated in CT combined CHM and 1,039 in CT (six patients dropped out and were not reported the group enrolled). Compared to using CT alone, CHM combined with CT significantly increase one-year survival rate (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.15–1.60, p = 0.0003). Besides, the combined therapy significantly increased immediate tumor response (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.19–1.56, p<1.0E−5) and improved Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (RR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.62–5.18, p = 0.0003). Combined therapy remarkably reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.12–0.50, p = 0.0001) and prevented the decline of hemoglobin and platelet in patients under CT at toxicity grade of I–IV (RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.51–0.80, p<0.0001). Moreover, the herbs that are frequently used in NSCLC patients were identified. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjuvant therapy can reduce CT toxicity, prolong survival rate, enhance immediate tumor response, and improve KPS in advanced NSCLC patients. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials in the included studies, further larger scale trials are needed. PMID:23469033

  17. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  18. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  19. Fluorescence Visual Detection of Herbal Product Substitutions at Terminal Herbal Markets by CCP-based FRET technique

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Jin, Yan; Liu, Libing; Zhao, Yuyang; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Inaccurate labeling of materials used in herbal products may compromise the therapeutic efficacy and may pose a threat to medicinal safety. In this paper, a rapid (within 3 h), sensitive and visual colorimetric method for identifying substitutions in terminal market products was developed using cationic conjugated polymer-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (CCP-based FRET). Chinese medicinal materials with similar morphology and chemical composition were clearly distinguished by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method. Assays using CCP-based FRET technology showed a high frequency of adulterants in Lu-Rong (52.83%) and Chuan-Bei-Mu (67.8%) decoction pieces, and patented Chinese drugs (71.4%, 5/7) containing Chuan-Bei-Mu ingredients were detected in the terminal herbal market. In comparison with DNA sequencing, this protocol simplifies procedures by eliminating the cumbersome workups and sophisticated instruments, and only a trace amount of DNA is required. The CCP-based method is particularly attractive because it can detect adulterants in admixture samples with high sensitivity. Therefore, the CCP-based detection system shows great potential for routine terminal market checks and drug safety controls. PMID:27765955

  20. Development of polymeric nanoparticles with highly entrapped herbal hydrophilic drug using nanoprecipitation technique: an approach of quality by design.

    PubMed

    Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; Mishra, Amit; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study is to achieve higher entrapment efficiency (EE) of berberine chloride (selected hydrophilic drug) using nanoprecipitation technique. The solubility of drug was studied in various pH buffers (1.2-7.2) for selection of aqueous phase and stabilizer. Quality by design (QbD)-based 3(2) factorial design were employed for optimization of formulation variables; drug to polymer ratio (X1) and surfactant concentration (X2) on entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size (PS) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were subjected to solid state analysis, in vitro drug release and stability study. The aqueous phase and stabilizer selected for the formulations were pH 4.5 phthalate buffer and surfactant F-68, respectively. The formulation (F-6) containing drug to polymer ratio (1:3) and stabilizer (F-68) concentration of 50 mM exhibited best EE (82.12%), PS (196.71 nm), PDI (0.153). The various solid state characterizations assured that entrapped drug is amorphous and nanoparticles are fairly spherical in shape. In vitro drug release of the F-6 exhibited sustained release with non-Fickian diffusion and stable at storage condition. This work illustrates that the proper selection of aqueous phase and optimization of formulation variables could be helpful in improving the EE of hydrophilic drugs by nanoprecipitation technique.

  1. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines : a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilised. Other important challenges arise from the current regulatory framework for herbal medicines in the UK. In the UK at present, the Committee on Safety of Medicines/Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's (CSM/MHRA) 'yellow card' scheme for adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting is the main method of monitoring the safety of herbal medicines. Despite recent initiatives to stimulate reporting of suspected ADRs associated with herbal medicines, such as extending the scheme to unlicensed herbal products, and including community pharmacists as recognised reporters, numbers of herbal ADR reports received by the CSM/MHRA remain relatively low. Under-reporting, an inevitable and important limitation of spontaneous reporting schemes, is likely to be significant for herbal medicines, since users typically do not seek professional advice about their use of such products, or report if they experience adverse effects. The herbal sector in the UK has initiated various spontaneous reporting schemes, based on the yellow card scheme, but targeted mainly at herbal-medicine practitioners. It is important that these schemes have a link with the CSM/MHRA so that potential signals are not missed. Several other tools used in pharmacovigilance of conventional medicines, such as prescription-event monitoring, and the use of computerised health-record databases, currently are of no use for evaluating the safety of herbal and other non-prescription medicines. Proposed European Union

