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Sample records for chinese medical diagnostic

  1. Solid cancer incidence among Chinese medical diagnostic X-ray workers, 1950–1995: estimation of radiation-related risks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhijuan; Inskip, Peter D.; Wang, Jixian; Kwon, Deukwoo; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhang, Liangan; Wang, Qin; Fan, Saijun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate solid cancer risk attributable to long-term, fractionated occupational exposure to low-doses of ionizing radiation. Based on cancer incidence for the period 1950–1995 in a cohort of 27,011 Chinese medical diagnostic X-ray workers and a comparison cohort of 25,782 Chinese physicians who did not use X-ray equipment in their work, we used Poisson regression to fit excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) dose-response models for incidence of all solid cancers combined. Radiation dose reconstruction was based on a previously published method that relied on simulating measurements for multiple X-ray machines, workplaces and working conditions, information about protective measures, including use of lead aprons, and work histories. The resulting model was used to estimate calendar year-specific badge dose calibrated as personal dose equivalent (Sv). To obtain calendar year-specific colon doses (Gy), we applied a standard organ conversion factor. 1643 cases of solid cancer were identified in 1.45 million person-years of follow-up. In both ERR and EAR models, a statistically significant radiation dose-response relationship was observed for solid cancers as a group. Averaged over both sexes, and using colon dose as the dose metric, the estimated ERR/Gy was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.48, 1.45), and the EAR was 22 per 104PY-Gy (95% CI: 14, 32) at age 50. We obtained estimates of the ERR and EAR of solid cancers per unit dose that are compatible with those derived from other populations chronically exposed to low dose-rate occupational or environmental radiation. PMID:26860236

  2. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  3. Medical diagnostic applications and sources.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, T A

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which ultrasound is used in medical diagnosis are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the ultrasound source (probe) and implications for acoustic exposure. A brief discussion of the choice of optimum frequency for various target depths is followed by a description of the general features of diagnostic ultrasound probes, including endo-probes. The different modes of diagnostic scanning are then discussed in turn: A-mode, M-mode, B-mode, three-dimensional (3D) and 4D scanning, continuous wave (CW) Doppler, pulse-wave spectral Doppler and Doppler imaging. Under the general heading of B-mode imaging, there are individual descriptions of the principles of chirps and binary codes, B-flow, tissue harmonic imaging and ultrasound contrast agent-specific techniques. Techniques for improving image quality within the constraints of real-time operation are discussed, including write zoom, parallel beam forming, spatial compounding and multiple zone transmission focusing, along with methods for reducing slice thickness. At the end of each section there is a summarising comment on the basic features of the acoustic output and its consequences for patient safety.

  4. The value of diagnostic medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Don; Bradley, Kendall E

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging has clear clinical utility, but it also imposes significant costs on the health care system. This commentary reviews the factors that drive the cost of medical imaging, discusses current interventions, and suggests possible future courses of action.

  5. Diagnostic considerations for the medically complex patient.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, J A; Raborn, G W

    1992-10-01

    As advances in medical diagnostic and treatment modalities continue to increase the life expectancy of the population, the likelihood of encountering patients in dental practice with concomitant medical problems will also rise. Thus it will become increasingly important for practicing dentists to take thorough medical histories, recognize signs of systemic disorders, and work closely with their medical colleagues to ensure that safe dental care is rendered to these medically complex patients. Although acutely ill or severely compromised individuals may be best treated in a hospital setting by those with special training, all dental practitioners should possess the diagnostic and communicative skills needed to manage those who are receiving out-patient medical care.

  6. Diagnostic Medical Sonographers: Seeing with Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Explains how diagnostic medical sonographers use special equipment to direct high frequency sound waves into areas of a patient's body. Describes specialties within the occupation, working conditions, employment and outlook, earnings, and necessary training and qualifications. (JOW)

  7. Noninvasive Medical Diagnostics & Treatment Using Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Siegel, R.; Grandia, W.

    1998-01-01

    In parallel to the industrial application of NDE to flaw detection and material property determination, the medical community has succesfully adapted such methods to the noninvasaive diagnostics and treatment of many conditions and disorders of the human body.

  8. Diagnostic Medical Sonographers: Seeing with Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Explains how diagnostic medical sonographers use special equipment to direct high frequency sound waves into areas of a patient's body. Describes specialties within the occupation, working conditions, employment and outlook, earnings, and necessary training and qualifications. (JOW)

  9. Noninvasive Medical Diagnostics & Treatment Using Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Siegel, R.; Grandia, W.

    1998-01-01

    In parallel to the industrial application of NDE to flaw detection and material property determination, the medical community has succesfully adapted such methods to the noninvasaive diagnostics and treatment of many conditions and disorders of the human body.

  10. 78 FR 32612 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  11. 78 FR 16448 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  12. 77 FR 67595 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The Committee will meet...

  13. 78 FR 23872 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  14. 78 FR 1166 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  15. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: Medical Diagnostic Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Donna Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Medical diagnostic criteria for Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (a persistent fabrication by one individual of illness in another) are presented. Since the strength of the known facts may vary from case to case, diagnostic criteria are given for a definitive diagnosis, a possible diagnosis, an inconclusive determination, and the definitely excluded…

  16. Biological Signals In Medical Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlíková, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    Biological signals—biosignals are material carriers of the information about the state of the biological system of interest. They are the basis of all diagnostic methods. This paper gives an overview of biosignals used in medicine, their classification and processing.

  17. Optical tweezers for medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    LaFratta, Christopher N

    2013-07-01

    Laser trapping by optical tweezers makes possible the spectroscopic analysis of single cells. Use of optical tweezers in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy has allowed cells to be identified as either healthy or cancerous. This combined technique is known as laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS), or Raman tweezers. The Raman spectra of cells are complex, since the technique probes nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids; but statistical analysis of these spectra makes possible differentiation of different classes of cells. In this article the recent development of LTRS is described along with two illustrative examples for potential application in cancer diagnostics. Techniques to expand the uses of LTRS and to improve the speed of LTRS are also suggested.

  18. [Quality improvement of medical diagnostic laboratories].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea Rita; Endröczi, Elemér; Mikó, Tivadar

    2003-07-13

    Service quality in medical laboratories is influenced by a number of variables. Medical laboratories have long recognized the need for total quality management that incorporates the continuous improvement of all stages, such as the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases, of the diagnostic process, in addition to the traditional internal and external quality control of analytical procedures. Based on national and international experience, continuous improvement of quality and its external assessment are of high priority in order to guarantee a reliable, effective and cost-effective diagnostic service. Certification of health care services, according to ISO 9001 standards in Hungarian hospitals, is not sufficient to prove professional competence of medical laboratories, which called for a system of laboratory accreditation. Accreditation is an external professional audit by which an independent accreditation body gives formal recognition that the medical laboratory is competent to provide high quality services that are compliant with rigorous professional standards of best practice. The primary aim of accreditation is the improvement of the quality of diagnostic services by voluntary participation, professional peer review, continuous training and education and compliance with professional standards. In vitro medical laboratories have pioneered quality control and quality assurance in health care. Based on these strengths and traditions, the introduction of the accreditation program of medical laboratories in Hungary is one of the key professional and ethical responsibilities of diagnostic professions, in order to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services during the course of Hungary's accession to the European Union.

  19. Photoacoustic sensor for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Harde, Hermann

    2004-03-01

    The development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progress of diagnostic methods. Of the permanently increasing number of non-invasive breath tests, the 13C-Urea Breath Test (UBT) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori is the most prominent. However, many recent developments, like the detection of cancer by breath test, go beyond gastroenterological applications. We present a new detection scheme for breath analysis that employs an especially compact and simple set-up. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) represents an offset-free technique that allows for short absorption paths and small sample cells. Using a single-frequency diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed extremely sensitive and selective measurements. The smart data processing method contributes to the extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity as well. Also, the reasonable acquisition cost and low operational cost make this detection scheme attractive for many biomedical applications. The experimental set-up and data processing method, together with exemplary isotope-selective measurements on carbon dioxide, are presented.

  20. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in what…

  1. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in what…

  2. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors’ diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  3. Application of superconductivity to medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, D.E.; Tripp, J.H.; Zanzucchi, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    This communication discusses a development in medical diagnostics, made possible by the application of a SQUID magnetic susceptometer to in vivo measurement of the iron stored in human tissue. Some new results are reported which indicate that a carefully designed susceptometer can provide the clinician with a useful non-invasive measure of excess iron in the human liver. Extension of this technique to other important iron storage problems is discussed.

  4. 75 FR 35439 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards AGENCY... equipment to ensure that such equipment is accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities to... accessibility needs of individuals with disabilities with respect to medical diagnostic equipment and...

  5. 77 FR 53163 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility...) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The...

  6. 77 FR 39656 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... CFR Part 1195 [Docket No. ATBCB-2012-0003] RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Proposed Rulemaking on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The first meeting of... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 14706...

  7. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    PubMed

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  8. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. Scott; Hill, William; Francovich, Chris; Morris, Magdalena; Robbins, Bruce; Robins, Lynne; Turner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each) as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1) The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence); (2) logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3) a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches) in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison. PMID:27429275

  9. Microhistory and Chinese Medical History: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinzhong; Wang, Yumeng

    2015-08-01

    reinforce the narrative style and to grasp the social context of the individual or the event (the link between micro and macro levels). Nevertheless, these studies anyway indicate the invisible influence of microhistory and have paved a way for the future microhistorical investigations on medicine. We believe that microhistory is an undercurrent about to emerge in the field of Chinese medical history. It is the right time to advocate and promote the self-conscious microhistorical investigation, promptly and strongly, while updating the ideas and methods of it to make it a dominant trend rather than an undercurrent in the studies of Chinese medical history. Its rise would not only display the value and significance of microhistory in a better way, but also would help medical history to realize its core idea of history of life, therefore to propel our inquiry into Chinese medical history.

  10. 77 FR 14706 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment... the Federal Register, 77 FR 6916, on accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment and... equipment, in consultation with the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. The Access...

  11. [EXPERIENCE OF DIAGNOSTICS AND MEDICAL TREATMENT OF THE DIEULAFOYS DISEASE].

    PubMed

    P'iatykop, H I; Kravets', O V; Moskalenko, R A; Bratushka, V O

    2014-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the features of diagnostics and medical treatment of the Dieulafoys disease. Clinical description of six cases of foregoing pathology is resulted. The morphological features ulcers Dieulafoy are described. One fatal outcome of disease is analysed.

  12. Handheld Diagnostic Device Delivers Quick Medical Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    To monitor astronauts' health remotely, Glenn Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Cambridge, Massachusetts-based DNA Medical Institute, which developed a device capable of analyzing blood cell counts and a variety of medical biomarkers. The technology will prove especially useful in rural areas without easy access to labs.

  13. Veterinary nurse to medical diagnostic radiographer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicholas

    2017-08-19

    Nicholas Taylor is senior diagnostic radiographer at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon, having initially qualified as a veterinary nurse. It was a college lecture that initially sparked his interest in radiography - little did he know where it would lead. British Veterinary Association.

  14. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  15. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  16. Sherlock Holmes's Methods of Deductive Reasoning Applied to Medical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics. PMID:3887762

  17. Sherlock Holmes' methods of deductive reasoning applied to medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, L

    1985-03-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics.

  18. The future of medical diagnostics: review paper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    While histopathology of excised tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis, several new, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are being developed. They rely on physical and biochemical changes that precede and mirror malignant change within tissue. The basic principle involves simple optical techniques of tissue interrogation. Their accuracy, expressed as sensitivity and specificity, are reported in a number of studies suggests that they have a potential for cost effective, real-time, in situ diagnosis. We review the Third Scientific Meeting of the Head and Neck Optical Diagnostics Society held in Congress Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria on the 11th May 2011. For the first time the HNODS Annual Scientific Meeting was held in association with the International Photodynamic Association (IPA) and the European Platform for Photodynamic Medicine (EPPM). The aim was to enhance the interdisciplinary aspects of optical diagnostics and other photodynamic applications. The meeting included 2 sections: oral communication sessions running in parallel to the IPA programme and poster presentation sessions combined with the IPA and EPPM posters sessions. PMID:21861912

  19. Understanding depression in medical patients. Part I: Diagnostic considerations.

    PubMed

    Wool, M S

    1990-01-01

    Little attention has been devoted to integrating theoretical conceptions of depression when considering patients with medical illness. This is more true of the social work literature than the psychiatric, in which medical formulations and treatment of depression gain primary focus. This paper presents an approach for understanding the phenomenon of depression in medical patients. It incorporates a theoretical perspective on the mechanism of depression relevant to social work intervention. Topics reviewed include diagnostic criteria for depression in the medically ill, organic factors in depression, and psychosocial theory of depression applied to medical patients. A second part of this paper will provide case examples and recommendations for social work intervention.

  20. Managing waiting times in diagnostic medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to analyse the variation in the delivery of diagnostic imaging services in order to suggest possible solutions for the reduction of waiting times, increase the quality of services and reduce financial costs. Design This study provides a logic model to manage waiting times in a regional context. Waiting times measured per day were compared on the basis of the variability in the use rates of CT and MRI examinations in Tuscany for the population, as well as on the basis of the capacity offered with respect to the number of radiologists available. The analysis was performed at the local health authority level to support the decision-making process of local managers. Setting Diagnostic imaging services, in particular the CT and MRI examinations. The study involved all the 12 local health authorities that provide services for 3.7 million inhabitants of the Italian Tuscany Region. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants: the study uses regional administrative data on outpatients and survey data on inpatient diagnostic examinations in order to measure productivity. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study uses the volumes per 1000 inhabitants, the days of waiting times and the number of examinations per radiologist. Variability was measured using the traditional SD measures. Results A significant variation in areas considered homogeneous in terms of age, gender or mortality may indicate that the use of radiological services is not optimal and underuse or overuse occurs and that there is room for improvement in the service organisation. Conclusions Considering that there is a high level of variability among district use rates and waiting times, this study provides managers with a specific tool to find the cause of the problem, identify a possible solution, assess the financial impact and initiate the eventual reduction of waste. PMID:23242480

  1. Understanding the reliability of diagnostic variables in a Chinese Medicine examination.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kylie A; Abbas, Estelle; Zhang, Jiansheng; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Luo, Ruizhi; Bensoussan, Alan; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    The question of the objectivity of the clinical examination has been raised in relation to Western and non-Western medical systems. Western practitioners are often skeptical about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the basis that its diagnostic variables and subcategories of disease appear subjective and not repeatable. We conducted a study investigating the reproducibility of individual diagnostic observations within three of the four diagnostic methods used in a TCM examination: inspection, palpation, and auscultation. Three TCM practitioners participated in the study, and examined 45 adults who had mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia but were otherwise healthy. Results indicated that while there are certain features of the TCM system that are highly objective and repeatable, such as detection of the presence of shen, character of breath sounds, and pulse speed, there are other features that are subjective and unreliable, such as color under the eyes and tongue body color. This poses a challenge for TCM practitioners to improve their clinical practice and demonstrates to Western medical practitioners that TCM does in part rest on a rigorous and objective empirical basis.

  2. A specialized framework for medical diagnostic knowledge-based systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1992-08-01

    For a knowledge-based system (KBS) to exhibit an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed with knowledge enabling it to represent the expert's strategies. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form which may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge-Based Systems that can help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proven to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks that it is composed of. It allows a straightforward modeling of diagnostic reasoning at the knowledge level by the domain expert, thus helping to convey domain-dependent strategies into the target KBS.

  3. Plasmonic nanoprobes: from chemical sensing to medical diagnostics and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Fales, Andrew M.; Griffin, Guy D.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Liu, Yang; Ngo, Hoan; Norton, Stephen J.; Register, Janna K.; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Yuan, Hsiangkuo

    2013-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the development and applications of plasmonics-active nanoprobes in our laboratory for chemical sensing, medical diagnostics and therapy. Molecular Sentinel nanoprobes provide a unique tool for DNA/RNA biomarker detection both in a homogeneous solution or on a chip platform for medical diagnostics. The possibility of combining spectral selectivity and high sensitivity of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) process with the inherent molecular specificity of nanoprobes provides an important multiplex diagnostic modality. Gold nanostars can provide an excellent multi-modality platform, combining two-photon luminescence with photothermal therapy as well as Raman imaging with photodynamic therapy. Several examples of optical detection using SERS and photonics-based treatments are presented to illustrate the usefulness and potential of the plasmonic nanoprobes for theranostics, which seamlessly combines diagnostics and therapy.

  4. Diagnostic library support system for medical practice.

    PubMed

    Grams, R R; Massey, J K; Hickey, S; Jin, Z M

    1985-12-01

    Here is a tragic case where the diagnosis was missed on three separate occasions over a 19-month period. Both terminal conditions are treatable and potentially separable if discovered and aggressively managed. It is not the intent of this presentation to criticize the evaluation of this patient, but rather to point out the need and, also, the potential benefits of an alternate approach, which could have significantly changed the course of this particular patient's evaluation. We have conducted similar analyses with other CPC cases with almost equivalent specificity. These same evaluations have been performed in a real clinical setting with live patient data. What we have learned so far we think will be extremely helpful in extending the potential application of this technology: A text-based decision support tool is only as good as its practitioner. It takes practice and training to learn to use this system effectively. There are many traps in logic, and the use of words and terms within the text must be understood to effectively utilize this tool. There are shortcuts in logical analysis which we mentally use all the time but which cannot be accepted using this system (e.g., you must not rely on your memory or any specific associations to circumvent the system). The system will only become clinically relevant when the entire field of medicine is included in the data base. This is one of our current limitations with only two-thirds of the Merck medical text available for reference. This makes it difficult to apply to a general medical problem since we are not sure which direction the case might take, and often these are multisystem diseases or problems that put us at a severe disadvantage if we don't have the necessary data base. The structure and integrity of the data base are critical to the success of the system. Since numbers are ubiquitous, these cannot be used for key word elements. Techniques must be introduced to create word-oriented numbers that can be

  5. Application of visually based, computerised diagnostic decision support system in dermatological medical education: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wan-Yi; Tien, Peng-Tai; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chiu, Pin-Chi

    2017-05-01

    Medical education has shifted from memory-based practice to evidence-based decisions. The question arises: how can we ensure that all students get correct and systematic information? Visually based, computerised diagnostic decision support system (VCDDSS, VisualDx) may just fit our needs. A pilot study was conducted to investigate its role in medical education and clinical practice. This was a prospective study, including one consultant dermatologist, 51 medical students and 13 dermatology residents, conducted in the dermatology teaching clinic at China Medical University Hospital from 30 December 2014 to 21 April 2015. Clinical diagnoses of 13 patients were made before and after using VCDDSS. Questionnaires were filled out at the end. The consultant dermatologist's diagnosis was defined as the standard answer; the Sign test was used to analyse diagnostic accuracy and the Fisher exact test to analyse questionnaires. There was an 18.75% increase in diagnostic accuracy after use of VCDDSS (62.5-81.25%; p value <0.01). Significant associations were found in diagnostic assistance in terms of user factors such as accessibility, interface satisfaction, quality of imaging, textual description, and a Chinese language interface option (p value<0.01). This study demonstrated that VCDDSS increases diagnostic accuracy by 18.75%, which means we can avoid possible misdiagnosis, provide better treatment, and avoid waste of medical resources. The user satisfaction is high. We expect wider application of this kind of decision support system in clinical practice, medical education, residency training, and patient education in the future. Further large-scale studies should be planned to confirm its application. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Cultural factors and medication compliance in Chinese immigrants who are taking antihypertensive medications: instrument development.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wen; Stewart, Anita L; Stotts, Nancy A; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese immigrants in the United States have a moderate to high prevalence of hypertension, but little is known about antihypertensive medication compliance in Chinese immigrants. This study presents some first-generation measures of antihypertensive medication compliance in a sample of Chinese immigrants. A literature review and two qualitative pilot studies were conducted to generate culturally sensitive instruments. Items were developed to assess cultural factors and medication compliance in Chinese immigrants receiving antihypertensive medications. Cultural factors included measures of cultural health perception of hypertension, health perceptions of Chinese herbs, health perceptions of Western medications, beneficial self-care behaviors, and social support. Four medication compliance scales were developed. The applicability of these scales was tested in a Chinese immigrant population (n=200). Cronbach's alpha for the cultural factors scales ranged from .57 to .91. Two of the medication compliance scales had Cronbach's alphas above .60. Results showed that most of the scales are applicable and acceptable in a Chinese immigrant population and had good reliability. However, further testing with a larger sample in other regions of the country is indicated.

  7. Porphyria or Catatonia: Diagnostic Dilemma on the Medical Wards.

    PubMed

    Kurkjian, Natalie; Tucker, Phebe

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old Caucasian female, DD, was admitted to the medical service at an academic hospital with symptoms of weakness in bilateral lower extremities, falls, headaches, and altered mental status. Psychiatry was consulted to evaluate for psychiatric causes of her symptoms. This case presented a diagnostic challenge as the patient's identified symptoms changed almost daily, depending on what practitioner or medical service she encountered. In this study, we discuss the differential diagnoses, tests and treatments the patient received, with a review of literature helping differentiate between diagnostic parameters.

  8. Acoustic Waves in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen P.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term “ultrasonography,” or its abbreviated version “sonography” meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Since the 1990s numerous acoustic imaging modalities started to emerge based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. It was demonstrated that imaging with these waves can provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We will discuss physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities, and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications will be presented. We will discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. PMID:23643056

  9. Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, Armen P; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2013-07-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term ultrasonography, or its abbreviated version sonography, meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Beginning in the 1990s, there started to emerge numerous acoustic imaging modalities based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. Imaging with these waves was shown to provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We discuss the physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications is presented. We discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robotics in the Diagnostic Medical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Gilbert E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the role and utility of robotic technology in the examination of patient materials from the bedside to the reporting of results. Each phase of laboratory workflow from sample collection to sample preparation to analysis to data review and reporting of results is affected. The utility factors for robotics in the medical laboratory such as personnel safety, reduction of environmental hazard, standardization of technique, standardized turnaround time, and analytical readiness are evaluated. Negative factors including lack of capital for outlay, unimportance of response time and limited biomechanical capabilities are discussed. The generic methods for materials analysis by multiple analytical devices is outlined following the pattern of linear or circumferential patterns.

  11. Diagnostic Medical Imaging in Pediatric Patients and Subsequent Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, David J; Jhawar, Sachin; Kostis, John B; Goyal, Sharad

    2017-06-20

    The use of diagnostic medical imaging is becoming increasingly more commonplace in the pediatric setting. However, many medical imaging modalities expose pediatric patients to ionizing radiation, which has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development in later life. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the available data regarding the risk of cancer development following exposure to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical imaging. Attention is paid to modalities such as computed tomography scans and fluoroscopic procedures that can expose children to radiation doses orders of magnitude higher than standard diagnostic x-rays. Ongoing studies that seek to more precisely determine the relationship of diagnostic medical radiation in children and subsequent cancer development are discussed, as well as modern strategies to better quantify this risk. Finally, as cardiovascular imaging and intervention contribute substantially to medical radiation exposure, we discuss strategies to enhance radiation safety in these areas. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Traditional Chinese medical therapy for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Jiang, Hongyang

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including acupuncture and Chinese herbs, is used as an alternative therapy to increase the curative effect for erectile dysfunction (ED). A large number of studies have been conducted to investigate the effect and mechanism of TCM for treating ED. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture on ED is still controversial at present. However, some Chinese herbs exhibited satisfying outcomes and they might improve erectile function by activating nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway, increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression, elevating testosterone level, reducing intracellular Ca2+ concentration, down-regulating transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)/Smad2 signaling pathway, or ameliorating the oxidative stress. PMID:28540226

  13. A correlative STS: lessons from a Chinese medical practice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yuan; Law, John

    2014-12-01

    How might Science and Technology Studies learn more from the intersection between 'Western' and 'other' forms of knowledge? In this article, we use Eduardo Viveiros de Castro's writing on equivocal translation to explore a moment of encounter in a Chinese Medical consultation in Taiwan in which a practitioner hybridizes Chinese Medicine and biomedicine. Our description is symmetrical, but creates a descriptive equivocation in which 'Western' analytical terms are used to describe a 'Chinese' medical reality. Drawing on the history of Chinese Medicine, we argue that the latter is not analytical, but 'correlative' in a specifically 'Chinese' manner that explores patternings, flows, and propensities in local collections of things and symptoms. In particular, it both handles difference without seeking to unearth stable causal mechanisms and absorbs new elements including relevant features of biomedicine. We conclude by briefly considering the scope of a possible post-colonial and 'correlative' STS and show that a 'correlative' description of the same Chinese Medical consultation would differ markedly from one making use of 'Western' analytical assumptions.

  14. An Interview with Medical Diagnostics Scientist Bernhard Weigl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Medical diagnostics help us evaluate a range of disorders, such as cancer and infectious diseases. In the United States and other developed countries, doctors have access to advanced equipment and laboratories that provide reliable diagnoses. As a result, when we are sick, we feel confident that we will get the treatment we need. Unfortunately,…

  15. An Interview with Medical Diagnostics Scientist Bernhard Weigl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Medical diagnostics help us evaluate a range of disorders, such as cancer and infectious diseases. In the United States and other developed countries, doctors have access to advanced equipment and laboratories that provide reliable diagnoses. As a result, when we are sick, we feel confident that we will get the treatment we need. Unfortunately,…

  16. A Course in Diagnostic Test Evaluation for Senior Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Kim; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A group of medical students at Wright State University School of Medicine developed and participated in a one-month elective on selecting and interpreting diagnostic tests. Tests and diseases were reviewed, recorded and published by the students as a reference manual for their later use during clinical rotations. (MLW)

  17. A specialized framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1991-01-01

    To have a knowledge based system (KBS) exhibiting an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed even with knowledge able to represent the expert's strategies, other than with domain knowledge. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form that may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems able to help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proved to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks by which it is composed of.

  18. Determinants of Medication Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications among a Chinese Population Using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gabrielle K. Y.; Wang, Harry H. X.; Liu, Kirin Q. L.; Cheung, Yu; Morisky, Donald E.; Wong, Martin C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Poor adherence to medications is one of the major public health challenges. Only one-third of the population reported successful control of blood pressure, mostly caused by poor drug adherence. However, there are relatively few reports studying the adherence levels and their associated factors among Chinese patients. This study aimed to study the adherence profiles and the factors associated with antihypertensive drug adherence among Chinese patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient clinic located in the New Territories Region of Hong Kong. Adult patients who were currently taking at least one antihypertensive drug were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, consisting of basic socio-demographic profile, self-perceived health status, and self-reported medication adherence. The outcome measure was the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Good adherence was defined as MMAS scores greater than 6 points (out of a total score of 8 points). Results From 1114 patients, 725 (65.1%) had good adherence to antihypertensive agents. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Younger age, shorter duration of antihypertensive agents used, job status being employed, and poor or very poor self-perceived health status were negatively associated with drug adherence. Conclusion This study reported a high proportion of poor medication adherence among hypertensive subjects. Patients with factors associated with poor adherence should be more closely monitored to optimize their drug taking behavior. PMID:23638143

  19. [Modern aspects of forensic medical diagnostics of the craniocerebral injury].

    PubMed

    Pigolkina, E Iu; Dorosheva, Zh V; Sidorovich, Iu V; Bychkov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of the investigations of craniocerebral injuries (CCI) including crystallographic studies of brain liquor obtained after the injury and non-traumatic pathological processes. The additional forensic medical criteria for the severity of craniocerebral injuries have been developed and the objective signs of CCI determined to be used for diagnostic purposes in the cases with concomitant diseases and also in the subjects of advanced and declining age. The diagnostic methods for the elucidation of the nature of chronic subdural hematomas and the estimation of the time of their formation have been improved.

  20. Computational Diagnostic: A Novel Approach to View Medical Data.

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, K. K.; Börner, K.

    2007-01-01

    A transition from traditional paper-based medical records to electronic health record is largely underway. The use of electronic records offers tremendous potential to personalize patient diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we discuss a computational diagnostic tool that uses digital medical records to help doctors gain better insight about a patient's medical condition. The paper details different interactive features of the tool which offer potential to practice evidence-based medicine and advance patient diagnosis practices. The healthcare industry is a constantly evolving domain. Research from this domain is often translated into better understanding of different medical conditions. This new knowledge often contributes towards improved diagnosis and treatment solutions for patients. But the healthcare industry lags behind to seek immediate benefits of the new knowledge as it still adheres to the traditional paper-based approach to keep track of medical records. However recently we notice a drive that promotes a transition towards electronic health record (EHR). An EHR stores patient medical records in digital format and offers potential to replace the paper health records. Earlier attempts of an EHR replicated the paper layout on the screen, representation of medical history of a patient in a graphical time-series format, interactive visualization with 2D/3D generated images from an imaging device. But an EHR can be much more than just an 'electronic view' of the paper record or a collection of images from an imaging device. In this paper, we present an EHR called 'Computational Diagnostic Tool', that provides a novel computational approach to look at patient medical data. The developed EHR system is knowledge driven and acts as clinical decision support tool. The EHR tool provides two visual views of the medical data. Dynamic interaction with data is supported to help doctors practice evidence-based decisions and make judicious choices about patient

  1. [Key Points for Design and Evaluation of Clinical Studies in Treating Children's Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Chinese Medical New Drugs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Ma, Rong; Hu, Si-yuan

    2015-05-01

    Based on collecting data at home and abroad, we combined clinical practice of scientific researches. We also summarized key points for design and evaluation of clinical studies in treating children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by Chinese medical new drugs from objective and design, selection of diagnostic criteria, recruitment and dropping-out of subjects, effectiveness evaluation, safety evaluation, drug combination, and quality control, and so on. We hope to provide reference for design and evaluation of clinical studies by Chinese medical new drugs.

  2. Requirements for dry hard copy in medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Langhe, Dirk; De Clerck, Marc; Tytgat, Bart; McLain, Jim; Defieuw, Geert; Verdonck, Emiel

    1996-03-01

    Today, dry process and color printers are more and more common in medical applications. The main applications for these printers are in ultrasound, nuclear medicine, medical imaging workstations and endoscopy. Each of these disciplines has its specific application requirements. Image quality and other considerations with regard to medical applications are discussed. Although the emphasis in medical imaging lies within grayscale imaging, the increased use of techniques such as doppler imaging, power doppler in ultrasound and image processing with workstations, intensify the need for high quality color output on hardcopy. For the radiology department, hardcopy must be of diagnostic quality and suitable for light box viewing. The different criteria to meet these requirements such as resolution, noise, density and physical properties are discussed. Also a short description of the implementation in the Agfa DRYSTAR 2000TM printer and its consumables will be explained. The achieved quality level will be supported by measurements. Starting from specific image processing for grayscale imaging (such as Look Up Tables) and specific imaging processing for color imaging, a new dedicated image processing method for medical dry hard copy will be presented. Both optimal grayscale imaging and color imaging combined are needed in ultrasound. In relation to this item, some non resolved issues will be explained. As a conclusion, a brief presentation of a hospital application test, validating the system for diagnostic purposes is given.

  3. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. L.; Domracheva, E. G.; Sobakinskaya, E. A.; Chernyaeva, M. B.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice.

  4. [Forensic-medical diagnostics of doping cases in sports].

    PubMed

    Khodasevich, L S; Kuzin, S G; Khodasevich, A L

    2013-01-01

    The present review of the literature is focused on the problem of forensic-medical diagnostics of doping cases in sports, with special reference to the main classes of pharmaceutical products forbidden for use by the International Olympic Committee. The main causes of death among the athletes as a result of using doping substances are considered. Much attention is given to adverse reactions induced by long-time intake of anabolic steroids many of which can be identified at autopsy.

  5. A New Methodology to Design Distributed Medical Diagnostic Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    METHODOLOGY TO DESIGN DISTRIBUTED MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTERS P. A. Baziana,. E. I. Karavatselou, D. K. Lymberopoulos, D. N. Serpanos Department of...Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, Hellas This paper introduces a new methodology for DDC design by controlling the above...TSPs) to design and support cooperative schemes among RUs and DUs in form of DDCs [2]. This paper introduces a global methodology for such a DDC’s

  6. Email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Barbara; Atherton, Helen; Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Car, Josip

    2012-08-15

    As medical care becomes more complex and the ability to test for conditions grows, pressure on healthcare providers to convey increasing volumes of test results to patients is driving investigation of alternative technological solutions for their delivery. This review addresses the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients. To assess the effects of using email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients, compared to SMS/ text messaging, telephone communication or usual care, on outcomes, including harms, for health professionals, patients and caregivers, and health services. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to January 2010), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1967 to January 2010), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to February 2010), and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists and contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of interventions using email for communicating results of any diagnostic medical investigations to patients, and taking the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of retrieved citations. No studies were identified for inclusion. Consequently, no data collection or analysis was possible. No studies met the inclusion criteria, therefore there are no results to report on the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical

  7. Perspectives of Chinese healthcare providers on medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gan, Kang; Zhang, Yuhan; Jiang, Xiaomei; Meng, Yucui; Hou, Liyan; Cheng, Yimin

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate Chinese healthcare providers' knowledge regarding medical abortion, to understand provider preferences for abortion methods, and to investigate the role of remuneration on providers' decision making. Between November 2009 and May 2010, 658 abortion service providers from family-planning service centers and hospitals in Shenzhen and Henan, China, were surveyed via self-administered questionnaires. The knowledge score (out of a maximum of 32) regarding medical abortion was 16-20 for 60.9% of the providers; 20.4% of the providers preferred medical abortion to surgical abortion, whereas 35.0% preferred surgical abortion. Overall, 72.2% of providers stated that they did not receive any commission for providing medical abortion or surgical abortion. Most healthcare providers believed that surgical abortion was preferable to medical abortion. Efforts should be made to overcome the perceived disadvantages of medical abortion. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic value of multiple café-au-lait macules for neurofibromatosis 1 in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruen; Wang, Lili; Yu, Yongguo; Wang, Jian; Shen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. The appearance of multiple café-au-lait macules is an early sign of the condition, which often alert physicians to follow up and further examine the patient for the possibility of NF1. In order to determine the predictive value of multiple café-au-lait macules at early age for NF1 in Chinese patients, we recruited 19 children who shared the common sign of multiple café-au-lait macules from a general pediatric clinic in Shanghai. All the patients were clinically evaluated following the National Institutes of Health criteria for NF1 and molecular tested for sequence variants and copy number changes. Nine children met the clinical diagnostic criteria of NF1, and molecular tests confirmed all nine patients with pathogenic variants including two genomic deletions, two novel frame-shift variants, four novel nonsense and a splicing variants. In addition, four children who did not meet the diagnostic criteria were also found to carry pathogenic NF1 variants. Overall, 68.4% (13/19) of children with café-au-lait macules and various other clinical presentations were molecularly confirmed with NF1. This study demonstrated that the majority of Chinese children with multiple café-au-lait macules who came to seek for medical attention had NF1. Molecular testing is necessary to be used as an adjunct and sometimes as the main tool for confirming and diagnosing children of NF1 at early age.

  9. Gender differences in Chinese immigrants: predictors for antihypertensive medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wen; Froelicher, Erika S

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe gender differences in predictors for antihypertensive medication adherence in Chinese immigrants. A cross-sectional design was used with recruitment with a convenience sample of 100 men and 100 women with hypertension. Measurements for demographics, cultural factors, clinical factors, and medication adherence were self-administered by the participants. Blood pressure was checked twice. A multivariate logistic regression was used to establish a parsimonious prediction model for medication adherence. It was found that in men, longer length of stay in the United States was a predictor for nonadherence. The predictor of nonadherence in women was lower perceived benefits of antihypertensive medications. To increase adherence in women, the benefits of antihypertensive medications should be emphasized. For men who have lived in the United States for 12 years or more, their adherence should be closely monitored.

  10. [Exploration and analysis of the thought of medical education in the Shanghai New Chinese Medical College].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Shang, Li; Bing, Shoulan

    2014-11-01

    Shanghai New Chinese Medical College set up by Zhu Nanshan and his sons, Zhu Xiaonan and Zhu Hegao, was a medical college of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the most innovative spirit in modern time. Its affiliated research institute held the principle of "realizing the scientific truth of TCM, training TCM advanced talents", marking the beginning of the pioneering of "scientific TCM". The educational plan, clinical research and academic organization based on "carrying forward the quintessence of Chinese culture, absorbing and digesting the new knowledge" showed a certain influence at home and abroad. The College advocated the combination of communicating with famous physicians and the study of theory, cultivation of students' organization and academic society, launching of journals, and organizing students' research associations was aiming at the satisfaction of the social needs and teaching orientation. Its running experience provided useful reference for modern TCM medical education.

  11. Chinese Confucian culture and the medical ethical tradition.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Z

    1995-01-01

    The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and on character cultivation were all inherited by the medical workers and thus became prominent in Chinese traditional medical ethics. Hence, it is clear that the medical profession and Confucianism have long shared common goals in terms of ethics. Influenced by the excellent Confucian thinking and culture, a rather highly-developed system of Chinese traditional medical ethics emerged with a well-defined basic content, and the system has been followed and amended by medical professionals of all generations throughout Chinese history. This system, just to mention briefly, contains concepts such as the need: to attach great importance to the value of life; to do one's best to rescue the dying and to heal the wounded; to show concern to those who suffer from diseases; to practise medicine with honesty; to study medical skills painstakingly; to oppose a careless style of work; to comfort oneself in a dignified manner; to respect local customs and to be polite; to treat patients, noble or humble, equally, and to respect the academic achievements of others, etc. Of course, at the same time, Confucian culture has its own historical and class limitations, which exerted negative influences on traditional medical ethics. Now, if we are to keep up with the development of modern medicine, a serious topic must be addressed. That is how to retain the essence of our traditional medical ethics so as to maintain historic continuity and yet, at the same time, add on the new contents of medical

  12. Enzyme immunoassays and related procedures in diagnostic medical virology

    PubMed Central

    Kurstak, Edouard; Tijssen, Peter; Kurstak, Christine; Morisset, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This review article describes several applications of the widely used enzyme immunoassay (EIA) procedure. EIA methods have been adapted to solve problems in diagnostic virology where sensitivity, specificity, or practicability is required. Concurrent developments in hybridoma and conjugation methods have increased significantly the use of these assays. A general overview of EIA methods is given together with typical examples of their use in diagnostic medical virology; attention is drawn to possible pitfalls. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have made it possible to produce highly specific nucleic acid probes that have a sensitivity approximately 100 times greater than that of EIA. Some applications of these probes are described. Although the non-labelled nucleic acid probes for use in the field are not as refined as non-labelled immunoassays, their range of applications is expected to expand rapidly in the near future. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:3533302

  13. [Lexical gap and translation of traditional Chinese medical terms].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun Mei

    2007-03-01

    The phenomenon of lexical gap, a commonly encountered problem in cross-cultural communication, often causes trouble to translation in cross-cultural communication. The author analyzes the phenomenon of lexical gap in the English translation of traditional Chinese medical terms from the viewpoint of TCM culture, and puts forward the principles for their translation, that is, equivalence translation, equivalence in meaning translation and transliteration.

  14. Resilience and Cognitive Bias in Chinese Male Medical Freshmen.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Cao, Hong-Wen; Yu, Yongju; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Psychological resilience has become a hot issue in positive psychology research. However, little is known about cognitive bias difference of individuals with different resilience levels. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of cognitive bias and its role in Chinese medical freshmen with different resilience levels. 312 Chinese medical freshmen were surveyed by the Chinese version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, 92 of whom were, respectively, allocated into high (n = 46) and low (n = 46) resilient group to complete computerized tests using an attentional shifting task and an emotional picture recognition task. All participants had the highest recognition accuracy toward negative pictures compared to neutral and positive ones. By comparison, it was found that the high-resilient group had a longer recognition response time toward positive emotional pictures, but a shorter response time toward negative emotional pictures, while the low-resilient group had a longer response time toward negative emotional pictures. This study pointed to the association between resilience and cognitive bias. Medical freshmen with different resilience levels showed significant differences in the cognitive bias toward emotional pictures, suggesting that reducing negative cognitive bias and promoting positive cognitive bias could be important targets to increase resilience.

  15. Synergistic advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizzi, Frederic L.

    2003-04-01

    Significant advances are more fully exploiting ultrasound's potential for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment. Therapeutic systems employ intense focused beams to thermally kill cancer cells in, e.g., prostate; to stop bleeding; and to treat specific diseases (e.g., glaucoma). Diagnostic ultrasound techniques can quantitatively image an increasingly broad spectrum of physical tissue attributes. An exciting aspect of this progress is the emerging synergy between these modalities. Advanced diagnostic techniques may contribute at several stages in therapy. For example, treatment planning for small ocular tumors uses 50-MHz, 3-D ultrasonic images with 0.05-mm resolution. Thermal simulations employ these images to evaluate desired and undesired effects using exposure stategies with specially designed treatment beams. Therapy beam positioning can use diagnostic elastography to sense tissue motion induced by radiation pressure from high-intensity treatment beams. Therapy monitoring can sense lesion formation using elastography motion sensing (to detect the increased stiffness in lesions); harmonic imaging (to sense altered nonlinear properties); and spectrum analysis images (depicting changes in the sizes, concentration, and configuration of sub-resolution structures.) Experience from these applications will greatly expand the knowledge of acoustic phenomena in living tissues and should lead to further advances in medical ultrasound.

  16. How 3D immersive visualization is changing medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Anton H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Originally the only way to look inside the human body without opening it up was by means of two dimensional (2D) images obtained using X-ray equipment. The fact that human anatomy is inherently three dimensional leads to ambiguities in interpretation and problems of occlusion. Three dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as CT, MRI and 3D ultrasound remove these drawbacks and are now part of routine medical care. While most hospitals 'have gone digital', meaning that the images are no longer printed on film, they are still being viewed on 2D screens. However, this way valuable depth information is lost, and some interactions become unnecessarily complex or even unfeasible. Using a virtual reality (VR) system to present volumetric data means that depth information is presented to the viewer and 3D interaction is made possible. At the Erasmus MC we have developed V-Scope, an immersive volume visualization system for visualizing a variety of (bio-)medical volumetric datasets, ranging from 3D ultrasound, via CT and MRI, to confocal microscopy, OPT and 3D electron-microscopy data. In this talk we will address the advantages of such a system for both medical diagnostics as well as for (bio)medical research.