  2. A Hexa-Herbal TCM Decoction Used to Treat Skin Inflammation: An LC-MS-Based Phytochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer B; Lane, Majella E; Yang, Min; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the chemical relationship between a traditional hexa-herbal Chinese medicine formula and botanical drugs it is derived from, an analytical platform comprising liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and data mining was developed to separate and identify key chemical components. The hexa-herbal formula comprises the rootstock of Scutellaria baicalensis, Rheum tanguticum, Sophora flavescens, the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus, the bark of Phellodendron chinense, and the fruit of Kochia scoparia. Seventy-three compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinone derivatives, coumarins, coumarins derivatives, flavonoids, flavone glycosides, naphthalene derivatives, phenylbutanone glucopyranoside, phenolic acids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, stilbenes derivatives, and tannins were putatively identified based on mass measurement and characteristic fragment ions. Among the botanical drugs of the hexa-herbal Chinese medicine formula, the rootstock of R. tanguticum and S. flavescens, bark of P. chinense, and rootstock of S. baicalensis contributed to the majority of the extracted metabolites of the formula decoction. The developed method appeared to be a versatile tool for monitoring chemical constituents in extracts of a traditional Chinese medicine formula in a relatively comprehensive and systematic manner, and helped to understand the importance of the individual botanical drugs within a formulation.

  3. A Hexa-Herbal TCM Decoction Used to Treat Skin Inflammation: An LC-MS-Based Phytochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer B; Lane, Majella E; Yang, Min; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the chemical relationship between a traditional hexa-herbal Chinese medicine formula and botanical drugs it is derived from, an analytical platform comprising liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and data mining was developed to separate and identify key chemical components. The hexa-herbal formula comprises the rootstock of Scutellaria baicalensis, Rheum tanguticum, Sophora flavescens, the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus, the bark of Phellodendron chinense, and the fruit of Kochia scoparia. Seventy-three compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinone derivatives, coumarins, coumarins derivatives, flavonoids, flavone glycosides, naphthalene derivatives, phenylbutanone glucopyranoside, phenolic acids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, stilbenes derivatives, and tannins were putatively identified based on mass measurement and characteristic fragment ions. Among the botanical drugs of the hexa-herbal Chinese medicine formula, the rootstock of R. tanguticum and S. flavescens, bark of P. chinense, and rootstock of S. baicalensis contributed to the majority of the extracted metabolites of the formula decoction. The developed method appeared to be a versatile tool for monitoring chemical constituents in extracts of a traditional Chinese medicine formula in a relatively comprehensive and systematic manner, and helped to understand the importance of the individual botanical drugs within a formulation. PMID:27272397

  4. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise. PMID:26790314

  5. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  6. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

  7. [Herbal drugs of foreign cultures and medical systems exemplified by Indian incense. Considerations regarding social and insurance medicine expert assessment].

    PubMed

    Kreck, C; Saller, R

    1999-09-01

    Increase preparations are being used with increasing frequency in Western medicine. In experimental investigations, an anti-inflammatory effect has been shown. Clinical observations relate to increase applications in rheumatoid arthritis, malignant brain tumors, inflammatory bowel diseases and asthma bronchiale. A relevant clinical effect of increase preparations has not been ascertained. In Germany, the registration of increase preparation H 15 as a drug has been withheld by the federal drug registration office (former "Bundesgesundheitsamt"). Health funds may reimburse costs for increase preparations in exceptional cases only.

  8. Regulation of traditional herbal medicinal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Hikoichiro; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Kampo medicines are the main traditional herbal medicines in Japan and are classified as pharmaceuticals. They are based on ancient Chinese medicine and have evolved to the Japanese original style over a long period of time. Ethical Kampo formulations are prescribed in general practice by physician under the National Health Insurance reimbursement system. Over-the-counter (OTC) Kampo formulations can be purchased and used for self-medication in primary health care settings. Kampo medicines have a substantial role in the Japanese healthcare system. In the early 1970s, "The Internal Assignments on the Review for Approval of OTC Kampo Products", known as "210 OTC Kampo Formulae", was published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). In 2008, "210 OTC Kampo Formulae" was revised and presented as "The Approval Standards for OTC Kampo Products" and now 294 Kampo formulae are listed in the standards. These products have had wide spread usage in Japan. Crude drugs and Kampo extracts have been listed in The Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Both The Approval Standards and The Quality Standards play a key role in regulation of Kampo products. "Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs" was published in 2007. Other ethnopharmaceuticals mostly from Europe could be approved as OTC drugs in Japan.

  9. [OATP1B1 in drug-drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine Danshensu and rosuvastatin].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jin-hua; Wei, Xiao-hua; Cheng, Xiao-hua; Zuo, Rong; Peng, Hong-wei; Lü, Yan-ni; Zhou, Jian; Zheng, Xue-lian; Cai, Jun; Xiong, Yu-qing; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to explore the drug-drug interactions mechanisms mediated by OATP1B1 between traditional Chinese medicine Danshensu and rosuvastatin. First, the changes of rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics were investigated in presence of Danshensu in rats. Then, the primary rat hepatocytes model was established to explore the effects of Danshensu on the uptake of rosuvastatin by hepatocytes. Finally, HEK293T cells with overexpression of OATP1B1*a and OATP1B1*5 were established using a lentiviral delivery system to explore the effects of Danshensu on the uptake of rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetic parameters of C(max0, AUCO(0-t), AUC(0-∞) were increased about 123%, 194% and 195%, by Danshensu in rats, while the CL z/F value was decreased by 60%. Uptake of rosuvastatin in the primary rat hepatocytes was decreased by 3.13%, 41.15% and 74.62%, respectively in the presence of 20, 40 and 80 μmol x L(-1) Danshensu. The IC50 parameters was (53.04 ± 2.43) μmol x L(-1). The inhibitory effect of Danshensu on OATP1B1 mediated transport of rosuvastatin was related to the OATP1B1 gene type. In OATP1B1*5-HEK293T mutant cells, transport of rosuvastatin were reduced by (39.11 ± 4.94)% and (63.61 ± 3.94)%, respectively, by Danshensu at 1 and 10 μmol x L(-1). While transport of rosuvastatin was reduced by (8.22 ± 2.40)% and (11.56 ± 3.04)% and in OATP1B1*1a cells, respectively. Danshensu significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in rats, which was related to competitive inhibition of transport by OATPJBI. Danshensu exhibited a significant activity in the inhibition of rosuvastatin transport by OATP1B1*5-HEK293T, but not by OATP1B1*1a, suggesting a dependence on OATP1B1 sequence. PMID:27405165

  10. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  11. Drug Issues Affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani People Living in Greater Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, A. J.; Heim, D.; Bakshi, N.; Davies, J. B.; Flatley, K. J.; Hunter, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes research on drug issues affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani people living in Greater Glasgow. There were two strands: (i) a questionnaire-based survey of young people and focus groups; (ii) interviews with young people and adults. The primary aims were to gather prevalence data and to investigate perceptions about current…

  12. Factorial Structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18 among Chinese Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichuan; Kelly, Brian C; Liu, Tieqiao; Zhang, Guanbai; Hao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) has been widely used for mental health screenings in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the validation of its application to Chinese populations has been very limited. The objective of this research is to assess the factorial structure of the BSI-18 within a Chinese drug using population. METHODS AND RESULTS A total sample of 303 drug users recruited via Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) from Changsha, China was used for the study. Our results show: 1) The BSI-18 item scores are highly skewed; 2) With dichotomous items measures (1-problem at least moderately caused respondent discomfort during the past week; 0-otherwise), our findings support the designed 3-factor solution of the BSI-18 (somatization, depression, and anxiety); 3) The BSI-18 has a hierarchical factorial structure with 3 first-order factors and an underlying second-order factor (general psychological distress); 4) Tentative support should also be given to a single dimension of general psychological distress in Chinese drug using populations. Our study recommends a useful alternative approach for evaluating the factorial structure of the BSI-18 – i.e. CFA with dichotomous item measures. Both the total BSI-18 score and the three subscales (SOM, DEP, and ANX) can be used in applications of the BSI-18. CONCLUSION Overall, our findings suggest the BSI-18 is useful with Chinese drug users, and shows potential for use with non-Western and substance using populations more generally. PMID:23906998