  17. Biorisk Assessment of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwonsa; Osakue, Eguagie Osareniro; Imade, Odaro Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in Nigeria for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and measures. Methods A total of 80 diagnostic laboratories in biosafety level 3 were assessed for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and compliance rate with biosafety practices. A detailed questionnaire and checklist was used to obtain the relevant information from enlisted laboratories. Results The results showed the presence of an isolated unit for microbiological work, leak-proof working benches, self-closing doors, emergency exits, fire extinguisher(s), autoclaves, and hand washing sinks in 21.3%, 71.3%, 15.0%, 1.3%, 11.3%, 82.5%, and 67.5%, respectively, of all laboratories surveyed. It was observed that public diagnostic laboratories were significantly more likely to have an isolated unit for microbiological work (p = 0.001), hand washing sink (p = 0.003), and an autoclave (p ≤ 0.001) than private ones. Routine use of hand gloves, biosafety cabinet, and a first aid box was observed in 35.0%, 20.0%, and 2.5%, respectively, of all laboratories examined. Written standard operating procedures, biosafety manuals, and biohazard signs on door entrances were observed in 6.3%, 1.3%, and 3.8%, respectively, of all audited laboratories. No biosafety officer(s) or records of previous spills, or injuries and accidents, were observed in all diagnostic laboratories studied. Conclusion In all laboratories (public and private) surveyed, marked deficiencies were observed in the area of administrative control responsible for implementing biosafety. Increased emphasis on provision of biosafety devices and compliance with standard codes of practices issued by relevant authorities is strongly advocated. PMID:23961333

  18. Biorisk assessment of medical diagnostic laboratories in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwonsa; Osakue, Eguagie Osareniro; Imade, Odaro Stanley

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in Nigeria for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and measures. A total of 80 diagnostic laboratories in biosafety level 3 were assessed for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and compliance rate with biosafety practices. A detailed questionnaire and checklist was used to obtain the relevant information from enlisted laboratories. The results showed the presence of an isolated unit for microbiological work, leak-proof working benches, self-closing doors, emergency exits, fire extinguisher(s), autoclaves, and hand washing sinks in 21.3%, 71.3%, 15.0%, 1.3%, 11.3%, 82.5%, and 67.5%, respectively, of all laboratories surveyed. It was observed that public diagnostic laboratories were significantly more likely to have an isolated unit for microbiological work (p = 0.001), hand washing sink (p = 0.003), and an autoclave (p ≤ 0.001) than private ones. Routine use of hand gloves, biosafety cabinet, and a first aid box was observed in 35.0%, 20.0%, and 2.5%, respectively, of all laboratories examined. Written standard operating procedures, biosafety manuals, and biohazard signs on door entrances were observed in 6.3%, 1.3%, and 3.8%, respectively, of all audited laboratories. No biosafety officer(s) or records of previous spills, or injuries and accidents, were observed in all diagnostic laboratories studied. In all laboratories (public and private) surveyed, marked deficiencies were observed in the area of administrative control responsible for implementing biosafety. Increased emphasis on provision of biosafety devices and compliance with standard codes of practices issued by relevant authorities is strongly advocated.

  19. Ontology development for unified traditional Chinese medical language system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Wu, Zhaohui; Yin, Aining; Wu, Lancheng; Fan, Weiyu; Zhang, Ruen

    2004-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a complete knowledge system researches into human health conditions via a different approach compared to orthodox medicine. We are developing a unified traditional Chinese medical language system (UTCMLS) through an ontology approach that will support TCM language knowledge storage, concept-based information retrieval and information integration. UTCMLS is a huge knowledge project, which is a broad collaboration of 16 distributed groups, most of them with no prior experience of formal ontology development. Therefore, the cooperative and comprehensive ontology engineering is crucial. We use Protégé 2000 for ontology development of concepts and relationships that represent the domain and that will permit storage of TCM knowledge. This paper focuses on the methodology, design and development of ontology for UTCMLS.

  20. Medical diagnostics by laser-based analysis of exhaled breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    2002-08-01

    IMany trace gases can be found in the exhaled breath, some of them giving the possibility of a non invasive diagnosis of related diseases or allowing the monitoring of the disease in the course of its therapy. In the present lecture the principle of medical diagnosis based on the breath analysis will be introduced and the detection of trace gases in exhaled breath by high- resolution molecular spectroscopy in the IR spectral region will be discussed. A number of substrates and the optical systems for their laser detection will be reported. The following laser based experimental systems has been realised in the Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory in ENEA in Frascati for the analysis of specific substances in the exhaled breath. A tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) appartus for the measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio in carbon dioxide, a TDLAS apparatus for the detection of CH4 and a CO2 laser based photoacoustic system to detect trace ethylene at atmospheric pressure. The experimental set-up for each one of the a.m. optical systems will be shown and the related medical applications will be illustrated. The concluding remarks will be focuses on chemical species that are of major interest for medical people today and their diagnostic ability.

  1. Reliability of Chinese medicine diagnostic variables in the examination of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Hua, Bin; Abbas, Estelle; Hayes, Alan; Ryan, Peter; Nelson, Lisa; O'Brien, Kylie

    2012-11-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has its own diagnostic indicators that are used as evidence of change in a patient's condition. The majority of studies investigating efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) have utilized biomedical diagnostic endpoints. For CM clinical diagnostic variables to be incorporated into clinical trial designs, there would need to be evidence that these diagnostic variables are reliable. Previous studies have indicated that the reliability of CM syndrome diagnosis is variable. Little information is known about where the variability stems from--the basic data collection level or the synthesis of diagnostic data, or both. No previous studies have investigated systematically the reliability of all four diagnostic methods used in the CM diagnostic process (Inquiry, Inspection, Auscultation/Olfaction, and Palpation). The objective of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of data collected using the four diagnostic methods of CM in Australian patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in order to investigate if CM variables could be used with confidence as diagnostic endpoints in a clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a CHM in treating OA. An inter-rater reliability study was conducted as a substudy of a clinical trial investigating the treatment of knee OA with Chinese herbal medicine. Two (2) experienced CM practitioners conducted a CM examination separately, within 2 hours of each other, in 40 participants. A CM assessment form was utilized to record the diagnostic data. Cohen's κ coefficient was used as a measure of the level of agreement between 2 practitioners. There was a relatively good level of agreement for Inquiry and Auscultation variables, and, in general, a low level of agreement for (visual) Inspection and Palpation variables. There was variation in the level of agreement between 2 practitioners on clinical information collected using the Four Diagnostic Methods of a CM examination. Some aspects of CM diagnosis appear

  2. [Protection of medical diagnostic laboratory workers against biohazards].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Medical diagnostic laboratories form a particular occupational environment, in which workers have contact with patients and potentially infectious biological materials thus it should be acknowledged that it poses a significantly increased risk to health of laboratory workers. The risk directly depends on the kind of microbes present in a biological material and natural resistance to infections of individual workers. Therefore, the adopted technical and organizational solutions, properly worked out and obeyed procedures assuring safety work with biological material and microbes and properly trained laboratory staff play an essential role in reducing the risk. The risk of contact with microbes among laboratory workers is higher in Poland than in a number of other countries because hermetic devices for diagnostic analyzes and safety blood sampling systems are not always in use. The most important methods of infectious diseases prevention among laboratory workers are to protect them against direct contact with biological material, to apply vaccinations and to implement proper post-exposure procedures. Appropriate qualifications and habits of workers are of relevance to prevent infections in laboratories. A difficult financial situation of health care in Poland and other economic reasons can significantly increase the risk of infections and endanger health and safety of laboratory workers. It is necessary to develop practical instructions aimed at improving occupational safety to protect this occupational group against harmful effects of biological agents.

  3. The future of novel diagnostics in medical mycology.

    PubMed

    Teles, Fernando; Seixas, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Several fungal diseases have become serious threats to human health and life, especially upon the advent of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS epidemics and of other typical immunosuppressive conditions of modern life. Accordingly, the burden posed by these diseases and, concurrently, by intensive therapeutic regimens against these diseases has increased worldwide. Existing and available rapid tests for point-of-care diagnosis of important fungal diseases could enable the limitations of current laboratory methods for detection and identification of medically important fungi to be surpassed, both in low-income countries and for first-line diagnosis (screening) in richer countries. As with conventional diagnostic methods and devices, former immunodiagnostics have been challenged by molecular biology-based platforms, as a way to enhance the sensitivity and shorten the assay time, thus enabling early and more accurate diagnosis. Most of these tests have been developed in-house, without adequate validation and standardization. Another challenge has been the DNA extraction step, which is especially critical when dealing with fungi. In this paper, we have identified three major research trends in this field: (1) the application of newer biorecognition techniques, often applied in analytical chemistry; (2) the development of new materials with improved physico-chemical properties; and (3) novel bioanalytical platforms, allowing fully automated testing. Keeping up to date with the fast technological advances registered in this field, primarily at the proof-of-concept level, is essential for wise assessment of those that are likely to be more cost effective and, as already observed for bacterial and viral pathogens, may provide leverage to the current tepid developmental status of novel and improved diagnostics for medical mycology. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Life events and anxiety in Chinese medical students.

    PubMed

    Liu, X C; Oda, S; Peng, X; Asai, K

    1997-02-01

    The authors studied a sample of 537 Chinese medical students aged 15-21 years using Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and a life events checklist. The results showed that test pressure, less free time, peer competition, failure in a test, and financial problems were the most common stressful experiences for medical students during the previous 12 months. Social and personal problems were rated the highest on scores of perceived stress. Of all students, 12.5% scored over the cut-off point on the SAS previously established to indicate risk of psychiatric disorder. Using a stepwise regression analysis, it was shown that poor health status, little physical exercise, financial problems in the family, test pressure, conflict with classmates, the personality trait of introversion, getting up late in the morning, and freshman status were independently associated with the presence of anxiety.

  5. Photoionization sensors for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of biomarkers can help to identify the significant number of diseases: lung cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, high levels of stress, psychosomatic disorders etc. To implement continuous monitoring of the state of human health, compact VUV photoionization detector with current-voltage measurement is designed by Saint-Petersburg Mining University Plasma Research Group. This sensor is based on the patented method of stabilization of electric parameters - CES (Collisional Electron Spectroscopy). During the operation at atmospheric pressure VUV photoionization sensor measures the energy of electrons, produced in the ionization with the resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). A special software was developed to obtain the second-order derivative of the I-U characteristics, taken by the VUV sensor, to construct the energy spectra of the characteristic electrons. VUV photoionization detector has an unique set of parameters: small size (10*10*1 mm), low cost, wide range of recognizable molecules, as well as accuracy, sufficient for using this instrument for the medical purposes. This device can be used for non-invasive medical diagnostics without compromising the quality of life, for control of environment and human life. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  6. Novel x-ray optics for medical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyumchyan, A.; Arvanian, V.; Kuyumchyan, D.; Aristov, V.; Shulakov, E.

    2009-08-01

    A new hard X - ray hologram with using crystal Fresnel zone plates (ZP) has been described. An image of Fourier hologram for hard X- ray is presented. X-ray phase contrast methods for medical diagnostics techniques are presented. We have developed an X-ray microscope, based on micro focus source which is capable of high resolution phasecontrast imaging and holograms. We propose a new imaging technique with the x-ray energy 8 keV. The method is expected to have wide applications in imaging of low absorbing samples such as biological and medical tissue. We used FIB to reproduction three dimension structures of damaged spinal cord of rat before and after combined treatment with NT3 and NR2D. PUBLISHER'S NOTE 12/16/09: This SPIE Proceedings paper has been updated with an erratum correcting several issues throughout the paper. The corrected paper was published in place of the earlier version on 9/1/2009. If you purchased the original version of the paper and no longer have access, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service at CustomerService@SPIEDigitalLibrary.org for assistance.

  7. Fields of applications, diagnostic yields and findings of OMOM capsule endoscopy in 2400 Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhuan; Gao, Rui; Li, Feng; Xu, Can; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jin-Shan; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze the fields of application, diagnostic yields and findings of OMOM capsule endoscopy in Chinese patients. METHODS: A database including 2400 Chinese patients who received OMOM capsule endoscopy in 27 endoscopy centers in China was retrieved from the Jianshan Science and Technology Ltd. OMOM capsule endoscopy database. The patient’s age, gender, fields of application, the potentially relevant findings, pyloric transit time (PTT), small bowel transit time (SBTT), and complete small-bowel examination rate (CSER) were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Two thousand four hundred patients aged 9-91 years (mean, 49 years), of whom 1510 were males (62.9%), underwent 2400 OMOM capsule endoscopy procedures. One thousand two hundred and thirty two (51.3%) were referred with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), 642 (26.8%) with abdominal pain, and 223 (9.3%) with chronic diarrhea. The overall diagnostic yield was 47.7% (1144/2400). The diagnostic yield of OMOM capsule endoscopy in OGIB subgroup was much higher than in the non-OGIB subgroup (62.4% vs 32.1%, P < 0.001). The most common findings of the small bowel in Chinese patients with OGIB were arteriovenous malformation (28.1%) and tumors (18.9%). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic yield between the male and female patients with OGIB. However, the diagnostic yield in patients aged more than 60 was higher than in patients aged less than 60 (69.8% vs 58.9%, P < 0.001). The median PTT was 41 min (range: 1-544 min) and the mean SBTT was 247.2 ± 88.9 min. The overall CSER was 86.8%. CONCLUSION: The OMOM capsule endoscopy is a valuable tool for small bowel evaluation with good overall diagnostic yield and CSER. PMID:20518090

  8. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2011-01-26

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  9. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2010-11-03

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  10. A comparison of medical record with billing diagnostic information associated with ambulatory medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Studney, D R; Hakstian, A R

    1981-01-01

    The degree of similarity between diagnostic information furnished with claims and that simultaneously entered into the medical record was estimated for 1,215 private office visits in British Columbia, Canada. For each visit, claim card and chart diagnoses were compared by having three independent internists (blinded to source and type of the data) make judgments about each diagnostic pair. The judges were highly consistent internally and their judgments were stable over time. In 40 per cent of cases chart and claims data were judged dissimilar, and in 38 per cent of cases claims data were judged more valuable as a reflection of the primary problem treated. The degree of judged similarity of chart and claims data correlated significantly and negatively with physician workload, income, and judges' preference for the billing card diagnosis. We conclude that in using claims data to determine the content of ambulatory visits, independent validation of such data may be important. PMID:7457683

  11. Translation in different diagnostic procedures---traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Wu, Yuh-Jenn; Lin, Chien-Hsiung; Chang, Yeu-Jhy

    2008-12-01

    Recently, the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) for treatment of patients with critical and/or life-threatening diseases has attracted much attention in the pharmaceutical industry. However, there exist essential differences in the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a TCM as compared with a typical Western medicine (WM), even though they are for the same indication. Therefore, the modernization of a TCM should be based on a scientific evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the TCM in terms of well-established quantitative criteria. We propose a study design to study the calibration and validation of the Chinese diagnostic procedure for evaluation of a TCM, with respect to a well-established clinical endpoint for evaluation of a WM. Statistical validation of such an instrument is essential to have an accurate and reliable clinical assessment of the performance of the TCM. Similar to the validation of a typical quality of life instrument, some validation performance characteristics such as validity, reliability, and ruggedness are considered. In this article, a design for validation of a standard quantitative instrument to be commonly employed for diagnosis of patient function/activity, performance, disease signs and symptoms, and disease status and severity based on Chinese diagnostic practice is proposed. Methods for statistical validation of the standard instrument are derived. More specifically, for validation of the TCM diagnostic instrument, we consider the following validation performance characteristics (parameters): validity (or accuracy), reliability (or precision), and ruggedness (interrater variability). A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed methods for validation of the Chinese diagnostic procedure.

  12. Design strategy and implementation of the medical diagnostic image support system at two large military medical centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald V.; Smith, Stan M.; Sauls, F.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Telepak, Robert J.

    1992-07-01

    The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support (MDIS) system contract for federal medical treatment facilities was awarded to Loral/Siemens in the Fall of 1991. This contract places ''filmless'' imaging in a variety of situations from small clients to large medical centers. The MDIS system approach is a ''turn-key'', performance based specification driven by clinical requirements.

  13. Towards the unification of inference structures in medical diagnostic tasks.

    PubMed

    Mira, J; Rives, J; Delgado, A E; Martínez, R

    1998-01-01

    The central purpose of artificial intelligence applied to medicine is to develop models for diagnosis and therapy planning at the knowledge level, in the Newell sense, and software environments to facilitate the reduction of these models to the symbol level. The usual methodology (KADS, Common-KADS, GAMES, HELIOS, Protégé, etc) has been to develop libraries of generic tasks and reusable problem-solving methods with explicit ontologies. The principal problem which clinicians have with these methodological developments concerns the diversity and complexity of new terms whose meaning is not sufficiently clear, precise, unambiguous and consensual for them to be accessible in the daily clinical environment. As a contribution to the solution of this problem, we develop in this article the conjecture that one inference structure is enough to describe the set of analysis tasks associated with medical diagnoses. To this end, we first propose a modification of the systematic diagnostic inference scheme to obtain an analysis generic task and then compare it with the monitoring and the heuristic classification task inference schemes using as comparison criteria the compatibility of domain roles (data structures), the similarity in the inferences, and the commonality in the set of assumptions which underlie the functionally equivalent models. The equivalences proposed are illustrated with several examples. Note that though our ongoing work aims to simplify the methodology and to increase the precision of the terms used, the proposal presented here should be viewed more in the nature of a conjecture.

  14. Targeted diagnostic magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, I; Strauss, A; Dobiasch, S; Weis, C; Szanyi, S; Gil-Iceta, L; Alonso, E; González Esparza, M; Gómez-Vallejo, V; Szczupak, B; Plaza-García, S; Mirzaei, S; Israel, L L; Bianchessi, S; Scanziani, E; Lellouche, J-P; Knoll, P; Werner, J; Felix, K; Grenacher, L; Reese, T; Kreuter, J; Jiménez-González, M

    2015-09-28

    Highly aggressive cancer types such as pancreatic cancer possess a mortality rate of up to 80% within the first 6months after diagnosis. To reduce this high mortality rate, more sensitive diagnostic tools allowing an early stage medical imaging of even very small tumours are needed. For this purpose, magnetic, biodegradable nanoparticles prepared using recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) and incorporated iron oxide (maghemite, γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were developed. Galectin-1 has been chosen as target receptor as this protein is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions but not in healthy pancreatic tissue nor in pancreatitis. Tissue plasminogen activator derived peptides (t-PA-ligands), that have a high affinity to galectin-1 have been chosen as target moieties and were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface. Improved targeting and imaging properties were shown in mice using single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT), a handheld gamma camera, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Compilation and use of General Catalog for Chinese Medical Classical in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-yuan

    2010-07-01

    Since 1949, 3 large-range resource investigation of Chinese medical classical have been carried out and Union Catalog for Chinese Medical Books, National Union Catalog for Chinese Medical Books, and General Catalog for Chinese Medical Classical in China have been compiled. Among them, the last one was the all-around catalog and 13,455 ancient literature were included. During its compilation, some problems in former two catalogs were revised, including the classification of literature, title, complete date, author, publish date and edition etc. However, during the use of General Catalog for Chinese Medical Classical in China, some shortcomings were still needed to be noticed, like classification, title, volume. living dynasty of author, complete date and edition etc.

  16. Future Perspectives of Chinese Medical Formulae: Chinmedomics as an Effector

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat or prevent disease. The health care paradigm has shifted from a focus on disease to TCM therapy with a holistic approach. However, the actual value of TCM has not been fully recognized worldwide due to a lack of scientific approaches to its study. Today omics has become practically available, and resembles TCM in many aspects, and can serve as a key driving force for the translation of the traditional Chinese medical formulae (chinmediformulae) into practice, and will develop and advance the concept of the metabolomics of chinmediformulae (chinmedomics). Chinmedomics seeks to elucidate the therapeutic and synergistic properties and metabolism of chinmediformulae and the involved metabolic pathways using modern analytical techniques. It is an integral part of top-down systems biology, which aims to improve understanding of chinmediformulae. This approach of combining chinmedomics with chinmediformulae with modern health care systems may lead to a revolution in TCM therapy. Although the scientific study of chinmedomics is at an early stage and requires further scrutiny and validation, the approach has major implications to improve the efficacy of chinmediformulae. This article introduces and reviews the concept of chinmedomics, and highlights recent examples of the approach, which are presented for description and discussion. PMID:22734809

  17. Future perspectives of Chinese medical formulae: chinmedomics as an effector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat or prevent disease. The health care paradigm has shifted from a focus on disease to TCM therapy with a holistic approach. However, the actual value of TCM has not been fully recognized worldwide due to a lack of scientific approaches to its study. Today omics has become practically available, and resembles TCM in many aspects, and can serve as a key driving force for the translation of the traditional Chinese medical formulae (chinmediformulae) into practice, and will develop and advance the concept of the metabolomics of chinmediformulae (chinmedomics). Chinmedomics seeks to elucidate the therapeutic and synergistic properties and metabolism of chinmediformulae and the involved metabolic pathways using modern analytical techniques. It is an integral part of top-down systems biology, which aims to improve understanding of chinmediformulae. This approach of combining chinmedomics with chinmediformulae with modern health care systems may lead to a revolution in TCM therapy. Although the scientific study of chinmedomics is at an early stage and requires further scrutiny and validation, the approach has major implications to improve the efficacy of chinmediformulae. This article introduces and reviews the concept of chinmedomics, and highlights recent examples of the approach, which are presented for description and discussion.

  18. Medical diagnostics with mobile devices: Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic sensing.

    PubMed

    Kwon, L; Long, K D; Wan, Y; Yu, H; Cunningham, B T

    2016-01-01

    We review the recent development of mobile detection instruments used for medical diagnostics, and consider the relative advantages of approaches that utilize the internal sensing capabilities of commercially available mobile communication devices (such as smartphones and tablet computers) compared to those that utilize a custom external sensor module. In this review, we focus specifically upon mobile medical diagnostic platforms that are being developed to serve the need in global health, personalized medicine, and point-of-care diagnostics.

  19. [Ancient Indian and Chinese medical oaths and the comparison of their medical rules].

    PubMed

    Aksoy, S

    2001-01-01

    The art of medicine has existed on earth since the existence of mankind. Although the traditions and practices may vary, the mere intention has been to help people remain healthy and restore their health when they get sick. Since health is man's most important fortune, the medical profession has always been open to abuse or misuse. To prevent this, it came to be a tradition to bound health care professionals with oaths and codes. This article examines medical oaths and codes in two different Eastern traditions, namely China and India. Two different medical oaths from two major ancient Indian medical books, Charaka Samhita and Susuruta will be addressed and elaborated. They will be compared and contrasted with each other and their commons and differences from the other medical oaths will be examined. Chinese medical codes, one from the 7th and the other from the 17th century are reviewed in the article. It has appeared from the discussion that although there are some 'unchangeables' in the codes and oaths, like the reference to some sacred or transcendental being or commitment to show respect to the teachers, there are differences due to the time and place. It is also interesting to note how medical practice and its values are influenced by the respective society.

  20. A comparison of the millon behavioral medical diagnostic and millon behavioral health inventory with medical populations.

    PubMed

    Wise, Edward A; Streiner, David L

    2010-12-01

    There is a lack of normative data on broadband omnibus types of personality tests with medical populations. In fact, the only two tests normed on medical populations are the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) and the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI). The internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities, and validity studies of these instruments are reviewed and compared in an effort to aid clinicians in discerning their relative psychometric strengths and weaknesses. Due to the lack of validity studies with the MBMD and the fact that reliability limits the ceiling of validity coefficients, the MBMD has yet to meet the challenges it was designed to meet. Implications for practice are addressed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cancer among medical diagnostic x-ray workers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.X.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Li, B.X.; Zhang, J.Y.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-05-04

    Cancer incidence among 27,011 diagnostic x-ray workers was compared to that of 25,782 other medical specialists employed between 1950 and 1980 in China. X-ray workers had a 50% higher risk of developing cancer than the other specialists (relative risk (RR) = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.3-1.7). Leukemia was strongly linked to radiation work (RR = 3.5, n = 30). Cancers of the breast (RR = 1.4, n = 11), thyroid (RR = 2.1, n = 7), and skin (RR = 1.5, n = 6) were increased among x-ray workers employed for 10 or more years. High risks of cancers of the esophagus (RR = 3.5, n = 15) and liver (RR = 2.4, n = 48) were not consistent with a radiation effect since risk did not vary by duration of employment. This finding suggested that some differences might exist between groups of hospital workers in social class, alcohol intake, dietary habits, and other risk factors. No excess lung cancer (RR = 0.9, n = 22) or multiple myeloma (n = 0) was observed. Significant excesses of leukemia and cancers of the breast and thyroid occurred among x-ray workers first employed prior to 1960 when radiation exposures in China were high. In fact, it was not uncommon for employees to be given time off from x-ray work because their wbc count was severely depressed. These data indicated that repeated exposure to x-rays over many years can increase the risk of leukemia and several other tumors but apparently not that of lung cancer.

  2. [Exploration on the appraisal of Chinese medical lawsuit cases in the Republican period].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sunbiao; Lin, Shan; Lin, Nan

    2015-05-01

    Since the doctor-patient relationship was increasingly tense during the Republican period, Chinese medical lawsuit cases happened frequently due to various sorts of dispute, and had become the focus in both medical and judiciary fields. During this period, the Chinese medical professionals were highly concerned about the rights of medical appraisal and opposed the appraisal made only by western medical professionals alone. Through the establishment of various sorts of appraisal units by professional community, academic groups, and medical colleges, endeavor were made to improve the appraisal level of professionalization and objectivity.

  3. The physician charter on medical professionalism from the Chinese perspective: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pingyue

    2015-07-01

    The charter of medical professionalism in the new millennium (Charter) has been endorsed worldwide, including by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association from 2005. Six years later, the association drafted a Chinese version of medical professionalism based on the Charter, the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration). This Declaration encompasses six tenets, which have large areas of overlap with the Charter. Meanwhile, certain differences also exist between the universal professionalism that the Charter aims to disseminate and the ideal Chinese professionalism that the Declaration endeavours to bolster. In this paper, we explore the unique aspects of the Declaration in contrast with the Charter to gain a deeper understanding of professionalism in the particular context of China. The Declaration may omit some valuable commitments found in the Charter, but it includes longstanding Confucian and cultural traditions of China, as well as consideration of current social circumstances. The Declaration thus re-establishes the ideal of universal professionalism in light of the Chinese context.

  4. [Answer to Xie and colleagues concerning the use of western medical terms to represent traditional Chinese medical concepts].

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Nigel

    2006-08-01

    This paper rejects the Professor Xie's argument that the use of biomedical terms to represent traditional Chinese medical concepts is helpful to the internationalization of Chinese medicine [(Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2005; 25(11):1046-1049]. It further argues that this practice destroys the integrity and independence of Chinese medical concepts, taking the term fĕng huo yan as an example. This paper supports the viewpoint with numerous other examples that for those seeking a deep understanding of TCM, the literal translation (loan translation) is much more helpful.

  5. [A study on the awareness of Chinese medicine by medical missionaries: focused on the China Medical Missionary Journal (1887-1932)].

    PubMed

    Jo, Jeongeun

    2015-04-01

    Protestant medical missionaries, who started entering China during the beginning of the 19th century, set the goal as propagating Western medicine to the Chinese while spreading the Christian gospel. Back in those days, China formed deep relations with their own ideology and culture and depended on Chinese medicine that caused major influence on their lives instead of just treatment behaviors. Accordingly, it is natural to see information about Chinese medicine in documents that were left behind. Yet, there are not many studies which dealt with the awareness of Chinese medicine by medical missionaries, and most were focused on the criticism imposed by medical missionaries regarding Chinese medicine. Thus, there are also claims amongst recent studies which impose how the medical missionaries moved from overlooking and criticizing Chinese medicine to gaining a "sympathetic viewpoint" to a certain degree. Still, when the documents left behind by medical missionaries is observed, there are many aspects which support how the awareness of Chinese medicine in medical missionaries has not changed significantly. In addition, medical missionaries actively used medicine like traditional Chinese drugs if the treatment effect was well known. Yet, they barely gave any interest to the five elements, which are the basics of traditional Chinese drugs prescription. In other words, medical missionaries only selected elements of Chinese medicine that were helpful to them just like how the Chinese were choosing what they needed from Western knowledge. The need to understand Chinese medicine was growing according to the flow of times. For instance, some medical missionaries admitted the treatment effect of acupuncture in contrast to claiming it as non-scientific in the past. Such changes were also related to how focused medical missionaries were on medical activities. The first medical missionaries emphasized the non-scientific aspect of Chinese medicine to verify the legitimacy of

  6. A Review of Western and Traditional Chinese Medical Approaches to Managing Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Lee-Yan; Lin, Hung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease of attention because of increase in prevalence from 20% to 41%. The clinical and pathological conditions in patients with NAFLD range from steatosis alone to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis to hepatic cancer. In the United States, NAFLD was the second-leading indication for liver transplant between 2004 and 2013. Although imaging studies such as magnetic resonance elastography and the use of diagnostic panels and scoring systems can provide a fairly accurate diagnosis of NAFLD, there are few treatment options for patients with mild to moderate disease other than lifestyle modification. Many of the currently used medical treatments have been shown to cause severe side effects and some have been shown to be associated with increased risk for certain types of cancer. In recent years, a number of traditional Chinese herbal treatments have been examined for their potential uses as treatment for NAFLD. In this review, we provide a general overview of NAFLD and a survey of Western pharmacologic drugs currently used to treat the disease as well as the results of recent studies on the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal remedies for managing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27872651

  7. [Analysis of Applying Chinese Medical Clinical Pathway for Treating Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-qing; Han, Xin-min; Zhu, Xian-kang; Zhou, Zheng; Ma, Bing-xiang; Zhang, Bao-qing; Li, Yan-ning; Feng, Yu-lin; Xue, Zheng; Wang, Yong-hong; Li, Yi-min; Jiang, Zhi-mei; Xu, Jin-xing; Yue, Wei-zhen; Xiang, Xi-xiong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the application effect of Chinese medical clinical pathway for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to provide evidence for further improving clinical pathways. Totally 270 ADHD children patients were recruited and treated at pediatrics clinics of 9 cooperative hospitals from December 2011 to December 2012. The treatment course for all was 3 months. Scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of behavior, Conners index of hyperactivity (CIH), and Chinese medical syndrome scores were compared between before and after treatment. The efficacy difference in various sexes, ages, and disease courses were evaluated by judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome and ADHD. Fifteen children patients who entered clinical pathway dropped out, and the rest 255 completed this trial. Compared with before treatment, total scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, CIH, and Chinese medical syndrome scores obviously decreased (all P < 0.01). The total effective rate in disease efficacy was 87.8% (224/255 cases), and the total effective rate in Chinese medical syndrome curative effect was 87.5% (223/255 cases). The clinical curative effect was not influenced by age, gender, or course of disease when statistically analyzed from judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome or for disease efficacy. Intervention by Chinese medical clinical pathway could improve ADHD patients' symptoms, and its efficacy was not influenced by sex, age, or course of disease.

  8. Introducing First-Year Medical Students to Early Diagnostic Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A method of instruction in gynecology is described that encouraged the formulation of early diagnostic hypotheses, an important part of clinical problem-solving. Students were given a set of clinical clues to help them make broad diagnostic hypotheses. Student ability, results, and student perceptions of the course are provided. (Author/LBH)

  9. Molecular diagnostics: the changing culture of medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bullman, Susan; Lucey, Brigid; Sleator, Roy D

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic molecular biology is arguably the fastest growing area in current laboratory-based medicine. Growth of the so called 'omics' technologies has, over the last decade, led to a gradual migration away from the 'one test, one pathogen' paradigm, toward multiplex approaches to infectious disease diagnosis, which have led to significant improvements in clinical diagnostics and ultimately improved patient care.

  10. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Objective To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Results Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. Conclusion The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution. PMID:28298730

  11. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  12. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; van Wijk, Roeland; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-04-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal models published from 1979 through 1998. The research fields can be categorized as follows: (1) human physiological states measured using UPE; (2) characteristics of human UPE in relation to various pathological states; and (3) the relationship between diagnosis (e.g., Chinese syndromes) and the dynamics of UPE in animal models. We conclude that UPE has clear potential in terms of understanding the systems view on health and disease as described using Chinese medicine-based diagnostics, particularly from a biochemistry-based regulatory perspective. Linking UPE with metabolomics can further bridge biochemistry-based Western diagnostics with the phenomenology-based Chinese diagnostics, thus opening new avenues for studying systems diagnostics in the early stage of disease, for prevention-based strategies, as well as for systems-based intervention in chronic disease.

  13. [The ideal of establishing an evaluation system about the combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and western medical pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-song

    2013-08-01

    The necessity of establishing an evaluation system about the combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy was addressed in this paper. Besides, its contents were systematically clarified. Besides, existent problems and its future development trend were also explained. The author believed that it was necessary to perform researches on constructing the evaluation system on the basis of patients' needs and physicians' responsibilities. The ultimate goal of this system was to produce an optimal combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy for a specific disease. This optimal program was the results of comparing and analyzing the therapeutic efficacies of different combination programs. In this program, Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy combined together. On the one hand, it is safe; on the other hand, they do not produce adverse reaction. Their therapeutic effects were synergetic. Chinese medical pharmacy could not only advance the cure effects of Western medical pharmacy, but also supplement the insufficiency of Western medical pharmacy. Of course, the author put forward some assumptions only from the perspective of clinical application in this paper. The evaluation system will become perfect along with further deepening researches of basic sciences.

  14. Developing a diagnostic checklist of traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and signs for psoriasis: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a genetic basis. Its ill-defined causes make it difficult to diagnose. This study aims to develop a diagnostic checklist for psoriasis classification in the context of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods A Delphi study was conducted with three rounds by a panel of 16 dermatology experts to develop a checklist for traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and signs of psoriasis. Dermatology experts in psoriasis research, nine in Yunnan and seven in Beijing, were selected as the expert panel. The initial list of symptoms and signs in psoriasis was developed by reviewing the literature retrieved from Chinese and English journals. Experts rated each item of the list on a 5-point Likert scale. The list was revised and re-evaluated in the same manner for a total of 3 rounds before it was finalized. Results One hundred and thirty items were extracted from the literature review. After three rounds of expert ratings, 96 items were retained with eight domains: color, type and shape of skin lesion, physical expression, tongue and coating, pulse, associated factors, and living environment. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Kappa statistics indicated an inter-rater agreement in the final checklist. Conclusion A checklist containing 96 items in 8 domains was developed for psoriasis diagnosis using traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and signs. PMID:23663296

  15. [Clinical literature based statistical analysis of common Chinese medical syndrome types].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Jun; Shen, Chun-Ti; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-08-01

    According to the principle of evidence-based medicine (EBM), Chinese medical literatures based descriptive statistical analysis of common Chinese medical syndrome types were performed. By data extraction, standardization, and frequency calculation of disease names and syndrome types from 286 literatures in line with the inclusion criteria, the frequencies of diseases and syndromes were obtained to analyze common syndrome types in clinical practice, to analyze the distribution features of disease related syndromes and syndrome related diseases, to analyze the distribution of basic Chinese medical syndrome types in clinical common diseases as a whole, thus providing reference for clinical and basic researches.

  16. Medical physics: some recollections in diagnostic X-ray imaging and therapeutic radiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, J E; Orton, C G

    2000-12-01

    Medical physics has changed dramatically since 1895. There was a period of slow evolutionary change during the first 70 years after Roentgen's discovery of x rays. With the advent of the computer, however, both diagnostic and therapeutic radiology have undergone rapid growth and changes. Technologic advances such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostic imaging and three-dimensional treatment planning systems, stereotactic radiosurgery, and intensity modulated radiation therapy in radiation oncology have resulted in substantial changes in medical physics. These advances have improved diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy while expanding the need for better educated and experienced medical physics staff.

  17. Direct thermal hard copy system for medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Langhe, Dirk; De Clerck, Marc; Kaerts, Erik; Horsten, Bart; Defieuw, Geert; Borremans, Karel

    1997-05-01

    A new dry system based on a direct thermal technology with diagnostic properties has been developed. This paper discusses the major improvements in printer and film required to achieve the image quality needed to meet the diagnostic requirements. The concept of the printer and the film rate both explained. The image quality achieved in terms of contrast, resolution, noise and other parameters is discussed. The results of archivability and shelf life testing and the physical properties of the material are also presented. To validate the technology for diagnostic purposes, a hospital test has been performed for ultrasound, CT, MRI, R and F and vascular studies. The method and results of this testing are presented in the paper. The hospital tests showed that the images obtained with the dry system materials can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  18. Subject, function, and trend in medical ethics research: a comparative study of Chinese and non-Chinese literature using bibliometrics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lanhui; Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Deng, Shaolin; Wu, Taixiang; Chen, Baoqing; Xie, Zhiyi; Qin, Chaoyi; Yu, Zhiyuan; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Jin; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yan; Jiang, Jie

    2012-05-01

    To perform a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese and non-Chinese medical ethics literature using systematic research and literature analysis in order to discern research trends in the area and provide baseline data as a reference for relevant decision making and further study. We retrieved articles using MeSH terms and keywords related to medical ethics in PubMed and CNKI, and then constructed a set of charts by applying word co-occurrence, The Pathfinder Networks algorithms, an included subject chart, a research field relationship chart, and strategy coordination charts. The total of number of papers retrieved from PubMed was six times that retrieved from CNKI. Outside China, medical ethics has been studied in eight fully shaped subject fields, including morals, ethical review, physician-patient relationships, clinical trials, euthanasia, ethics education, clinical ethics, and health policy. In contrast, medical ethics research in China is still confined to five subject fields: morals, physician-patient relations, medical ethics education, ethical review, and medical research. Medical ethics research outside China emphasizes the application of medical ethics to solve emerging problems in clinical and medical research. It is mainly centered on morals, ethical review, and physician-patient relations. By comparison, medical ethics research in China places greater emphasis on morals and medical education. In order to narrow this gap between China and other countries, we should broaden the research scope of medical ethics and add more applied research, such as ethical review and medical education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  19. PBL and Critical Thinking Disposition in Chinese Medical Students--A Randomized Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, XiangYun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon; Sun, Baozhi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the…

  20. Exploring the Case for a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Mugambi, Melissa L.; Palamountain, Kara M.; Gallarda, Jim; Drain, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the private and public sectors have increased investments in medical diagnostics for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite these investments, numerous barriers prevent the adoption of existing diagnostics and discourage the development and introduction of new diagnostics in LMICs. In the late 1990s, the global vaccine community had similar challenges, as vaccine coverage rates stagnated and the introduction of new vaccines was viewed as a distraction to delivering existing vaccines. To address these challenges, the international community came together and formed the Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI). Sixteen years after the formation of GAVI, we see evidence of a healthier global vaccine landscape. We discuss how GAVI’s four guiding principles (product, health systems strengthening, financing and market shaping) might apply to the advancement of medical diagnostics in LMICs. We present arguments for the international community and existing organizations to establish a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative (GAMDI). PMID:28134750

  1. Exploring the Case for a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, Melissa L; Palamountain, Kara M; Gallarda, Jim; Drain, Paul K

    2017-01-26

    In recent years, the private and public sectors have increased investments in medical diagnostics for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite these investments, numerous barriers prevent the adoption of existing diagnostics and discourage the development and introduction of new diagnostics in LMICs. In the late 1990s, the global vaccine community had similar challenges, as vaccine coverage rates stagnated and the introduction of new vaccines was viewed as a distraction to delivering existing vaccines. To address these challenges, the international community came together and formed the Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI). Sixteen years after the formation of GAVI, we see evidence of a healthier global vaccine landscape. We discuss how GAVI's four guiding principles (product, health systems strengthening, financing and market shaping) might apply to the advancement of medical diagnostics in LMICs. We present arguments for the international community and existing organizations to establish a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative (GAMDI).

  2. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  3. The plurality of Chinese and American medical moralities: toward an interpretive cross-cultural bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2000-09-01

    Since the late 1970s, American appraisals of Chinese medical ethics and Chinese responses to American bioethics range from frank criticism to warm appreciation, from refutation to acceptance. Yet in the United States as well as in China, American bioethics and Chinese medical ethics have been seen, respectively, as individualistic and communitarian. In this widely-accepted general comparison, the great variation in the two medical moralities, especially the diversity of Chinese experiences, has been unfortunately minimized, if not totally ignored. Neither American bioethics nor Chinese medical ethics is a field with only one dominant way of thinking. Medical moralities in America and China -- traditional and modern -- have always been plural and diverse. For example, American and Chinese cultures and medical moralities both exhibit individualistic and communitarian traditions. For this reason, bioethics in general and cross-cultural bioethics in particular must be fundamentally interpretive. Interpretive cross-cultural bioethics appreciates the plurality of medical morality within any culture. It can serve as a vital means of social and cultural criticism through engaged interpretations.

  4. NCI and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Sign Statement of Intent

    Cancer.gov

    Today the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Cancer Institute/Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CICAMS) signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal

  5. A sequential decision-theoretic model for medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiping; Jin, Songchang; Zhang, Lumin; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Although diagnostic expert systems using a knowledge base which models decision-making of traditional experts can provide important information to non-experts, they tend to duplicate the errors made by experts. Decision-Theoretic Model (DTM) is therefore very useful in expert system since they prevent experts from incorrect reasoning under uncertainty. For the diagnostic expert system, corresponding DTM and arithmetic are studied and a sequential diagnostic decision-theoretic model based on Bayesian Network is given. In the model, the alternative features are categorized into two classes (including diseases features and test features), then an arithmetic for prior of test is provided. The different features affect other features weights are also discussed. Bayesian Network is adopted to solve uncertainty presentation and propagation. The model can help knowledge engineers model the knowledge involved in sequential diagnosis and decide evidence alternative priority. A practical example of the models is also presented: at any time of the diagnostic process the expert is provided with a dynamically updated list of suggested tests in order to support him in the decision-making problem about which test to execute next. The results show it is better than the traditional diagnostic model which is based on experience.