  13. Intestinal microflora molecular markers of spleen-deficient rats and evaluation of traditional Chinese drugs

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Wang, Zhuo; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yang, Jing-Yu; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To find a rapid and efficient analysis method of gastrointestinal microflora in Pi-deficient (spleen-deficient) rats and to evaluate traditional Chinese drugs. METHODS: Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) based assay was performed to examine changes of intestinal microflora in two Pi-deficienct animal models and to evaluate the efficacy of four traditional Chinese drugs as well as a probiotic recipe and another therapy in Pi-deficient rats. RESULTS: A molecular marker was identified for Pi-deficiency in rats. The pharmacodynamic evaluation system, including identified molecular markers (net integral area and abundance of DNA bands), Shannon’s index for diversity of intestinal microflora, and Sorenson’s pairwise similarity coefficient, was established. The four major clinical recipes of traditional Chinese drugs for Pi-deficiency in rats, especially at their medium dose (equivalence to the clinical dose), produced more pronounced recovery activities in Pi-deficient rats, while higher doses of these recipes did not show a better therapeutic effect but some toxic effects such as perturbation deterioration of intestinal microflora. CONCLUSION: Both fingerprint analysis and identified marker can show Pi-deficiency in rats and its difference after treatment. The identified molecular marker may be applied in screening for the active compounds both in relative traditional Chinese drugs and in pharmacodynamic study of Pi-deficiency in rats. PMID:19437561

  14. Effects of Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine containing furanocoumarin derivatives, on the drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Junji; Takashima, Ayaka; Yoshida, Kousuke; Soraoka, Hiromi; Ding, Tong-Bin; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Motoki; Oniki, Kentaro; Miyata, Keishi; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2014-10-01

    Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional medicine used to treat acne in Asian countries, contains twelve herbal components, including Angelica dahurica root, a source of furanocoumarin derivatives. In this study, we investigated potential herb-drug interactions of seijo-bofu-to in healthy male volunteers. Thirty-two young, healthy, non-smoking males were assessed for the baseline activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase according to the urinary metabolic indices of 8-hr urine samples collected after the administration of a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan, and the ratio of urinary excretion of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. Thereafter, the volunteers received 3.75 g of seijo-bofu-to twice daily for 7 days and underwent the same tests on post-dose day 7. The geometric mean ratio of the CYP1A2 activity on day 7 to that observed at baseline was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.79, p = 0.001). The geometric mean phenotypic indices for CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase on day 7 did not differ from the baseline values. The findings of the present study suggest that seijo-bofu-to may inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, whereas it is unlikely to participate in herb-drug interactions involving medications predominantly metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 or xanthine oxidase.

  15. Simultaneous multi-component quantitation of Chinese herbal injection Yin-zhi-huang in rat plasma by using a single-tube extraction procedure for mass spectrometry-based pharmacokinetic measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Le; Wang, Meiling; Yuan, Yu; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Meiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Bo

    2014-09-15

    Ying-zhi-huang injection (YZH-I) is an injectable multi-herbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese remedy "Yin-chen-hao-tang", which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, little information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of this poly-herbal formulation. Herein, we reported a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of eight major ingredients of YZH-I (including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) in rat plasma. A fast single-tube multi-impurity precipitation extraction ("SMIPE") procedure was introduced for straightforward plasma preparation, based on one-pot deproteinization precipitation with acidified methanol extraction and in-situ multifunction impurity removal by a solid sorbent mixture (anh. magnesium sulfate plus octadecylsilane). Particularly, the addition of ascorbic acid in methanol (10 mg/mL) was found to exhibit a pronounced protective effect and significantly increase extraction effectiveness of the herbal phenolic components. Some pretreatment variables (protein precipitating solvent, acidifying agent and sorbent) were optimized with acceptable matrix effect (-18 to 7.7%), extraction recovery (65-88%) and process efficiency (62-91%) for the SMIPE-based LC-MRM multi-analyte quantitation using matrix-matched calibration (5-1000 ng/mL) without using internal standard. Mean accuracies were obtained in the range of 83-114% at three different fortification levels, with intra- and inter-day variations within 13%. This validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous measurement and pharmacokinetic investigation of the chemical constituents in rats following an intravenous administration of YZH-I.

  16. Simultaneous multi-component quantitation of Chinese herbal injection Yin-zhi-huang in rat plasma by using a single-tube extraction procedure for mass spectrometry-based pharmacokinetic measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Le; Wang, Meiling; Yuan, Yu; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Meiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Bo

    2014-09-15

    Ying-zhi-huang injection (YZH-I) is an injectable multi-herbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese remedy "Yin-chen-hao-tang", which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, little information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of this poly-herbal formulation. Herein, we reported a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of eight major ingredients of YZH-I (including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) in rat plasma. A fast single-tube multi-impurity precipitation extraction ("SMIPE") procedure was introduced for straightforward plasma preparation, based on one-pot deproteinization precipitation with acidified methanol extraction and in-situ multifunction impurity removal by a solid sorbent mixture (anh. magnesium sulfate plus octadecylsilane). Particularly, the addition of ascorbic acid in methanol (10 mg/mL) was found to exhibit a pronounced protective effect and significantly increase extraction effectiveness of the herbal phenolic components. Some pretreatment variables (protein precipitating solvent, acidifying agent and sorbent) were optimized with acceptable matrix effect (-18 to 7.7%), extraction recovery (65-88%) and process efficiency (62-91%) for the SMIPE-based LC-MRM multi-analyte quantitation using matrix-matched calibration (5-1000 ng/mL) without using internal standard. Mean accuracies were obtained in the range of 83-114% at three different fortification levels, with intra- and inter-day variations within 13%. This validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous measurement and pharmacokinetic investigation of the chemical constituents in rats following an intravenous administration of YZH-I. PMID:25129410

  17. Efficacy of herbal coded Hepcon on drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals through histopathological and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad Saim; Mahmood, Zahid; Saeed, Aftab; Jamil, Amir; Usmanghani, Khan; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sajjad-al-Hassan; Roohi, Mahira

    2013-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is the leading cause for more than 50 percent of cases of acute liver failure. This study was conducted on herbo-mineral formulation "Hepcon" to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects in drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals. The liver injury was introduced with over dosage of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The herbo-mineral formulations "Hepcon" consist of Zingiber officinale, Piprum nigrum, Ammonium chloride and Arsenic trioxide (Hartal warqi). The aqueous extraction was administered to experimental animals. Thereafter their LFTs, IgG, and tissue pathology was studied. It was observed on the basis of biochemical and histopathological analysis that animals which were subjected to Hepcon became normal in 60 days whereas those as control group did not showed improvements and most of them died. It was concluded that the efficacy of Hepcon to treat liver injury caused by CCl4 and NSAIDs is very effective, and no side effects were noticed.

  18. Efficacy of herbal coded Hepcon on drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals through histopathological and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad Saim; Mahmood, Zahid; Saeed, Aftab; Jamil, Amir; Usmanghani, Khan; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sajjad-al-Hassan; Roohi, Mahira

    2013-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is the leading cause for more than 50 percent of cases of acute liver failure. This study was conducted on herbo-mineral formulation "Hepcon" to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects in drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals. The liver injury was introduced with over dosage of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The herbo-mineral formulations "Hepcon" consist of Zingiber officinale, Piprum nigrum, Ammonium chloride and Arsenic trioxide (Hartal warqi). The aqueous extraction was administered to experimental animals. Thereafter their LFTs, IgG, and tissue pathology was studied. It was observed on the basis of biochemical and histopathological analysis that animals which were subjected to Hepcon became normal in 60 days whereas those as control group did not showed improvements and most of them died. It was concluded that the efficacy of Hepcon to treat liver injury caused by CCl4 and NSAIDs is very effective, and no side effects were noticed. PMID:24035958

  19. [Dissection of differences and similarities of botanical drugs in European Union, US and Canada].