  6. Doppler diagnostics of laser-ablated biotissues: fundamentals, equipment, and medical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul'yanov, V. A.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Geinitz, A. V.; Reshetov, I. V.; Varev, G. A.

    2006-09-01

    New method of Doppler diagnostics based on autodyne effect for diagnostics and control of laser-tissue evaporation by radiation of high-frequency pumped waveguide CO II laser is developed. This method is used for creation of feed-back for smart CO II laser surgical system of "Lancet" series. The results of medical testing of the smart laser surgical system are presented.

  7. [Evaluation of medical diagnostic tests: application of Bayes theorem, ROC-curve and Kappa-test] .

    PubMed

    Lugosi, L; Molnár, I

    2000-07-30

    With the technical improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of the medical diagnostic tests the principles and methods of statistical analysis of the tests are in developing too. The technical development of the diagnostic tests and the exact statistical evaluation of the data will improve the reliability and effectiveness of the decisions for medical interventions. Application, statistical evaluation and interpretation of the Bayes theorem, ROC curve and Kappa test are presented.

  8. Molecular diagnostics in medical microbiology: yesterday, today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    van Belkum, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Clinical microbiology is clearly on the move, and various new diagnostic technologies have been introduced into laboratory practice over the past few decades. However, Henri D Isenberg recently stated that molecular biology techniques promised to revolutionise the diagnosis of infectious disease, but that, to date, this promise is still in its infancy. Molecular diagnostics have now surpassed these early stages and have definitely reached puberty. Currently, a second generation of automated molecular approaches is already within the microbiologists' reach. Quantitative amplification tests in combination with genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related methodologies will pave the way to further enhancement of innovative microbial detection and identification.

  9. [Research on the correlation between Chinese medical syndrome types and objective indices of Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong-qiang; Ma, Xin-feng; Wang, Wei; Sun, Quan; Zhou, Zhi-hua; Han, Yong-zhu

    2013-11-01

    To explore the correlation between Chinese medical syndrome types of Wilson's disease (WD) and clinical materials as well as physical and chemical indices. Totally 116 WD patients were typed by Chinese medical syndrome. The correlation between Chinese medical syndrome types and clinical materials as well as physical and chemical indices were analyzed using binary stepwise Logistic regression by SPSS 19.0 Software, taking the common Chinese medical syndrome types as the dependent variable and clinical materials as well as physical and chemical indices as the independent variables. Gan-Galibladder dampness-heat syndrome (GGDHS, 35.3%). Gan-stagnation and Pi-deficiency syndrome (GSPDS, 13.8%), Gan-Shen yin deficiency syndrome (GSYDS, 13.8%), and phlegm-dampness retention syndrome (PDRS, 12.1%) were most often seen. GGDHS was positively correlated with grade of K-F ring, total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine transaminase (ALT), laminin (LN) (P < 0.01). GSYDS was positively correlated with TBIL (P < 0.01). PDRS was positively correlated with clinical types, ceruloplasmin (CP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total protein (TP) (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Qi blood deficiency syndrome was positively correlated with disease course, blood ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and LN (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Chinese medical syndrome types were correlated with clinical materials, physical and chemical indices in WD patients, which could provide experimental reference for Chinese medical syndrome typing. GGDHS, GSPDS, GSYDS, and PDRS were most often seen.

  10. Diagnostic Yield of Medical Thoracoscopy in Undiagnosed Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Arda; Karimi, Mahmoud; Samadi, Katayoun; Sheikhy, Kambiz; Farzanegan, Behrooz; Pour Abdollah, Mihan; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Jabardarjani, Hamid Reza; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common indications for pleuroscopy is undiagnosed pleural effusion, which comprises about 25% of all cases of pleural effusions, which remain undiagnosed despite primary tests. Pleuroscopy was performed for the first time in Iran in Masih Daneshvari hospital located in Tehran. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of pleuroscopy performed in this center in Iran. Materials and Methods: Three-hundred patients with undiagnosed pleural effusions were enrolled in this study. For all patients, primary tests including pleural effusion analysis, cytology and closed pleural biopsy (if needed) were conducted and all of them were inconclusive. The semirigid thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) was performed for all patients for diagnostic purposes. Results: Eighty-seven percent of the peluroscopies were diagnostic and 67% of them were diagnosed as malignancy while the rest were diagnosed as tuberculosis. Only 11 patients developed minor complications. Conclusion: In conclusion, pleuroscopy is a safe procedure when performed by a skilled and experienced practitioner; it has a high diagnostic yield and results in only minor complications. PMID:27114723

  11. Diagnostic Error in Medical Education: Where Wrongs Can Make Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines diagnostic error from an educational perspective. Rather than addressing the question of how educators in the health professions can help learners avoid error, however, the literature reviewed leads to the conclusion that educators should be working to induce error in learners, leading them to short term pain for long term…

  12. The current status of medical education literature in Chinese-language journals.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xie; Yanling, Chen; Jin, Chen; Bin, Chen; Xiaoli, Wan; Yuan, Lin; Huixian, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Many research articles on medical education have been published in Chinese-language journals, the majority within the past few years. However, there have been no objective studies to look at the quality of these, and their contribution to present day thinking. This study explored the areas of focus, and the quality, of published research on Chinese undergraduate medical education. We searched three major Chinese databases, including Chinese Biology Medicine in electronic form, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and Chinese Technological Periodicals Database, to trace the research themes and methodologies of Chinese-language research papers published from January 2000 to December 2008. The annual number of published articles on undergraduate medical education research has increased over time in China, with 70% of the articles in our 9-year study published in the past 4 years; the most popular theme was curriculum and teaching. Non-comparative studies accounted for the majority of the literature (84.6%); and comparative studies were rare. Although an increase in the number of articles on medical education research in China is encouraging, more methodologically rigorous designs are needed to improve research quality. Generic and focused training on research methodology is essential to convert quantity into quality.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medications for Knee Osteoarthritis Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Marszalek, Jolanta; Chung, Mei; Lin, Xun; Zhang, Min; Pang, Jian; Wang, Chenchen

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medication (TCM) has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted the first systematic review of the best quantitative and qualitative evidence currently available in order to evaluate the effectiveness of TCM in relieving pain in knee OA. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using three English and four Chinese biomedical databases from their inception through March 1, 2015. We included randomized controlled trials of TCM for knee OA with intervention durations of at least two weeks. The effects of TCM on pain and other clinical symptoms were measured with the visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The total effectiveness rate, which was used to assess overall pain, physical performance and wellness, was also measured. Two researchers independently extracted data on study design, population characteristics, duration, intervention, outcomes, risk of bias, and primary results. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis when appropriate. We also explored factors that could explain the heterogeneity by conducting subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Twenty-three studies, totaling 2362 subjects, met the eligibility criteria. Treatments were formulated with an average of 8 Chinese herbs and were prescribed based on the traditional Chinese diagnostic method of syndrome differentiation. The mean treatment duration was seven weeks, with oral administration occurring one to three times a day. Compared with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and intra-articular hyaluronate injections, 18 of the studies showed significantly improved VAS pain scores (Mean Difference [MD] [Formula: see text] 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.94; [Formula: see text]), six of the studies showed significantly improved WOMAC pain subscale scores (MD [Formula: see text] 2.23; 95% CI, 0.56 to 3.91; [Formula: see text]), and 16 of the trials

  14. Diagnostic radiography and adult acute myeloid leukaemia: an interview and medical chart review study

    PubMed Central

    Pogoda, J M; Nichols, P W; Ross, R K; Stram, D O; Thomas, D C; Preston-Martin, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aetiology of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not well understood, perhaps because of its distinct subtypes. High-dose ionising radiation is a known risk factor, but less is known about risk from low-dose exposure such as from diagnostic radiography. Methods: Subjects were 412 matched case-control pairs. Ten-year subject histories of diagnostic radiography were based on interview and medical records. Results: There was no convincing association between AML risk and ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging procedures, either for AML overall or for any AML subtype. Conclusion: The association between diagnostic radiography and AML risk remains uncertain. PMID:21522150

  15. Compliance with antihypertensive medication in Chinese immigrants: cultural specific issues and theoretical application.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wen; Stotts, Nancy A; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework to study medication compliance in Chinese immigrants with hypertension (HTN). The framework was developed from (a) literature review of medication compliance and Chinese cultural belief/practices and (b) critique of major models of health behaviors in persons with chronic illness. Four constructs shape the model: motivation, cultural health perceptions, modifying factors, and cultural health care activities. Among these constructs, cultural health perceptions and health care activities are especially important because these address how Chinese immigrants perceive HTN and antihypertensive treatments and how they manage HTN. Using a culturally sensitive model is important to guide studies of medication compliance in this population and to assist health care providers to support compliance with antihypertensive treatments for Chinese immigrants.

  16. The Future of Medical Diagnostics: Large Digitized Databases

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Wesley T.; Lau, Edward P.; Owens, Gwen E.; Trefler, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The electronic health record mandate within the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 will have a far-reaching affect on medicine. In this article, we provide an in-depth analysis of how this mandate is expected to stimulate the production of large-scale, digitized databases of patient information. There is evidence to suggest that millions of patients and the National Institutes of Health will fully support the mining of such databases to better understand the process of diagnosing patients. This data mining likely will reaffirm and quantify known risk factors for many diagnoses. This quantification may be leveraged to further develop computer-aided diagnostic tools that weigh risk factors and provide decision support for health care providers. We expect that creation of these databases will stimulate the development of computer-aided diagnostic support tools that will become an integral part of modern medicine. PMID:23012584

  17. Examining Shifts in Medical Students' Microanalytic Motivation Beliefs and Regulatory Processes during a Diagnostic Reasoning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined within-group shifts in the motivation beliefs and regulatory processes of second-year medical students as they engaged in a diagnostic reasoning activity. Using a contextualized assessment methodology called self-regulated learning microanalysis, the authors found that the 71 medical student participants showed statistically…

  18. Simple fractal method of assessment of histological images for application in medical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We propose new method of assessment of histological images for medical diagnostics. 2-D image is preprocessed to form 1-D landscapes or 1-D signature of the image contour and then their complexity is analyzed using Higuchi's fractal dimension method. The method may have broad medical application, from choosing implant materials to differentiation between benign masses and malignant breast tumors. PMID:21134258

  19. Medication discrepancy and potentially inappropriate medication in older Chinese-American home-care patients after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sophia H; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Foust, Janice B; Boltz, Marie P; Kim, Hongsoo

    2012-10-01

    Studies of potential medication problems among older adults have focused on English-speaking populations in a single health care setting or a single potential medication problem. No previous studies investigated potential inappropriate medications (PIMs) and medication discrepancies (MDs) among older Chinese Americans during care transitions from hospital discharge to home care. The aims of this study were to examine, in older Chinese Americans, the prevalence of both PIMs and MDs; the relationship between PIMs and MDs; and the patient and hospitalization characteristics associated with them during care transitions from hospital discharge to home care. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of older Chinese Americans from a large certified nonprofit home-care agency in New York City from June 2010 to July 2011. PIMs were identified by using 2002 diagnosis-independent Beers criteria. MDs were identified by comparing the differences between hospital discharge medication order and home-care admission medication order. Prevalence of PIMs and MDs and their relationship was determined. Logistic regression examined the relationship between hospitalization and patient characteristics with PIMs and MDs. The sample consisted of 82 older Chinese-American home-care patients. Twenty (24.3%) study participants were prescribed at least one PIM at hospital discharge. Fifty-one (67.1%) study participants experienced at least one MD. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of PIMs and MDs (r = 0.22; P = 0.05). Number of medications was the only significant factor associated with both PIMs and MDs. In addition, older age and more hospitalization days were associated with PIMs. The evident prevalence of PIMs and MDs supports the practice of evaluating the appropriateness of medications while reconciling inconsistencies in medication regimens. The number of medications was the only factor associated with both PIMs and MDs, underscoring the need to

  20. Fluorocarbon compounds in MRI diagnostics and medical therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The lecture describes the application of fluorocarbon compounds as blood substitutes and contrasting preparations in MRI diagnostics. A blood substitute product fluorocarbon Perfluorane® has shown effectiveness in oxygen delivery to the tissues of living organisms, and cardioprotective effect which does not depend on the patient's blood group. Inclusion of paramagnetic atoms (gadolinium, iron, etc.) to the Perfluorane® chemical formula creates a new compound with high MRI contrast efficiencies at Larmor frequencies of protons so and fluorine-19 nuclei.

  1. Chinese and Indian women's experience with alternative medications for menopause related symptoms: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal Singh; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Soe, Myint Myint

    2017-09-15

    To explore women's rationalization for using alternative medications, their experience and view on safety of long-term use. Two focus group discussions, involving 5 participants each for Chinese and Indian groups, were conducted separately. Participant's personal information was collected anonymously. The discussion covered 5 areas: determinants for taking medications; reason for choosing alternative medications rather than hormone replacement therapy (HRT); how these medications help them; their view on cost-effectiveness and concerns over long-term use. The discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed. Chinese participants took supplements for controlling symptoms while Indian participants used herbs as a preventive measure during menopause according to their tradition. Women of both groups mentioned that they did not take HRT because of fear of side effects. Chinese group mentioned that medications remarkably improved their symptoms whereas Indian participants appreciated their herbals more for improvement in general wellbeing than for specific symptoms. All members agreed that using alternative medication was cost-effective. Both Chinese and Indian participants were quite confident in saying that long-term use will not be associated with any side effects. However, Indian group emphasized that proper preparation of herbal compound using different types of leaves, is essential in order to avoid untoward effects. Chinese and Indian women used alternative medicine in prevention and treatment of menopause-related problems even as they were avoiding HRT because of the fear of side effects. They believed that their supplements were effective, safe and cost-beneficial even with long-term use.

  2. SMPTE Test Pattern For Certification Of Medical Diagnostic Display Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisk, Kenneth G.

    1984-08-01

    Since the invention of x-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, rapid advances have been made in the radiological detection of body abnormalities. This was very evident in the 1960's and 70's when the marriage of computers to radiology gave birth to a new generation of imaging modalities such as computerized tomography, ultrasound, digital radiographic imaging, nuclear medicine, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Many of these devices employ digital computer techniques for signal manipulation, and the resultant analog diagnostic images are displayed on television monitors for viewing and on imaging cathode-ray tubes for a photographic hard copy.

  3. Medical diagnostic decision support systems--past, present, and future: a threaded bibliography and brief commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A

    1994-01-01

    Articles about medical diagnostic decision support (MDDS) systems often begin with a disclaimer such as, "despite many years of research and millions of dollars of expenditures on medical diagnostic systems, none is in widespread use at the present time." While this statement remains true in the sense that no single diagnostic system is in widespread use, it is misleading with regard to the state of the art of these systems. Diagnostic systems, many simple and some complex, are now ubiquitous, and research on MDDS systems is growing. The nature of MDDS systems has diversified over time. The prospects for adoption of large-scale diagnostic systems are better now than ever before, due to enthusiasm for implementation of the electronic medical record in academic, commercial, and primary care settings. Diagnostic decision support systems have become an established component of medical technology. This paper provides a review and a threaded bibliography for some of the important work on MDDS systems over the years from 1954 to 1993. PMID:7719792

  4. The Relationship between Diagnostic Accuracy and Confidence in Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Doug

    Studies in psychology and clinical decision making have shown that research subjects and physicians are often overconfident in the accuracy of their judgments. In these studies, groups of 20 first-year and 27 third-year osteopathic medical students at the Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine (Athens) were slightly underconfident in…

  5. Medical Student Assessment of Videotape for Teaching in Diagnostic Radiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, J. R.; McLachlan, M. S. F.

    1976-01-01

    A series of six recordings that describe some aspects of the radiology of the chest, using only radiographs, were viewed by a small group of final year medical students. Their scores for factual questions immediately afterwards were compared with their attitudes to the learning experience; higher scores correlated with positive attitudes. (LBH)

  6. Medical Student Assessment of Videotape for Teaching in Diagnostic Radiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, J. R.; McLachlan, M. S. F.

    1976-01-01

    A series of six recordings that describe some aspects of the radiology of the chest, using only radiographs, were viewed by a small group of final year medical students. Their scores for factual questions immediately afterwards were compared with their attitudes to the learning experience; higher scores correlated with positive attitudes. (LBH)

  7. Teaching medical information retrieval and application courses in Chinese universities: a case study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Adam W; Li, Hong-Mei

    2010-12-01

    An important aspect of Chinese academic health science libraries is their involvement in teaching medical information retrieval courses as part of the medical curriculum. Health science librarians in China have a more formal teaching role than is generally found in Western countries, including many full-time teaching positions. This article provides a case study of Kunming Medical University Library, where courses are provided as credit units at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The teaching practices of Chinese health science libraries are compared with teaching experiences reported in Western countries. It is noted that Chinese government's educational policy is similar to that of the United States in promoting the role of the library in teaching subjects as part of the medical curriculum. In China, this has lead to the development of teaching departments within health science libraries and the appointment of full and part-time teacher librarians. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Health Technology Assessment for Molecular Diagnostics: Practices, Challenges, and Recommendations from the Medical Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Susan; Polisena, Julie; S Spinner, Daryl; Postulka, Anne; Y Lu, Christine; Tiwana, Simrandeep K; Faulkner, Eric; Poulios, Nick; Zah, Vladimir; Longacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessments (HTAs) are increasingly used to inform coverage, access, and utilization of medical technologies including molecular diagnostics (MDx). Although MDx are used to screen patients and inform disease management and treatment decisions, there is no uniform approach to their evaluation by HTA organizations. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group reviewed diagnostic-specific HTA programs and identified elements representing common and best practices. MDx-specific HTA programs in Europe, Australia, and North America were characterized by methodology, evaluation framework, and impact. Published MDx HTAs were reviewed, and five representative case studies of test evaluations were developed: United Kingdom (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's Diagnostics Assessment Programme, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase mutation), United States (Palmetto's Molecular Diagnostic Services Program, OncotypeDx prostate cancer test), Germany (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare, human papillomavirus testing), Australia (Medical Services Advisory Committee, anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing for non-small cell lung cancer), and Canada (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Rapid Response: Non-invasive Prenatal Testing). Overall, the few HTA programs that have MDx-specific methods do not provide clear parameters of acceptability related to clinical and analytic performance, clinical utility, and economic impact. The case studies highlight similarities and differences in evaluation approaches across HTAs in the performance metrics used (analytic and clinical validity, clinical utility), evidence requirements, and how value is measured. Not all HTAs are directly linked to reimbursement outcomes. To improve MDx HTAs, organizations should provide greater transparency, better communication and collaboration between industry and HTA

  9. Fourth Medical Biotech Forum of the Chinese Medical Biotech Association. 8-10 August 2009, Dalian, China.

    PubMed

    Felzmann, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The Chinese Medical Biotech Association's Fourth Medical Biotech Forum held in Dalian, China included topics covering the biotechnology industry in China and new therapeutic developments in the field of immunological approaches to cancer treatment. This conference report highlights selected presentations on China's biotechnology development policy, tumor-specific antigens, clinical applications of antitumor immune therapy, and novel photodynamic tumor therapy. Investigational therapeutics discussed include astuprotimut-r (GlaxoSmithKline plc) and the dendritic cell vaccine Trivax (Trimed Biotech).

  10. Reliability and Validity of a Chinese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised (DIB-R)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lanlan; Yuan, Chenmei; Qiu, Jianying; Gunderson, John; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Kaida; Leung, Freedom; Zhong, Jie; Xiao, Zeping

    2014-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most studied of the Axis II disorders. One of the most widely used diagnostic instruments is the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients - Revised (DIB-R). The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of DIB-R for use in the Chinese culture. Methods The reliability and validity of the DIB-R Chinese version were assessed in a sample of 236 outpatients with a probable BPD diagnosis. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) was used as a standard. Test/re-test reliability was tested at 6 months later with 20 patients and inter-rater reliability was tested on 32 patients. Results The Chinese version of the DIB-R showed good internal global consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.916), good test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation of 0.704), good inter-raters reliability (ICC of 0.892 and Kappa of 0.861). When compared to the DSM-IV diagnosis as measured by the SCID-II, the DIB-R showed relatively good sensitivity (0.768) and specificity (0.891) at the cutoff of 7; moderate diagnostic convergence (Kappa of 0.631), as well as good discriminating validity. Conclusion The Chinese version of the DIB-R has good psychometric properties, which renders it a valuable method for examining the presence, the severity and component phenotypes of BPD in Chinese samples. PMID:24302703

  11. Hypnosis before diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheseaux, Nicole; de Saint Lager, Alix Juillet; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the efficiency of hypnosis prior to medical procedures. Different databases were analyzed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypnosis to control interventions. All RCTs had to report pain or anxiety. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 968 patients were included; study size was from 20 to 200 patients (14 RCTs ≤ 60 patients). Fourteen RCTs included 830 adults and 4 RCTs included 138 children. Twelve of 18 RCTs had major quality limitations related to unclear allocation concealments, provider's experience in hypnosis, patient's adherence to hypnotic procedures, and intention-to-treat design. This systematic review observed major methodological limitations in RCTs on hypnosis prior to medical procedures.

  12. The CES-D in Chinese American women: construct validity, diagnostic validity for major depression, and cultural response bias.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghe; Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2010-02-28

    Previous studies of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in Chinese Americans describe internal reliability and factor structure. We report CES-D construct validity and diagnostic validity for major depression in a probability sample of 168 community-dwelling Chinese American women. Internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.86). Good construct validity was indicated by significantly higher mean CES-D scores for respondents who reported lower social support, worse self-perceived general health, or stressful life events, including intimate partner violence. Cultural response bias was found, with positively-stated CES-D items (e.g. "I was happy") producing higher depression scores in immigrants and subjects who preferred to speak Chinese. Diagnostic validity for major depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A CES-D cut-off score of 16 had sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 44% to 100%), specificity of 76% (95% CI: 69% to 82%), PPV of 7% (95% CI: 3% to 19%) and NPV of 100% (95% CI: 97% to 100%). Our findings suggest that the CES-D is useful for screening out non-depressed subjects in a first-stage assessment. However, it should be followed by a diagnostic tool in Chinese American women with scores above the cut-off in order to identify those with clinical depression. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotope-selective sensor for medical diagnostics based on PAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M.; Groninga, H. G.; Harde, H.

    2005-06-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Of the permanently increasing number of non-invasive 13C-breath tests, the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is the most prominent. However, many recent developments go beyond gastroenterological applications. We present a new detection scheme for breath analysis that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. Using a wavelength-modulated DFB-diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive isotope-selective measurements on CO2. Detection limits for 13CO2 of a few ppm and for the variation of the 13CO2 concentration of approximately 1% were achieved.

  14. Towards real-time medical diagnostics using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorgan, Asgeir; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides non-contact, high resolution spectral images which has a substantial diagnostic potential. This can be used for e.g. diagnosis and early detection of arthritis in finger joints. Processing speed is currently a limitation for clinical use of the technique. A real-time system for analysis and visualization using GPU processing and threaded CPU processing is presented. Images showing blood oxygenation, blood volume fraction and vessel enhanced images are among the data calculated in real-time. This study shows the potential of real-time processing in this context. A combination of the processing modules will be used in detection of arthritic finger joints from hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance data.

  15. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  16. A Multi-Agent Learning Paradigm for Medical Data Mining Diagnostic Workbench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Sam; Wong, Fai

    This chapter presents a model of practical data mining diagnostic workbench that intends to support real medical diagnosis by employing two cutting edge technologies - data mining and multi-agent. To fulfill this effort, i +DiaMAS - an intelligent and interactive diagnostic workbench with multi-agent strategy, has been designed and partially implemented, where multi-agent approach can perfectly compensate most data mining methods that are only capable of dealing with homogeneous and centralized data. i +DiaMAS provides an integrated environment that incorporates a variety of preprocessing agents as well as learning agents through interactive interface agent. The philosophy behind i +DiaMAS is to assist physicians in diagnosing new case objectively and reliably by providing practical diagnostic rules that acquired from heterogeneous and distributed historical medical data, where their new discoveries and correct diagnostic results can benefit other physicians.

  17. [Correlation Study between Electronic Bronchus Mirror and Chinese Medical Syndrome TVDinci of Mycoplasma pneumonia Children].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu-tai; Li, Rui-feng; Yang, Pei-li

    2016-02-01

    To explore the correlation between electronic bronchus mirror and Chinese medical syndrome typing of Mycoplasma pneumonia children. Totally 198 Mycoplasma pneumonia children inpatients were assigned to three syndrome types according to Chinese medical syndrome typing and self-formulated typing standards of electronic bronchus mirror, i.e., Fei-qi accumulation of damp and heat syndrome, Fei-qi accumulation of toxicity and heat syndrome, deficient vital qi leading to lingering of pathogen syndrome. The correlation between electronic bronchus mirror and Chinese medical syndrome typing was explored. As for comparison between electronic bronchus mirror and Chinese medical syndrome typing, Kappa value (K^) was 0.645 and Spearman coefficient correlation (r) was 0.653 (P < 0.01) for Fei-qi accumulation of damp and heat syndrome; K^ was 0.724 and r(s) was 0.727 (P < 0.01) for Fei-qi accumulation of toxicity and heat syndrome; K^ was 0.506 and r(s) was 0.515 (P < 0.01) for deficient vital qi leading to lingering of pathogen syndrome. Chinese medical syndrome typing of Mycoplasma pneumonia children was moderately in line with inspection typing under electronic bronchoscope with significant correlation.

  18. [Exploration into rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Dan-ni; Chen, Wen-yu; Xiao, Ying

    2010-03-01

    In order to explore the rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility, the study was carried out by searching relative primary documents from databases and 26 articles (dealing with 5865 cases) were screened out. Excel was used to perform the frequency analysis on the Western drugs and 27 Chinese recipes emerging in the documents separately. It was discovered that the combined use of Chinese and Western medicines has its superiority. Low dose glucocorticoids together with vitamine is the main Western treatment used, and dexamethasone is the most frequently used preparation of glucocorticoids. Among the 72 Chinese drugs presented in the 27 Chinese recipes, 13 appeared for more than 1800 times, they were Angelica sinensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Radix Astragali, Poria, Carthamus tinctorius, Phellodendron amurense, Scutellaria baicalensis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cuscuta chinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Glycyrrhiza.

  19. [Brief history of the main institutions in the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingwei

    2015-11-01

    On 19 October, 1955, the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated with the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China was established formally. On 8 October, 1985, its name was changed to "China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine", which was renamed as "China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (CACMS)" on 15 November, 2005. During its six decades of history, the construction of the institutions in the CACMS were improved constantly. Nowadays, there are altogether 17 academic institutions, 6 clinical institutions, 1 educational institution and 6 industrial institutions in the CACMS, which has become a comprehensive research institution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), embodying scientific research, clinical service, education and industry as a whole, under the direct control of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China.

  20. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  1. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  2. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  3. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  4. [Internet- and mobile-based approaches : Psycho-social diagnostics and treatment in medical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Harald; Lin, Jiaxi; Ebert, David Daniel

    2017-02-21

    Technology-based approaches for psychosocial diagnostics and interventions provide an attractive opportunity to optimize medical rehabilitation. Based on an Internet- and mobile-based assessment of existing functional health impairments, appropriate planning, implementation of corresponding courses of action as well as outcome assessment can take place. This can be implemented in the form of Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMI).The present article provides an overview of the basic knowledge of IMI and their evidence base both in general and in particular for their use in medical rehabilitation. Important aspects of internet and mobile-based psycho-social diagnostics are discussed subsequently. Finally, an outlook for the use of Internet- and mobile-based diagnostics and interventions in medical rehabilitation is given.

  5. A scoping review of medical professionalism research published in the Chinese language.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shih, Julie; Kuo, Fen-Ju; Ho, Ming-Jung

    2016-11-23

    The Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA) adopted the Charter of Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium (Charter) and published the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration). This is an important step to re-building medical professionalism in China at a time when the commercialization of health care has led to a decline in physician accountability and public trust in the profession. In response, authors have begun to examine and promote medical professionalism in China. This study aims to present the key research themes, identify research gaps and offer recommendations from reviewing the increasing pool of Chinese-language literature on medical professionalism. A scoping review of Chinese language papers was conducted using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (including China Academic Journals Full-text Database, China Doctoral Dissertations Full-text Database, Masters' Theses Full-text Database, China Core Newspapers Full-text Database, and China Yearbooks Full-text Database) (CNKI) database. Four major research themes were identified in Chinese discourse: (1) teaching professionalism, (2) practicing professionalism, (3) conceptualizing professionalism and (4) assessing professionalism. Overall, authors were concerned with the cultivation of humanism in physicians and emphasized the importance of communication skills to improve the physician-patient relationship in China. They explored the role of traditional Chinese values, such as Confucian and Taoist values, as well as the Communist Party's political values, in promoting professional behaviour. Authors demonstrate increasing interest in medical professionalism in China. The literature is of variable quality and further empirical studies are required in order to evaluate teaching interventions and guide professionalism assessment. A common professionalism framework is absent and could be developed with consideration to China's socio-cultural context.

  6. New diagnostic and information technology for mobile medical care.

    PubMed

    Bayne, C Gresham; Boling, Peter A

    2009-02-01

    Medicare reimbursement for home visits average around $100 without ancillaries, so making 10 home visits to prevent even a single $1,000 ambulance ride is cost-neutral for Medicare. Home medical care is only an added cost if it fails to offset acute care use. The government's demographic and financial pressure suggests a need to press ahead with the enhanced mobile care model, so the explosion in point-of-care devices should continue. The main challenge is to decide which ones provide dispositive value to patients.

  7. Making sure. A comparative micro-analysis of diagnostic instruments in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Cornelius

    2011-09-01

    This article conceptualises diagnosis as ongoing practical judgement in medical care. Based on pragmatist and phenomenological considerations of tools in use, it uses a comparative approach to analyse similarities and differences in the use of diagnostic technologies. In the first part of the paper, a historical perspective on the innovation of the stethoscope is used to highlight the transformations in diagnostic practices occasioned by novel diagnostic instruments. In the second part of the paper, ethnographic accounts of contemporary anaesthesia are presented in order to sketch out the manifold variations of using diagnostic instruments in daily practice. Both cases are analysed on a micro-analytical level, emphasising the interrelations of bodies, tools and knowledge in concrete situations. The analysis shows how diagnostic instruments become embodied in the perceptual habits of physicians and how diagnosing becomes an ongoing activity in the course of managing an illness trajectory.

  8. [Comments on Nigel Wiseman's A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine: on the use of Western medical terms in English glossary of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhu-fan; Liu, Gan-zhong; Lu, Wei-bo

    2005-11-01

    Mr. Wiseman believes that Western medical terms chosen as equivalents of Chinese medical terms should be the words known to all speakers and not requiring any specialist knowledge or instrumentation to understand or identify, and strictly technical Western medical terms should be avoided regardless of their conceptual conformity to the Chinese terms. According to such criteria, many inappropriate Western medical terms are selected as English equivalents by the authors of the Dictionary, and on the other hand, many ready-made appropriate Western medical terms are replaced by loan English terms with the Chinese style of word formation. The experience obtained by translating Western medical terms into Chinese when Western medicine was first introduced to China should be helpful for developing English equivalents at present. However, the authors of the Dictionary adhere to their own opinions and reject others' experience. The English terms thus created do not reflect the genuine meaning of the Chinese terms, but make the English glossary in chaos. The so-called true face of traditional Chinese revealed by such terms is merely the Chinese custom of word formation and metaphoric rhetoric. In other words, traditional Chinese medicine is not regarded as a system of medicine but merely some Oriental folklore.

  9. Multiplexed label-free optical biosensor for medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Fornasari, Lucia; Frangolho, Ana; Giudicatti, Silvia; Mantovani, Alberto; Marabelli, Franco; Marchesini, Gerardo; Pellacani, Paola; Therisod, Rita; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new multiplexed label-free biosensor. The detection technology is based on nanostructured gold-polymer surfaces. These surfaces support surface plasmon resonance modes that can be probed by a miniaturized optical setup. The optical characterization of the sensing chip shows the sensitivity and the limit-of-detection to refractive index changes. Moreover, by studying the progressive adhesion of molecular monolayers of polyelectrolytes, the decay of the plasmonic mode electric field above the surface has been reconstructed. A multiplexed label-free biosensing device is then described and characterized in terms of sensitivity, lateral resolution, and sensitivity to a model biological assay. The sensitivity in imaging mode of the device is of the order of 10-6 refractive index units, while the measured lateral resolution is 6.25 μm within a field of view of several tenths of mm2, making the instrument unique in terms of multiplexing capability. Finally, the proof-of-concept application of the technology as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for an inflammatory marker is demonstrated.

  10. Multiplexed label-free optical biosensor for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Fornasari, Lucia; Frangolho, Ana; Giudicatti, Silvia; Mantovani, Alberto; Marabelli, Franco; Marchesini, Gerardo; Pellacani, Paola; Therisod, Rita; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new multiplexed label-free biosensor. The detection technology is based on nanostructured gold-polymer surfaces. These surfaces support surface plasmon resonance modes that can be probed by a miniaturized optical setup. The optical characterization of the sensing chip shows the sensitivity and the limit-of-detection to refractive index changes. Moreover, by studying the progressive adhesion of molecular monolayers of polyelectrolytes, the decay of the plasmonic mode electric field above the surface has been reconstructed. A multiplexed label-free biosensing device is then described and characterized in terms of sensitivity, lateral resolution, and sensitivity to a model biological assay. The sensitivity in imaging mode of the device is of the order of 10-6 refractive index units, while the measured lateral resolution is 6.25 μm within a field of view of several tenths of mm, making the instrument unique in terms of multiplexing capability. Finally, the proof-of-concept application of the technology as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for an inflammatory marker is demonstrated.

  11. Low Temperature Atmospheric Argon Plasma: Diagnostics and Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaeva, Svetlana; Petrov, Oleg; Zigangirova, Nailya; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Sysolyatina, Elena; Antipov, Sergei; Alyapyshev, Maxim; Kolkova, Natalia; Mukhachev, Andrei; Naroditsky, Boris; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Grigoriev, Anatoly; Morfill, Gregor; Fortov, Vladimir; Gintsburg, Alexander

    This study was devoted to diagnostic of low temperature plasma produced by microwave generator and investigation of its bactericidal effect against bacteria in biofilms and within eukaryotic cells. The profile of gas temperature near the torch outlet was measured. The spectrum in a wide range of wavelengths was derived by the method of optical emission spec-troscopy. Probe measurements of the floating potential of plasma were car-ried out. The estimation and adaptation of parameters of plasma flow (tem-perature, velocity, ion number density) according to medico-technical requirements were produced. The model of immersed surface-associated biofilms formed by Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, was used to assess bactericidal effects of plasma treatment. Reduction in the concentration of live bacteria in biofilms treated with plasma for 5 min was demonstrated by measuring Live/Dead fluorescent labeling and using direct plating. The intracellular infection model with the pathogenic bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, was used to study the efficacy of microwave argon plasma against intracellular parasites. A 2 min plasma treatment of mouse cells infected with C. trachomatis reduced infectious bacteria by a factor of 2×106. Plasma treatment diminished the number of viable host cells by about 20%. When the samples were covered with MgF2 glass to obstruct active particles and UV alone was applied, the bactericidal effect was re-duced by 5×104 fold compared to the whole plasma.

  12. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991

  13. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure.

    PubMed

    Do, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important.

  14. An overview of the roles and responsibilities of Chinese medical colleges in body donation programs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low and fraught with a number of difficulties. In the past, traditional Chinese culture focused on preserving the human body intact, which often limited body donation. In recent years, the public has become more open toward body donation. At Nanjing Medical University, only 20 bodies were donated in 2001. After the university became involved in an organized body donation program, this number increased to 70 donated bodies per year (2007 to 2012). This article describes and reviews Chinese medical colleges as a special case study among body donation programs, particularly in terms of the multiple responsibilities and roles that such institutions must assume in the course of adopting these programs. Medical colleges in China must serve as advocates, coordinators, builders, managers, educators, and beneficiaries in undertaking body donation programs. It is important for medical colleges to recognize these pluripotent roles and educate the public in order to promote body donation programs. This case study may also effectively guide and encourage Chinese medical colleges in refining their own body donation programs in the future.

  15. Application of Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs in Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li Li; Xie, Tong; Xu, Jian Ya; Shen, Cun Si; Di, Liu Qing; Chen, Jia Bin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract, which, in the absence of effective management, causes millions of cases of severe illness per year. Many of these infections develop into fatal pneumonia. In a review of English and Chinese medical literature, recent traditional Chinese medical herb- (TCMH-) based progress in the area of prevention and treatment was identified, and the potential anti-RSV compounds, herbs, and formulas were explored. Traditional Chinese medical herbs have a positive effect on inhibiting viral attachment, inhibiting viral internalization, syncytial formation, alleviation of airway inflammation, and stimulation of interferon secretion and immune system; however, the anti-RSV mechanisms of TCMHs are complicated, which should be further investigated. PMID:27688789

  16. A Corpus-Based Study of Cohesion in English Medical Texts and its Chinese Translation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia; Yan, Wenli; Zhou, Yumei

    2009-01-01

    Cohesion as an indispensable linguistic feature in discourse analysis and translation has aroused many researchers’ interest. To explore the regularity in shifting cohesive devices from English into Chinese our study was designed to analyze the similarities and differences of cohesive devices between English medical texts (EMTs) and their Chinese translation texts (CTTs). A parallel corpus consisting of 15 EMTs and 15 CTTs was established, each type of cohesive devices was identified, and paired t-test was run for statistic analysis. We have revealed that both EMTs and CTTS share more similarities than differences in the use of cohesive devices; the differences between them only exist in the employment of reference in terms of occurrence frequencies; the majority of cohesive devices are maintained in Chinese translation for precision, clarity and logicality. Our study will not only help medical students and medical workers but also shed light on EMP teaching and research. PMID:23675153

  17. A corpus-based study of cohesion in english medical texts and its chinese translation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Yan, Wenli; Zhou, Yumei

    2009-09-01

    Cohesion as an indispensable linguistic feature in discourse analysis and translation has aroused many researchers' interest. To explore the regularity in shifting cohesive devices from English into Chinese our study was designed to analyze the similarities and differences of cohesive devices between English medical texts (EMTs) and their Chinese translation texts (CTTs). A parallel corpus consisting of 15 EMTs and 15 CTTs was established, each type of cohesive devices was identified, and paired t-test was run for statistic analysis. We have revealed that both EMTs and CTTS share more similarities than differences in the use of cohesive devices; the differences between them only exist in the employment of reference in terms of occurrence frequencies; the majority of cohesive devices are maintained in Chinese translation for precision, clarity and logicality. Our study will not only help medical students and medical workers but also shed light on EMP teaching and research.

  18. Chinese physicians' attitudes toward and understanding of medical professionalism: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linying; Yin, Xiuyun; Bao, Xiaolei; Nie, Jin-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionalism has been developing in the Peoples' Republic of China as one way to better address perennial and new challenges in healthcare in an ever-changing society. Among many recent developments in this area is promotion by the national Chinese Medical Doctor Association of the principles and values contained in the international document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter." To discover Chinese physicians' attitudes toward and understanding of medical professionalism. The authors distributed a self-reporting questionnaire that included 34 statements and four case scenarios concerning the general principles of medical professionalism: the primacy of patients' welfare, respect for patients' autonomy, promotion of social justice, and professional self-regulation. The questionnaire included controversial issues such as the role of the family in decision making and reporting medical errors. A total of 2,966 practicing physicians, randomly selected from the Chinese Medical Association database, were surveyed, and 1,198 valid questionnaires were returned. Our sample covered 23 provinces and 51 cities throughout the Peoples' Republic of China. More than 80 percent of the physicians who responded agreed that the physician-patient relationship should be a relationship of trust founded on professional altruism, and that informed consent is necessary. More than 95 percent agreed that physicians should promote professional self-regulation as well as social justice. More than half agreed with the principle of the primacy of patients' welfare (62.8 percent), and that physicians have a responsibility to report medical errors and incompetent colleagues (51.0 percent). In certain cases, a great majority of Chinese physicians favored familism and paternalism. The study does not include data on how Chinese physicians practice medical professionalism, or the perspectives of physicians working in smaller cities and in rural areas. Based

  19. Recognition and treatment of depression: a comparison of Australian and Chinese medical students.

    PubMed

    Rong, Ye; Luscombe, Georgina M; Davenport, Tracey A; Huang, Yueqin; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

    2009-08-01

    Depression is a major public health problem in both China and Australia. To improve services, we need to ensure health professionals have an appropriate understanding of depression and its treatments. This study compares the level of awareness of depression between Chinese and Australian medical students. The International Depression Literacy Survey assessing the public health impact, recognition and treatment of depression was completed by pre-psychiatric training medical students in China (n = 220) and Australia (n = 177). Chinese students were far less likely to consider mental health conditions and depression as major public health problems (P < 0.001). Depression symptom recognition was similar with four of the top five symptoms of depression the same in both groups of students. Chinese students were more likely to consider some psychological symptoms such as "thinking life is not worth living", but less likely to consider somatic features such as "sleep disturbance" as typical for people with depression. Chinese students were more likely to claim that they would seek help from mental health professionals if experiencing depression whilst Australian students were more likely to seek help from a general or family doctor. Chinese medical students recognise depression similarly to Australian students but do not consider it a major public health problem. These results challenge the stereotype that depression is characterised by somatic symptoms in China. Increasing awareness of the public health impact of depression should be incorporated into the medical curriculum in China.

  20. Consensus on the integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine criteria of diagnostic classification in polycystic ovary syndrome (draft).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Yu, Chao-Qin; Cao, Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhou, Li-Rong; Li, Jing; Qian, Qiao-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder of women, with complex pathogenesis and heterogeneous manifestations. Professor Jin Yu recently wrote an article entitled "Proposal of Diagnosis and Diagnostic Classification of PCOS in Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine."From this, the Obstetrics and Gynecology branches of the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine and the China Association of Chinese Medicine collaborated with the Gynecology branch of the Chinese Association for Research and Advancement of Chinese Medicine to draft a report on the consensus of criteria for the diagnosis and classification of PCOS in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The diagnosis for PCOS includes all three features: (1) oligo-ovulation or anovulation; (2) clinical and/or laboratory evidence of hyperandrogenism;(3) PCOS is classified into four types: types Ia,Ib, IIa, and IIb. Syndrome differentiation types for PCOS in traditional Chinese medicine are as follows: Kidney deficiency with phlegm blockage syndrome, Kidney Yin deficiency with phlegm blockage and blood stasis syndrome, and Kidney deficiency with Liver Qi stagnation syndrome.

  1. Perception and Acceptability of Medical Photography in Chinese Dermatologic Patients: A Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Tan, Huan; Yang, Xichuan

    2017-03-01

    Medical photography is increasingly used by physicians, but studies assessing the perception and acceptability of medical photography by Chinese dermatologic patients are scarce. To assess the perception and acceptability of medical photography in Chinese dermatologic patients. From July to December 2014, adult patients visiting the Dermatology Clinic of The First Affiliated Hospital of Third Military Medical University were included in this study. They were required to fill an anonymous questionnaire regarding perception and acceptability of medical photography. A total of 509 consecutive patients completed the questionnaire, with 35 and 474 declining and undergoing medical photography, respectively. Meanwhile, 81.0% of the patients preferred to be photographed by attending physicians; 63.3% favored clinic-owned cameras, and 81.0% would rather have their photographs stored in the department's database. Besides, most patients allowed their photographs to be used in case studies (92.8%) or medical record keeping (90.3%). Most Chinese dermatologic patients accept medical photography. However, the principles of privacy protection and informed consent should be strictly enforced in clinical practice, and appropriate photographic devices and storage methods should be used, for better acceptance.

  2. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  3. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  4. Fuzzy Naive Bayesian model for medical diagnostic decision support.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; Vijayraghavan, Sundararajan; Deshpande, Ashok W

    2009-01-01

    This work relates to the development of computational algorithms to provide decision support to physicians. The authors propose a Fuzzy Naive Bayesian (FNB) model for medical diagnosis, which extends the Fuzzy Bayesian approach proposed by Okuda. A physician's interview based method is described to define a orthogonal fuzzy symptom information system, required to apply the model. For the purpose of elaboration and elicitation of characteristics, the algorithm is applied to a simple simulated dataset, and compared with conventional Naive Bayes (NB) approach. As a preliminary evaluation of FNB in real world scenario, the comparison is repeated on a real fuzzy dataset of 81 patients diagnosed with infectious diseases. The case study on simulated dataset elucidates that FNB can be optimal over NB for diagnosing patients with imprecise-fuzzy information, on account of the following characteristics - 1) it can model the information that, values of some attributes are semantically closer than values of other attributes, and 2) it offers a mechanism to temper exaggerations in patient information. Although the algorithm requires precise training data, its utility for fuzzy training data is argued for. This is supported by the case study on infectious disease dataset, which indicates optimality of FNB over NB for the infectious disease domain. Further case studies on large datasets are required to establish utility of FNB.

  5. Medical Diagnostic Breath Analysis by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guss, Joseph S.; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri

    2009-06-01

    Certain medical conditions give rise to the presence of chemicals in the bloodstream. These chemicals - known as biomarkers - may also be present in low concentrations in human breath. Cavity ring down spectroscopy possesses the requisite selectivity and sensitivity to detect such biomarkers in the congested spectrum of a breath sample. The ulcer-causing bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is a prolific producer of the enzyme urease, which catalyses the breakdown of urea ((NH_2)_2CO) in the stomach as follows: (NH_2)_2CO + H_2O ⟶ CO_2 + 2NH_3 Currently, breath tests seeking altered carbon-isotope ratios in exhaled CO_2 after the ingestion of ^{13}C- or ^{14}C-labeled urea are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. We present recent results from an ongoing collaboration with Tampere Area University Hospital. The study involves 100 patients (both infected and uninfected) and concerns the possible correlation between the bacterial infection and breath ammonia. D. Y. Graham, P. D. Klein, D. J. Evans, Jr, D. G. Evans, L. C. Alpert, A. R. Opekun, T. W. Boutton, Lancet 1(8543), 1174-7 March 1987.

  6. Photoionization sensor CES for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-10-01

    Method CES (collisional electron spectroscopy), patented in Russia, the USA, Japan, China, Germany and Britain, allows to analyze the gaseous mixtures using electron spectroscopy under high pressures up to atmospheric without using vacuum. The design of VUV photoionization detector was developed based on this method. Such detector is used as a portable gas analyzer for continuous personal bio-medical monitoring. This detector measures energy of electrons produced in ionization with resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). Nowadays, micro plasma source of such photons on resonant line of Kr with energy of 10,6 eV is developed. Only impurities are ionized and detected by the VUV-emission, meanwhile the main components of air stay neutral that reduces background signal and increases the sensibility along with accuracy. The experimental facilities with VUV photoionization sensors CES are constructed with the overall sizes about 10*10*1 mm. The watt consumption may comprise less than 1W. Increase of electrometer amplifier's sensibility and more high-aperture construction are used today to increase the sensibility of CES-detectors. The wide range of detectable molecules and high sensitivity allow the development of portable device, which can become the base of the future preventive medicine. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  7. The diagnostic challenges presented by patients with medically unexplained symptoms in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Aiarzaguena, José M.; Grandes, Gonzalo; Salazar, Agustín; Gaminde, Idoia; Sánchez, Álvaro

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the complexity of somatizing patients’ symptomatology and the difficulties involved in the diagnostic process. Design Cross-sectional study of patients with medically unexplained symptoms. Setting Basque Health Service primary care centres in Bizkaia, Spain. Subjects The study comprised 156 patients selected at random from a list of 468 patients who had presented, over the course of their lives, six or more medically unexplained somatic symptoms for females and four or more for males, identified retrospectively by their practitioners. Main outcome measures Physicians interviewed these patients using the somatoform symptoms section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD). The Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36) was filled in at home. Organic diseases whose diagnosis was established during the previous year were included in the study by consulting patients’ medical records. Results Patients were found to have a median of three medically explained and 12 medically unexplained symptoms. Mental disorders were found in 83% of cases, associated with other morbidity categories in 78%. The predictive value of symptoms was lower than 26% for diagnosing broad disease categories. Conclusions These results depict an extremely difficult scenario for dichotomous diagnostic strategies aimed at classifying patients’ symptoms as either organic or functional. Rather than struggling to choose one of these hypotheses, it is suggested that both of them should always be addressed concurrently. PMID:18570008

  8. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

  9. Formal art observation training improves medical students' visual diagnostic skills.

    PubMed

    Naghshineh, Sheila; Hafler, Janet P; Miller, Alexa R; Blanco, Maria A; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Dubroff, Rachel P; Khoshbin, Shahram; Katz, Joel T

    2008-07-01

    Despite evidence of inadequate physical examination skills among medical students, teaching these skills has declined. One method of enhancing inspection skills is teaching "visual literacy," the ability to reason physiology and pathophysiology from careful and unbiased observation. To improve students' visual acumen through structured observation of artworks, understanding of fine arts concepts and applying these skills to patient care. Prospective, partially randomized pre- vs. post-course evaluation using mixed-methods data analysis. Twenty-four pre-clinical student participants were compared to 34 classmates at a similar stage of training. Training the Eye: Improving the Art of Physical Diagnosis consists of eight paired sessions of art observation exercises with didactics that integrate fine arts concepts with physical diagnosis topics and an elective life drawing session. The frequency of accurate observations on a 1-h visual skills examination was used to evaluate pre- vs. post-course descriptions of patient photographs and art imagery. Content analysis was used to identify thematic categories. All assessments were blinded to study group and pre- vs. post-course evaluation. Following the course, class participants increased their total mean number of observations compared to controls (5.41 +/- 0.63 vs. 0.36 +/- 0.53, p < 0.0001) and had increased sophistication in their descriptions of artistic and clinical imagery. A 'dose-response' was found for those who attended eight or more sessions, compared to participants who attended seven or fewer sessions (6.31 + 0.81 and 2.76 + 1.2, respectively, p = 0.03). This interdisciplinary course improved participants' capacity to make accurate observations of art and physical findings.

  10. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  12. Predictive Modeling of Student Performances for Retention and Academic Support in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi

    2014-01-01

    As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…

  13. Crossing the Great Divide: Adoption of New Technologies, Therapeutics and Diagnostics at Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMonaco, Harold J.; Koski, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The role of new technology in healthcare continues to expand from both the clinical and financial perspectives. Despite the importance of innovation, most academic medical centers do not have a clearly defined process for technology assessment. Recognizing the importance of new drugs, diagnostics and procedures in the care of patients and in the…

  14. Predictive Modeling of Student Performances for Retention and Academic Support in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi

    2014-01-01

    As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…

  15. Low-cost technologies for medical diagnostics in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Ossandon, Miguel; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Lubensky, Irina; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-05-01

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low- and middle-income countries. Resource-poor countries require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostic devices compatible with telemedicine that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. The most suitable devices are likely those that will be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This manuscript describes several prototypes of low-cost optical technologies and their application developed at the FDA's Office of Science and Engineering laboratories including a webcam-based multiwavelength fluorescence plate reader, a webcam-based fluorescence microscope demonstrated for colonic mucosa tissue pathology analysis, a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, and a lab-on-a-chip which enables the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and other immunological or enzymatic assays without the need of dedicated laboratories and complex equipment demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Sensitive and effective optical detection devices can be developed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, charge-coupled device cameras, and LEDs. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Several optical and computational approaches were developed to overcome these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low-cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings.

  16. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  17. Formal Art Observation Training Improves Medical Students’ Visual Diagnostic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Naghshineh, Sheila; Hafler, Janet P.; Miller, Alexa R.; Blanco, Maria A.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Dubroff, Rachel P.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite evidence of inadequate physical examination skills among medical students, teaching these skills has declined. One method of enhancing inspection skills is teaching “visual literacy,” the ability to reason physiology and pathophysiology from careful and unbiased observation. Objective To improve students’ visual acumen through structured observation of artworks, understanding of fine arts concepts and applying these skills to patient care. Design Prospective, partially randomized pre- vs. post-course evaluation using mixed-methods data analysis. Participants Twenty-four pre-clinical student participants were compared to 34 classmates at a similar stage of training. Intervention Training the Eye: Improving the Art of Physical Diagnosis consists of eight paired sessions of art observation exercises with didactics that integrate fine arts concepts with physical diagnosis topics and an elective life drawing session. Measurements The frequency of accurate observations on a 1-h visual skills examination was used to evaluate pre- vs. post-course descriptions of patient photographs and art imagery. Content analysis was used to identify thematic categories. All assessments were blinded to study group and pre- vs. post-course evaluation. Results Following the course, class participants increased their total mean number of observations compared to controls (5.41 ± 0.63 vs. 0.36 ± 0.53, p < 0.0001) and had increased sophistication in their descriptions of artistic and clinical imagery. A ‘dose-response’ was found for those who attended eight or more sessions, compared to participants who attended seven or fewer sessions (6.31 + 0.81 and 2.76 + 1.2, respectively, p = 0.03). Conclusions This interdisciplinary course improved participants’ capacity to make accurate observations of art and physical findings. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0667-0) contains

  18. [A Research on the origin and development of standardization of Chinese medical case records].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-01

    The origin of Chinese medical case history is rather early. Chunyu Yi's medical cases (zhen ji) of the Western Han Dynasty were the earliest actual extant medical case with the practical contents. In the Ming Dynasty, Han Mao put forward firstly the principles of "six aspects must be recorded" for writing the pulse record, as the beginning of the standardization of medical case record. Later, Wu Kun, Yu Yan, Li Yanzhen, He Lianchen et al. supplemented, adjusted and changed the format of medical case record. After 1949, the format of medical case record was revised several times to form the national standard. In fact, the clinical medical case record is different from the case history. The modern medical case record could not reflect fully the thinking process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the essence of the treatment based on syndrome differentiation. Exploring the origin and development of the standardization of medical case record will benefit for the improvement of modern format of medical case record.

  19. Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES)-a useful tool to practice and learn medical acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chi Fai David; Leung, Kwong Sak; Heng, Pheng Ann; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Wong, Felix Wu Shun

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) that will assist the learning and practice of medical acupuncture. This was the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System which incorporated eight functional modules. These modules were 1) Add Patient Record subsystem; 2) Diagnosis subsystem ; 3) Acupuncture Prescription subsystem ; 4) Needle Insertion Position Animation subsystem ; 5) Acupuncture Points Usage Statistic subsystem ; 6) History Query subsystem; 7) Acupuncture Points Query subsystem and 8) Diagnosis Remarks and Diagnosis Record Save subsystem. Two databases were built-Patient Record database and Diagnosis (Acupuncture) Knowledge database. All the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) knowledge and acupuncture treatment prescriptions were extracted from officially used TCM textbooks and received guidance and expert advice from two acupuncturists working in this project. A Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) was built, which after the input from users of any Chinese disease symptoms and signs, it can provide a list of related TCM syndrome diagnoses based on the patients' disease symptoms and signs, and at the same time it can offer advice of the appropriate Chinese acupuncture treatment to the users. CAES also provided text descriptions and acupuncture animations showing the acupoint locations and the direction and depth of the needle insertion technique. Therefore users can easily learn acupuncture and practice it. This new acupuncture expert system will hopefully provide an easy way for users to learn and practice Chinese Acupuncture and establish its usefulness after it was fully evaluated.

  20. Implementing RECONSIDER, a diagnostic prompting computer system, at the Georgetown University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Broering, N C; Corn, M; Ayers, W R; Mistry, P

    1988-04-01

    RECONSIDER, a computer program for diagnostic prompting developed at the University of California, San Francisco, has been implemented at the Georgetown University Medical Center as part of the Integrated Academic Information Management System Model Development grant project supported by the National Library of Medicine. The system is available for student use in the Biomedical Information Resources Center of the Dahlgren Memorial Library. Instruction on use of the computer system is provided by the library and instruction on medical use of the knowledge base is directed by the faculty. The implementation, capabilities, enhancements such as the addition of Current Medical Information and Terminology (5th ed.), and evaluation of the system are reported.

  1. Workplace violence and its effect on burnout and turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiying; Lin, Shaowei; Ruan, Qishuang; Li, Huangyuan; Wu, Siying

    2016-11-01

    The present study was to evaluate workplace violence and examine its effect on job burnout and turnover attempt among medical staff in China. A total of 2,020 medical employees were selected from Fujian province by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were used to measure the workplace violence and job burnout, respectively. Other potential influencing factors for job burnout and turnover attempt were collected using a structured questionnaire. The incidence of workplace violence among medical staff was 48.0%. Workplace violence had a positive correlation with emotional exhaustion and cynicism and a negative correlation with professional efficacy. Workplace violence, marital status, employment type, working time (≥ 10 h/day), performance recognition, and life satisfaction were significant predictors for turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

  2. Histological knowledge as a predictor of medical students' performance in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and histopathology among students predicts early learning of diagnostic pathology. Participants (N=118, representing 91% of the full student cohort) were medical students at the University of Turku, Finland. Data were collected during two preclinical courses that students attended in their first and second years of medical school. The measurements included tests on biomedical and clinical knowledge and a performance test in diagnostic pathology. Second-year performance on the diagnostic pathology examinations was predicted by the students' prior knowledge of histology, but not by the students' prior knowledge of histopathology. Although earlier research has demonstrated similar results in studies with shorter longitudinal designs, the present study demonstrates that the effect remains even if there is a considerably long time delay (a year) between the measurements, thus confirming the long-term value of basic science studies in the preclinical phase. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Yang, Gong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    No study to date has prospectively evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among women. This analysis included 547 incident lung cancer cases identified from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) during the follow-up period of 1997-2011. Dietary intake was assessed for all SWHS participants at enrollment and reassessed 2-3 years later. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Of the 547 lung cancer patients, 412 patients died during the follow-up. A total of 393 (95.4%) deaths from lung cancer were documented with median survival time of 10.3 months (interquartile range, 3.6-21.1 months). High cruciferous vegetables intake was significantly associated with improved lung cancer-specific survival after adjusting for all nonclinical prognostic factors (n = 547, HR = 0.69; 95%CI = 0.49-0.95; P trend = 0.02) for the highest versus lowest quartile. A slightly stronger association of cruciferous vegetables intake with lung cancer-specific survival was observed in analyses restricted to patients with known clinical prognostic factors (n = 331, HR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.41-0.97; P trend = 0.03) or never smokers (n = 308, HR = 0.58; 95%CI = 0.37-0.91; P trend = 0.02). In conclusion, pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake is associated with better survival of lung cancer in Chinese women. PMID:25988580

  4. An Overview of the Roles and Responsibilities of Chinese Medical Colleges in Body Donation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low…

  5. An Overview of the Roles and Responsibilities of Chinese Medical Colleges in Body Donation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low…

  6. SMS-Based Medical Diagnostic Telemetry Data Transmission Protocol for Medical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Ben; Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their time at home, most current technologies rely on hardwired landline technology or expensive mobile data transmissions to transmit data to a medical facility. The aim of this paper is to investigate and develop an approach to increase the freedom of a monitored patient and decrease costs by utilising mobile technologies and SMS messaging to transmit data from patient to medico. To this end, we evaluated the capabilities of SMS and propose a generic communications protocol which can work within the constraints of the SMS format, but provide the necessary redundancy and robustness to be used for the transmission of non-critical medical telemetry from data logging medical sensors. PMID:22163845

  7. Review of the Chinese medical approach to the management of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lili; Faber, Ken

    2005-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of efficacy in treating chronic illness. TCM views fibromyalgia and related conditions as disorders in the movement of energy (Qi) and body fluids (including blood) in the body and gets excellent treatment results using acupuncture, herbal medicine, massage, diet, and exercise to restore the proper flow of Qi and fluids. This article briefly introduces the TCM model of human physiology and TCM diagnostics and describes the TCM pathophysiology and treatment models for fibromyalgia.

  8. Children’s Exposure to Diagnostic Medical Radiation and Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic and Dosimetric Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Kim, Kwang pyo; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children’s postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopically-guided procedures. PMID:19083224

  9. Impact of precision of Bayesian networks parameters on accuracy of medical diagnostic systems

    PubMed Central

    Oniśko, Agnieszka; Druzdzel, Marek J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective One of the hardest technical tasks in employing Bayesian network models in practice is obtaining their numerical parameters. In the light of this difficulty, a pressing question, one that has immediate implications on the knowledge engineering effort, is whether precision of these parameters is important. In this paper, we address experimentally the question whether medical diagnostic systems based on Bayesian networks are sensitive to precision of their parameters. Methods and Materials The test networks include Hepar II, a sizeable Bayesian network model for diagnosis of liver disorders and six other medical diagnostic networks constructed from medical data sets available through the Irvine Machine Learning Repository. Assuming that the original model parameters are perfectly accurate, we lower systematically their precision by rounding them to progressively courser scales and check the impact of this rounding on the models' accuracy. Results Our main result, consistent across all tested networks, is that imprecision in numerical parameters has minimal impact on the diagnostic accuracy of models, as long as we avoid zeroes among parameters. Conclusion The experiments' results provide evidence that as long as we avoid zeroes among model parameters, diagnostic accuracy of Bayesian network models does not suffer from decreased precision of their parameters. PMID:23466438

  10. A Statistical Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of MEDAS-The Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System

    PubMed Central

    Georgakis, D. Christine; Trace, David A.; Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Evens, Martha

    1990-01-01

    Medical expert systems require comprehensive evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy. The usefulness of these systems is limited without established evaluation methods. We propose a new methodology for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy and the predictive capacity of a medical expert system. We have adapted to the medical domain measures that have been used in the social sciences to examine the performance of human experts in the decision making process. Thus, in addition to the standard summary measures, we use measures of agreement and disagreement, and Goodman and Kruskal's λ and τ measures of predictive association. This methodology is illustrated by a detailed retrospective evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the MEDAS system. In a study using 270 patients admitted to the North Chicago Veterans Administration Hospital, diagnoses produced by MEDAS are compared with the discharge diagnoses of the attending physicians. The results of the analysis confirm the high diagnostic accuracy and predictive capacity of the MEDAS system. Overall, the agreement of the MEDAS system with the “gold standard” diagnosis of the attending physician has reached a 90% level.

  11. Patient safety education among chinese medical undergraduates: An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Tao, Hong-Bing; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Tang, Jin-Hui; Peng, Fang; Shu, Qin; Li, Wen-Gang; Tu, Shun-Gui; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-10-01

    Patient safety education is conducive to medical students' cognition on patient safety and to improvement of medical quality and safety. Developing patient safety education for medical students is more and more widely recognized by World Health Organization and countries all over the world. However, in China, patient safety courses aiming at medical students are relatively few, and there are few reports about the effect of patient safety courses. This paper explored the influence of patient safety curriculum on medical students' attitude to and knowledge of patient safety. The patient safety curriculum was carried out for 2011-grade undergraduates of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The students participated in the class according to free choice. After the curriculum, the information of gender, major, attended course, attitude toward patient safety, and knowledge of laws and regulations of the 2011-grade undergraduates were collected. After rejecting invalid questionnaires, the number of undergraduates that participated in the survey was 112 (61 students did not take part in the curriculum; 51 took part in). Chi-square test was applied to analyze patient safety education's influence on medical students' attitude to patient safety and their knowledge mastery situation. The influence of patient safety education on the attitude of medical students to patient safety was not significant, but that on their knowledge of patient safety was remarkable. No matter male or female, as compared with medical students who had not accepted patient safety education, they both had a better acquisition of knowledge after having this education (for male students: 95% CI, 4.556-106.238, P<0.001; for female students: 95% CI, 3.183-33.238, P<0.001). Students majoring in Western Medicine had a relatively better mastery of knowledge of patient safety after receiving patient safety education (95% CI, 6.267-76.271, P<0.001). Short-term patient safety

  12. Diagnostic value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody for rheumatoid arthritis in a Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Cai-Qin; Mu, Feng-Yun; You, Yan-Qiu; Liu, Yan-Hong

    2012-10-01

    To use meta-analysis to determine the accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody in diagnosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Chinese population, we searched MEDLINE and CNKI databases for studies published in English or Chinese between January 2000 and June 2010. Two investigators independently evaluated studies for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment. We used a random-effects model to combine estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). One hundred and eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. All studies were of high quality. The summary estimates for anti-CCP antibody in the diagnosis of RA in a Chinese population were as follows: sensitivity 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.66), specificity 0.95 (95% CI 0.95-0.96), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 15.84 (95% CI 13.55-18.54), negative likelihood ratio (LR-) 0.33 (95% CI 0.31-0.35), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 51.60 (95% CI 43.64-61.01). With high specificity and moderate sensitivity, anti-CCP antibody tests play an important role in conforming the diagnosis of RA in a Chinese population.

  13. Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Kaya; Niranjan, Mahesan; Tunca, Yusuf; Osvank, Erhan; Azim, Tayyaba

    2014-10-01

    In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype-phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype-phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided system for pre-diagnosis can facilitate effective and efficient decision support, particularly when few similar cases are available, or in remote rural districts where diagnostic knowledge of syndromes is not readily available. The proposed methodology, visual diagnostic decision support system (visual diagnostic DSS), employs machine learning (ML) algorithms and digital image processing techniques in a hybrid approach for automated diagnosis in medical genetics. This approach uses facial features in reference images of disorders to identify visual genotype-phenotype interrelationships. Our statistical method describes facial image data as principal component features and diagnoses syndromes using these features. The proposed system was trained using a real dataset of previously published face images of subjects with syndromes, which provided accurate diagnostic information. The method was tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme with 15 different syndromes, each of comprised 5-9 cases, i.e., 92 cases in total. An accuracy rate of 83% was achieved using this automated diagnosis technique, which was statistically significant (p<0.01). Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity values were 0.857 and 0.870, respectively. Our results show that the accurate classification of syndromes is feasible using ML techniques. Thus, a large number of syndromes with characteristic facial anomaly patterns could be diagnosed with similar diagnostic DSSs to that described in the present study, i.e., visual diagnostic DSS, thereby demonstrating the benefits of using hybrid image processing

  14. [Systematic teaching of differential diagnostics and information retrieval in medical education--a controlled study].

    PubMed

    Renko, Marjo; Soini, Hannu; Rantala, Heikki; Tapiainen, Terhi; Pokka, Tytti; Uhari, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Teaching of differential diagnostic skills in medical education is often nonsystematic and touched only in a disease-based manner in the context of patient cases. We conducted a controlled study, in which a portion of fifth year students received systematic teaching of differential diagnostics and information retrieval for a period of ten weeks, whereas another portion continued in conventional basic training. We tested the students' problem-solving skills in both groups with a computer-assisted test. Students in the intervention group were more successful in the test and settled on the correct diagnosis more often than students in the control group.

  15. Diagnostic delay in psychogenic seizures and the association with anti-seizure medication trials.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Wesley T; Janio, Emily A; Le, Justine M; Hori, Jessica M; Patel, Akash B; Gallardo, Norma L; Bauirjan, Janar; Chau, Andrea M; D'Ambrosio, Shannon R; Cho, Andrew Y; Engel, Jerome; Cohen, Mark S; Stern, John M

    2016-08-01

    The average delay from first seizure to diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is over 7 years. The reason for this delay is not well understood. We hypothesized that a perceived decrease in seizure frequency after starting an anti-seizure medication (ASM) may contribute to longer delays, but the frequency of such a response has not been well established. Time from onset to diagnosis, medication history and associated seizure frequency was acquired from the medical records of 297 consecutive patients with PNES diagnosed using video-electroencephalographic monitoring. Exponential regression was used to model the effect of medication trials and response on diagnostic delay. Mean diagnostic delay was 8.4 years (min 1 day, max 52 years). The robust average diagnostic delay was 2.8 years (95% CI: 2.2-3.5 years) based on an exponential model as 10 to the mean of log10 delay. Each ASM trial increased the robust average delay exponentially by at least one third of a year (Wald t=3.6, p=0.004). Response to ASM trials did not significantly change diagnostic delay (Wald t=-0.9, p=0.38). Although a response to ASMs was observed commonly in these patients with PNES, the presence of a response was not associated with longer time until definitive diagnosis. Instead, the number of ASMs tried was associated with a longer delay until diagnosis, suggesting that ASM trials were continued despite lack of response. These data support the guideline that patients with seizures should be referred to epilepsy care centers after failure of two medication trials. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever at Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Maude, Rapeephan R; de Jong, Hanna K; Wijedoru, Lalith; Fukushima, Masako; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Hossain, Mohammed Amir; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for typhoid fever in febrile hospitalised patients in Bangladesh. Febrile adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, were investigated with Bact/Alert(®) blood cultures and real-time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A and assays for Rickettsia, leptospirosis and dengue fever. Acute serum samples were examined with the LifeAssay (LA) Test-it™ Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay detecting IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O antigen, CTKBiotech Onsite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo Rapid-test cassette lateral flow assay detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O and H antigens and SD Bioline line assay for IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi proteins. In 300 malaria smear-negative febrile patients [median (IQR) age of 13.5 (5-31) years], 34 (11.3%) had confirmed typhoid fever: 19 positive by blood culture for S. Typhi (three blood PCR positive) and 15 blood culture negative but PCR positive for S. Typhi in blood. The respective sensitivity and specificity of the three RDTs in patients using a composite reference standard of blood culture and/or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever were 59% and 61% for LifeAssay, 59% and 74% for the CTK IgM and/or IgG, and 24% and 96% for the SD Bioline RDT IgM and/or IgG. The LifeAssay RDT had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 91% when modified with a positive cut-off of ≥2+ and analysed using a Bayesian latent class model. These typhoid RDTs demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracies, and better tests are needed. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Test-Retest Reliability of the Chinese Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version 4 (DISC-IV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ting-Pong; Leung, Patrick Wing-leung; Lee, Chi-chiu; Tang, Chun-pan; Hung, Se-fong; Kwong, Shi-leung; Lucas, Christopher P.; Lieh-Mak, Felice; Shaffer, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite the huge youth population, there is a lack of psychiatric diagnostic instruments with reported psychometric properties in Chinese. This study reports the development of the Chinese version of DISC-IV and examines its test-retest reliability. Method: Seventy-eight parents and 79 youths (mean age 13.1 years) attending child…

  18. Natural medicines used in the traditional Chinese medical system for therapy of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Zheng, H C; Bukuru, J; De Kimpe, N

    2004-05-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to mankind health in all parts of the world. The control and treatment of diabetes and its complications mainly depend on the chemical or biochemical agents, but the fact is that it has never been reported that someone had recovered totally from diabetes. With the distinctive traditional medical opinions and natural medicines mainly originated in herbs, the traditional Chinese medicine performed a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the therapy of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in Chinese medicinal plants for diabetes. The present paper reviews 86 natural medicines with regards to their origin, anti-diabetic active principles and/or pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in the traditional Chinese medical system and have demonstrated experimental or/and clinical anti-diabetic effectiveness. Among these natural medicines, 82 originate from plants and 4 from animals or insects, which covers 45 families. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to traditional Chinese medical therapeutics and natural medicines for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. [Methodical features of the molding of diagnostic competences in medical parasitology workers].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Avdiukhina, T I; Serdiuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a procedure to mold diagnostic competences in medical workers of the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions and hygiene and epidemiology centers, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. The methodical features of molding diagnostic competences in the above contingents are the design and organization of an educational process by applying systems integration and competence-based approaches; increased active self-directed learning of audience; a procedure to organize its unsupervised extracurricular activities. Professional habits and skills in laboratory specialists should be molded on the basis of didactic principles and in compliance with the found methodical patterns. The eventual result (molded competences) and its compliance with the practical health care requirements is assessed using all control types (incoming, running, intermediate, and ultimate ones). This ensures the stability and predictability of molding diagnostic competences in parasitology specialists.

  20. A snapshot of the status of problem-based learning (PBL) in Chinese medical schools.

    PubMed

    Fan, Angela Pei-Chen; Kosik, Russell O; Tsai, Thomas Chen-Chia; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Guo, Li; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Chen, Qi

    2014-07-01

    In North America, where it was born, problem-based learning (PBL) has seen dips and rises in its popularity, but its inherent strengths have led to its spread to medical schools all over the world. Although its use at medical schools in some Western countries has already been examined, no one has looked at its status in many other countries, including China. The aim of this study is to determine the number of schools currently using PBL in China, the degree to which they use it, and the reasoning behind such usage. We used survey and internet search to examine PBL usage at Chinese medical schools. We were able to collect data from 43 first-class Chinese medical schools that are geographically diverse and thus representative of medical schools all across China. 34 (79.1%) of the 43 medical schools use PBL in the preclinical curriculum. Of the 34, data were collected from 24 (70.6%) medical schools regarding the extent of their PBL usage. Nine (37.5%) schools use PBL for less than 10% of preclinical hours, 14 (58.3%) schools use PBL for 10-50% of preclinical hours, and one (4.2%) school uses PBL for more than 50% of preclinical hours. In our sample of Chinese medical institutions, a large majority of schools use PBL, however, most schools use it for less than 50% of total preclinical curricular hours. Our results suggest that schools are interested in increasing the number of curricular hours devoted to PBL but are constrained by resources.

  1. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

  2. Examining shifts in medical students' microanalytic motivation beliefs and regulatory processes during a diagnostic reasoning task.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Timothy J; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined within-group shifts in the motivation beliefs and regulatory processes of second-year medical students as they engaged in a diagnostic reasoning activity. Using a contextualized assessment methodology called self-regulated learning microanalysis, the authors found that the 71 medical student participants showed statistically significant and relatively robust declines in their self-efficacy beliefs and strategic regulatory processes following negative feedback about their performance on the diagnostic reasoning task. Descriptive statistics revealed that changes in strategic thinking following negative corrective feedback were most characterized by shifts away from task-specific processes (e.g., integration, differentiating diagnoses) to non-task related factors. Implications and areas for future research are presented and discussed.

  3. Virtual reality aided visualization of fluid flow simulations with application in medical education and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Tijana; Mandic, Vesna; Filipovic, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    Medical education, training and preoperative diagnostics can be drastically improved with advanced technologies, such as virtual reality. The method proposed in this paper enables medical doctors and students to visualize and manipulate three-dimensional models created from CT or MRI scans, and also to analyze the results of fluid flow simulations. Simulation of fluid flow using the finite element method is performed, in order to compute the shear stress on the artery walls. The simulation of motion through the artery is also enabled. The virtual reality system proposed here could shorten the length of training programs and make the education process more effective. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [The challenges of standardization in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations].

    PubMed

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-04-01

    The generalized data concerning the conditions of application of regulations of national standards in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations is presented. The primary information was provided by 14 regions of 6 federal administrative okrugs of Russia. The causes of challenges of application of requirements of standards are presented. They are mostly related with insufficient financial support, lacking of manpower, difficulties with reagents supply, inadequate technical maintenance of devices and absence of support of administration of medical organizations. The recommendations are formulated concerning the necessity of publishing the document of Minzdrav of Russia to determine the need in application of standards in laboratory practice.

  5. Diagnostic error in children presenting with acute medical illness to a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Catherine; Patel, Poonam; Hyer, Warren; Neale, Graham; Sevdalis, Nick; Inwald, David

    2014-10-01

    To determine incidence and aetiology of diagnostic errors in children presenting with acute medical illness to a community hospital. A three-stage study was conducted. Stage 1: retrospective case note review, comparing admission to discharge diagnoses of children admitted to hospital, to determine incidence of diagnostic error. Stage 2: cases of suspected misdiagnosis were examined in detail by two reviewers. Stage 3: structured interviews were conducted with clinicians involved in these cases to identify contributory factors. UK community (District General) hospital. All medical patients admitted to the paediatric ward and patients transferred from the Emergency Department to a different facility over a 90-day period were included. Incidence of diagnostic error, type of diagnostic error and content analysis of the structured interviews to determine frequency of emerging themes. Incidence of misdiagnosis in children presenting with acute illness was 5.0% (19/378, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-7.2%). Diagnostic errors were multi-factorial in origin, commonly involving cognitive factors. Reviewers 1 and 2 identified a median of three and four errors per case, respectively. In 14 cases, structured interviews were possible; clinicians believed system-related errors (organizational flaws, e.g. inadequate policies, staffing or equipment) contributed more commonly to misdiagnoses, whereas reviewers found cognitive factors contributed more commonly to diagnostic error. Misdiagnoses occurred in 5% of children presenting with acute illness and were multi-factorial in aetiology. Multi-site longitudinal studies further exploring aetiology of errors and effect of educational interventions are required to generalize these findings and determine strategies for mitigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: Prospective multicentric evaluation of the current medical indications.

    PubMed

    Morado, Marta; Freire Sandes, Alex; Colado, Enrique; Subirá, Dolores; Isusi, Paloma; Soledad Noya, María; Belén Vidriales, María; Sempere, Amparo; Ángel Díaz, José; Minguela, Alfredo; Álvarez, Beatriz; Serrano, Cristina; Caballero, Teresa; Rey, Mercedes; Pérez Corral, Ana; Cristina Fernández Jiménez, María; Magro, Elena; Lemes, Angelina; Benavente, Celina; Bañas, Helena; Merino, Juana; Castejon, Celine; Gutierrez, Olivier; Rabasa, Pilar; Vescosi Gonçalves, Matheus; Perez-Andres, Martin; Orfao, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Although consensus guidelines have been proposed in 2010 for the diagnostic screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) by flow cytometry (FCM), so far no study has investigated the efficiency of such medical indications in multicentric vs. reference laboratory settings. Here we evaluate the efficiency of consensus medical indications for PNH testing in 3,938 peripheral blood samples submitted to FCM testing in 24 laboratories in Spain and one reference center in Brazil. Overall, diagnostic screening based on consensus medical indications was highly efficient (14% of PNH(+) samples) both in the multicenter setting in Spain (10%) and the reference laboratory in Brazil (16%). The highest frequency of PNH(+) cases was observed among patients screened because of bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome (33%), particularly among those with aplastic anemia (AA; 45%) and to a less extent also a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; 10%). Among the other individuals studied, the most efficient medical indications for PNH screening included: hemolytic anemia (19%), hemoglobinuria (48%) and unexplained cytopenias (9%). In contrast, only a minor fraction of the patients who had been submitted for PNH testing because of unexplained thrombosis in the absence of cytopenia, were positive (0.4%). In summary, our results demonstrate that the current medical indications for PNH screening by FCM are highly efficient, although improved screening algorithms are needed for patients presenting with thrombosis and normal blood cell counts. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  7. Peri-Abortion Contraceptive Choices of Migrant Chinese Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sally B.; Wei, Zhang; Cooper, Annette J.; Lawton, Beverley A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Migrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether Chinese women were over-represented among abortion clinic attendees. Methods Retrospective review of medical records at a public hospital abortion clinic involving 305 Chinese women. Previously collected data for European (n = 277) and Maori women (n = 128) were used for comparative analyses. Regression analyses explored correlates of contraceptive method choice. Population census data were used to calculate rates of clinic attendance across ethnic groups. Results Chinese women were not over-represented among clinic attendees, and had similar rates of contraceptive non-use pre-abortion as women in comparison groups. Use of the oral contraceptive pill by Chinese was lower pre-abortion than for other ethnic groups, but choice of this method post-abortion was similar for Chinese (46.9%, 95% CI 41–52.7) and European women (43.7%, 95% CI 37.8–49.7). Post-abortion choice of an intrauterine device did not differ significantly between Chinese (28.9%, 95% CI 23.8–34.3) and Maori women (37%, 95% CI 28.4–45.7), but was higher than uptake of this method by European women (21.7%, 95% CI 17–27.0). Age, parity and previous abortion were significant predictors of post-abortion method choice by Chinese women (p<0.05). Conclusions Following contraceptive counseling at the clinic, Chinese women chose more effective contraceptive methods for use post-abortion than they had used previously. As the population of migrant Chinese in New Zealand continues to increase, strategies are urgently needed to provide new arrivals with appropriate information and advice about

  8. Prevalence of diminished ovarian reserve in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and sensitive diagnostic parameters.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Ruan, Xiangyan; Hua, Lin; Tian, Xuanxuan; Li, Yanglu; Wang, Lijuan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in China, and to search for sensitive diagnostic parameters. Three hundred and thirty eight PCOS women aged 20-39 years were recruited. Basic characteristics, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were measured. The best indices to diagnose PCOS with DOR were assessed. The prevalence of DOR in our Chinese PCOS patients was 16.9%. The level of E2 and FSH and the FSH/LH ratio had a positive correlation with PCOS and DOR (OR > 1, p < 0.05) independent of age and testosterone, while AMH and baseline antral follicle count had a negative correlation (OR < 1, p < 0.05). AMH was a good parameter to diagnose PCOS with DOR, the cutoff was 2.53 ng/ml, with sensitivity 92.5%, specificity 73.7% and area under curve 0.932. AMH had a significant positive correlation with LH (r = 0.016, p < 0.05) and testosterone (r = 0.209, p < 0.01), while had significant negative correlation with age (r=-0.140, p < 0.05), FSH (r=-0.229, p < 0.01) and FSH/LH ratio (r=-0.240, p < 0.01). In our study, AMH was a sensitive parameter to diagnose PCOS with DOR, but to improve the accuracy it will still need further studies.

  9. Virtual classroom helps medical education for both Chinese and foreign students.

    PubMed

    Shi, C; Wang, L; Li, X; Chai, S; Niu, W; Kong, Y; Zhou, W; Yin, W

    2015-11-01

    The rapid development of computer and internet technology has a strong influence over one's quality of education within different fields of study. To determine the potential benefits of introducing internet into medical school classes, a pilot study was conducted in three different Chinese medical schools. Seven hundred and eight medical school undergraduates, 385 dental school students and 366 foreign students were randomly recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The contents included personal information, current usage of computer and internet, and attitudes towards the computerised teaching methods. Two forum groups were created using instant message software and were randomly assigned to two classes, allowing students to freely ask or discuss questions with the help of their teachers in these two virtual classrooms. All 1539 questionnaires were accepted and analysed. Although there were some differences between Chinese and foreign undergraduates, both group of students were highly proficient in internet usage and navigation. Overwhelmingly, 88.37% of the students owned a computer and frequently logged onto the internet. Most of them believed that the internet is a helpful adjunct to their studies and held positive attitudes towards computerised teaching. Compared to the classes that were not assigned internet forums, the two experimental classes performed significantly better on the examination. Our results suggest that computerised teaching methods have significant potential to assist in learning for both Chinese and foreign medical undergraduates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A survey to medical residents on the performance of diagnostic and therapeutic thoracenteses: a training gap?

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Cases-Viedma, E; Bielsa, S

    2016-12-01

    Pleural fluid aspiration is a routine procedure for pulmonologists and internists. Our aim was to evaluate technical and methodological aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic thoracenteses performed by last two-year residents of Pulmonology and Internal Medicine. An online 24-item questionnaire was sent to participants, and responses were evaluated according to the medical specialty. The survey was completed by 139 (17.1%) residents (71 internists and 68 pulmonologists). 29.5% and 41% performed one or no diagnostic or therapeutic thoracenteses monthly, respectively. Only 44% used ultrasonography to guide pleural procedures. Less than half of respondents used local anesthesia for diagnostic aspirations. Contrary to current recommendations, 25% of residents employed intramuscular needles for therapeutic aspirations. More than 80% of residents routinely ordered pleural fluid cultures and cytological studies, regardless of the clinical suspicion. About 40% requested imaging studies after a diagnostic thoracentesis. Half or more of the respondents were unaware of pH measurement methodologies, culture type for mycobacteria, and performance of cell blocks. Pulmonologists were more experienced than internists, and also made use of ultrasonography more frequently. This survey highlights gaps of knowledge and skills in conducting diagnostic and therapeutic thoracenteses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. The quest for 'diagnostically lossless' medical image compression: a comparative study of objective quality metrics for compressed medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik-Urbaniak, Ilona; Brunet, Dominique; Wang, Jiheng; Koff, David; Smolarski-Koff, Nadine; Vrscay, Edward R.; Wallace, Bill; Wang, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Our study, involving a collaboration with radiologists (DK,NSK) as well as a leading international developer of medical imaging software (AGFA), is primarily concerned with improved methods of assessing the diagnostic quality of compressed medical images and the investigation of compression artifacts resulting from JPEG and JPEG2000. In this work, we compare the performances of the Structural Similarity quality measure (SSIM), MSE/PSNR, compression ratio CR and JPEG quality factor Q, based on experimental data collected in two experiments involving radiologists. An ROC and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis indicates that compression ratio is not always a good indicator of visual quality. Moreover, SSIM demonstrates the best performance, i.e., it provides the closest match to the radiologists' assessments. We also show that a weighted Youden index1 and curve tting method can provide SSIM and MSE thresholds for acceptable compression ratios.

  12. Ultrasound Metrology in Mexico: a round robin test for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezola Luna, R.; López Sánchez, A. L.; Elías Juárez, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary statistical results from an on-going imaging medical ultrasound study, of particular relevance for gynecology and obstetrics areas. Its scope is twofold, firstly to compile the medical ultrasound infrastructure available in cities of Queretaro-Mexico, and second to promote the use of traceable measurement standards as a key aspect to assure quality of ultrasound examinations performed by medical specialists. The experimental methodology is based on a round robin test using an ultrasound phantom for medical imaging. The physician, using its own ultrasound machine, couplant and facilities, measures the size and depth of a set of pre-defined reflecting and absorbing targets of the reference phantom, which simulate human illnesses. Measurements performed give the medical specialist an objective feedback regarding some performance characteristics of their ultrasound examination systems, such as measurement system accuracy, dead zone, axial resolution, depth of penetration and anechoic targets detection. By the end of March 2010, 66 entities with medical ultrasound facilities, from both public and private institutions, have performed measurements. A network of medical ultrasound calibration laboratories in Mexico, with traceability to The International System of Units via national measurement standards, may indeed contribute to reduce measurement deviations and thus attain better diagnostics.

  13. The ethical imperative to think about thinking - diagnostics, metacognition, and medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Stark, Meredith; Fins, Joseph J

    2014-10-01

    While the medical ethics literature has well explored the harm to patients, families, and the integrity of the profession in failing to disclose medical errors once they occur, less often addressed are the moral and professional obligations to take all available steps to prevent errors and harm in the first instance. As an expanding body of scholarship further elucidates the causes of medical error, including the considerable extent to which medical errors, particularly in diagnostics, may be attributable to cognitive sources, insufficient progress in systematically evaluating and implementing suggested strategies for improving critical thinking skills and medical judgment is of mounting concern. Continued failure to address pervasive thinking errors in medical decisionmaking imperils patient safety and professionalism, as well as beneficence and nonmaleficence, fairness and justice. We maintain that self-reflective and metacognitive refinement of critical thinking should not be construed as optional but rather should be considered an integral part of medical education, a codified tenet of professionalism, and by extension, a moral and professional duty.

  14. Text mining for traditional Chinese medical knowledge discovery: a survey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Peng, Yonghong; Liu, Baoyan

    2010-08-01

    Extracting meaningful information and knowledge from free text is the subject of considerable research interest in the machine learning and data mining fields. Text data mining (or text mining) has become one of the most active research sub-fields in data mining. Significant developments in the area of biomedical text mining during the past years have demonstrated its great promise for supporting scientists in developing novel hypotheses and new knowledge from the biomedical literature. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a distinct methodology with which to view human life. It is one of the most complete and distinguished traditional medicines with a history of several thousand years of studying and practicing the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. It has been shown that the TCM knowledge obtained from clinical practice has become a significant complementary source of information for modern biomedical sciences. TCM literature obtained from the historical period and from modern clinical studies has recently been transformed into digital data in the form of relational databases or text documents, which provide an effective platform for information sharing and retrieval. This motivates and facilitates research and development into knowledge discovery approaches and to modernize TCM. In order to contribute to this still growing field, this paper presents (1) a comparative introduction to TCM and modern biomedicine, (2) a survey of the related information sources of TCM, (3) a review and discussion of the state of the art and the development of text mining techniques with applications to TCM, (4) a discussion of the research issues around TCM text mining and its future directions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac medication prescribing and adherence after acute myocardial infarction in Chinese and South Asian Canadian patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Emily J; Grubisic, Maja; Palepu, Anita; Quan, Hude; King, Kathryn M; Khan, Nadia A

    2011-09-18

    Failure to adhere to cardiac medications after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increased mortality. Language barriers and preference for traditional medications may predispose certain ethnic groups at high risk for non-adherence. We compared prescribing and adherence to ACE-inhibitors (ACEI), beta-blockers (BB), and statins following AMI among elderly Chinese, South Asian, and Non-Asian patients. Retrospective-cohort study of elderly AMI survivors (1995-2002) using administrative data from British Columbia. AMI cases and ethnicity were identified using validated ICD-9/10 coding and surname algorithms, respectively. Medication adherence was assessed using the 'proportion of days covered' (PDC) metric with a PDC ≥ 0.80 indicating optimal adherence. The independent effect of ethnicity on adherence was assessed using multivariable modeling, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. There were 9926 elderly AMI survivors (258 Chinese, 511 South Asian patients). More Chinese patients were prescribed BBs (79.7% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.04) and more South Asian patients were prescribed statins (73.5% vs. 65.2%, p = 0.001). Both Chinese (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.53; 95%CI, 0.39-0.73; p < 0.0001) and South Asian (OR 0.78; 95%CI, 0.61-0.99; p = 0.04) patients were less adherent to ACEI compared to Non-Asian patients. South Asian patients were more adherent to BBs (OR 1.3; 95%CI, 1.04-1.62; p = 0.02). There was no difference in prescribing of ACEI, nor adherence to statins among the ethnicities. Despite a higher likelihood of being prescribed evidence-based therapies following AMI, Chinese and South Asian patients were less likely to adhere to ACEI compared to their Non-Asian counterparts.

  16. Leaching characteristics of fly ash from Chinese medical waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongxin; Xiao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    Many of the characteristics of typical medical waste ash can be found by using ash leaching experiments. The present study investigated the characteristics of fly ash derived from incineration of medical waste in China. The particle diameter of the fly ash was in the range 154-900 μm. Elemental analyses of the fly ash indicated that it contained calcium, aluminium, iron, sodium, potassium and magnesium, and that copper, lead, chromium and mercury were the dominant heavy metals it contained. As leaching time was increased the leaching concentrations of the heavy metals increased and the leaching toxicity was augmented. When the pH was neutral, the concentrations of most heavy metals in the leachate were minimum whereas when the pH was alkali or acid, the leaching toxicity was greatly enhanced. High temperature melting was found to be a good method of fixing heavy metals, and the main components of the sinter were Fe3O4, SiO2, CaSO4 and CaSiO3, etc.

  17. A comparison of Chinese traditional and Western medical approaches for the treatment of mild hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, N. D.; Ming, S.; Zhou, H. Y.; Black, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of Chinese traditional treatment for mild hypertension with that of a standard Western medical regimen in a group of 50 well-matched patients (24 allocated to Western medicine and 26 to Chinese traditional medicine) with mild hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 90-104 mmHg). Those receiving Western therapy were treated in a stepped-care fashion with dihydrochlorothiazide and atenolol. Those in the Chinese traditional therapy group received one of two mixtures of nine herbs and other ingredients, depending on symptoms at initial evaluation. Blood pressure dropped significantly in both groups after only a few days on therapy. After 19 days on treatment, the group receiving Western therapy had a fall in blood pressure from 168.2/96.3 mmHg to 137.3/76.7 mmHg (p less than 0.01), while those on Chinese traditional therapy fell from 168.2/95.9 mmHg to 146.4/80.5 mmHg (p less than 0.01). The fall in blood pressure was significantly greater, however, in those given Western therapy. The relief of existing symptoms or development of possible drug side effects was similar in both groups, except for nocturia, occurring more often in the group treated with Western therapy. We conclude that Western therapy is more effective in reducing blood pressure as compared with Chinese traditional therapy, but effective control of blood pressure in mild hypertensives is possible with either form of treatment. PMID:1897264

  18. Diagnostic agreement when comparing still and video imaging for the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Killough, Emily; Spector, Lisa; Moffatt, Mary; Wiebe, Jan; Nielsen-Parker, Monica; Anderst, Jim

    2016-02-01

    Still photo imaging is often used in medical evaluations of child sexual abuse (CSA) but video imaging may be superior. We aimed to compare still images to videos with respect to diagnostic agreement regarding hymenal deep notches and transections in post-pubertal females. Additionally, we evaluated the role of experience and expertise on agreement. We hypothesized that videos would result in improved diagnostic agreement of multiple evaluators as compared to still photos. This was a prospective quasi-experimental study using imaging modality as the quasi-independent variable. The dependent variable was diagnostic agreement of participants regarding presence/absence of findings indicating penetrative trauma on non-acute post-pubertal genital exams. Participants were medical personnel who regularly perform CSA exams. Diagnostic agreement was evaluated utilizing a retrospective selection of videos and still photos obtained directly from the videos. Videos and still photos were embedded into an on-line survey as sixteen cases. One-hundred sixteen participants completed the study. Participant diagnosis was more likely to agree with study center diagnosis when using video (p<0.01). Use of video resulted in statistically significant changes in diagnosis in four of eight cases. In two cases, the diagnosis of the majority of participants changed from no hymenal transection to transection present. No difference in agreement was found based on experience or expertise. Use of video vs. still images resulted in increased agreement with original examiner and changes in diagnostic impressions in review of CSA exams. Further study is warranted, as video imaging may have significant impacts on diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Moving beyond quality control in diagnostic radiology and the role of the clinically qualified medical physicist.

    PubMed

    Delis, H; Christaki, K; Healy, B; Loreti, G; Poli, G L; Toroi, P; Meghzifene, A

    2017-09-01

    Quality control (QC), according to ISO definitions, represents the most basic level of quality. It is considered to be the snapshot of the performance or the characteristics of a product or service, in order to verify that it complies with the requirements. Although it is usually believed that "the role of medical physicists in Diagnostic Radiology is QC", this, not only limits the contribution of medical physicists, but is also no longer adequate to meet the needs of Diagnostic Radiology in terms of Quality. In order to assure quality practices more organized activities and efforts are required in the modern era of diagnostic radiology. The complete system of QC is just one element of a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program that aims at ensuring that the requirements of quality of a product or service will consistently be fulfilled. A comprehensive Quality system, starts even before the procurement of any equipment, as the need analysis and the development of specifications are important components under the QA framework. Further expanding this framework of QA, a comprehensive Quality Management System can provide additional benefits to a Diagnostic Radiology service. Harmonized policies and procedures and elements such as mission statement or job descriptions can provide clarity and consistency in the services provided, enhancing the outcome and representing a solid platform for quality improvement. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) promotes this comprehensive quality approach in diagnostic imaging and especially supports the field of comprehensive clinical audits as a tool for quality improvement. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The cosmobiological balance of the emotional and spiritual worlds: phenomenological structuralism in traditional Chinese medical thought.

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1996-03-01

    This paper points to a convergence of formal and rhetorical features in ancient Chinese cosmobiological theory, within which is developed a view of the inner life of human emotions. Inasmuch as there is an extensive classical tradition considering the emotions in conjunction with music, one can justify a structural analysis of medical texts treating disorder in emotional life, since emotions, musical interpretation and structural analysis all deal with systems interrelated in a transformational space largely independent of objective reference and propositional coordination. Following a section of ethnolinguistic sketches to provide grounds in some phenomenological worlds recognized by Chinese people, there is a textual analysis of a classical medical source for the treatment of emotional distress. Through close examination of the compositional schema of this text, it can be demonstrated that the standard categories of correlative cosmology are arrayed within a more comprehensive structural order.

  1. Visualizing and measuring the temperature field produced by medical diagnostic ultrasound using thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachutka, J.; Grec, P.; Mornstein, V.; Caruana, C. J.

    2008-11-01

    The heating of tissues by diagnostic ultrasound can pose a significant hazard particularly in the imaging of the unborn child. The demonstration of the temperature field in tissue is therefore an important objective in the teaching of biomedical physics to healthcare professionals. The temperature field in a soft tissue model was made visible and measured using thermography. Temperature data from the images were used to investigate the dependence of temperature increase within the model on ultrasound exposure time and distance from the transducer. The experiment will be used within a multi-professional biomedical physics teaching laboratory for enhancing learning regarding the principles of thermography and the thermal effects of ultrasound to medical and healthcare students and also for demonstrating the quantitative use of thermographic imaging to students of biophysics, medical physics and medical technology.

  2. [English translation of the title of ancient Chinese medical books and documents].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang; Shao, Xin; Zhang, Pei-Hai

    2008-11-01

    The title of a book is, generally, the high concentration of the writer's intention and the theme of content. Translate the title of an ancient Chinese medical book or document accurately and plainly is meaningful for exhibiting the style of the book, also for promoting the international communication of TCM. The principle should be followed is to choose the translating terms accurately to reveal the theme of content and express the cultural connotation of the book perfectly.

  3. [Study on the Chinese medical syndrome distribution of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-Hui; Cong, Long-Ling

    2012-04-01

    To study on the Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome distribution of ulcerative colitis (UC) and the distribution of CM syndrome types at different staging periods. From March 2007 to April 2010, 110 UC out- or inpatients at the Department of Digestive Diseases of Guangzhou Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited. The patients' symptoms were calculated. The systematic clustering was used. The symptom was taken as the variable in the clustering. The syndrome types were confirmed according to the clustering results. The syndrome typing was performed and its results were analyzed. There were 64 main symptoms in UC patients, including diarrhea, mushy stool, watery stool, abdominal pain, and bloody stool. Seventy cases belonged to the active period and 40 to the remission period. The UC syndrome types were sequenced from high to low as the dampness-heat of Dachang syndrome, Pi-Wei qi deficiency syndrome, Gan depression and Pi deficiency syndrome, Pi-Shen yang deficiency syndrome, blood stasis in the intestinal collaterals syndrome, yin and blood deficiency syndrome. There was statistical difference in the case number among different syndrome types (P < 0.05). In the active period, dominated were the dampness-heat of Dachang syndrome (28 cases, 25.5%), Gan depression and Pi deficiency syndrome (14 cases, 12.7%), and blood stasis in the intestinal collaterals syndrome (10 cases, 9.0%). In the remission period, dominated were Pi-Wei qi deficiency syndrome (18 cases, 16.4%) and Pi-Shen yang deficiency syndrome (10 cases, 9.0%), showing statistical difference (P<0.05). The typical symptoms of patients of the dampness-heat of Dachang syndrome were sequenced from high to low as yellow tongue fur (31 cases, 28.1%), tenesmus (26 cases, 23.6%), mucopurulent bloody stool (25 cases, 227%), diarrhea (24 cases, 21.8%), anal burning (24 cases, 21.8%), watery stool (21 cases, 19.0%), abdominal pain (19 cases, 17.2%), red tongue (19 cases, 17.2%), and greasy tongue

  4. Surveying Fourth-Year Medical Students Regarding the Choice of Diagnostic Radiology as a Specialty.

    PubMed

    Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Bluth, Edward; Francavilla, Michael; Straus, Christopher M; Reddy, Sravanthi; Recht, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to survey fourth-year medical students, both those choosing and those not choosing diagnostic radiology as their specialty, regarding factors influencing their choice of specialty and their perceptions of radiology. A voluntary anonymous online survey hyperlink was sent to 141 US medical schools for distribution to fourth-year students. Topics included demographics, radiology education, specialty choice and influencing factors, and opinions of radiology. A representative sampling (7%) of 2015 fourth-year medical students (n = 1,219; 51% men, 49% women) participated: 7% were applying in radiology and 93% were not. For respondents applying in radiology, the most important factor was intellectual challenge. For respondents applying in nonradiology specialties, degree of patient contact was the most important factor in the decision not to choose radiology; job market was not listed as a top-three factor. Women were less likely than men to apply in radiology (P < .001), with radiology selected by 11.8% of men (56 of 476) and only 2.8% of women (13 of 459). Respondents self-identifying as Asian had a significantly higher (P = .015) likelihood of selecting radiology (19 of 156 [12.2%]) than all other races combined (44 of 723 [6.1%]). Respondents at medical schools with required dedicated medical imaging rotations were more likely to choose radiology as a specialty, but most schools still do not require the clerkship (82%). The reasons fourth-year medical students choose, or do not choose, diagnostic radiology as a specialty are multifactorial, but noncontrollable factors, such as the job market, proved less compelling than controllable factors, such as taking a radiology rotation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An assessment of medical students' awareness of radiation exposures associated with diagnostic imaging investigations.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jennifer; O'Connor, Owen J; O'Regan, Kevin; Clarke, Bronagh; Burgoyne, Louise N; Ryan, Max F; Maher, Michael M

    2010-05-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed students' awareness of radiation exposures and determined the impact a curriculum in clinical radiology (CICR) had on awareness. METHODS: Six hundred seventy medical students at one medical school were studied. CICR was delivered in yearly modules over the 5-year programme. Five hundred twenty-three students (years 1-5), exposed to increasing numbers of CICR modules and 147 students beginning medical school (year 0), represented the study and control groups, respectively. Students completed a multiple choice questionnaire assessing radiation knowledge and radiology teaching. RESULTS: Most students in the study population received CICR but 87% considered they had not received radiation protection instruction. The percentage of correctly answered questions was significantly higher in the study population than the control group (59.7% versus 38%, p < 0.001). Students who received CICR achieved higher scores than those who did not (61.3% compared with 42.8%, p < 0.001). Increasing exposure to CICR with each year of medical education was associated with improved performance. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of students' awareness of radiation exposures in diagnostic imaging demonstrates improved performance with increasing years in medical school and/or increasing exposure to CICR. Findings support the Euroatom 97 directive position, advocating implementation of radiation protection instruction into the undergraduate medical curriculum.

  6. [Influences of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism on Chinese Medical Formulas in Jin-Tang Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-xiang

    2006-04-01

    In the Jin-Tang Dynasties, when Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism contended, conflicted and well blent, forming a state of mingled thoughts of the three sects. It exerted profound influences on Chinese Medical Formulas and promoted the academic fashion of compiling books about medical formulas characterized by collecting various formulas especially the simple and proved recipes. This plays a role in the formation of the formulas used in the Jin-Tang Dynasties, featuring simplicity, convenience, cheapness, and effectiveness, different from those of other periods.

  7. Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-07

    Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time.

  8. Capillary waveguide optrodes: an approach to optical sensing in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, Max E.; Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Lehmann, Hartmut; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    1996-07-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. A capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Various detection schemes based on absorption, fluorescence intensity, or fluorescence lifetime are described. In absorption-based capillary waveguide optrodes the absorption in the sensor layer is analyte dependent; hence light transmission along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure formed by the capillary wall and the sensing layer is a function of the analyte concentration. Similarly, in fluorescence-based capillary optrodes the fluorescence intensity or the fluorescence lifetime of an indicator dye fixed in the sensing layer is analyte dependent; thus the specific property of fluorescent light excited in the sensing layer and thereafter guided along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure is a function of the analyte concentration. Both schemes are experimentally demonstrated, one with carbon dioxide as the analyte and the other one with oxygen. The device combines optical sensors with the standard glass capillaries usually applied to gather blood drops from fingertips, to yield a versatile diagnostic instrument, integrating the sample compartment, the optical sensor, and the light-collecting optics into a single piece. This ensures enhanced sensor performance as well as improved handling compared with other sensors. waveguide, blood gases, medical diagnostics.

  9. The Changing Landscape of Molecular Diagnostic Testing: Implications for Academic Medical Centers

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Heidi L.; Hynes, Elizabeth; Funke, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the field of molecular diagnostics has undergone tremendous transformation, catalyzed by the clinical implementation of next generation sequencing (NGS). As technical capabilities are enhanced and current limitations are addressed, NGS is increasingly capable of detecting most variant types and will therefore continue to consolidate and simplify diagnostic testing. It is likely that genome sequencing will eventually serve as a universal first line test for disorders with a suspected genetic origin. Academic Medical Centers (AMCs), which have been at the forefront of this paradigm shift are now presented with challenges to keep up with increasing technical, bioinformatic and interpretive complexity of NGS-based tests in a highly competitive market. Additional complexity may arise from altered regulatory oversight, also triggered by the unprecedented scope of NGS-based testing, which requires new approaches. However, these challenges are balanced by unique opportunities, particularly at the interface between clinical and research operations, where AMCs can capitalize on access to cutting edge research environments and establish collaborations to facilitate rapid diagnostic innovation. This article reviews present and future challenges and opportunities for AMC associated molecular diagnostic laboratories from the perspective of the Partners HealthCare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine (LMM). PMID:26828522

  10. Collections of traditional Chinese medical literature as resources for systematic searches.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C L

    2012-12-01

    This review evaluates and compares published collections of the traditional literature on Traditional Chinese Medicine in terms of their scope and utility as resources for systematic searches for information of relevance to traditional evidence, clinical research, and drug discovery. Published collections of books and compilation works that contain substantial samples of traditional literature on Chinese herbal medicine were located via internet, library, and bookshop searches. These sources were compared in terms of scope, size, content, and ease of searching. The fourteen included collections varied considerably in scope, format, probity of included material, and accessibility. The largest was Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica), with 2027 titles; followed by Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine), a compact disc (CD) of 1000 full books; and Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian (Great Compendium of Chinese Medical Formulas), which includes extracts derived from 680 books. Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian is an edited collection that is highly accessible because it is well-indexed with respect to herbal formulas and disorders. The most accessible of the large full-text collections is the Zhong Hua Yi Dian CD, which allows electronic searches. However, neither collection provides detailed bibliographic information on their included books. A collection that combines convenient search options with high quality bibliographic data is Si Ku Yi Xue Cong Shu (The Four Treasuries of Medical Works), but having only 104 titles, this is one of the smaller collections. A two-stage process for systematic searches is suggested. Large indexed compendia such as Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian or electronic resources such as Zhong Hua Yi Dian can be used to locate citations, and this can be followed by crossreferencing to authenticated editions of the books to verify the retrieved information.

  11. [Study on Chinese medical syndrome distribution laws in 507 coronary heart disease patients of the Han nationality in Fuzhou city].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo-hua; Xiong, Shang-quan; Zhou, Kun

    2011-06-01

    To explore Chinese medical syndrome distribution laws in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients of the Han nationality in Fuzhou city. A questionnaire on Chinese medical syndrome was carried out in 507 patients with confirmed CHD from different regions of Fuzhou city. The correlation analyses of Chinese medical syndrome distribution laws, the Chinese medical syndrome types and complications, gender, age, the body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Viewed from elements of deficiency in origin or excess in superficiality, blood stasis syndrome was the most often seen syndrome in patients with CHD (accounting for 63.1%), followed by qi deficiency syndrome (accounting for 59.4%) and phlegm turbidity syndrome (accounting for 45.6%). Among syndrome types, qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome was the most often seen syndrome (accounting for 12.2%), followed by qi deficiency, blood stasis and phlegm turbidity syndrome (accounting for 9.1%), and qi deficiency and phlegm turbidity syndrome (accounting for 8.1%). The distribution of various Chinese medical syndrome types showed significant difference in different ages (P<0.05), but no obvious difference was shown in different genders, body mass index, or complications (P>0.05). Blood stasis, qi deficiency, and phlegm turbidity were the basic pathogeneses of CHD patients of the Han nationality in Fuzhou city. Syndrome with intermingled blood stasis, qi deficiency, and phlegm turbidity was the main Chinese medical syndrome pattern. The combination of syndrome showed certain regularity.

  12. Non-invasive medical diagnostics by nanoparticle-based solid-state gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricoli, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Chemical sensors made of tailored nanoparticles offer excellent miniaturization capability and are able to rapidly and continuously detect trace amounts of important analytes down to trace concentrations. Application of these sensing materials to non-invasive medical diagnostics by breath analysis has the potential to drastically reduce diagnostics costs while offering better service quality to the patients and enabling very early-stage detection of severe illnesses such as lung cancer. Here, we present a flexible approach to synthesize advanced solid-state gas sensor materials that have demonstrated reliable detection of important breath markers. In particular, the feasibility of capturing highly performing, meta-stable sensing nanoparticles by flame-synthesis of multi component metal-oxides is critically discussed.

  13. A Traditionally Administered Short Course Failed to Improve Medical Students’ Diagnostic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Yoshinori; Matsui, Kunihiko; Imura, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Masatomo; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Quite often medical students or novice residents have difficulty in ruling out diseases even though they are quite unlikely and, due to this difficulty, such students and novice residents unnecessarily repeat laboratory or imaging tests. OBJECTIVE To explore whether or not a carefully designed short training course teaching Bayesian probabilistic thinking improves the diagnostic ability of medical students. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS Ninety students at 2 medical schools were presented with clinical scenarios of coronary artery disease corresponding to high, low, and intermediate pretest probabilities. The students’ estimates of test characteristics of exercise stress test, and pretest and posttest probability for each scenario were evaluated before and after the short course. RESULTS The pretest probability estimates by the students, as well as their proficiency in applying Bayes's theorem, were improved in the high pretest probability scenario after the short course. However, estimates of pretest probability in the low pretest probability scenario, and their proficiency in applying Bayes's theorem in the intermediate and low pretest probability scenarios, showed essentially no improvement. CONCLUSION A carefully designed, but traditionally administered, short course could not improve the students’ abilities in estimating pretest probability in a low pretest probability setting, and subsequently students remained incompetent in ruling out disease. We need to develop educational methods that cultivate a well-balanced clinical sense to enable students to choose a suitable diagnostic strategy as needed in a clinical setting without being one-sided to the “rule-in conscious paradigm.” PMID:15109340

  14. The Awaji criteria increases the diagnostic sensitivity of the revised El Escorial criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da-Wei; Liu, Mingsheng; Cui, Bo; Fang, Jia; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Ding, Qingyun; Li, Xiaoguang; Cui, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The accurate and early diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important for extending the life expectancy of patients. However, previous studies that have assessed the diagnostic sensitivities of the Awaji criteria (AC) and the revised El Escorial criteria (rEEC) in patients with ALS have been inconsistent, most of them were consensual regarding the advantage of Awaji over conventional criteria. Our study sought to compare the roles of AC and rEEC in the diagnosis of ALS. Methods Data from a total of 294 consecutive patients with ALS were collected between January 2014 and August 2015 in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The clinical and electrophysiological records of 247 patients were eventually analyzed. The primary outcome measures were the sensitivities of the AC and rEEC for the diagnosis of ALS. Results The sensitivity of probable or definite ALS as diagnosed with the AC (78%) was greater than that of the rEEC (36%, P <0.001). Following the application of the AC, 103 of the 147 patients categorized as probable ALS-laboratory supported from the rEEC were upgraded to probable or definite ALS, and 44 were downgraded to possible ALS. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the AC exhibited greater diagnostic sensitivity than the rEEC in a Chinese ALS population. The use of the AC should be considered in clinical practice. PMID:28249004

  15. [Preliminary study on general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines based on adverse reaction/event literature analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-guang; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jin, Rui; Li, Hong-yan; Kong, Xiang-wen; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-03-01

    Chinese patent orthopedic medicines feature complex components, mainly including desperate and toxic herbal pieces, narrow safety window, more clinical contraindications and frequent adverse drug reaction/events (ADR/ADE). To study the general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines, define key points in the medication education and ensure rational clinical medication, the authors took 80 types of commonly used Chinese patent orthopedic medicines as the study objects, collect 237 cases from 164 ADR/ADE documents through a system retrieval strategy, make a multidimensional literature analysis to determine the common risk factors for safe and rational medication of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines and establish an ADR/ADE prevention regularity. First, in the aspect of clinical symptoms, skin allergy is the most common ADR/ADE and closely related to the toxic ingredients, particularly accumulated liver or kidney damage caused by some drugs. Second, there are three time nodes in the ADR/ADE occurrence; The ADR/ADE occurred in 30 minutes is closely related to the idiosyncrasy; the ADR/ADE occurred between several months and half a year is related to the drug-induced liver and kidney damages; The most common ADR/ADE was observed within 7 days and predictable according to the pharmacological actions; Third, toxicity is an important factor in the occurrence of ADR/ADE of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines. Fourth, emphasis shall be given to the special medication factors, such as the combination with western medicines and Chinese herbal decoctions, overdose and long-course medication and self-medical therapy. In conclusion, the general ADR/ADE prevention regularity for Chinese patent orthopedic medicines was summarized to provide supports for clinicians in safe and rational medication and give the guidance for pharmacist in medication education.

  16. Relativity Screens for Misvalued Medical Services: Impact on Noninvasive Diagnostic Radiology.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Silva, Ezequiel; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-06-01

    In 2006, the AMA/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) introduced ongoing relativity screens to identify potentially misvalued medical services for payment adjustments. We assess the impact of these screens upon the valuation of noninvasive diagnostic radiology services. Data regarding relativity screens and relative value unit (RVU) changes were obtained from the 2016 AMA Relativity Assessment Status Report. All global codes in the 2016 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule with associated work RVUs were classified as noninvasive diagnostic radiology services versus remaining services. The frequency of having ever undergone a screen was compared between the two groups. Screened radiology codes were further evaluated regarding the RVU impact of subsequent revaluation. Of noninvasive diagnostic radiology codes, 46.0% (201 of 437) were screened versus 22.2% (1,460 of 6,575) of remaining codes (P < .001). Most common screens for which radiology codes were identified as potentially misvalued were (1) high expenditures (27.5%) and (2) high utilization (25.6%). The modality and body region most likely to be identified in a screen were CT (82.1%) and breast (90.9%), respectively. Among screened radiology codes, work RVUs, practice expense RVUs, and nonfacility total RVUs decreased in 20.3%, 65.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. All screened CT, MRI, brain, and spine codes exhibited decreased total RVUs. Policymakers' ongoing search for potentially misvalued medical services has disproportionately impacted noninvasive diagnostic radiology services, risking the introduction of unintended or artificial shifts in physician practice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influencing factors of alexithymia in Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaxin; Luo, Ting; Liu, Jie; Qu, Bo

    2017-04-04

    A much higher prevalence of alexithymia has been reported in medical students compared with the general population, and alexithymia is a risk factor that increases vulnerability to mental disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the level of alexithymia in Chinese medical students and to explore its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study of 1,950 medical students at Shenyang Medical College was conducted in May 2014 to evaluate alexithymia in medical students using the Chinese version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's α coefficient and mean inter-item correlations. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate construct validity. The relationships between alexithymia and influencing factors were examined using Student's t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0. Of the 1,950 medical students, 1,886 (96.7%) completed questionnaires. Overall, Cronbach's α coefficient of the TAS-20 questionnaire was 0.868. The results of CFA showed that the original three-factor structure produced an acceptable fit to the data. By univariate analysis, gender, grade (academic year of study), smoking behavior, alcohol use, physical activity, history of living with parents during childhood, and childhood trauma were influencing factors of TAS-20 scores (p < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gender, physical activity, grade, living with parents, and childhood trauma also had statistically significant association with total TAS-20 score (p < 0.05). Gender, physical activity, grade, history of living with parents during childhood, and childhood trauma were all factors determining the level of alexithymia. To prevent alexithymia, it will be advisable to promote adequate physical activity and pay greater attention to male medical students and those who are in the final year of training.

  18. Gold nanoparticles sensing with diffusion reflection measurement as a new medical diagnostics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixler, Dror

    2014-02-01

    The ability to quantitatively and noninvasively detect nanoparticles in vivo has important implications on their development as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. We suggest a new method for cancer detection based on diffusion reflection (DR) measurements of gold nanorods (GNR). In our talk, the ability to extract optical properties of phantoms and their GNR concentrations from DR measurements will demonstrate. We will report, for the first time, GNR detection through upper tissue-like phantom layers, as well as the detection of a tumor presented as highly concentrated GNR placed deep within a phantom.

  19. An investigation Into Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals in China: Development Trend and Medical Service Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Suo, Sizhuo; Li, Jian; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Wang, Yitao; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper aims to investigate the development trend of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals in China and explore their medical service innovations, with special reference to the changing co-existence with western medicine (WM) at TCM hospitals. Methods: Quantitative data at macro level was collected from official databases of China Health Statistical Yearbook and Extracts of Traditional Chinese Medicine Statistics. Qualitative data at micro level was gathered through interviews and second-hand material collection at two of the top-level TCM hospitals. Results: In both outpatient and inpatient sectors of TCM hospitals, drug fees accounted for the biggest part of hospital revenue. Application of WM medical exanimation increased in both outpatient and inpatient services. Even though the demand for WM drugs was much higher in inpatient care, TCM drugs was the winner in the outpatient. Also qualitative evidence showed that TCM dominated the outpatient hospital service with WM incorporated in the assisting role. However, it was in the inpatient medical care that WM prevailed over TCM which was mostly applied to the rehabilitation of patients. Conclusion: By drawing on WM while keeping it active in supporting and strengthening the TCM operation in the TCM hospital, the current system accommodates the overriding objective which is for TCM to evolve into a fully informed and more viable medical field. PMID:28005539

  20. An investigation Into Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals in China: Development Trend and Medical Service Innovation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Suo, Sizhuo; Li, Jian; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Wang, Yitao; Hu, Hao

    2016-06-07

    This paper aims to investigate the development trend of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals in China and explore their medical service innovations, with special reference to the changing co-existence with western medicine (WM) at TCM hospitals. Quantitative data at macro level was collected from official databases of China Health Statistical Yearbook and Extracts of Traditional Chinese Medicine Statistics. Qualitative data at micro level was gathered through interviews and second-hand material collection at two of the top-level TCM hospitals. In both outpatient and inpatient sectors of TCM hospitals, drug fees accounted for the biggest part of hospital revenue. Application of WM medical exanimation increased in both outpatient and inpatient services. Even though the demand for WM drugs was much higher in inpatient care, TCM drugs was the winner in the outpatient. Also qualitative evidence showed that TCM dominated the outpatient hospital service with WM incorporated in the assisting role. However, it was in the inpatient medical care that WM prevailed over TCM which was mostly applied to the rehabilitation of patients. By drawing on WM while keeping it active in supporting and strengthening the TCM operation in the TCM hospital, the current system accommodates the overriding objective which is for TCM to evolve into a fully informed and more viable medical field.

  1. Principle and engineering implementation of 3D visual representation and indexing of medical diagnostic records (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liehang; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ling, Tonghui; Wang, Mingqing; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Due to the generation of a large number of electronic imaging diagnostic records (IDR) year after year in a digital hospital, The IDR has become the main component of medical big data which brings huge values to healthcare services, professionals and administration. But a large volume of IDR presented in a hospital also brings new challenges to healthcare professionals and services as there may be too many IDRs for each patient so that it is difficult for a doctor to review all IDR of each patient in a limited appointed time slot. In this presentation, we presented an innovation method which uses an anatomical 3D structure object visually to represent and index historical medical status of each patient, which is called Visual Patient (VP) in this presentation, based on long term archived electronic IDR in a hospital, so that a doctor can quickly learn the historical medical status of the patient, quickly point and retrieve the IDR he or she interested in a limited appointed time slot. Method: The engineering implementation of VP was to build 3D Visual Representation and Index system called VP system (VPS) including components of natural language processing (NLP) for Chinese, Visual Index Creator (VIC), and 3D Visual Rendering Engine.There were three steps in this implementation: (1) an XML-based electronic anatomic structure of human body for each patient was created and used visually to index the all of abstract information of each IDR for each patient; (2)a number of specific designed IDR parsing processors were developed and used to extract various kinds of abstract information of IDRs retrieved from hospital information systems; (3) a 3D anatomic rendering object was introduced visually to represent and display the content of VIO for each patient. Results: The VPS was implemented in a simulated clinical environment including PACS/RIS to show VP instance to doctors. We setup two evaluation scenario in a hospital radiology department to evaluate whether

  2. Quantization and diagnosis of Shanghuo (Heatiness) in Chinese medicine using a diagnostic scoring scheme and salivary biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to establish a diagnostic scoring scheme for Shanghuo (Heatiness) and to evaluate whether Shanghuo is associated with biochemical parameters of salivary lysozyme (LYZ), salivary secreted immunoglobulin (S-IgA), salivary amylase (AMS), and saliva flow rate (SFR). Methods We collected 121 Shanghuo patients at the Affiliated Hospitals of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Guangdong Province, 60 cases as a Shanghuo recovered group, and 60 healthy cases as a healthy control group. The diagnostic scoring scheme was established by probability theory and maximum likelihood discriminatory analysis on the basis of epidemiology with the design of self-controlled clinical trial. Subsequently, we used the same methods to collect 120 Shanghuo patients, 60 Shanghuo recovered cases, and 60 healthy cases in both Hunan Province and Henan Province. The levels of LYZ, S-IgA, AMS, and SFR were tested when the patients suffered from Shanghuo or recovered, respectively. Results The diagnostic score table for Shanghuo syndrome was established first. In the retrospective tests, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive likelihood ratio of the diagnostic score table were 98.9%, 93.5%, 97.5%, and 14.34%, respectively. In the prospective tests, the corresponding values were 94.9%, 85.7%, 91.7%, and 6.64%, respectively. Shanghuo was classified into three degrees based on the diagnostic scores, common Shanghuo: 63–120; serious Shanghuo: 121–150; very serious Shanghuo: >150. A negative correlation was found between Shanghuo and S-IgA (R = -0.428; P = 0.000). The level of S-IgA was also affected by seasonal and regional factors. No significant correlations were found between Shanghuo and the levels of LYZ, AMS, and SFR. Conclusions In this study, Shanghuo could be diagnosed by the combination of the diagnostic score table and S-lgA level. PMID:24386887

  3. Gene technology in medical diagnostics and criminal procedure and liability for malpractice in Germany.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, E; Füllmich, R; Poppe, H

    1990-01-01

    The increasing employment of gene technological procedures in medical diagnostics and criminal procedure has forced both the medical and the legal professions to focus their attention on the complex question of liability of physicians, lab technicians, and other personnel involved in applying these measures. This article gives an outline, by citing practical cases, of the major aspects of liability for malpractice that are relevant under German law. Bearing in mind that this article will be read predominantly by members of the Anglo-American common-law legal system, the legal aspects - even though they are German legal aspects - are viewed in the light of the common law. The article examines three major issues: (a) liability for diagnoses employing gene technological procedures: (b) liability for wrong testimony based on 'genetic finger-printing': and (c) the donor's rights concerning his or her DNA-probe.

  4. [The metrology of medical devices for the diagnostic in vitro: the European approach].

    PubMed

    Antonov, V S

    2011-12-01

    In the European Union, the measurement devices are regulated by the Directive 2004/22/EU establishing the mandatory requirements, rules of admittance and control/surveillance on the market. The medical laboratory analyzers don't come under the force of this Directive and are regulated by the Directive 98/72/EU in the same way as all medical devices for diagnostics in vitro. The new Russian Federal Law No102 "On the provision of the unification of measurements" came into force in 2009 is significantly harmonized with the similar international legislation and enable to eliminate the contradictions which for many years impeded the development of metrological support of clinical laboratory examinations.

  5. [Selection of the information for solving medical diagnostic problems with "diagnostic games" (the example of predicting the time of sinus rhythm maintenance after eliminating atrial fibrillation)].

    PubMed

    Gel'fand, I M; Syrkin, A L; Alekseevskaia, M A; Nedostup, A V; Kliushin, E S

    1983-01-01

    A new method is proposed for data selection with respect to solving medical diagnosis problems. It reduces the scope of information, leaving for further processing only the facts the physician actually needs for problem-solving. The protocols of "diagnostic games" reflect the physician's mental process and can be used in the development of a physician model.

  6. Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, D F

    1999-01-01

    The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs". PMID:10461594

  7. A Prospective Study of Medical Diagnostic Radiography and Risk of Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neta, Gila; Rajaraman, Preetha; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Preston, Dale; Simon, Steven L.; Melo, Dunstana; Miller, Jeremy; Freedman, D. Michal; Linet, Martha S.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Although diagnostic x-ray procedures provide important medical benefits, cancer risks associated with their exposure are also possible, but not well characterized. The US Radiologic Technologists Study (1983–2006) is a nationwide, prospective cohort study with extensive questionnaire data on history of personal diagnostic imaging procedures collected prior to cancer diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to estimate thyroid cancer risks related to the number and type of selected procedures. We assessed potential modifying effects of age and calendar year of the first x-ray procedure in each category of procedures. Incident thyroid cancers (n = 251) were diagnosed among 75,494 technologists (1.3 million person-years; mean follow-up = 17 years). Overall, there was no clear evidence of thyroid cancer risk associated with diagnostic x-rays except for dental x-rays. We observed a 13% increase in thyroid cancer risk for every 10 reported dental radiographs (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.26), which was driven by dental x-rays first received before 1970, but we found no evidence that the relationship between dental x-rays and thyroid cancer was associated with childhood or adolescent exposures as would have been anticipated. The lack of association of thyroid cancer with x-ray procedures that expose the thyroid to higher radiation doses than do dental x-rays underscores the need to conduct a detailed radiation exposure assessment to enable quantitative evaluation of risk. PMID:23529772

  8. A prospective study of medical diagnostic radiography and risk of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Neta, Gila; Rajaraman, Preetha; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Doody, Michele M; Alexander, Bruce H; Preston, Dale; Simon, Steven L; Melo, Dunstana; Miller, Jeremy; Freedman, D Michal; Linet, Martha S; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2013-04-15

    Although diagnostic x-ray procedures provide important medical benefits, cancer risks associated with their exposure are also possible, but not well characterized. The US Radiologic Technologists Study (1983-2006) is a nationwide, prospective cohort study with extensive questionnaire data on history of personal diagnostic imaging procedures collected prior to cancer diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to estimate thyroid cancer risks related to the number and type of selected procedures. We assessed potential modifying effects of age and calendar year of the first x-ray procedure in each category of procedures. Incident thyroid cancers (n = 251) were diagnosed among 75,494 technologists (1.3 million person-years; mean follow-up = 17 years). Overall, there was no clear evidence of thyroid cancer risk associated with diagnostic x-rays except for dental x-rays. We observed a 13% increase in thyroid cancer risk for every 10 reported dental radiographs (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.26), which was driven by dental x-rays first received before 1970, but we found no evidence that the relationship between dental x-rays and thyroid cancer was associated with childhood or adolescent exposures as would have been anticipated. The lack of association of thyroid cancer with x-ray procedures that expose the thyroid to higher radiation doses than do dental x-rays underscores the need to conduct a detailed radiation exposure assessment to enable quantitative evaluation of risk.

  9. Update of diagnostic medical and dental x-ray exposures in Romania.

    PubMed

    Sorop, Ioana; Mossang, Daniela; Iacob, Mihai Radu; Dadulescu, Elena; Iacob, Olga

    2008-12-01

    This national study, the third in the last 15 years, updates the magnitude of medical radiation exposure from conventional x-ray examinations, in order to optimise the radiological protection to the population in a cost-effective manner. Effective doses from diagnostic radiology were estimated for adult and paediatric patients undergoing the 20 most important types of x-ray examination. Data were collected from 179 x-ray departments, selected by their annual workload, throughout the country. Estimates were made using two dosimetric quantities: entrance surface dose, derived from the absorbed dose in air measured by simulation of radiographic examinations, and dose-area product, measured during fluoroscopic examinations performed on adult and paediatric patients. Conversion coefficients to effective dose of the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) have been used in all calculations. The effective dose per patient from all medical x-ray examinations was 0.74 mSv and the resulting annual collective effective dose was 6930 man Sv, with annual effective dose per caput of 0.33 mSv. The current size of population exposure from diagnostic radiology is lower than the previous one by 40%, but could be about 30% higher by taking into account the estimated contribution from computed tomography (CT) procedures.

  10. Medical capsule robots: A renaissance for diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Mapara, Sanyat S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2017-09-10

    The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market. They are slightly larger than regular oral capsules, made up of a biocompatible case and have electronic circuitry and mechanisms to capture and transmit images. In addition, robots with diagnostic features such as in vivo body temperature detection and pH monitoring have also been launched in the market. However, a multi-functional unit that will diagnose and cure diseases inside the body has not yet been realized. A remote controlled capsule that will undertake drug delivery and surgical treatment has not been successfully launched in the market. High cost, inadequate power supply, lack of control over drug release, limited space for drug storage on the capsule, inadequate safety and no mechanisms for active locomotion and anchoring have prevented their entry in the market. The capsule robots can revolutionize the current way of diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses in detail the applications of medical capsule robots in diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. In diagnostics, detailed analysis has been presented on wireless capsule endoscopes, issues associated with the marketed versions and their corresponding solutions in literature. Moreover, an assessment has been made of the existing state of remote controlled capsules for targeted drug delivery and surgical treatment and their future impact is predicted. Besides the need for multi-functional capsule robots and the areas for further research have also been

  11. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, A U; Singh, Meghraj; Sunil Kumar, J V K; Kulkarni, Arti; Shirva, V K; Pradhan, A S

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA) audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp), linearity of tube current (mA station) and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RAD/FLU-9001), dose Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model 6001), ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%), lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%), nonlinearity of mA station (16%) and timer (9%), improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%), faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%), nonavailability of warning light (red light) at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%), and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%). The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body.

  12. Associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese undergraduate medical students.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Shi, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Empathy promotes positive physician-patient communication and is associated with improved patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. It has been suggested that personality traits should be taken into consideration in programs designed to enhance empathy in medical education due to the association found between personality and empathy among medical students. However, the associations between empathy and big five personality traits in medical education are still underrepresented in the existing literature and relevant studies have not been conducted among medical students in China, where tensions in the physician-patient relationship have been reported as outstanding problems in the context of China's current medical reform. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical university in Northeast China in June 2016. Self-reported questionnaires including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) and demographic characteristics were distributed. A total of 530 clinical medical students became our final subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of big five personality traits on empathy. Results of this study showed that big five personality traits accounted for 19.4%, 18.1%, 30.2% of the variance in three dimensions of empathy, namely, perspective taking, empathic concern and personal distress, respectively. Specifically, agreeableness had a strong positive association with empathic concern (β = 0.477, P<0.01), and a moderate association with perspective taking (β = 0.349, P<0.01). Neuroticism was strongly associated with personal distress (β = 0.526, P<0.01) and modestly associated with perspective taking (β = 0.149, P<0.01). Openness to experience had modest associations with perspective taking (β = 0.150, P<0.01) and

  13. Associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese undergraduate medical students

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Shi, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Background Empathy promotes positive physician-patient communication and is associated with improved patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. It has been suggested that personality traits should be taken into consideration in programs designed to enhance empathy in medical education due to the association found between personality and empathy among medical students. However, the associations between empathy and big five personality traits in medical education are still underrepresented in the existing literature and relevant studies have not been conducted among medical students in China, where tensions in the physician-patient relationship have been reported as outstanding problems in the context of China’s current medical reform. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese medical students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical university in Northeast China in June 2016. Self-reported questionnaires including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) and demographic characteristics were distributed. A total of 530 clinical medical students became our final subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of big five personality traits on empathy. Results Results of this study showed that big five personality traits accounted for 19.4%, 18.1%, 30.2% of the variance in three dimensions of empathy, namely, perspective taking, empathic concern and personal distress, respectively. Specifically, agreeableness had a strong positive association with empathic concern (β = 0.477, P<0.01), and a moderate association with perspective taking (β = 0.349, P<0.01). Neuroticism was strongly associated with personal distress (β = 0.526, P<0.01) and modestly associated with perspective taking (β = 0.149, P<0.01). Openness to experience had modest associations with perspective taking (

  14. Management of chronic kidney disease in China calls for the implementation of expert patient program with traditional Chinese medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-fan; Zhang, La; Hu, Xiao-xuan; Liu, Xu-sheng

    2014-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease was closely related with unhealthy lifestyle; therefore a strategy focused both on daily life and medical process, like the Expert Patients Program, was of great value in the prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease. In China, however, obstacles still existed in the process of implementing the program. Adding traditional Chinese medical interventions to the program assisted both patients and physicians to understand and to accept this new trend in management of chronic disease better. The combination with traditional Chinese medical interventions showed a solution for successfully implementing the Expert Patients Program and provided a new strategy for prevention and control of chronic kidney disease.

  15. Relation of perceptions of educational environment with mindfulness among Chinese medical students: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Wu, Daxing; Zhao, Xiaohua; Chen, Junxiang; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Nie, Xueqing; Zhong, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceived educational environment influences academic outcomes, such as academic achievement, students' behaviors, well-being, socio-emotional adjustment and explicit self-esteem. Mindfulness is a set of skills that are beneficial to physical and mental health. Recently, it has been increasingly discussed about its usefulness in education, but little research has explored whether mindfulness can predict perceptions of educational environment. The aim of this study was to explore Chinese medical students' perceptions of learning environment and their relationship with mindfulness. Methods Medical students at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (N=431) completed the Chinese version of Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM-C) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS-C). One year later, a subgroup of the cohort (N=231) completed the DREEM-C again. Independent-samples t-test, variance analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) were conducted. Results DREEM-C total and subscales scores were net positive, but with room for improvement. Perceptions differed in relation to gender, academic year, and age. KIMS-C scores correlated with DREEM-C scores. The predictive effect persisted 1 year later. Conclusions Medical students had net-positive perceptions about their learning environment. Higher mindfulness scores were associated with greater satisfaction with the environment and this association showed persistence.

  16. Relation of perceptions of educational environment with mindfulness among Chinese medical students: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Wu, Daxing; Zhao, Xiaohua; Chen, Junxiang; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Nie, Xueqing; Zhong, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Perceived educational environment influences academic outcomes, such as academic achievement, students' behaviors, well-being, socio-emotional adjustment and explicit self-esteem. Mindfulness is a set of skills that are beneficial to physical and mental health. Recently, it has been increasingly discussed about its usefulness in education, but little research has explored whether mindfulness can predict perceptions of educational environment. The aim of this study was to explore Chinese medical students' perceptions of learning environment and their relationship with mindfulness. Medical students at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (N=431) completed the Chinese version of Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM-C) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS-C). One year later, a subgroup of the cohort (N=231) completed the DREEM-C again. Independent-samples t-test, variance analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) were conducted. DREEM-C total and subscales scores were net positive, but with room for improvement. Perceptions differed in relation to gender, academic year, and age. KIMS-C scores correlated with DREEM-C scores. The predictive effect persisted 1 year later. Medical students had net-positive perceptions about their learning environment. Higher mindfulness scores were associated with greater satisfaction with the environment and this association showed persistence.

  17. Relation of perceptions of educational environment with mindfulness among Chinese medical students: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Wu, Daxing; Zhao, Xiaohua; Chen, Junxiang; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Nie, Xueqing; Zhong, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceived educational environment influences academic outcomes, such as academic achievement, students’ behaviors, well-being, socio-emotional adjustment and explicit self-esteem. Mindfulness is a set of skills that are beneficial to physical and mental health. Recently, it has been increasingly discussed about its usefulness in education, but little research has explored whether mindfulness can predict perceptions of educational environment. The aim of this study was to explore Chinese medical students’ perceptions of learning environment and their relationship with mindfulness. Methods Medical students at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (N=431) completed the Chinese version of Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM-C) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS-C). One year later, a subgroup of the cohort (N=231) completed the DREEM-C again. Independent-samples t-test, variance analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) were conducted. Results DREEM-C total and subscales scores were net positive, but with room for improvement. Perceptions differed in relation to gender, academic year, and age. KIMS-C scores correlated with DREEM-C scores. The predictive effect persisted 1 year later. Conclusions Medical students had net-positive perceptions about their learning environment. Higher mindfulness scores were associated with greater satisfaction with the environment and this association showed persistence. PMID:27118582

  18. Two thousand years of medical advice on breastfeeding: comparison of Chinese and western texts.

    PubMed

    Gartner, L M; Stone, C

    1994-12-01

    This discussion introduces only a few aspects of the historical writings on breastfeeding in the two cultures. Chinese writings seem to be closer in orientation to modern worldwide medical advice, approaching breastfeeding from a more natural and supportive perspective. Ancient and not-so-ancient western medical advice on breastfeeding often implies the inadequacy of the mother to breastfeed her own infant, especially in the early weeks of life. One can only speculate as to what the historical basis for this may be. European medicine emphasizes the testing of milk for its adequacy. Again, the scientific basis for this is not evident. Modern clinical science finds that the milk of virtually all mothers, even those suffering from significant malnutrition, is adequate for the growth and development of the infant. This focus on the "testing" of milk may represent an early example of the reliance on laboratory diagnosis that has so heavily dominated western medicine in recent years. Finally, western medicine seems more managerial with regard to breastfeeding than Chinese medicine, and has perhaps "medicalized" breastfeeding, a compliant often voiced even now in late 20th century America. Nonetheless, both literatures demonstrate that throughout the history of recorded medicine, physicians have been concerned with promoting optimal breastfeeding and have understood the importance of human milk for the survival, growth, and development of the infant.

  19. Job-related burnout and the relationship to quality of life among Chinese medical college staff.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shang-Man; Yu, Hong-Mei; Ai, Yong-Mei; Song, Ping-Ping; Meng, Su-Yan; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although staffs in medical colleges have traditionally been characterized as a stressed group of people, there are no specific studies assessing burnout and the relationship to quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate job-related burnout and the relationship to QOL among medical college staff in mainland China. Some 360 medical college staffs from 15 schools and departments were enrolled in the study. The Chinese Teachers' Burnout Inventory (TBI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--brief Chinese version were used. Data on sociodemographic, work-related, and health-related factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the 3 domain scores of the TBI. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the correlation between job-related burnout and QOL. The most significant and common predictors of burnout prevention were a love of the teaching profession and work acknowledgment from a direct supervisor. Job-related burnout had a direct negative effect on QOL. Corresponding health policies and suggestions could be developed to prevent job-related burnout and improve QOL.

  20. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  1. Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the medical outcomes study family and marital functioning measures in Hong Kong Chinese childbearing families.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Ngu, Siew-Fei

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures (C-MOS-FMFM) in Hong Kong Chinese childbearing families. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 128 childbearing couples recruited from antenatal clinics. The C-MOS-FMFM demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74). Significant correlations with Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey (r = 0.38, P < 0.01) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = -0.48, P < 0.01) supported construct validity. Factor analysis identified one factor corresponding to family functioning and two factors corresponding to marital functioning. The C-MOS-FMFM has satisfactory psychometric properties. It has the potential to be used as a clinical and research instrument for measuring family and marital functioning in the Chinese population.

  2. Deliberate self-harm among Chinese medical students: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Tingzhong; Feng, Xueying; Jiang, Shuhan; Yu, Lingwei

    2016-09-15

    The phenomenon of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among college students has received increased attention in recent decades. Adopting a psychosocial perspective, this study aims to describe self-reported DSH among Chinese medical college students, assess respective associations between uncertainty stress and social capital with DSH, and explore the mechanism linking these three phenomena. A cross-sectional survey employing multi-stage, sampling was conducted. 4446 undergraduate students were recruited from 22 participating Chinese medical universities. Perceived stress from uncertainty and social capital were assessed among the students. The Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models assessed correlates of DSH. Relationship among social capital, uncertainty stress, and DSH were examined by means of Structural Equation Modeling. The prevalence of DSH in the past 12 months among Chinese students was 9.6%. The most common types of physical DSH reported were scratching, cutting, and pinching. Age (χ(2)=26.63, p<0.01), gender (χ(2)=30.24, p<0.01), major field (χ(2)=28.13, p<0.01), and annual household income (χ(2)=11.10, p<0.05) were statistically associated with DSH. Uncertainty stress is a unique correlate of DSH, and shows a stronger association than do three certainty stressors. Social capital is also a strong correlate of DSH, especially cognitive social capital. Moreover, social capital may be indirectly associated with DSH through impacting uncertainty stress. This study was a cross-sectional and thus could not evaluate causal relationships. We recommend that a DSH intervention study should target uncertainty stress management and social capital accumulation. This study provides scientific evidence and theoretical foundation for future DSH interventions, with a view to enhancing the mental health of medical college students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between self-perceptions of aging and antihypertensive medication adherence in older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yunying; Zhang, Dandan; Gu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Sun, Yunjuan; Wu, Qing; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-12-01

    Approximately one billion adults worldwide are hypertensive and most aged 60 or above. Poor adherence with medication treatment is still one of the main causes of failure in achieving blood pressure control. Compared to younger individuals, aging perception may be the main factor influencing elders receiving preventive care. Some studies have investigated the impact of self-perceptions of aging on some preventive health behaviors including "followed the directions for taking prescription medications" in developed countries in the West. However, there is a scarcity of studies evaluating the self-perceptions of aging and its association with antihypertensive adherence among Chinese older adults. This study aimed to identify the association between aging perceptions and antihypertensive drug adherence among Chinese older adults. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted in wards and outpatient clinic of a University Hospital and communities in Suzhou, China. Older adults who were taking at least one antihypertensive drug currently were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, including basic socio-demographic and clinical information, self-reported medication adherence and self-perceptions of aging. From 585 old patients, 34.2 % was determined to have good medication adherence. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that good adherence to antihypertensive agents was more common among those with lower scores on "timeline cyclical" (p = 0.004) and "identity" (p < 0.001) dimensions, and higher scores on "control positive" (p = 0.004) dimension of aging perceptions. Self-perceptions of aging, being significantly associated with medication adherence, are an important starting point when conducting intervention programmes for elder patients.

  4. [Methodological study on digitalization of tongue image in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Jie; Shen, Li

    2004-12-01

    This is a research aimed at proposing a computerized tongue analysis method based on computerized image processing for quantizing the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The chromatic algorithm and 2-D Gabor wavelet transformation are applied to segmenting tongue from original image. The statistical method is adopted in identifying the colors of each pixel, which are attributed to the tongue substance and coating respectively. Thickness of tongue coating is determined by energy of 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients (GWTE). The distribution of GWTE and invariant moment algorithm are used to judge the tongue texture. The experiment result shows that all methods proposed in this paper are effective.

  5. Associations between childhood maltreatment and non-medical use of prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Xu, Yan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Deng, Xueqing; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2017-09-01

    To test, among Chinese adolescents: (1) whether childhood maltreatment is associated with non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and (2) whether there are interaction effects of childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms on NMUPD. A secondary analysis of the cross-sectional data collected from 7th- and 12th-graders who were sampled using a multi-stage, stratified-cluster, random-sampling method in the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey (SCAHS). Surveys conducted in high schools in six cities of China in 2015. There were 24 457 students who were invited to participate and 23 039 students' questionnaires were completed and qualified for our survey. The outcomes comprised self-report of NMUPD (prior 30 days); a history of childhood maltreatment was our main predictor. Other covariates included depressive symptoms, smoking, drinking and demographics. Data were analysed using multi-level regression modelling. Our final multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that after adjusting for other variables, physical abuse was associated positively with non-medical use of opioids [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.22], sedatives (AOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.10-1.21) and any prescription drugs (AOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.09-1.20); emotional abuse, sexual abuse and emotional neglect were also associated with an increased risk of opioids, sedatives and any prescription drugs misuse; students who reported that they had experienced childhood physical neglect were more likely to be involved in the non-medical use of sedatives (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12) and any prescription drugs (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.10). Additionally, there was no evidence of interaction effects on NMUPD between depressive symptoms and each of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect, respectively. Maltreatment while a child is associated with an increased risk of

  6. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  7. A medical diagnostic tool based on radial basis function classifiers and evolutionary simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Alexandridis, Alex; Chondrodima, Eva

    2014-06-01

    The profusion of data accumulating in the form of medical records could be of great help for developing medical decision support systems. The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for designing data-driven medical diagnostic tools, based on neural network classifiers. The proposed approach adopts the radial basis function (RBF) neural network architecture and the non-symmetric fuzzy means (NSFM) training algorithm, which presents certain advantages including better approximation capabilities and shorter computational times. The novelty in this work consists of adapting the NSFM algorithm to train RBF classifiers, and suitably tailoring the evolutionary simulated annealing (ESA) technique to optimize the produced RBF models. The integration of ESA is critical as it helps the optimization procedure to escape from local minima, which could arise from the application of the traditional simulated annealing algorithm, and thus discover improved solutions. The resulting method is evaluated in nine different medical benchmark datasets, where the common objective is to train a suitable classifier. The evaluation includes a comparison with two different schemes for training classifiers, including a standard RBF training technique and support vector machines (SVMs). Accuracy% and the Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) are used for comparing the performance of the three classifiers. Results show that the use of ESA helps to greatly improve the performance of the NSFM algorithm and provide satisfactory classification accuracy. In almost all benchmark datasets, the best solution found by the ESA-NSFM algorithm outperforms the results produced by the SFM algorithm and SVMs, considering either the accuracy% or the MCC criterion. Furthermore, in the majority of datasets, the average solution of the ESA-NSFM population is statistically significantly higher in terms of accuracy% and MCC at the 95% confidence level, compared to the global optimum solution that its

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lumbosacral Spine Magnetic Resonance Image Reading by Chiropractors, Chiropractic Radiologists, and Medical Radiologists.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Annemarie; Ostelo, Raymond; Knol, Dirk L; Algra, Paul R; Wilmink, Jan T; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in 2 sessions. It is important to know whether it is possible to accurately detect "specific findings" on lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) images and whether the results of different observers are comparable. Health care providers frequently use magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic process of patients with low back pain. The use of MR scans is increasing. This leads to an increase in costs and to an increase in risk of inaccurately labeling patients with an anatomical diagnosis that might not be the actual cause of symptoms. A set of 300 blinded MR images was read by medical radiologists, chiropractors, and chiropractic radiologists in 2 sessions. Each assessor read 100 scans in round 1 and 50 scans in round 2. The reference test was an expert panel.For all analyses, the magnetic resonance imaging findings were dichotomized into "specific findings" or "no specific findings." For the agreement, percentage agreement and κ values were calculated and for validity, sensitivity, and specificity. Sensitivity analysis was done for classifications A and B (prevalence of 31% and 57%, respectively). The intraobserver κ values for chiropractors, chiropractic radiologists, and medical radiologists were 0.46, 0.49, and 0.69 for A and 0.55, 0.75, and 0.64 for B, respectively.The interobserver κ values were lowest for chiropractors (0.28 for A, 0.37 for B) and highest for chiropractic radiologists (0.50 for A, 0.49 for B).The sensitivities of the medical radiologists, chiropractors, and chiropractic radiologists were 0.62, 0.71, and 0.75 for A and 0.70, 0.74, 0.84 for B, respectively.The specificities of medical radiologists, chiropractic radiologists, and chiropractors were 0.82, 0.77, and 0.70 for A and 0.74, 0.52, and 0.61 for B, respectively. Agreement and validity of MR image readings of chiropractors and chiropractic and medical radiologists is modest at best. This study supports recommendations in

  9. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  10. Health behaviour, metabolic control and periodontal status in medically treated Chinese with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Leung, W Keung; Movva, Leela R K; Wong, May C M; Corbet, Esmonde F; Siu, Shing-Chung; Kawamura, Makoto

    2008-06-01

    Relationships between demographic, health behaviour and diabetes mellitus (DM) parameters and periodontal status were assessed among a group of nonsmoking, low-income, middle-aged to elderly medically treated Hong Kong Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). 193 Chinese, dentate, type 2 DM patients (56.5 +/- 9.0 years; recorded DM duration 7.0 +/- 5.2 years) attending a charity hospital specialist clinic were surveyed. Subject demography, periodontal status, Body Mass Index (BMI), DM control, serum TNF-alpha level and general health behaviour (GHB) were recorded. Periodontitis was prevalent (80.3% of subjects with PPD > or = 5 mm and 65.8% subjects with full-mouth mean PAL > 3.0 mm). Mean HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and BMI were 7.6 +/- 1.6%, 8.2 +/- 2.9 mmol/L and 25.4 +/- 3.7 kg/m2 respectively. Serum TNF-alpha level was similar to the reported Chinese population norm. Full-mouth mean clinical attachment level was associated with DM duration while full-mouth mean probing pocket depth was associated with GHB (p < 0.05). The Gingival Index, was greater in men, and associated with higher HbA1c% and lower education attainment (p < 0.03). In this group of non-smoking, predominantly low-education background, overweight, Chinese subjects with fairly well-controlled type 2 DM, periodontal attachment loss and periodontal disease appeared to be associated with DM duration and health behaviour. Health care providers should consider paying more attention to improving the GHB of their type 2 DM patients with long DM duration. DM subjects with a low educational background, having higher HbA1c% and males are more likely to experience gingival inflammation.

  11. Investigating a unilateral pleural effusion: A tale of a medical error and diagnostic delays

    PubMed Central

    Welagedara, Suminda; Swe, Tokyo Moe; Sriram, Krishna Bajee

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of an elderly Asian man where a medical error and diagnostic delays obscured the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB). The patient was hospitalized for evaluation of a unilateral pleural effusion. Initially, the patient was subjected to a pleural aspiration on the wrong side due to a lack of bedside ultrasound guidance. Subsequently, the patient underwent several investigations but not a blind closed pleural biopsy (BCPB) due to a lack of equipment. Furthermore, the patient was deemed to be too sick to undergo a thoracoscopic pleural procedure. Eventually, a bronchoscopy was performed, and washings from the right upper lobe were cultured, which established the diagnosis of TB. This case highlights the need to use bedside ultrasound in the investigation of pleural effusions, the role of BCPB especially in frail patients and finally the utility of bronchoscopy in establishing a diagnosis of pleural TB. PMID:28144068

  12. Distraction in diagnostic radiology: How is search through volumetric medical images affected by interruptions?

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren H; Drew, Trafton

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have shown that interruptions are a frequent occurrence in diagnostic radiology. The present study used an experimental design in order to quantify the cost of these interruptions during search through volumetric medical images. Participants searched through chest CT scans for nodules that are indicative of lung cancer. In half of the cases, search was interrupted by a series of true or false math equations. The primary cost of these interruptions was an increase in search time with no corresponding increase in accuracy or lung coverage. This time cost was not modulated by the difficulty of the interruption task or an individual's working memory capacity. Eye-tracking suggests that this time cost was driven by impaired memory for which regions of the lung were searched prior to the interruption. Potential interventions will be discussed in the context of these results.

  13. Relationships between attitudes toward sexuality, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive practices among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed.

  14. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-06-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-01-01

    The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. PMID:26744190

  16. [Material base on Chinese medical theory of 'Fei and Dachang being interior-exteriorly correlated'].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Jia, Yu-Hua

    2011-02-01

    By reviewing pertinent literatures, we found that there existed some defects in studying material base on Chinese medical theory of "Fei and Dachang being interior-exteriorly related", such as the low efficacy of research methods; the neglect of intestinal and respiratory microhabitat and Chinese medical functional condition; and the unconformity of research design with evidence-based medicinal requirements. Thereby, the authors offered that the researches method of initiating merely from sole material or line linkage path should be rejected. The new research strategy should be established based on the feature of the lung and large intestine network connective structure, cutting-in from correlative changes in the two terminals (respiratory system and intestinal tissue), and the intermedial key knot of connection (blood serum), screen out in high throughput the relevant materials adopting microecological, proteomic and metabonomic techniques, and catch hold of the knots of network as much as possible. Based on these to perfect the researches on coordinating mechanism of the network, and to establish a new strategy for future researching.

  17. Image-matching as a medical diagnostic support tool (DST) for brain diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Nielsen, J F; Nelson, Marvin D; Liu, Lifeng

    2005-01-01

    Imaging-matching is an important research area in imaging informatics. We have developed and evaluated a novel diagnostic support tool (DST) based on medical image matching using MR brain images. The approach consists of two steps, database generation and image matching. The database contains pre-diagnosed MR brain images. As the images are added to the database, they are registered to the 3D Talairach coordinate system. In addition, regions of interests (ROI) are generated, and image-processing techniques are used to extract relevant image parameters related to the brain and diseases from the ROIs and from the entire MR image. The second step is to retrieve relevant information from the database by performing image matching. In this step, the physician first submits a query image. The DST computes the similarity between the query image and each of the images in the database, and then presents the most similar images to the user. Since the database contains pre-diagnosed images, the retrieved cases tend to contain relevant diagnostic information. To evaluate the usefulness of the DST in a clinical setting, pediatric brain diseases were used. The database contains 2500 pediatric patients between ages 0 and 18 with brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of known brain lesions. A testbed was established at the Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) for acquiring MR images from the PACS server of patients with known lesions. These images were matched against those in the DST pediatric brain MR database. An expert pediatric neuroradiologist evaluated the matched results. We found that in most cases, the image-matching method was able to quickly retrieve images with relevant diagnostic content. The evaluation method and results are given.

  18. Capillary waveguide optrodes: an approach to optical sensing in medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lippitsch, M E; Draxler, S; Kieslinger, D; Lehmann, H; Weigl, B H

    1996-07-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. A capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Various detection schemes based on absorption, fluorescence intensity, or fluorescence lifetime are described. In absorption-based capillary waveguide optrodes the absorption in the sensor layer is analyte dependent; hence light transmission along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure formed by the capillary wall and the sensing layer is a function of the analyte concentration. Similarly, in fluorescence-based capillary optrodes the fluorescence intensity or the fluorescence lifetime of an indicator dye fixed in the sensing layer is analyte dependent; thus the specific property of fluorescent light excited in the sensing layer and thereafter guided along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure is a function of the analyte concentration. Both schemes are experimentally demonstrated, one with carbon dioxide as the analyte and the other one with oxygen. The device combines optical sensors with the standard glass capillaries usually applied to gather blood drops from fingertips, to yield a versatile diagnostic instrument, integrating the sample compartment, the optical sensor, and the light-collecting optics into a single piece. This ensures enhanced sensor performance as well as improved handling compared with other sensors.

  19. Plasmonic SERS nanochips and nanoprobes for medical diagnostics and bio-energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Hoan T.; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Crawford, Bridget M.; Fales, Andrew M.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2017-02-01

    The development of rapid, easy-to-use, cost-effective, high accuracy, and high sensitive DNA detection methods for molecular diagnostics has been receiving increasing interest. Over the last five years, our laboratory has developed several chip-based DNA detection techniques including the molecular sentinel-on-chip (MSC), the multiplex MSC, and the inverse molecular sentinel-on-chip (iMS-on-Chip). In these techniques, plasmonic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) Nanowave chips were functionalized with DNA probes for single-step DNA detection. Sensing mechanisms were based on hybridization of target sequences and DNA probes, resulting in a distance change between SERS reporters and the Nanowave chip's gold surface. This distance change resulted in change in SERS intensity, thus indicating the presence and capture of the target sequences. Our techniques were single-step DNA detection techniques. Target sequences were detected by simple delivery of sample solutions onto DNA probe-functionalized Nanowave chips and SERS signals were measured after 1h - 2h incubation. Target sequence labeling or washing to remove unreacted components was not required, making the techniques simple, easy-to-use, and cost effective. The usefulness of the techniques for medical diagnostics was illustrated by the detection of genetic biomarkers for respiratory viral infection and of dengue virus 4 DNA.

  20. Effect of Accreditation on Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests in Medical Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Young Ahn; Song, Junghan; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Ji Sung

    2017-01-01

    Background Medical laboratories play a central role in health care. Many laboratories are taking a more focused and stringent approach to quality system management. In Korea, laboratory standardization efforts undertaken by the Korean Laboratory Accreditation Program (KLAP) and the Korean External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS) may have facilitated an improvement in laboratory performance, but there are no fundamental studies demonstrating that laboratory standardization is effective. We analyzed the results of the KEQAS to identify significant differences between laboratories with or without KLAP and to determine the impact of laboratory standardization on the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Methods We analyzed KEQAS participant data on clinical chemistry tests such as albumin, ALT, AST, and glucose from 2010 to 2013. As a statistical parameter to assess performance bias between laboratories, we compared 4-yr variance index score (VIS) between the two groups with or without KLAP. Results Compared with the group without KLAP, the group with KLAP exhibited significantly lower geometric means of 4-yr VIS for all clinical chemistry tests (P<0.0001); this difference justified a high level of confidence in standardized services provided by accredited laboratories. Confidence intervals for the mean of each test in the two groups (accredited and non-accredited) did not overlap, suggesting that the means of the groups are significantly different. Conclusions These results confirmed that practice standardization is strongly associated with the accuracy of test results. Our study emphasizes the necessity of establishing a system for standardization of diagnostic testing. PMID:28224767

  1. Factors associated with patient, and diagnostic delays in Chinese TB patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delay in seeking care is a major impediment to effective management of tuberculosis (TB) in China. To elucidate factors that underpin patient and diagnostic delays in TB management, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of factors that are associated with delays in TB care-seeking and diagnosis in the country. Methods This review was prepared following standard procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and checklist. Relevant studies published up to November 2012 were identified from three major international and Chinese literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure). Results We included 29 studies involving 38,947 patients from 17 provinces in China. Qualitative analysis showed that key individual level determinants of delays included socio-demographic and economic factors, mostly poverty, rural residence, lack of health insurance, lower educational attainment, stigma and poor knowledge of TB. Health facility determinants included limited availability of resources to perform prompt diagnosis, lack of qualified health workers and geographical barriers. Quantitative meta-analysis indicated that living in rural areas was a risk factor for patient delays (pooled odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.79 (1.62, 1.98)) and diagnostic delays (pooled OR (95% CI): 1.40 (1.23, 1.59)). Female patients had higher risk of patient delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.13, 3.33)). Low educational attainment (primary school and below) was also a risk factor for patient delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 2.14 (1.03, 4.47)). The practice of seeking care first from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TMC) providers was also identified as a risk factor for diagnostic delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 5.75 (3.03, 10.94)). Conclusion Patient and diagnostic delays in TB care are mediated by individual and health facility factors. Population

  2. A cloud system for mobile medical services of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nian-Ze; Lee, Chia-Ying; Hou, Mark C; Chen, Ying-Ling

    2013-12-01

    Many medical centers in Taiwan have started to provide Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) services for hospitalized patients. Due to the complexity of TCM modality and the increasing need for providing TCM services for patients in different wards at distantly separate locations within the hospital, it is getting difficult to manage the situation in the traditional way. A computerized system with mobile ability can therefore provide a practical solution to the challenge presented. The study tries to develop a cloud system equipped with mobile devices to integrate electronic medical records, facilitate communication between medical workers, and improve the quality of TCM services for the hospitalized patients in a medical center. The system developed in the study includes mobile devices carrying Android operation system and a PC as a cloud server. All the devices use the same TCM management system developed by the study. A website of database is set up for information sharing. The cloud system allows users to access and update patients' medical information, which is of great help to medical workers for verifying patients' identification and giving proper treatments to patients. The information then can be wirelessly transmitted between medical personnel through the cloud system. Several quantitative and qualitative evaluation indexes are developed to measure the effectiveness of the cloud system on the quality of the TCM service. The cloud system is tested and verified based on a sample of hospitalized patients receiving the acupuncture treatment at the Lukang Branch of Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH) in Taiwan. The result shows a great improvement in operating efficiency of the TCM service in that a significant saving in labor time can be attributable to the cloud system. In addition, the cloud system makes it easy to confirm patients' identity through taking a picture of the patient upon receiving any medical treatment. The result also shows that the cloud system

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Herbal Hepatotoxicity: RUCAM and the Role of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers Such as MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit. PMID:28930128

  4. [Postmortem forensic medical diagnostics of fulminant sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterium (Capnocitophaga canimorsus) following a dog bite].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Putintsev, V A; Bogomolov, D V; Gribunov, Iu P; Bogomolov, B P; Deviatkin, A V

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the example of postmortem forensic medical diagnostics of fulminant sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterium (Capnocitophaga canimorsus) following a dog bite. In order to identify the etiological factor of fulminant sepsis, the expert carried out the study of the autopsy materials with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method has only recently been introduced into postmortem diagnostics of fulminant sepsis in this country; it has no analogs abroad and can be employed for the purpose of forensic medical expertise and pathological anatomic studies.

  5. Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Azarbayjani, Anahita; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different. Despite this diversity, the common feature of various disorders underlies physicochemical and biochemical factors such as surface tension. Human biological fluids comprise various proteins and phospholipids which are capable of adsorption at fluid interfaces and play a vital role in the physiological function of human organs. Surface tension of body fluids correlates directly to the development of pathological states. Methods: In this review, the variety of human diseases mediated by the surface tension changes of biological phenomena and the failure of biological fluids to remain in their native state are discussed. Results: Dynamic surface tension measurements of human biological fluids depend on various parameters such as sex, age and changes during pregnancy or certain disease. It is expected that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional information and might become useful in medical practice. Theoretical background on surface tension measurement and surface tension values of reference fluids obtained from healthy and sick patients are depicted. Conclusion: It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis. The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. We therefore expect that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional useful information in medical practice. PMID:25901295

  6. [Diagnostic and formative assessment of competencies at the beginning of undergraduate medical internship].

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Adrián; Lifshitz-Guinzberg, Alberto; Trejo-Mejía, Juan Andrés; Torruco-García, Uri; Fortoul-van der Goes, Teresa I; Flores-Hernández, Fernando; Peña-Balderas, Jorge; Martínez-Franco, Adrián Israel; Hernández-Nava, Alejandro; Elena-González, Diana; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor

    2017-01-01

    Research on diagnostic and formative assessment competencies during undergraduate medical training is scarce in Latin America. To assess the level of clinical competence of students at the beginning of their medical internship in a new curriculum. This was an observational cross-sectional study in UNAM Faculty of Medicine students in Mexico City: a formative assessment of the second class of Curriculum 2010 students as part of the integral evaluation of the program. The assessment had two components: theoretical and practical. We assessed 577 students (65.5%) of the 880 total population that finished the 9th semester of Curriculum 2010. The written exam consisted of 232 items, with a mean of 61.0 ± 19.6, a difficulty index of 0.61, and Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. The mean of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was 62.2 ± 16.8, with a mean Cronbach's alpha of 0.51. Results were analyzed by knowledge area and exam stations. The overall results provide evidence that students achieve sufficiently the competencies established in the curriculum at the beginning of the internship, that they have the necessary foundation for learning new and more complex information, and integrate it with existing knowledge to achieve significant learning and continue their training.

  7. Design of an affordable fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Christin; Knobbe, Jens; Grüger, Heinrich; Lakner, Hubert

    2012-12-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopes are a promising imaging tool in medical diagnostics due to their capability to selectively survey cross-sections of individual layers from `thick' samples. Non-invasive depth resolved investigation of neoplastic skin disorders is one example among other applications. However these microscopes are at present uncommon in medical practice. This is due to their main application area in research. The instruments dealt with here are generally complex, stationary units and are accordingly cost-intensive. It is for this reason, that we have designed a robust and portable MEMS based confocal fluorescence microscope with a field of view of 0.6mm x 0.6mm. This has been made possible by the integration of a 2D micro scanner mirror developed at Fraunhofer IPMS. A variable acquisition depth of cross-sectional images of the fluorescence specimen is enabled by an integrated z-shifter. With the use of commercially available optics an optical demonstrator set up has been realized. To characterize and to demonstrate the ability of this system test measurements were performed. The resolution of the microscope is better than 228 lp/mm determined by 1951 USAF resolution test target. Images of various biological samples are presented and optical sectioning capabilities are shown. A comparison of the measured with the predicted system performance will be given.

  8. Methacholine challenge test: diagnostic characteristics in asthmatic patients receiving controller medications.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Kaharu; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Irvin, Charles G; Kaminsky, David A; Shade, Dave; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Wise, Robert A; Castro, Mario

    2012-07-01

    The methacholine challenge test (MCT) is commonly used to assess airway hyperresponsiveness, but the diagnostic characteristics have not been well studied in asthmatic patients receiving controller medications after the use of high-potency inhaled corticosteroids became common. We investigated the ability of the MCT to differentiate participants with a physician's diagnosis of asthma from nonasthmatic participants. We conducted a cohort-control study in asthmatic participants (n= 126) who were receiving regular controller medications and nonasthmatic control participants (n= 93) to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MCT. The overall sensitivity was 77% and the specificity was 96% with a threshold PC(20) (the provocative concentration of methacholine that results in a 20% drop in FEV(1)) of 8 mg/mL. The sensitivity was significantly lower in white than in African American participants (69% vs 95%, P= .015) and higher in atopic compared with nonatopic (82% vs 52%, P= .005). Increasing the PC(20) threshold from 8 to 16 mg/mL did not noticeably improve the performance characteristics of the test. African American race, presence of atopy, and lower percent predicted FEV(1) were associated with a positive test result. The utility of the MCT to rule out a diagnosis of asthma depends on racial and atopic characteristics. Clinicians should take into account the reduced sensitivity of the MCT in white and nonatopic asthmatic patients when using this test for the diagnosis of asthma. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview and recommendations for medical screening and diagnostic evaluation for postdeployment lung disease in returning US warfighters.

    PubMed

    Rose, Cecile; Abraham, Joseph; Harkins, Deanna; Miller, Robert; Morris, Michael; Zacher, Lisa; Meehan, Richard; Szema, Anthony; Tolle, James; King, Matthew; Jackson, David; Lewis, John; Stahl, Andrea; Lyles, Mark B; Hodgson, Michael; Teichman, Ronald; Salihi, Walid; Matwiyoff, Gregory; Meeker, Gregory; Mormon, Suzette; Bird, Kathryn; Baird, Coleen

    2012-06-01

    To review inhalational exposures and respiratory disease risks in US military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan and to develop consensus recommendations for medical screening and diagnostic referral. A Working Group of physicians and exposure scientists from academia and from the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs was convened in February 2010. Despite uncertainty about the number of people affected and risk factors for adverse pulmonary outcomes in this occupational setting, the Working Group recommended: (1) standardized approaches to pre- and postdeployment medical surveillance; (2) criteria for medical referral and diagnosis; and (3) case definitions for major deployment-related lung diseases. There is a need for targeted, practical medical surveillance for lung diseases and for a standardized diagnostic approach for all symptomatic deployed personnel.

  10. Protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional medical imaging: collaboration is the key.

    PubMed

    Applegate, Kimberly E

    2015-02-01

    The radiology community (medical physicists, radiologic technologists, radiologists, and interventional proceduralists) has led the educational and awareness efforts in the medical arena to reduce radiation dose to patients through effective collaborations that bridge traditional medical specialty silos to reach health worker stakeholders. These successful collaborations have also included both vendors and regulators, with the overarching goal of radiation protection of patients (justification, optimization, and use of dose reference levels). This focus on patients often raises overall safety awareness and lowers occupational radiation doses as well. It is critical that the entire radiology community continue to act as leaders in these radiation safety efforts for both employees and patients. In order to be successful, it is important to understand safety culture and the growing, worldwide, multimedia resources that are available. There is little time or budget to recreate or duplicate training materials or risk communication information that may already exist. Together with the increasingly fast-paced and demanding healthcare environment and sharp focus on quality, it has never been more important to understand how to achieve better quality care for radiology departments. It is also important to measure and report quality for many customers, including patients, referring providers, and many other stakeholders. This short report will briefly define safety culture and describe methods for using collective learning tools that document radiation protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional imaging. These tools include the use of imaging modality registries, such as the Computed Tomography Does Index Registry, peer review of imaging reports, the use of clinical decision support, and guidelines. Finally, the Image Gently and Image Wisely campaigns provide examples of cross-disciplinary collaboration to improve radiation protection of patients.

  11. [Analysis on medication regularity of modern traditional Chinese medicines in treating melancholia based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-qing; Teng, Jing; Yang, Hong-jun

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the prescription and medication regularities of traditional Chinese medicines in the treatment of melancholia in the Chinese journal full text database (CNKI), Wanfang Data knowledge service platform, VIP, Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM) in based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support platform software, in order to provide reference for further mining traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of melancholia and new drug development. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support platform software V2.0 was used to establish the prescription database of traditional Chinese medicines for treating melancholia. The software integrated data mining method was adopted to analyze four Qis, five flavors, meridian distribution, frequency statistics, syndrome distribution, composition regularity and new prescriptions. Totally 358 prescriptions for treating melancholia were analyzed to determine the frequency of prescription drugs, commonly used drug pairs and combinations and develop 22 new prescriptions. According to this study, prescriptions for treating depression collected in modern literature databases mainly have the effects in soothing liver and resolving melancholia, strengthening spleen and eliminating phlegm, activating and replenishing blood, regulating liver qi, tonifying spleen qi, clearing heat and purging heat, soothing the mind, nourishing yin and tonifying kidney, with neutral drug property and sweet or bitter flavor, and follow the melancholia treatment principle of "regulating qi and opening the mind, regulating qi and empathy".

  12. Medical History of Elderly Patients in the Emergency Setting: Not an Easy Point-of-Care Diagnostic Marker.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Tobias; Slagman, Anna; Senkin, Arthur; Möckel, Martin; Searle, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Medical histories are a crucially important diagnostic tool. Elderly patients represent a large and increasing group of emergency patients. Due to cognitive deficits, taking a reliable medical history in this patient group can be difficult. We sought to evaluate the medical history-taking in emergency patients above 75 years of age with respect to duration and completeness. Methods. Anonymous data of consecutive patients were recorded. Times for the defined basic medical history-taking were documented, as were the availability of other sources and times to assess these. Results. Data of 104 patients were included in the analysis. In a quarter of patients (25%, n = 26) no complete basic medical history could be obtained. In the group of patients where complete data could be gathered, only 16 patients were able to provide all necessary information on their own. Including other sources like relatives or GPs prolonged the time until complete medical history from 7.3 minutes (patient only) to 26.4 (+relatives) and 56.3 (+GP) minutes. Conclusions. Medical histories are important diagnostic tools in the emergency setting and are prolonged in the elderly, especially if additional documentation and third parties need to be involved. New technologies like emergency medical cards might help to improve the availability of important patient data but implementation of these technologies is costly and faces data protection issues.

  13. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance.

  14. Assessment of medical students' knowledge retention in a diagnostic radiology course: lecture attendees versus absentees.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing Pong

    2009-03-01

    To compare class attendees versus absentees in their ability to retain knowledge during a diagnostic radiology course. This study recruited 146 fourth-year medical students who attended a diagnostic radiology course from February 2004 to June 2004. Eight unit tests were conducted. Questions for each test covered content taught in the prior class. Another examination (which students were not aware of beforehand) was conducted in June, and the questions for this examination included content from all lectures in the course. The class attendance rates were measured separately 6 times during the course. Students who were present on the last of these dates were categorised as attendees (group A students) and those who were absent were categorised as absentees (group B). The average class attendance was 76.8% and the lowest attendance was 56.8%. For the unit tests, the average score of group A students (80.7 +/- 7.3) was significantly higher than that of the group B students (76.2 +/- 8.8) (P = 0.001). However, in the unanticipated examination, there was no significant difference in the scores between group A (68.1 +/- 10.3; range, 36-92) and group B students (65.5 +/- 13.5; range, 28- 88) (P = 0.19). Self-learning time was related to the unit test scores (P = 0.001) but not to the unanticipated examination scores (P = 0.27). Students who frequently attend classes or study for longer can retain their knowledge over a short period of time, but there is no difference in knowledge retention between class attendees and absentees at the end of a 4-month course.

  15. [Councelling regarding prenatal diagnostic: a model project to enhance cooperation between medical and psychosocial consultants].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Rita; Schmidt, Ulrike; Ottomar, Bahrs; Riehl-Emde, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Although according to section 2 of the Pregnancy Conflicts Law, there is a legal claim to psychosocial counselling and although its benefit has been proven empirically, pregnant women rarely draw upon it in the context of prenatal diagnostics (PND). One of the reasons is probably that physicians are not sufficiently aware of this counselling offer. By means of the model project "Interprofessional quality circles in prenatal diagnostics" an attempt was made to counteract this deficit. For this purpose, interprofessional quality circles have been established in six different places in Germany in order to motivate medical and psychosocial consultants to an increased cooperation. The effects and realization of the quality circle efforts have been evaluated. For this purpose, structural characteristics such as cooperation practice and utilization of psychosocial counselling have been assessed using a questionnaire before and after the introduction of the quality circles. All sessions have been documented; in addition, they have been evaluated by the participants using another shorter questionnaire. The results show that the quality circles led to an improved cooperation between the different professional groups and an increased utilization of psychosocial counselling. The work of the quality circles has been evaluated positively. It was regarded as conductive to cooperation, emotionally exonerative and extremely helpful with respect to the daily counselling work. Most of all, its practicality and case management were appraised. Thus, interprofessional quality circles prove to be an adequate instrument to advance the interprofessional and aim-oriented cooperation in such a way as demanded emphatically by the German Expert Advisory Board of Community Health in its recent experts report.

  16. The Characteristics of Early Diagnostic Hypotheses Generated by Physicians (Experts) and Students (Novices) at One Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, James C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated whether physicians (n=32) would generate less specific initial diagnoses than did medical students (n=39). Analysis of number, specificity, and breadth of diagnoses found students generated significantly more diagnostic hypotheses and more specific hypotheses, but breadth did not differ significantly. (Author/MSE)

  17. The Development of Diagnostic Competence: A Comparison between a Problem-Based, an Integrated, and a Conventional Medical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; And Others

    This study compared the diagnostic performance of 612 second-, third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year students from three Dutch medical schools who were educated in either a problem-based, an integrative, or a conventional curriculum. The students were presented with 30 carefully selected clinical cases to diagnose. The study found that, overall,…

  18. The Development of Diagnostic Competence: Comparison of a Problem-Based, an Integrated, and a Conventional Medical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Dutch study compared the clinical diagnostic skills of 612 medical students educated at schools with problem-based, integrated, or conventional curricula. Students responded to 30 case histories epidemiologically representative of Dutch society and all organ systems. Students trained within problem-based and integrated curricula made more…

  19. Task Descriptions in Diagnostic Radiology. Research Report No. 7. Volume 1, Medical Tasks: What the Radiologist Does.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor

    The first of four volumes in Research Report No. 7 of the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS), this book contains 143 task descriptions covering most of the medical activities carried out by diagnostic radiologists. (The work carried out by radiologic technologists, and administrative, machine-related, and nursing-type functions are found in…

  20. SU-E-P-01: An Informative Review On the Role of Diagnostic Medical Physicist in the Academic and Private Medical Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The role of physicist in the academic and private hospital environment continues to evolve and expand. This becomes more obvious with the newly revised requirements of the Joint Commission (JC) on imaging modalities and the continued updated requirements of ACR accreditation for medical physics (i.e., starting in June 2014, a physicists test will be needed before US accreditation). We provide an informative review on the role of diagnostic medical physicist and hope that our experience will expedite junior physicists in understanding their role in medical centers, and be ready to more opportunities. Methods: Based on our experience, diagnostic medical physicists in both academic and private medical centers perform several clinical functions. These include providing clinical service and physics support, ensuring that all ionizing radiation devices are tested and operated in compliance with the State and Federal laws, regulations and guidelines. We also discuss the training and education required to ensure that the radiation exposure to patients and staff is as low as reasonably achievable. We review the overlapping roles of medical and health physicist in some institutions. Results: A detailed scheme on the new requirements (effective 7/1/2014) of the JC is provided. In 2015, new standards for fluoroscopy, cone beam CT and the qualifications of staff will be phased in. A summary of new ACR requirements for different modalities is presented. Medical physicist have other duties such as sitting on CT and fluoroscopy committees for protocols design, training of non-radiologists to meet the new fluoroscopy rules, as well as helping with special therapies such as Yittrium 90 cases. Conclusion: Medical physicists in both academic and private hospitals are positioned to be more involved and prominent. Diagnostic physicists need to be more proactive to involve themselves in the day to day activities of the radiology department.

  1. Career choice and future plan of Chinese 8-year stomatology medical doctor program students.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Zhang, Xinwen; Shen, Yong; Yi, Zhe; Wu, Lin; Ai, Hongjun

    2015-09-01

    This elite education reform that commenced in 2001 aims to improve the quality of Chinese dentists. It is expected to be one of the biggest drivers that lead dental education of China to a new stage. The authors identified and analyzed the perspectives of Chinese 8-year stomatology medical doctor (SMD) program students toward their career choice and future plan. The data from a self-administered questionnaire (4 items regarding career choice and 6 items about future plan), administered to 87 8-year SMD program students from the School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China, were used. The authors performed a comparison of the students of different sexes and home locations using the Chi-square test. Of the students, 34.5% indicated interpersonal motives as the reason to choose the 8-year SMD program, and only 52.9% thought that they had made good choices. The top three popular careers were those of prosthodontists (20.7%), oral surgeons (14.9%), and orthodontists (13.8%). The majority of students preferred first-tier cities (85.7%) and university hospitals (71.3%). In China, most 8-year S.M.D students would like to work as clinical dentists of university hospitals in first-tier cities. The top three career choices of graduates would be prosthodontists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. The effects of medication education and behavioral intervention on Chinese patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fengmin; Zhu, Guoxing; Jiao, Zheng; Ma, Chunlai; Chen, Nianzu; Wang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of medication education and behavioral intervention on Chinese patients with epilepsy and to compare the difference between them. A total of 109 patients with epilepsy who did not to take their antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) more than once were randomly assigned to two intervention groups: the medication education group (group I) and the medication education with behavioral intervention group (group II). Group I was initially provided with medication education in the form of oral education and written materials, and this education was reinforced by monthly calls from the pharmacist over the next six months. The behavioral intervention provided to group II consisted of a modified medication schedule which was based on cue-dose training therapy. The outcomes that were evaluated both in the beginning and in the end of the study included adherence, which was measured using the four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4), the number of seizures, knowledge of AEDs, and the number of patients who missed a dose of their AEDs. Differences within and between the groups were analyzed. After intervention, the adherence and knowledge of AEDs increased greatly in all patients, and the number of patients who had seizures or missed AEDs decreased. However, no significant differences were observed between groups I and II. The observed changes were (group I vs group II, p value) increased adherence: 62.3% vs 64.3%, 0.827; increased knowledge of AEDs: 88.7% vs 80.4%, 0.231; and improved seizure control: 64.2% vs 64.3%, 0.988. In addition, the percentage of patients who forgot to take their AEDs decreased to 45.0% from more than 70%, and 44.9% of these patients took the missed AEDs as soon as they remembered. These findings clearly demonstrate that medication education and reinforced telephone calls from pharmacists can help to increase adherence to AEDs, the knowledge of patients regarding AEDs, and seizure control

  3. Acupuncture Meridian of Traditional Chinese Medical Science: An Auxiliary Respiratory System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang-Ju

    2015-08-01

    The acupuncture meridian system (AMS) is the key concept of Traditional Chinese Medical Science (TCMS). It is a natural network formed by the tissue space that connects human viscera and skin. In this article, a new hypothesis that the AMS is an auxiliary respiratory system is presented. The AMS collects the CO2 that is produced by tissue supersession and that cannot be excreted via blood circulation, and discharges the CO2 through the body's pores, thus preventing a pressure increase in the internal environment. Thus, local blood circulation will not be blocked, and the body will remain healthy. In addition to neuroregulation and humoral regulation, AMS regulation is an important method of physiological regulation. Furthermore, the pathological principle of the AMS, therapies of TCMS, and the excellent future of the AMS are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of free, cued and modelled reflection on medical students' diagnostic competence.

    PubMed

    Ibiapina, Cassio; Mamede, Sílvia; Moura, Alexandre; Elói-Santos, Silvana; van Gog, Tamara

    2014-08-01

    Structured reflection while practising the diagnosing of cases has been shown to improve medical students' learning of clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated whether additional instructional guidance increases the benefits of reflection by comparing the effects of free, cued and modelled reflection on learning. Fifty-eight Year 5 and 57 Year 6 medical students participated in a three-phase experiment. During the learning phase, participants diagnosed eight clinical cases under different experimental conditions: free reflection; cued reflection, and modelled reflection. In an immediate test and a delayed test administered 1 week later, they diagnosed new sets of eight different cases, four of which presented diseases they had studied during the learning phase. Learning was measured according to diagnostic accuracy on the cases that involved the four diseases that appeared in all phases. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (anova) of mean scores for diagnostic accuracy (range: 0-1) showed a significant main effect of experimental condition (p < 0.001), year of training (p = 0.013), and performance moment (p = 0.003), without significant interaction effects. Overall, the modelled reflection group and the cued reflection group did not differ in performance (p = 1.00), but both outperformed the free reflection group (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Overall performance increased in the delayed test relative to the immediate test (p = 0.004) and to the learning phase (p = 0.03), but did not differ in the latter two phases. Both Year 6 and Year 5 students rated studying examples of reflection as less effortful than either cued or free reflection in the learning phase (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Students apparently learn more with less effort by studying correct structured reflection while practising the diagnosing of cases than by reflecting without any instructional guidance. Examples of reflection and cued reflection were more beneficial for learning

  5. Endorsement of CONSORT by Chinese medical journals: a survey of "instruction to authors".

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lu; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hong-cai

    2014-07-01

    To determine the extent to which Chinese medical (CM) journals incorporate Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) into their "instruction to authors". We reviewed the latest "instruction to authors" of the CM journals in China which indexed by MEDLINE in 2010 or Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) in 2012 and extracted all information of CONSORT, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), other reporting guidelines or clinical trial registration. By reading the instructions to authors and reviewing recent studies published in those journals, those that do not publish clinical trials were excluded. We also contacted each of journals by telephone on contributor's status to ask them whether mentioned CONSORT in their instructions and incorporated it into their editorial and peer-review process. Full-text papers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, from January 2011 to March 2012) published in the journals which mentioned "CONSORT" in their instructions for authors were downloaded. Seven CM journals were included. Three of these journals mentioned CONSORT in its instructions. By telephone survey, all journals gave responses and all respondents knew CONSORT statement. Three of 7 journals required authors to comply with the CONSORT statement and provide the CONSORT checklist and a flow chart of the trial. The rest 4 journals recommended authors of RCTs to refer to the CONSORT statement. From January 2011 to March 2012, a total of 50 RCTs were obtained from the 3 journals endorsing the CONSORT statement; 17 (17/50, 34%) contained a flow diagram in their manuscript, and none of those RCTs had mentioned the trial registration information. The endorsement of CONSORT by CM journals' "instruction to authors" was not satisfactory. The spread of CONSORT endorsement should be wider in instructing the performance of CM clinical trials in the future. Chinese journals should introduce CONSORT to their authors and require authors to comply with

  6. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence--favorably evaluated in the West--for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The…

  7. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence--favorably evaluated in the West--for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The…

  8. Utilization of Behavioral Medicine Services to Refine Medical Diagnostic Formulation in the Face of Uncertain Symptom Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David A.; Markman, Elisabeth S.; McMahon, Cori E.; Markman, Maurie

    2016-01-01

    In the ever expanding realm of cancer care, the psychosocial impact of disease and medical treatments has been garnering increased attention. To address these needs, the integration of behavioral medicine services into inpatient and outpatient medical settings has added a unique resource available to oncologists. Psycho-oncologists may assist providers via the provision of psychological assessment and intervention, supplying valuable consultation to members of the medical team and much needed clinical services to patients. The authors present a complex case in which the utilization of behavioral medicine consultation to clarify the diagnostic picture was critical to identifying underlying anatomic disease. PMID:27721774

  9. Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately-insured adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Esther Y.; Cohn, Lisa; Freed, Gary; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Ascione, Frank; Clark, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension Methods We conducted retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for adolescents and young adults (12–21 years) with ≥ 3 years of insurance coverage (≥ 11 months/year) in a large private managed care plan during 2003–2009 with diagnosis of primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. We examined their use of antihypertensive medications and identified demographic characteristics and presence of obesity-related comorbidities. For the subset receiving antihypertensive medications, we examined their diagnostic test use (echocardiograms, renal ultrasounds, and electrocardiograms (EKG)). Results Study sample included 1232 adolescents and young adults; 84% had primary hypertension and 16% had secondary hypertension. Overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 2.6%. One-quarter (28%) with primary hypertension had ≥1 antihypertensive medication whereas 65% with secondary hypertension had ≥1 antihypertensive medication. Leading prescribers of antihypertensives for subjects with primary hypertension were primary care physicians (PCP) (80%) whereas antihypertensive medications were equally prescribed by PCPs (43%) and subspecialists (37%) for subjects with secondary hypertension. Conclusions The predominant hypertension diagnosis among adolescents and young adults is primary hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use was higher among those with secondary hypertension compared to those with primary hypertension. Further study is needed to determine treatment effectiveness and patient outcomes associated with differential treatment patterns used for adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension. PMID:24492018

  10. On Informatics Diagnostics and Informatics Therapeutics - Good Medical Informatics Research Is Needed Here.

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    In the era of digitization some new procedures play an increasing role for diagnosis as well as for therapy: informatics diagnostics and informatics therapeutics. Challenges for such procedures are described. It is discussed, when research on such diagnostics and therapeutics can be regarded as good research. Examples are mentioned for informatics diagnostics and informatics therapeutics, which are based on health-enabling technologies.

  11. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation.

    PubMed

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O'reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-05-01

    The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the "3 As": awareness, appropriateness and audit.

  12. A software framework for diagnostic medical image perception with feedback, and a novel perception visualization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Peter W.; Manning, David J.; Donovan, Tim; Crawford, Trevor; Higham, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a software framework and analysis tool to support the collection and analysis of eye movement and perceptual feedback data for a variety of diagnostic imaging modalities. The framework allows the rapid creation of experiment software that can display a collection of medical images of a particular modality, capture eye trace data, and record marks added to an image by the observer, together with their final decision. There are also a number of visualisation techniques for the display of eye trace information. The analysis tool supports the comparison of individual eye traces for a particular observer or traces from multiple observers for a particular image. Saccade and fixation data can be visualised, with user control of fixation identification functions and properties. Observer markings are displayed, and predefined regions of interest are supported. The software also supports some interactive and multi-image modalities. The analysis tool includes a novel visualisation of scan paths across multi-image modalities. Using an exploded 3D view of a stack of MRI scan sections, an observer's scan path can be shown traversing between images, in addition to inspecting them.

  13. Knowledge representation and sharing using visual semantic modeling for diagnostic medical image databases.

    PubMed

    Barb, Adrian S; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Sethi, Yash P

    2005-12-01

    Information technology offers great opportunities for supporting radiologists' expertise in decision support and training. However, this task is challenging due to difficulties in articulating and modeling visual patterns of abnormalities in a computational way. To address these issues, well established approaches to content management and image retrieval have been studied and applied to assist physicians in diagnoses. Unfortunately, most of the studies lack the flexibility of sharing both explicit and tacit knowledge involved in the decision making process, while adapting to each individual's opinion. In this paper, we propose a knowledge repository and exchange framework for diagnostic image databases called "evolutionary system for semantic exchange of information in collaborative environments" (Essence). This framework uses semantic methods to describe visual abnormalities, and offers a solution for tacit knowledge elicitation and exchange in the medical domain. Also, our approach provides a computational and visual mechanism for associating synonymous semantics of visual abnormalities. We conducted several experiments to demonstrate the system's capability of matching synonym terms, and the benefit of using tacit knowledge in improving the meaningfulness of semantic queries.

  14. The suitability of Tedlar bags for breath sampling in medical diagnostic research.

    PubMed

    Steeghs, Marco M L; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M

    2007-01-01

    Tedlar bags are tested for their suitability for breath sampling for medical diagnostic purposes. Proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry was used to monitor the changes in composition of various mixtures contained in custom-made black-layered Tedlar bags. Characteristic ions at m/z 88 and 95 amu reflect considerable pollution from the bag material. The pollutant found on m/z 88 amu is most probably N,N-dimethylacetamide, a latent solvent used in the production of Tedlar film. Gas composition losses during filling were found to range from 5 to 47%, depending on the compound. Once stored, the half-lives of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene, benzene, toluene and styrene were estimated between 5 and 13 days. Losses from breath samples (52 h after filling) were found to be less than 10%. No observable decrease was found for ethylene over 3 days, using laser-based photoacoustic detection. For the use of Tedlar bags, a standardized protocol is advised, where the time point of analysis is fixed for all samples and should be kept as close as possible to the time of sampling.

  15. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  16. Rare-cell enrichment by a rapid, label-free, ultrasonic isopycnic technique for medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Syed, Abeer; Reboud, Julien; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C; Barrett, Michael P; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2014-05-26

    One significant challenge in medical diagnostics lies in the development of label-free methods to separate different cells within complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate a generic, low-power ultrasonic separation technique, able to enrich different cell types based upon their physical properties. For malaria, we differentiate between infected and non-infected red blood cells in a fingerprick-sized drop of blood. We are able to achieve an enrichment of circulating cells infected by the ring stage of the parasite over nonparasitized red blood cells by between two and three orders of magnitude in less than 3 seconds (enabling detection at parasitemia levels as low as 0.0005%). In a second example, we also show that our methods can be used to enrich different cell types, concentrating Trypanosoma in blood at very low levels of infection, on disposable, low-cost chips. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Diagnostic value of clinical tests for degenerative rotator cuff disease in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Lasbleiz, S; Quintero, N; Ea, K; Petrover, D; Aout, M; Laredo, J D; Vicaut, E; Bardin, T; Orcel, P; Beaudreuil, J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of clinical tests for degenerative rotator cuff disease (DRCD) in medical practice. Patients with DRCD were prospectively included. Eleven clinical tests of the rotator cuff have been done. One radiologist performed ultrasonography (US) of the shoulder. Results of US were expressed as normal tendon, tendinopathy or full-thickness tear (the reference). For each clinical test and each US criteria, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value, accuracy, negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) were calculated. Clinical relevance was defined as PLR ≥2 and NLR ≤0.5. For 35 patients (39 shoulders), Jobe (PLR: 2.08, NLR: 0.31) and full-can (2, 0.5) test results were relevant for diagnosis of supraspinatus tears and resisted lateral rotation (2.42, 0.5) for infraspinatus tears, with weakness as response criteria. The lift-off test (8.50, 0.27) was relevant for subscapularis tears with lag sign as response criteria. Yergason's test (3.7, 0.41) was relevant for tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps with pain as a response criterion. There was no relevant clinical test for diagnosis of tendinopathy of supraspinatus, infraspinatus or subscapularis. Five of 11 clinical tests were relevant for degenerative rotator cuff disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O’reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. Methods The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. Results This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Conclusion Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the “3 As”: awareness, appropriateness and audit. PMID:21343316

  19. Prevalence of medication adherence and its associated factors among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Doris Y P; Bai, Xue; Leung, Angela Y M; Liu, Ben C P; Chi, Iris

    2015-06-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the prevalence of medication adherence, and to examine its risk factors among Chinese community-dwelling older adults with chronic diseases. Secondary analysis was carried out on the data collected from 3167 Hong Kong adults aged ≥60 years who lived in their private home, had at least one type of chronic disease and had completed a screening instrument for long-term care services for the first time in 2006. The outcome variable was the self- or caregiver-reported medication adherence. Among the respondents, 90.8% reported having good medication adherence in the past 7 days. More dependence on activities of daily living (P < 0.001), stroke (P = 0.003) or diabetes (P = 0.036), had medication review by physicians (P < 0.001) and received more informal care support (P = 0.005) were positively associated with medication adherence, whereas more cognitive impaired (P = 0.008), more negative mood (P = 0.071) and perceived poor health (P < 0.001) were negatively associated with medication adherence. The prevalence of self-reported medication adherence was high in Hong Kong Chinese community-dwelling older adults. A number of modifiable factors associated with medication adherence were identified, which provides specific targets for interventions. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. [Cluster Analysis of Medication Laws for Treating Coronary Heart Disease by Distinguished Veteran Doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Chen, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Min-zhou; Guo, Li-heng; He, De-ying

    2016-04-01

    To provide inspiration and ideas for clinical treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) by data mining technology based frequency analysis and cluster analysis of medical records, prescriptions and herbs in treating CHD by distinguished veteran doctors of traditional Chinese Dedicine (TCM). Totally 386 medical cases were retrieved from Wanfang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP medical information resources system, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Typical Collections of Medical Cases by Contemporary Distinguished Veteran Doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine. They input into database trimmed after unified standard. Medication laws of CHD by distinguished veteran doctors of TCM were analyzed using frequency analysis and cluster analysis, and so on. Distinguished veteran doctors of TCM frequently used top ten herbs in treatment of C D as Salvia miltiorrhiz , Ligusticum wallichii, Trichosanthes kirilowi, Pinellia ternat, Angelica sinensis, Poria coco stragalu , Panax ginseng, Allium macrostemon, and Radix Ophiopogonis. Cluster analysis summarized that there were 16 herb pairs commonly used, 7drug assemblies consisting of 3 herbs and 5 drug assemblies consisting of multiple herbs. Distinguished veteran doctors of TCM mainly used herbs assemblies capable for invigorating Pi to resolve phlegm, and promoting qi and activating blood circulation in treating CHD. Meanwhile, they concurrently used herbs combination of nourishing Xin and tranquilization, and regulating yin and yang.

  1. Problems and the potential direction of reforms for the current individual medical savings accounts in the Chinese health care system.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangjin; Yang, Yang; Gong, Fuqing; Zhao, Mingjie

    2012-12-01

    Individual health savings accounts are an important part of the current basic medical insurance system for urban workers in China. Since 1998 when the system of personal medical insurance accounts was first implemented, there has been considerable controversy over its function and significance within different social communities. This paper analyzes the main problems in the practical implementation of individual medical insurance accounts and discusses the social and cultural foundations for the establishment of family health savings accounts from the perspective of Chinese Confucian familism. Accordingly, it addresses the direction of the reform and the development of the current system of individual health insurance accounts in China.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Handa, Hiroshi; Abe, Masanori

    2010-11-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate—an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)—a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed—to a level of 2.0 pg ml - 1. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer sized 'probe

  3. [Requirements for mycological diagnostics in accordance with the guideline of the German Medical Association for quality assurance of medical laboratory tests].

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Kargl, A; Reinel, D; Hamm, G; Mayser, P; Nenoff, P

    2016-01-01

    The ability of recognizing various clinical manifestations of mucocutaneous mycosis, making a diagnosis, and establishing a treatment is part of a dermatologist's daily routine. However, due to the fact that clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnostics, and treatment are performed in one hand, laboratory findings are properly classified and interpreted. Since new binding guidelines of the German Medical Association on quality assurance measures in medical laboratory testing came into force, there is much concern among dermatologists of how to comply with these new regulations. It is the intention of the authors to help our readers to implement these new rules in order to make sure that mycological diagnostics continue to be part of a dermatologist's professional work.

  4. Subtypes of potentially inappropriate medications in older Chinese-Americans during care transitions: cross sectional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sophia H; Foust, Janice B; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    The number of Chinese Americans is growing and nearly 20% of older Chinese-American home care patients have at least one potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) prescribed at hospital discharge. Further examination of PIMs during care transition is warranted, especially among older Chinese-Americans. To describe, during care transitions from hospital to home care: (i) the subtypes of PIMs, (ii) the difference of PIM prevalence prescribed at hospital discharge as compared to home care admission, (iii) the relationship between subtypes of PIMs, and (iv) issues affecting medication reconciliation among older Chinese-Americans. This cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted in a large urban home care agency from June 2010 to July 2011. From data collected by in-home survey and chart abstraction, PIMs were identified using 2002 diagnosis-independent Beers criteria. The difference of PIM prevalence at hospital discharge and at home care admission was analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test. The relationship between subtypes of PIMs was evaluated using Phi coefficient. 82 older (age 65 years and above) Chinese-American home care patients following recent hospital discharge. 3.38% (22) and another 3.72% (28) of prescribed medications were identified as PIMs at hospital discharge and home care admission, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in PIM prevalence identified at hospital discharge and at homecare admission (z=-1.732, p=.083). PIMs included: long-term use of stimulant laxatives and high-dosages of ferrous sulfate, and a significant relationship between these two PIMS (r=.224, p=.04). More than 80% (n=65) of study participants reported low education levels and limited English proficiency. Subtypes of PIMs were ordered during the post-hospital transfers, indicating the necessity to review the appropriateness of medications during this transition. Guidelines such as Beer's criteria regarding appropriateness of medications should

  5. Retrospective Evaluation of New Chinese Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Wang, Huafang; Guo, Tao; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To retrospectively validate the new Chinese DIC scoring system (CDSS). Methods This study retrospectively collected the information of 619 patients (371 cases with non-hematologic malignancies, 248 cases with hematologic malignancies) who suspected of DIC in Wuhan Union Hospital during 2013-4 to 2014-6. We validated CDSS by comparing it with three leading scoring systems, from International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW), and evaluated its prognostic value by 28 days mortality, APACHE II and SOFA score. Results In non-hematologic malignancies, CDSS was more specific than JAAM (72.55% vs. 50.49%, p<0.05) and more sensitive than ISTH (77.07% vs. 62.03%, p<0.05). In hematologic malignancies, the area under the ROC curve of CDSS was larger than ISTH and JMHW (0.933 vs. 0.889, p<0.01 with ISTH, 0.944 vs. 0.845, p<0.01 with JMHW). In addition, the 28-day mortality rate, SOFA scores, APACHE II scores of DIC patients diagnosed by CDSS were significantly greater than non-DIC (P <0.05). Conclusions We are the first group to propose CDSS. It emphasized the values of the clinical manifestations, the rapidly declining platelet count, APTT in the diagnosis of DIC and used D-dimer as the fibrin-related maker. DIC with hematological malignancies was treated as a special part. In this study we can see that CDSS displayed an acceptable property for the diagnosis of DIC with appropriate sensitivity and specificity, and also had a good prognostic value for DIC patients. PMID:26076032

  6. Diagnostic performance of tumor markers AFP and PIVKA-II in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shujing; Jiang, Feifei; Wang, Ying; Yu, Yanhua; Ren, Siqian; Wang, Xiaowei; Yin, Peng; Lou, Jinli

    2017-06-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein is an effective biomarker as an aid in hepatocellular carcinoma detection in many countries. However, alpha-fetoprotein has its limitations, especially in early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II is another biomarker that is used for hepatocellular carcinoma detection. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II alone and in combination to explore improving biomarker performance as an aid in early hepatocellular carcinoma detection. In this study a total of 582 serum samples including 132 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 250 non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and 200 healthy volunteers were collected. Alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels were measured by both chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay on LUMIPULSE platform and by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay on ARCHITECT platform. Receiver operation characteristic curve analyses were performed for each biomarker and in combination. The results showed that Alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II in combination have shown higher area under the curve compared to alpha-fetoprotein alone for diagnosis in whole patients (0.906 vs 0.870) in hepatocellular carcinoma early-stage patients (0.809 vs 0.77) and in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (0.851 vs 0.788) with ARCHITECT platform. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II showed higher area under the curve than alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (0.901 vs 0.788).We conclude that Combining alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II may improve the diagnostic value for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II performs better

  7. [The Chinese expert consensus on clinical practice of "medically unexplained symptoms"].

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    "Medically unexplained symptoms" (MUS) are commonly seen in all clinical specialties. The preliminary investigations in China show a prevalence of MUS in 4.15%-18.2% of clinical patients. Based on international and national guidelines and the most advanced studies, a Chinese expert consensus on clinical practice of MUS is reached through three rounds of discussion seminars by 25 experts from various specialties including psychiatry, internal medicine, surgery, gynecology-obstetrics, otorhinolar-yngology and traditional Chinese medicine. Clinical doctors should be alert of patients whose discomfort complaints cannot be explained by organic conditions after thorough physical examination and necessary laboratory tests. MUS should be recognized as early as possible so as to avoid complicating iatrogenic factors. A full bio-psycho-social evaluation of the patient is the basic structure of understanding MUS patients. In clinical practice, a trustful doctor-patient relationship is the first step of successful treatment. Then after a reasonable clinical evaluation, explain to the patient that it is a harmless functional symptom, communicate with the patient and reach an acceptable therapeutic goal, help the patient understand the symptoms in a psycho-somatic aspect and rebuild confidence of getting back to normal life. Patients with mild symptoms can be treated by doctors in various specialties, from whom the patient seeks help. Patients with severe symptoms need multi-disciplinary care including specific psychotherapy. Pharmaceutical treatment includes symptom alleviating drugs and antidepressants. In clinical care of patients with "MUS" , a full bio-psycho-social evaluation, a good doctor-patient relationship, a treatment plan according to the severity of symptoms, and a multi-disciplinary cooperation should be noted and practiced.

  8. Screening of personality disorders among chinese college students by Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiting; Ling, Hui; Yang, Bingjun; Dou, Gang

    2007-08-01

    Four thousand eight hundred and eleven students were sampled from 26 universities in 21 cities of China and evaluated using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+(PDQ-4+). Results showed that male students obtained significantly higher scores than female students on paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, narcissistic, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower scores on the borderline scale. Students from rural areas scored higher than those from urban areas on the schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower on the paranoid and dependent scales. Singleton students obtained significantly higher scores than nonsingletons on paranoid, antisocial and dependent scales, and lower on schizoid, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, depressive scales. Students from single-parent families scored significantly higher on the schizotypal scales; and students from foster families scored significantly higher on the antisocial, passive-aggressive, and depressive scales. Students from poor families scored significantly higher than those from average or wealthy families on schizoid, schizotyal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. The results suggest that low family income, low social status, and parental style contribute to the development of personality disorders.

  9. In vitro diagnostic company recalls and medical laboratory practices: an Italian case

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In vitro human diagnostic (IVD) company recalls are a common practice aimed to either minimize a potential error or eliminate an existing failure. In this case report, we aim to provide a critical analysis of a recent IVD recall and to provide a practical framework about what to do when an IVD company recalls product(s) based on the International Organization for Standardization - ISO 15189:2012 standard. Case report In 2014, Abbott Laboratories® (Green Oaks, IL) published an urgent field safety notice regarding a product recall (Architect Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) Assay List Number 8K25) with immediate action required. The IVD company explained the reasons for the recall as follows: i) Abbott has confirmed that a performance shift in the Architect Intact PTH assay has the potential to generate falsely elevated results on patient samples; ii) results generated with impacted lots may demonstrate a positive shift relative to those generated with previous reagent and/or calibrator lots. This issue may also impact established Architect Intact PTH reference ranges; iii) the magnitude of shift averages approximately 13% to 45%; iv) Abbott Architect Intact PTH controls do not detect the shift; and v) all current reagent, calibrator, and control inventory are impacted. The recall could have resulted in ~40,000 inaccurate laboratory tests reported by 18 laboratories from Italy (Lombardy region). Conclusion IVD company recalls have a serious impact on the patient safety and require a thorough investigation and responsible approach to minimize the possible damage. Medical laboratories accredited according to the ISO 15189 standard have procedures in place to manage such situations and ensure that patient safety is maintained when such recalls are issued. PMID:26110040

  10. In vitro diagnostic company recalls and medical laboratory practices: an Italian case.

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2015-01-01

    In vitro human diagnostic (IVD) company recalls are a common practice aimed to either minimize a potential error or eliminate an existing failure. In this case report, we aim to provide a critical analysis of a recent IVD recall and to provide a practical framework about what to do when an IVD company recalls product(s) based on the International Organization for Standardization--ISO 15189:2012 standard. In 2014, Abbott Laboratories® (Green Oaks, IL) published an urgent field safety notice regarding a product recall (Architect Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) Assay List Number 8K25) with immediate action required. The IVD company explained the reasons for the recall as follows: i) Abbott has confirmed that a performance shift in the Architect Intact PTH assay has the potential to generate falsely elevated results on patient samples; ii) results generated with impacted lots may demonstrate a positive shift relative to those generated with previous reagent and/or calibrator lots. This issue may also impact established Architect Intact PTH reference ranges; iii) the magnitude of shift averages approximately 13% to 45%; iv) Abbott Architect Intact PTH controls do not detect the shift; and v) all current reagent, calibrator, and control inventory are impacted. The recall could have resulted in ~40,000 inaccurate laboratory tests reported by 18 laboratories from Italy (Lombardy region). IVD company recalls have a serious impact on the patient safety and require a thorough investigation and responsible approach to minimize the possible damage. Medical laboratories accredited according to the ISO 15189 standard have procedures in place to manage such situations and ensure that patient safety is maintained when such recalls are issued.

  11. Clinically Unjustified Diagnostic Imaging – a Worrisome Tendency in Today’s Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sobiecka, Aleksandra; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Rutkowska, Milena; Latos, Tomasz; Walecki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the percentage of unjustified examinations among all the CT and MRI studies performed by two radiology departments and to determine the types of examinations which are most commonly carried out unnecessarily. Material/Methods Three radiologists assessed the justification of CT and MRI examinations performed during a period of 14 days based on the referrals. The radiologists assessed 799 referrals for CT scans (847 examinations of a particular part of the body) and 269 MRI referrals (269 examinations). The criteria for justification were: medical expertise and the guidelines. During the first stage radiologists divided the examinations into 3 groups: justified, unjustified and the examinations of questionable justification. The second step was to determine the reasons why the studies were considered as unjustified or of questionable justification. Results 73 of 1116 examinations (6.54%) were considered to be unjustified or of a questionable justification. There were 59 CT scans (59/847=6.97%) and 14 MRI studies (14/269=5.20%). The most common reasons to consider them as unjustified or of questionable justification were: inadequate method of diagnostic imaging chosen as a first-line tool and lacking or insufficient clinical details. Conclusions In our investigation 6.54% of both CT and MRI examinations were considered as unjustified or of questionable justification, which is lower than described in other studies (from 7% to 26%). The assessment was based only on referrals, therefore a total share of these examinations is likely to be higher. PMID:27471577

  12. Female breast cancer in relation to exposure to medical iatrogenic diagnostic radiation during life

    PubMed Central

    Pranjic, Nurka; Drljević, Kenan; Prasko, Subhija; Drljevic, Irdina; Brzeziński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Exposure to radiation and aging are the leading causes of breast cancer among female patients. We aimed to investigate and assess the relationship between exposure to medical, diagnostic and iatrogenic radiation and breast cancer using a questionnaire among 100 newly diagnosed female breast cancer patients and 100 control female subjects without cancer. Material and methods A case control study using a family ambulatory based survey was conducted among 200 female patients from all municipalities of Zenica-Doboj Canton. New cases of breast cancer among subjects of experimental groups (n = 100) were diagnosed between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2007 using the institutional clinical procedure for breast cancer diagnosis. Data were obtained using a self-rated questionnaire on radiation as a breast carcinogen. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 19.0. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups and their subgroups for individual data and demographics except for prevalence of decreased family financial situation (practical poverty) among subjects with breast cancer in relation to control subjects (31%: 17% among control subjects; p = 0.001). Female patients who are exposed to iatrogenic radiation before the 3rd year of life (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.839–1.985) and those who are exposed to CT more than twice per year are more than twice as likely to have breast carcinoma (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.254–3.261) compared to control subjects. Poverty and low family income are vulnerability factors associated with elevated levels of breast carcinoma. This result is not in accordance with prior study results. ConcIusions It is necessary to develop an adequate registration system of iatrogenic exposure to radiation for each patient of any age, particularly for children aged < 3 years and for CT iatrogenic exposure. PMID:23788943

  13. Parameterized algorithms for quantitative differentials in spectrally equivalent medical diagnostic x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-06-15

    Qualitative and quantitative equivalence of spectra transmitted by two different elemental filters require a good match in terms of shape and size over the entire energy range of 0-150 keV used in medical diagnostic radiology. However, the photoelectric absorptions and Compton scattering involved in the interaction of x rays with matter at these relatively low photon energies differ in a nonuniform manner with energy and atomic number. By careful choice of thicknesses for filter materials with an atomic number between 12 and 39, when compared with aluminum, it is possible to obtain transmitted beams of the same shape (quality) but not of the same size (quantity). In this paper, calculations have been carried out for the matching of the shapes and sizes of beams transmitted through specified thicknesses of aluminium filter and spectrally equivalent thicknesses of other filter materials (different from aluminium) using FORTRAN source codes traceable to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM), College Park, MD, USA. Parametrized algorithms for the evaluation of quantitative differentials (deficit or surplus) in radiation output (namely, photon fluence, exposure, kerma, energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose) from these transmitted spectrally equivalent beams were developed. These differentials range between 1%, and 4% at 1 mm Al filtration and between 8%, and 25% for filtration of 6 mm Al for different filter materials in comparison with aluminum. Also developed were models for factors for converting measures of photon fluence, exposure-area product, (EAP), and kerma-area product (KAP) to risk related quantities such as energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose from the spectrally equivalent beams. The thicknesses of other filter materials that are spectrally equivalent to given thicknesses of aluminum filter were characterized using polynomial functions. The fact that the use of equivalent spectra in radiological practice can

  14. Radiative-SPR platform for the detection of apolipoprotein E for use in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciacca, Beniamino; Francois, Alexandre; Penno, Megan A. S.; Brazzatti, Julie A.; Klingler-Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M.

    2012-03-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based sensors enable the rapid, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a large range of biomolecules. We have previously shown that, using silver coated optical fibres with an high surface roughness, a re-scattering of the surface plasmons is possible, turning SPR into a radiative process. This approach overcomes limitations associated with current SPR technologies such as the tight tolerance on the metallic coating thickness, and results in a more compact, versatile, robust and cost-effective approach. However, the specific detection of small molecules is a challenge in SPR systems, regardless of the SPR architecture that is used. This new sensing platform, which has proved effective for the detection of large molecules such as viruses, is now demonstrated to be able to detect small proteins thanks to an improved surface functionalization procedure, a key point for reliable and robust immunosensors. Avidin, a tetrameric biotin-binding protein, was used to link biotinylated antibodies to the biotinylated surface, with a given orientation, to enable efficient sensing of the analyte. This approach may offer significant advantages compared to protein A surface functionalization strategies such as a limited cross reactivity with free IgG antibodies in clinical samples. We demonstrate that by bringing together this novel emission-based fibre SPR platform, with an improved surface functionalization process, is possible to rapidly and specifically detect human apolipoprotein E, a low molecular weight protein (~39kDa) known to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, in Alzheimer's disease and in gastric cancer. The results obtained clearly show that this new sensing platform has the potential to serve as a tool for point-of-decision medical diagnostics.

  15. Enhancing awareness of the diagnostic medical sonography professions: a high school outreach program.

    PubMed

    Merton, Daniel A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a presentation that can be used to increase the number of high school students who recognize diagnostic medical sonography (DMS) professions as career alternatives and will consider pursuing DMS careers. An interactive program was developed that includes a digital presentation, question-and-answer session, and scanning demonstration. The program was presented to students at their high schools. Handout materials were provided, and a questionnaire was distributed to obtain feedback regarding the program's content and effectiveness. Refinements to the program were made based on feedback. A Student t test was used to determine the statistical significance of changes in students' level of knowledge about DMS and their interest in pursuing a DMS career before and after the program. The student-preferred component of the program was assessed by 1-way analysis of variance. Six programs were provided to a total of 148 high school students. Of 120 students who returned questionnaires, 90% indicated that their level of knowledge of DMS increased after the program, and 60% indicated that their level of interest in pursuing a DMS career had increased. The increases in both knowledge and interest were statistically significant (P < .0001). Forty-nine percent of students indicated that the scanning demonstration was the most interesting aspect of the program. This program was very well received by students and teachers. It significantly improved students' knowledge about DMS and their interest in pursuing a DMS career. Presentation materials used in this program are available to DMS professionals who would like to provide similar programs to students in their geographic areas. The PowerPoint presentation and related documents can be downloaded from the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine's website at http://www.aium.org/misc/dms.aspx.

  16. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  17. [Diagnostic potential of the lower-body negative pressure test in medical monitoring during extended space flights].

    PubMed

    Aslferova, I V; Turchaninova, V F; Golubchikova, Z A; Krivolapov, V V; Khorosheva, E G

    2007-01-01

    To put into service the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of the lower body negative pressure test (LBNP) during extended space flights, cardiovascular reactions associated with various levels of test tolerance were analyzed and compared. The article gives account of 60 tests performed by 44 cosmonauts 33 to 53 years of age during 59- to 415-d flights. In 36 tests tolerance was good and in 24 - satisfactory. Medical evaluation was fulfilled using GaMMa-1M, an onboard multifunctional medical monitoring system. Dynamics of ECG, blood pressure, stroke and minute volumes, pulse filling, and vertebral-basilar tone exhibited some specific traits that mirrored LBNP tolerance. Established were diagnostically implicative values in the course of pressure drop. Evidence was obtained that during the test and ensuing data analysis consideration should be given as to the span of changes of each parameter, so the time of their initiation, and dynamics.

  18. Quality of reporting of multivariable logistic regression models in Chinese clinical medical journals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Qiu-Zhen; Zhu, Xiao-Yan

    2017-05-01

    Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) has been increasingly used in Chinese clinical medical research during the past few years. However, few evaluations of the quality of the reporting strategies in these studies are available.To evaluate the reporting quality and model accuracy of MLR used in published work, and related advice for authors, readers, reviewers, and editors.A total of 316 articles published in 5 leading Chinese clinical medical journals with high impact factor from January 2010 to July 2015 were selected for evaluation. Articles were evaluated according 12 established criteria for proper use and reporting of MLR models.Among the articles, the highest quality score was 9, the lowest 1, and the median 5 (4-5). A total of 85.1% of the articles scored below 6. No significant differences were found among these journals with respect to quality score (χ = 6.706, P = .15). More than 50% of the articles met the following 5 criteria: complete identification of the statistical software application that was used (97.2%), calculation of the odds ratio and its confidence interval (86.4%), description of sufficient events (>10) per variable, selection of variables, and fitting procedure (78.2%, 69.3%, and 58.5%, respectively). Less than 35% of the articles reported the coding of variables (18.7%). The remaining 5 criteria were not satisfied by a sufficient number of articles: goodness-of-fit (10.1%), interactions (3.8%), checking for outliers (3.2%), collinearity (1.9%), and participation of statisticians and epidemiologists (0.3%). The criterion of conformity with linear gradients was applicable to 186 articles; however, only 7 (3.8%) mentioned or tested it.The reporting quality and model accuracy of MLR in selected articles were not satisfactory. In fact, severe deficiencies were noted. Only 1 article scored 9. We recommend authors, readers, reviewers, and editors to consider MLR models more carefully and cooperate more closely with statisticians and

  19. Quality of reporting of multivariable logistic regression models in Chinese clinical medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-ying; Zhou, Xiao-bin; Wang, Qiu-zhen; Zhu, Xiao-yan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) has been increasingly used in Chinese clinical medical research during the past few years. However, few evaluations of the quality of the reporting strategies in these studies are available. To evaluate the reporting quality and model accuracy of MLR used in published work, and related advice for authors, readers, reviewers, and editors. A total of 316 articles published in 5 leading Chinese clinical medical journals with high impact factor from January 2010 to July 2015 were selected for evaluation. Articles were evaluated according 12 established criteria for proper use and reporting of MLR models. Among the articles, the highest quality score was 9, the lowest 1, and the median 5 (4–5). A total of 85.1% of the articles scored below 6. No significant differences were found among these journals with respect to quality score (χ2 = 6.706, P = .15). More than 50% of the articles met the following 5 criteria: complete identification of the statistical software application that was used (97.2%), calculation of the odds ratio and its confidence interval (86.4%), description of sufficient events (>10) per variable, selection of variables, and fitting procedure (78.2%, 69.3%, and 58.5%, respectively). Less than 35% of the articles reported the coding of variables (18.7%). The remaining 5 criteria were not satisfied by a sufficient number of articles: goodness-of-fit (10.1%), interactions (3.8%), checking for outliers (3.2%), collinearity (1.9%), and participation of statisticians and epidemiologists (0.3%). The criterion of conformity with linear gradients was applicable to 186 articles; however, only 7 (3.8%) mentioned or tested it. The reporting quality and model accuracy of MLR in selected articles were not satisfactory. In fact, severe deficiencies were noted. Only 1 article scored 9. We recommend authors, readers, reviewers, and editors to consider MLR models more carefully and cooperate more closely with

  20. Medical diagnosis aboard submarines. Use of a computer-based Bayesian method of analysis in an abdominal pain diagnostic program.

    PubMed

    Osborne, S F

    1984-02-01

    The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominal pain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominal pain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea.

  1. Medical exposure of the population from diagnostic use of ionizing radiation in luxembourg between 1994 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Shannoun, Ferid; Zeeb, Hajo; Back, Carlo; Blettner, Maria

    2006-08-01

    A national evaluation on radiation doses from diagnostic procedures (x rays and nuclear medicine) was conducted in Luxembourg for the period 1994-2002 aiming at the estimation of the annual collective dose. The calculations were based on a survey of frequencies of more than 250 types of radiological examinations and included more than 425,000 patients. This evaluation ensured the practical implementation of Article 12 of the European Directive 97/43/EURATOM, which obliges the Member States to determinate the population dose from medical exposure. The results show an increase of the annual effective dose per capita from 1.59 mSv in 1994 to 1.98 mSv in 2002. The impact of computed tomography to dose received from medical use of radiation has dramatically increased in this time period. Luxembourg has one of the highest computed tomography examination rates compared to other health care level I countries. The following measures to minimize medical exposures were proposed in the study: medical physicists should have a more central role to play in patient dosimetry in interventional and diagnostic radiology, especially concerning computed tomography. Also, the implementation of an electronic "X-ray patient card" for all irradiated patients--except dental--and the use of the European referral criteria that give guidance and recommend investigations in various clinical settings can both help to decrease medical radiation exposures.

  2. Acquisition and review of diagnostic images for use in medical research and medical testing examinations via the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Mark A.; Dalrymple, Glenn V.; Zhu, Quiming; Chu, Wei-Kom

    2000-12-01

    With the continued centralization of medical care into large, regional centers, there is a growing need for a flexible, inexpensive, and secure system to rapidly provide referring physicians in the field with the results of the sophisticated medical tests performed at these facilities. Furthermore, the medical community has long recognized the need for a system with similar characteristics to maintain and upgrade patient case sets for oral and written student examinations. With the move toward filmless radiographic instrumentation, the widespread and growing use of digital methods and the Internet, both of these processes can now be realized. This article describes the conceptual development and testing of a protocol that allow users to transmit, modify, remotely store and display the images and textual information of medical cases via the Internet. We also discuss some of the legal issues we encountered regarding the transmission of medical information; these issues have had a direct impact on the implementation of the results of this project.

  3. 76 FR 77834 - Scientific Information Request on Intravascular Diagnostic and Imaging Medical Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... diagnostic coronary angiography to evaluate the presence/extent of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in order to... outcomes? During diagnostic coronary angiography for the evaluation of the presence/extent of CAD and the... the evaluation of the presence/extent of CAD and the potential need for coronary intervention?...

  4. Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: Diagnostic Laboratory Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Vaughn A.

    1980-01-01

    The veterinary diagnostic laboratory's prime role has been diagnosis and/or laboratory findings to assist a diagnosis. Interpretation and evaluation and more involvement with decision-making in monitoring groups of animals and their health status are seen as future roles for diagnostic laboratories. (MLW)

  5. Effects of Medical Diagnostic Low-dose X Rays on Human Lymphocytes: Mitochondrial Membrane Potential, Apoptosis and Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Tungjai, Montree; Phathakanon, Nutnicha; Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy

    2017-05-01

    Low-dose radiation is widely used across the world for the diagnosis of many diseases by means of a variety of imaging technologies. However, the harmful effects of exposure to low-dose radiation during medical examination remain controversial. The authors studied the effects of medical diagnostic low-dose x rays (i.e., 0.03, 0.05, or 0.1 mGy) after an in vitro exposure of human lymphocytes. Cells with no irradiation served as the non-irradiated control group. Three biological indicators were used to determine the effects of medical diagnostic low-dose x rays at 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h post-irradiation. These biological endpoints were mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), cell cycle, and apoptosis. Results indicated no changes in the ΔΨm, number of apoptotic cells, and cell cycle in lymphocytes exposed to these low doses of radiation, as compared to the corresponding non-irradiated lymphocytes at all harvest time-points. These results suggested that there were no harmful effects of the diagnostic low-dose x rays when human lymphocytes were exposed in an in vitro condition.

  6. Two-layer Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) with passive capillary valves for mHealth medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width ≫ height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings.

  7. Integrating nursing diagnostic concepts into the medical entities dictionary using the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee-In; Cimino, James J; Bakken, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a terminology model for defining nursing diagnostic concepts in the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) and (2) to create the additional hierarchical structures required for integration of nursing diagnostic concepts into the MED. The authors dissected nursing diagnostic terms from two source terminologies (Home Health Care Classification and the Omaha System) into the semantic categories of the ISO model. Consistent with the ISO model, they selected Focus and Judgment as required semantic categories for creating intensional definitions of nursing diagnostic concepts in the MED. Because the MED does not include Focus and Judgment hierarchies, the authors developed them to define the nursing diagnostic concepts. The ISO model was sufficient for dissecting the source terminologies into atomic terms. The authors identified 162 unique focus concepts from the 266 nursing diagnosis terms for inclusion in the Focus hierarchy. For the Judgment hierarchy, the authors precoordinated Judgment and Potentiality instead of using Potentiality as a qualifier of Judgment as in the ISO model. Impairment and Alteration were the most frequently occurring judgments. Nursing care represents a large proportion of health care activities; thus, it is vital that terms used by nurses are integrated into concept-oriented terminologies that provide broad coverage for the domain of health care. This study supports the utility of the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a facilitator for the integration process.

  8. Negative life events and mental health of Chinese medical students: the effect of resilience, personality and social support.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Min; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xin; Miao, Yi; Xu, Ying

    2012-03-30

    The present study was conducted on a large sample of Chinese medical students to test the moderating effect of resilience between negative life events and mental health problems, and investigate the factors that affect the mental health problems of the students. The Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Eysenck Adult Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Social Support Rating Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Symptom Check List were adopted for a survey with 1,998 Chinese medical students as respondents. Mental health problems had a positive correlation with negative life events and neuroticism. On the other hand, mental health problems had a negative correlation with social support, extraversion, and resilience. Regression analysis showed that resilience moderated negative life events and mental health problems. Promoting resilience may be helpful for the adjustment of college students.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to using 9-1-1 and emergency medical services in a limited English proficiency Chinese community.

    PubMed

    Ong, Brandon N; Yip, Mei Po; Feng, Sherry; Calhoun, Rebecca; Meischke, Hendrika W; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Effective communication during a medical emergency is crucial for an appropriate emergency medical services (EMS) response. This exploratory qualitative study explored intentions to use 9-1-1 in a Chinese speaking community and the barriers and facilitators to accessing EMS. Focus groups with Chinese adults who self-reported limited English proficiency were conducted. An inductive iterative approach was used to categorize and connect themes identified in the discussions. Language difficulties, negative perceptions of EMS, perceived costs of using emergency services, and no previous experience with 9-1-1 were commonly described as barriers to calling EMS during emergencies. Positive past experiences with EMS and encountering an emergency situation perceived as too great to manage alone are common facilitators for calling 9-1-1. Further exploration is necessary to assess barriers to calling 9-1-1 unique to specific communities, test findings, and tailor interventions to improve EMS communication.

  10. Traditional Chinese patent medicines for cancer treatment in China: a nationwide medical insurance data analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Lu, Peng; Shi, Luwen; Li, Shao

    2015-11-10

    Based on the nationwide survey into inpatients' utilization of the health service covered by China's urban basic medical insurance from 2008 to 2010, we analyzed the use rate, cancer profile and combined use of anticancer Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) on 51,382 insured cancer patients by using statistical, bi-clustering and network methods. We found that 42.4% of 51,382 cancer patients used 33 anticancer CPMs, and 51.7% used 71 anticancer Western medicines (WMs). The CPMs were most often used in lung (52%) and nasopharynx (52%) cancer patients, and least in bladder cancer (21%) and leukemia of unspecified cell type (21%) patients. The cost per patient for all 33 anticancer CPMs was 2069RMB, lower than that of the WMs (3458RMB). The cancer profile of commonly used CPMs and WMs for the top 17 cancers (>500 sampled patients) were provided, indicating anticancer CPMs had a broad spectrum of cancers and lacked selectivity in cancer treatment (CPM mean CV = 49%; WM mean CV = 152%). Moreover, 24.8% of the cancer patients used both CPMs and WMs, and CPM-WM combined use networks were constructed for four major cancers. This first nationwide analysis revealed the use characteristics and herb-drug combined use patterns of insurance covered anticancer CPMs in China. The study offers valuable information to guide future studies of the precision, safety and standard use of CPMs.

  11. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Risk Factors among Chinese Medical Staff of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Cui, Ya; He, Lihua; Xu, Xiangrong; Yuan, Zhiwei; Jin, Xianning; Li, Zhimin

    2017-05-26

    Medical staff in the department of obstetrics and gynecology are a group of professionals reportedly at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), however, little is known about the current status of this problem in China. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among this population in China. A self-developed questionnaire was distributed to 1017 obstetrics and gynecology practitioners to collect information on musculoskeletal symptoms and relevant factors. Prevalence and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in different parts of the body were calculated and the relationship between personal and ergonomic factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders was analyzed using Chi-square test and unconditional logistic regression models. The results indicated a high prevalence of 85.5% among the subjects, with the shoulder (n = 575, 62.0%), neck (n = 560, 60.3%) and lower back (n = 504, 54.3%) being the three most affected regions. Individual, postural, work-environmental as well as psychosocial factors were recognized to be associated with WMSDs in different body parts. Therefore, attention must be given to the problem of musculoskeletal disorders among Chinese obstetrics and gynecology staff. It is recommended to develop good life habits, improve work environment, adjust work organization as well as train on proper postures in their daily operation.

  12. Traditional Chinese Medication Qiliqiangxin Protects Against Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yu, Pujiao; Zhou, Qiulian; Zhang, Jialiang; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Chenlin; Yao, Wenming; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Bei, Yihua; Li, Xinli

    2017-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QLQX), a traditional Chinese herbs medication, exerted protective effect in chronic heart failure patients in a multicenter randomized double-blind study. QLQX has also been found to improve cardiac function and reduce cardiac fibrosis in spontaneously hypertension animal model. However, the effect of longterm treatment with QLQX in such a condition and the related molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, thirteen-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated by daily intragastric administration of QLQX or saline for one year. Echocardiography, electron microscopy, and Masson's trichrome staining were used to determine cardiac function, mitochondria ultrastructure, and cardiac fibrosis, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs) and Western blotting were used to determine gene expressions. We found that QLQX significantly improved cardiac function and reduced gene markers of pathological hypertrophy including ANP, BNP, and Myh7. QLQX also attenuated cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in SHRs as evidenced by downregulation of α-SMA, collagen I, collagen III, and TGF-β expressions and reduction of Bax to Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, the damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure was greatly improved and the reduction of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and PGC-1α expression levels was significantly restored in SHRs by treatment with QLQX. In conclusion, longterm treatment with QLQX protects against cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in hypertension by increasing PPARs and PGC-1α.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medication Qiliqiangxin Protects Against Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yu, Pujiao; Zhou, Qiulian; Zhang, Jialiang; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Chenlin; Yao, Wenming; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Bei, Yihua; Li, Xinli

    2017-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QLQX), a traditional Chinese herbs medication, exerted protective effect in chronic heart failure patients in a multicenter randomized double-blind study. QLQX has also been found to improve cardiac function and reduce cardiac fibrosis in spontaneously hypertension animal model. However, the effect of longterm treatment with QLQX in such a condition and the related molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, thirteen-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated by daily intragastric administration of QLQX or saline for one year. Echocardiography, electron microscopy, and Masson's trichrome staining were used to determine cardiac function, mitochondria ultrastructure, and cardiac fibrosis, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs) and Western blotting were used to determine gene expressions. We found that QLQX significantly improved cardiac function and reduced gene markers of pathological hypertrophy including ANP, BNP, and Myh7. QLQX also attenuated cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in SHRs as evidenced by downregulation of α-SMA, collagen I, collagen III, and TGF-β expressions and reduction of Bax to Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, the damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure was greatly improved and the reduction of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and PGC-1α expression levels was significantly restored in SHRs by treatment with QLQX. In conclusion, longterm treatment with QLQX protects against cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in hypertension by increasing PPARs and PGC-1α. PMID:28539827

  14. The complete chloroplast genome of traditional Chinese medical plants Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Xu, Jin; Chen, NaiZhong; Li, MingFu

    2017-03-01

    Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a perennial medical plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The genome is 157 675 bp in length including a small single-copy region (SSC, 18 319 bp) and a large single-copy region (LSC, 84 108 bp) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27 624 bp). The genome contained 115 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 2 contained a couple of introns. The overall G + C content of the cpDNA is 37.4%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 35.71%, 31.43%, and 41.87%, respectively. A Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis suggested that genus Trillium, Paris, Fritillaria, and Lilium were strongly supported as monophyletic and the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is closely related to Trillium.

  15. Traditional Chinese patent medicines for cancer treatment in China: a nationwide medical insurance data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Lu, Peng; Shi, Luwen; Li, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the nationwide survey into inpatients' utilization of the health service covered by China's urban basic medical insurance from 2008 to 2010, we analyzed the use rate, cancer profile and combined use of anticancer Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) on 51,382 insured cancer patients by using statistical, bi-clustering and network methods. We found that 42.4% of 51,382 cancer patients used 33 anticancer CPMs, and 51.7% used 71 anticancer Western medicines (WMs). The CPMs were most often used in lung (52%) and nasopharynx (52%) cancer patients, and least in bladder cancer (21%) and leukemia of unspecified cell type (21%) patients. The cost per patient for all 33 anticancer CPMs was 2069RMB, lower than that of the WMs (3458RMB). The cancer profile of commonly used CPMs and WMs for the top 17 cancers (>500 sampled patients) were provided, indicating anticancer CPMs had a broad spectrum of cancers and lacked selectivity in cancer treatment (CPM mean CV = 49%; WM mean CV = 152%). Moreover, 24.8% of the cancer patients used both CPMs and WMs, and CPM-WM combined use networks were constructed for four major cancers. This first nationwide analysis revealed the use characteristics and herb-drug combined use patterns of insurance covered anticancer CPMs in China. The study offers valuable information to guide future studies of the precision, safety and standard use of CPMs. PMID:26513017

  16. Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately insured adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Esther Y; Cohn, Lisa; Freed, Gary; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Ascione, Frank; Clark, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    To compare the use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. We conducted retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for adolescents and young adults (12-21 years of age) with ≥3 years of insurance coverage (≥11 months/year) in a large private managed care plan during 2003-2009 with diagnosis of primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. We examined their use of antihypertensive medications and identified demographic characteristics and the presence of obesity-related comorbidities. For the subset receiving antihypertensive medications, we examined their diagnostic test use (echocardiograms, renal ultrasounds, and electrocardiograms). The study sample included 1,232 adolescents and young adults; 84% had primary hypertension and 16% had secondary hypertension. The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 2.6%. One quarter (28%) with primary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications, whereas 65% with secondary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications. Leading prescribers of antihypertensives for subjects with primary hypertension were primary care physicians (80%), whereas antihypertensive medications were equally prescribed by primary care physicians (43%) and sub-specialists (37%) for subjects with secondary hypertension. The predominant hypertension diagnosis among adolescents and young adults is primary hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use was higher among those with secondary hypertension compared with those with primary hypertension. Further study is needed to determine treatment effectiveness and patient outcomes associated with differential treatment patterns used for adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostics barriers and innovations in rural areas: insights from junior medical doctors on the frontlines of rural care in Peru.

    PubMed

    Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia Fiorella; Pajuelo Travezaño, Monica Jehnny; Correa, Malena; Mayta Malpartida, Holger; Oberhelman, Richard; Murphy, Laura L; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A

    2015-10-05

    Worldwide, rural communities face barriers when accessing health services. In response, numerous initiatives have focused on fostering technological innovations, new management approaches and health policies. Research suggests that the most successful innovations are those involving stakeholders at all levels. However, there is little evidence exploring the opinions of local health providers that could contribute with further innovation development and research. The aims of this study were to explore the perspectives of medical doctors (MDs) working in rural areas of Peru, regarding the barriers impacting the diagnostic process, and ideas for diagnostic innovations that could assist them. Data gathered through three focus group discussions (FGG) and 18 individual semi-structured interviews (SSI) with MDs who had completed their medical service in rural areas of Peru in the last two years were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three types of barriers emerged. The first barrier was the limited access to point of care (POC) diagnostic tools. Tests were needed for: i) the differential diagnosis of malaria vs. pneumonia, ii) dengue vs. leptospirosis, iii) tuberculosis, iv) vaginal infections and cervical cancer, v) neurocysticercosis, and vi) heavy metal toxicity. Ultrasound was needed for the diagnosis of obstetric and intra-abdominal conditions. There were also health system-related barriers such as limited funding for diagnostic services, shortage of specialists, limited laboratory services and access to telecommunications, and lack of institutional support. Finally, the third type of barriers included patient related-barriers to follow through with diagnostic referrals. Ideas for innovations proposed included POC equipment and tests, and telemedicine. MDs at primary health facilities in rural Peru face diagnostic challenges that are difficult to overcome due to a limited access to diagnostic tools. Referrals to specialized facilities are constrained by deficiencies

  18. [Frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms in diagnostic medical sonographers. Results of a pilot survey].

    PubMed

    Mirk, P; Magnavita, N; Masini, L; Bazzocchi, M; Fileni, A

    1999-10-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey in diagnostic medical sonographers. Aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders in sonologists and the relationship of these symptoms to ergonomic factors. 340 sonographers (258 male, 82 female doctors; mean age 41.5 +/- 7.2 years) were given a questionnaire to fill out. The questionnaire asked questions about the sonologist's age, gender, technique of ultrasound procedure, physical activity, and work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Two symptom lists regarded carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms (8 items) and other work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (13 items). The categorized response variables "have now" or "in the past" were provided. The symptoms experienced were categorized into three levels as no symptoms, few symptoms (1-4 symptoms), and many symptoms (> 5 symptoms). One third of the respondents reported having at least one or more work-related symptoms in the upper extremities. The most frequent symptoms were tingling (17.6%), numbness or finger pain (13.5%). Carpal tunnel syndrome had been diagnosed in 5 cases (1.5%). More than 60% of all respondents have experienced one or more musculoskeletal symptoms in the cervical or lumbar spine. The commonest symptom was neck and low back pain (67%). The pain was generally intermittent and occurred at the end of the workday. Motion impairment in the neck and/or back was present in 23.5% of cases. Twenty-five percent of respondents had received treatments for their symptoms and 10% reported having stopped work because of their symptoms. Data analysis showed that muscular efforts such as gripping the transducer, applying sustained pressure, and scanning with a correlated flexed or hyperextended wrist were significantly correlated with increasing severity of symptoms in the hand, wrist, and forearm area. On the other hand, low back pain appeared to be negatively correlated with correct position of the body. Several physical risk factors (e

  19. A key player in biomedical sciences and clinical service in China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qimin; Liu, Depei

    2007-08-01

    The Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) is the largest medical institution in China and has a leading high-level multidisciplinary medical research and medial service. Under the CAMS and PUMC infrastructure, there are 17 biomedical institutes and 6 large hospitals, which cover most fields of the human disease-related research. CAMS and PUMC has always attached great emphasis on the control and cure of severe diseases, as well as a series of innovative drug researches, and has made significant progress in those fields. The long-term goals for CAMS and PUMC in the future development are: reaching the international advanced level in the areas of severe disease prediction, prevention, control, diagnosis, and research on drug innovation; establishing theoretical and technological system for explanation of the mechanism of severe diseases, which possesses Chinese style and represents the frontier level in the world, and at the same time, providing scientific support for the prevention and treatment of severe disease and making contribution to the establishment and development of a harmonious society in China.

  20. Screening for Depression in Medical Settings with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): A Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David; Brealey, Stephen; Hewitt, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Objective To summarize the psychometric properties of the PHQ2 and PHQ9 as screening instruments for depression. Interventions We identified 17 validation studies conducted in primary care; medical outpatients; and specialist medical services (cardiology, gynecology, stroke, dermatology, head injury, and otolaryngology). Electronic databases from 1994 to February 2007 (MEDLINE, PsycLIT, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane registers) plus study reference lists have been used for this study. Translations included US English, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, German and Arabic). Summary sensitivity, specificity, likelihood and diagnostic odds ratios (OR) against a gold standard (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were calculated for each study. We used random effects bivariate meta-analysis at recommended cut points to produce summary receiver–operator characteristic (sROC) curves. We explored heterogeneity with metaregression. Measurements and Main Results Fourteen studies (5,026 participants) validated the PHQ9 against MDD: sensitivity = 0.80 (95% CI 0.71–0.87); specificity = 0.92 (95% CI 0.88–0.95); positive likelihood ratio = 10.12 (95% CI 6.52–15.67); negative likelihood ratio = 0.22 (0.15 to 0.32). There was substantial heterogeneity (Diagnostic Odds Ratio heterogeneity I2 = 82%), which was not explained by study setting (primary care versus general hospital); method of scoring (cutoff ≥ 10 versus “diagnostic algorithm”); or study quality (blinded versus unblinded). The diagnostic validity of the PHQ2 was only validated in 3 studies and showed wide variability in sensitivity. Conclusions The PHQ9 is acceptable, and as good as longer clinician-administered instruments in a range of settings, countries, and populations. More research is needed to validate the PHQ2 to see if its diagnostic properties approach those of the PHQ9. PMID:17874169

  1. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  2. Evidence of Second-Order Factor Structure in a Diagnostic Problem Space: Implications for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Frank J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Chest pain was identified as a specific medical problem space, and disease classes were modeled to define it. Results from a test taken by 628 medical residents indicate a second-order factor structure that suggests that chest pain is a multidimensional problem space. Implications for medical education are discussed. (SLD)

  3. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  4. Treatment patterns, complications, and direct medical costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese urban patients: a retrospective claims dataset analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinghu; Liu, Qingjing; Chen, Yi; Gao, Shuangqing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Yicheng; Chen, Wendong

    2017-01-01

    To describe treatment pattern, complications, and direct medical costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Chinese urban patients. The 2013 China Health Insurance Research Association (CHIRA) urban insurance claims database was used to identify patients with AS. The identified patients were stratified by AS treatments for the comparisons of well established AS-related complications and direct medical costs. Conventional regression analyses adjusted the collected patient baseline characteristics to confirm the impact of treatments on complications and direct medical costs. Of the identified 1299 patients with AS, 18.0% received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), 11.2% received immunosuppressant, 48.2% received NSAID plus immunosuppressant, 4.6% received biologic agents, and 17.9% received medications without indication for AS. Biologic group was associated with the lowest proportion of AS-related complications (8.3%) that was confirmed by multiple logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 0.200, p = .017). The biologic group was also associated with highest direct medical costs (median: RMB = 14,539) that were confirmed by the multiple generalized linear model (coefficient = 1.644, p < .001). Biologics were not commonly used for AS in Chinese patients likely due to their high cost. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential long-term clinical benefits associated biologic treatment for AS.

  5. [Influence of journals indexed by Science Citation Index (SCI) on Chinese medical journals based on the data of published articles by Chinese authors from 2000 - 2009].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Gui-Cun

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of journals indexed by Science Citation Index (SCI) on Chinese medical journals. Articles on medicine written by Chinese and the journals that published these articles from 2000 to 2009 were searched using Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database, and the status and variation tendency of the impact factors (IF) of these journals were analyzed. Data of articles on medicine included Chinese Scientific and Technical Paper and Citations Data (CSTPCD) from 2000 to 2008 were searched (the data of 2009 have not been released). The included articles and the time-dependent changing profile were studied. These outcomes were evaluated as the fixed base relative or link relative when compared with the data of 2000 or those of last year, respectively. Geometric mean was used when mean increase was calculated and IF distribution was described with median. Totally 3774 articles from China were published by journals indexed by SCI-E in 2000, and the number of articles published by Chinese authors increased every year. In 2008, 16 714 articles were indexed by SCI-E, 442.87% higher than those of 2000. The increment was 161.54% higher than that of articles published in the journals indexed by CSTPCD (281.33%) during the same period. From 2000 to 2009, the geometric mean of increase in the number of published articles from China in journals indexed by SCI-E was 20.87% but it was 18.21% in CSTPCD. From 2000 to 2009, the median of IF of SCI-E indexed journals that published Chinese medical articles was 1.866, 2.073, 2.390, 2.702, 2.409, 2.496, 2.380, 2.218, 2.280 and 2.331, respectively, and they did not increase or even decreased. The number of the articles indexed by SCI-E increased year by year, much faster than that of CSTPCD. However, it does not necessarily mean the increase in impact.

  6. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Noroviruses among Students in a Chinese Military Medical University

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying-chun; Nie, Jun; Zhang, Xu-fu; Li, Zhi-feng; Bai, Yang; Zeng, Zhi-rong; Yu, Shou-yi; Farkas, Tibor; Jiang, Xi

    2004-01-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are important causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but the role of NVs as a cause of diseases in the Chinese people, particularly in Chinese military personnel, remains unclear. This study investigated antibody prevalence and factors that associate with the prevalence of antibody to NVs among students attending a military medical university. Serum specimens were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G antibody to recombinant capsid antigens of three NVs (rNorwalk, rMxV, and rVA387). Of 588 serum samples tested, the antibody prevalence was 88.9, 54.1, or 90.0% for the three antigens, respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of antibody to rMxV between blood types (P < 0.05); the prevalence for type O was the highest (62.5%), and the prevalence for type B was the lowest (49.1%). The average optical density values for antibody to rNorwalk and rMxV were lowest among students with type B. The number of students who did not have antibody to any of the three antigens was the highest for blood type B (6.9%) compared to other blood types (0.8 to 3.4% [P < 0.006]). The antibody prevalence also varied with the hometown residencies of the students before joining the military, with the highest rates for students from rural areas, lower rates for students from small towns or villages, and the lowest rates for students from large cities. The numbers of students who did not have antibody to any of the three antigens were highest for students from the large cities, lower for students from small towns or villages, and lowest for students from rural areas. The distribution of ABO blood types did not differ among the three groups. These data suggest that NVs are prevalent in China and that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in NV infection. PMID:15472318

  7. Seroprevalence of antibodies against noroviruses among students in a Chinese military medical university.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying-chun; Nie, Jun; Zhang, Xu-fu; Li, Zhi-feng; Bai, Yang; Zeng, Zhi-rong; Yu, Shou-yi; Farkas, Tibor; Jiang, Xi

    2004-10-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are important causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but the role of NVs as a cause of diseases in the Chinese people, particularly in Chinese military personnel, remains unclear. This study investigated antibody prevalence and factors that associate with the prevalence of antibody to NVs among students attending a military medical university. Serum specimens were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G antibody to recombinant capsid antigens of three NVs (rNorwalk, rMxV, and rVA387). Of 588 serum samples tested, the antibody prevalence was 88.9, 54.1, or 90.0% for the three antigens, respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of antibody to rMxV between blood types (P < 0.05); the prevalence for type O was the highest (62.5%), and the prevalence for type B was the lowest (49.1%). The average optical density values for antibody to rNorwalk and rMxV were lowest among students with type B. The number of students who did not have antibody to any of the three antigens was the highest for blood type B (6.9%) compared to other blood types (0.8 to 3.4% [P < 0.006]). The antibody prevalence also varied with the hometown residencies of the students before joining the military, with the highest rates for students from rural areas, lower rates for students from small towns or villages, and the lowest rates for students from large cities. The numbers of students who did not have antibody to any of the three antigens were highest for students from the large cities, lower for students from small towns or villages, and lowest for students from rural areas. The distribution of ABO blood types did not differ among the three groups. These data suggest that NVs are prevalent in China and that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in NV infection.

  8. The Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medical Exercise for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan Lei; Lv, Zhan Yun; Jiao, Shu Ji; Teng, Jun Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Several studies assessed the efficacy of traditional Chinese medical exercise in the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but its role remained controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence on the effect of traditional Chinese medical exercise for PD. Methods Seven English and Chinese electronic databases, up to October 2014, were searched to identify relevant studies. The PEDro scale was employed to assess the methodological quality of eligible studies. Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.1 software. Results Fifteen trials were included in the review. Tai Chi and Qigong were used as assisting pharmacological treatments of PD in the previous studies. Tai Chi plus medication showed greater improvements in motor function (standardized mean difference, SMD, -0.57; 95% confidence intervals, CI, -1.11 to -0.04), Berg balance scale (BBS, SMD, -1.22; 95% CI -1.65 to -0.80), and time up and go test (SMD, -1.06; 95% CI -1.44 to -0.68). Compared with other therapy plus medication, Tai Chi plus medication also showed greater gains in motor function (SMD, -0.78; 95% CI -1.46 to -0.10), BBS (SMD, -0.99; 95% CI -1.44 to -0.54), and functional reach test (SMD, -0.77; 95% CI -1.51 to -0.03). However, Tai Chi plus medication did not showed better improvements in gait or quality of life. There was not sufficient evidence to support or refute the effect of Qigong plus medication for PD. Conclusions In the previous studies, Tai Chi and Qigong were used as assisting pharmacological treatments of PD. The current systematic review showed positive evidence of Tai Chi plus medication for PD of mild-to-moderate severity. So Tai Chi plus medication should be recommended for PD management, especially in improving motor function and balance. Qigong plus medication also showed potential gains in the management of PD. However, more high quality studies with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings

  9. The sensitivity of medical diagnostic decision-support knowledge bases in delineating appropriate terms to document in the medical record.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M J; Barnett, G O; Morgan, M M

    1991-01-01

    A pertinent, legible and complete medical record facilitates good patient care. The recording of the symptoms, signs and lab findings which are relevant to a patient's condition contributes importantly to the medical record. The consideration and documentation of other disease states known to be related to the patient's primary illness provide further enhancement. We propose that developing sets of disease-specific core elements which a physician may want to document in the medical record can have many benefits. We hypothesize that for a given disease, terms with high importance (TI) and frequency (TF) in the DX-plain, QMR and Iliad knowledge bases (KBs) are terms which are used commonly in the medical record, and may be, in fact, terms which physicians would find useful to document. A study was undertaken to validate ten such sets of disease-specific core elements. For each of ten prevalent diseases, high TI and TF terms from the three KBs mentioned were pooled to derive the set of core elements. For each disease, all patient records (range 385 to 16,972) from a computerized ambulatory medical record database were searched to document the actual use by physicians of each of these core elements. A significant percentage (range 50 to 86%) of each set of core elements was confirmed as being used by the physicians. In addition, all medical concepts from a selection of full text records were identified, and an average of 65% of the concepts were found to be core elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The sensitivity of medical diagnostic decision-support knowledge bases in delineating appropriate terms to document in the medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, M. J.; Barnett, G. O.; Morgan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A pertinent, legible and complete medical record facilitates good patient care. The recording of the symptoms, signs and lab findings which are relevant to a patient's condition contributes importantly to the medical record. The consideration and documentation of other disease states known to be related to the patient's primary illness provide further enhancement. We propose that developing sets of disease-specific core elements which a physician may want to document in the medical record can have many benefits. We hypothesize that for a given disease, terms with high importance (TI) and frequency (TF) in the DX-plain, QMR and Iliad knowledge bases (KBs) are terms which are used commonly in the medical record, and may be, in fact, terms which physicians would find useful to document. A study was undertaken to validate ten such sets of disease-specific core elements. For each of ten prevalent diseases, high TI and TF terms from the three KBs mentioned were pooled to derive the set of core elements. For each disease, all patient records (range 385 to 16,972) from a computerized ambulatory medical record database were searched to document the actual use by physicians of each of these core elements. A significant percentage (range 50 to 86%) of each set of core elements was confirmed as being used by the physicians. In addition, all medical concepts from a selection of full text records were identified, and an average of 65% of the concepts were found to be core elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807600

  11. A study on the needs of medical, maternal and child health care in Chinese women students at the University of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan-Hong; Lee, Setsuko; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    According to the information provided by the University of Tokyo (UT) in 2001, 317 Chinese women students were enrolled in the UT, and 88% of them were graduate students. Although the surveys on the life of international students at the UT had been conducted in 1989 and 1998, the medical and health issues were not included. With the objective of exploring the medical and heath care needs of Chinese women students at the UT a survey was carried out from December 2001 to January 2002. With the cooperation of the International Students Center at the UT a questionnaire in Chinese was sent to each department in which 317 Chinese women students were studying. Out of 104 students responded, eligible subjects were 98. The results of present study revealed some problems, such as the language barrier, preference for a translator in hospitals or health centers, and a medical guidebook with information on vaccinations in Chinese. They also stated their lack of knowledge about the Japanese medical and health system, and their distress for being separated from their children. In conclusion, the most severe problem was language barrier for Chinese women students in obtaining medical and health care for themselves and their children. It was also noted that lack of knowledge of the Japanese medical and health care system was another obvious problem.

  12. Initiating Hehe [see text] medical system of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine to realize health cycle of human beings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2011-12-01

    This paper suggests a novel approach concerning the medical treatment of human beings, which appears to be economically and practically superior to either biomedicine or traditional medicine. A brand new medical system-Hehe [see text] medicine, has been proposed based on a preventive-biomedical-psycho-social treatment model. This is characterized by a dual approach in which life nurturing is consistently practised and medical treatment is applied when necessary in order to maintain a healthy life. Its core value would facilitate the self-restoration to health and self-adaptation to nature through health cultivation and medical means. Medical services would be firstly provided to the prevention of potential disease germinating in the human body, and clinical medical treatment would be the last resort of systematic medical practice. This paper discusses not only this new concept but also the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine, especially how both medical systems compare in cognitive style, on a cultural level, and on a technical level.

  13. Non-invasive prenatal testing: impact on invasive prenatal diagnosis at a mainland Chinese tertiary medical center.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Zhi; Zhen, Li; Pan, Min; Han, Jin; Yang, Xin; Ou, Yan-Mei

    2016-11-01

    We describe the changes over a 4-year period in the number of diagnostic testing after the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The rate of NIPT as an indication in women who received amniocentesis, and the number of amniocentesis required for detection of one case with major aneuploidy were compared between a 1-year baseline period before the introduction of NIPT, and the 3 years following NIPT introduction. A total of 7536 amniocentesis procedures were performed over the 4-year study period. During the baseline period of the year 2011, the number of invasive testing required for detection of one common trisomy was 57. During the first 2 years that NIPT was offered, NIPT averaged 1.7 percent of the total indications for amniocentesis, and the required number of invasive testing decreased to 30. With the increase of the percentage of NIPT during the 3rd year, the required number of invasive testing further decreased to 26. After the clinical introduction of NIPT, invasive prenatal diagnostic testing had not decreased at a Chinese prenatal diagnostic unit, but a remarkably improved detection rate of major aneuploidies in diagnostic procedures was observed.

  14. Validation of a Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures in patients with SLE.

    PubMed

    Thumboo, J; Feng, P H; Soh, C H; Boey, M L; Thio, S; Fong, K Y

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to validate a Chinese translation of the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures (FFM and MFM) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Chinese-speaking SLE patients (n = 69) completed a self-administered questionnaire containing