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Zhao, Libin; Ye, Zhengliang; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, He

    2011-10-01

    Because of the unique nature and treatment concept of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), TCMs have been respected again since 70s of last century. The regulatory agencies of some developed countries (the FDA, EMA and Health Canada etc) have published new guidance/guidelines/directives in recent years, such as the botanical drug product guidance of the FDA, the evidence for quality of finished natural health products guidance of the Health Canada and the guideline on quality of herbal medicinal products/ traditional herbal medicinal products of the EMA etc. All of the regulatory agencies are willing to scientifically evaluate the herbal medicines and accept it as therapeutic product. This paper analyzed the history of herbal medicine regulation and the similarities and differences of the regulatory requirements of the European Union, the United States and Canada, proposed possible future direction of the international development of Chinese medicine from the perspective of global regulatory affairs.

  20. [Advances in the study of enzymes and transporters-mediated pharmacokinetic mechanism for herb-drug interaction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Ke-xin

    2015-04-01

    With the wide application of Chinese herbal medicine, herb-drug interaction (HDI) has become increasingly prominent. Metabolic enzymes and transporters are the main targets of HDI, because the changes in expression and function of enzymes and transporters can influence the disposition of drugs. Metabolic enzymes are responsible for the metabolic clearance of drugs, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UGT) and sulfotransferases (SULT); transporters widely expressed in the intestine, kidney, liver and brain are involved in the oral absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs. Pueraria, ginkgo, ginseng, St. John's wort and other Chinese herbal medicine often induce a HDI because those herbal medicines combined with chemical medicine are widely used in clinic. The components of herb medicines mentioned above are prone to interact with enzymes and transporters, which often induce a HDI. This paper reviews the advances in the study of enzymes and transporters-mediated pharmacokinetic mechanism of HDI. PMID:26223121

  1. Cytochrome P450 induction properties of food and herbal-derived compounds using a novel multiplex RT-qPCR in vitro assay, a drug-food interaction prediction tool.

    PubMed

    Koe, Xue Fen; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Chong, Alexander Shu-Chien; Wahab, Habibah Abdul; Tan, Mei Lan

    2014-09-01

    A multiplex RT-qPCR was developed to examine CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 induction properties of compounds from food and herbal sources. The induction of drug metabolizing enzymes is an important pharmacokinetic interaction with unique features in comparison with inhibition of metabolizing enzymes. Cytochrome induction can lead to serious drug-drug or drug-food interactions, especially if the coadministered drug plasma level is critical as it can reduce therapeutic effects and cause complications. Using this optimized multiplex RT-qPCR, cytochrome induction properties of andrographolide, curcumin, lycopene, bergamottin, and resveratrol were determined. Andrographolide, curcumin, and lycopene produced no significant induction effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. However, bergamottin appeared to be a significant in vitro CYP1A2 inducer starting from 5 to 50 μmol/L with induction ranging from 60 to 100-fold changes. On the other hand, resveratrol is a weak in vitro CYP1A2 inducer. Examining the cytochrome induction properties of food and herbal compounds help complement CYP inhibition studies and provide labeling and safety caution for such products. PMID:25473508

  2. Non-nucleosidic inhibition of Herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase: mechanistic insights into the anti-herpetic mode of action of herbal drug withaferin A

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 causes several infections in humans including cold sores and encephalitis. Previous antiviral studies on herpes viruses have focussed on developing nucleoside analogues that can inhibit viral polymerase and terminate the replicating viral DNA. However, these drugs bear an intrinsic non-specificity as they can also inhibit cellular polymerase apart from the viral one. The present study is an attempt to elucidate the action mechanism of naturally occurring withaferin A in inhibiting viral DNA polymerase, thus providing an evidence for its development as a novel anti-herpetic drug. Results Withaferin A was found to bind very similarly to that of the previously reported 4-oxo-DHQ inhibitor. Withaferin A was observed binding to the residues Gln 617, Gln 618, Asn 815 and Tyr 818, all of which are crucial to the proper functioning of the polymerase. A comparison of the conformation obtained from docking and the molecular dynamics simulations shows that substantial changes in the binding conformations have occurred. These results indicate that the initial receptor-ligand interaction observed after docking can be limited due to the receptor rigid docking algorithm and that the conformations and interactions observed after simulation runs are more energetically favoured. Conclusions We have performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies to elucidate the binding mechanism of prospective herbal drug withaferin A onto the structure of DNA polymerase of Herpes simplex virus. Our docking simulations results give high binding affinity of the ligand to the receptor. Long de novo MD simulations for 10 ns performed allowed us to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the system studied and corroborate the docking results, as well as identify key residues in the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. The present MD simulations support the hypothesis that withaferin A is a potential ligand to target/inhibit DNA polymerase of the Herpes simplex

  3. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  4. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice. PMID:15745254

  5. A computational and functional study elicits the ameliorating effect of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan on experimental ischemia-induced myocardial injury in rats via inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wei; Ye, Hang-Cheng; Xu, Ying-Zi; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and remains a major life-threatening factor in humans. Apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IHD. The Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), one of the commonly used Chinese herbal formulas, consists of Salviae miltiorrhizae, Angelica sinensis, Gummi olibanum, and Commiphora myrrha, with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. However, the mechanism of action and molecular targets of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD are unclear. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD and key regulators of apoptosis and then examine the effect of HLXLD on coronary artery ligation-induced acute myocardial ischemia in rats. The molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD, including ferulic acid, ligustilide, succinic acid, vanillic acid, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone IIB, danshensu, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, protocatechuic aldehyde, and β-boswellic acid and human protein molecules including B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), B cell lymphoma 2 antagonist/killer 1 (Bak1), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), procaspase 3, and caspase 9 with regard to hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking using Discovery Studio(®) program 3.1. The 12 HLXLD components were predicted by ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) Predictor to have favorable pharmacokinetic and low hepatotoxicity profiles. The acute myocardial ischemia was established by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats were divided into a sham operative group, a model group, a positive control group treated with 0.2 mg/kg isosorbide mononitrate, and groups treated with 2.7, 5.4, or 10.8 g/kg HLXLD. The results showed that administration of HLXLD increased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate, and maximal rate

  6. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

  7. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  8. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  9. The Structure-Dependent Electric Release and Enhanced Oxidation of Drug in Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocarrier Loaded with Anticancer Herbal Drug Berberine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Danni; Ruan, Pan; Meng, Ziyuan; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current investigation is to explore graphene oxide (GO) special electric and electrochemical properties in modulating and tuning drug delivery in tumor special environment of electrophysiology. The electric-sensitive drug release and redox behavior of GO-bearing berberine (Ber) was studied. Drug release in cell potential was applied in a designed electrode system: tumor environment was simulated at pH 6.2 with 0.1 V pulse voltage, whereas the normal was at pH 7.4 with 0.2 V. Quite different from the pH-depended profile, the electricity-triggered behavior indicated a high correlation with the carriers' structure: GO-based nanocomposite showed a burst release on its special "skin effect," whereas the PEGylated ones released slowly owing to the electroviscous effect of polymer. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the redox behaviors of colloid PEGylated GO toward absorbed Ber in pH 5.8 and 7.2 solutions. After drug loading, the oxidation of Ber was enhanced in a neutral environment, whereas the enhancement of PEG-GO was in an acidic one, which means a possible increased susceptibility of their biotransformation in vivo. The studies designed in this work may help to establish a kind of carrier system for the sensitive delivery and metabolic regulation of drugs according to the different electrophysiological environment in tumor therapy. PMID:26052932

  10. Pathway as a Pharmacological Target for Herbal Medicines: An Investigation from Reduning Injection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhengzhong; Shar, Piar Ali; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    As a rich natural resource for drug discovery, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an important role in complementary and alternative medical systems. TCM shows a daunting complexity of compounds featuring multi-components and multi-targets to cure diseases, which thus always makes it extremely difficult to systematically explain the molecular mechanisms adequately using routine methods. In the present work, to reveal the systematic mechanism of herbal formulae, we developed a pathway-based strategy by combining the pathways integrating, target selection, reverse drug targeting and network analysis together, and then exemplified it by Reduning injection (RDN), a clinically widely used herbal medicine injection, in combating inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects exerted by the major ingredients of RDN at signaling pathways level were systematically investigated. More importantly, our predicted results were also experimentally validated. Our strategy provides a deep understanding of the pharmacological functions of herbal formulae from molecular to systematic level, which may lead to more successful applications of systems pharmacology for drug discovery and development. PMID:25830385

  11. The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sohni, Y R; Kaimal, P; Bhatt, R M

    1995-01-01

    The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug for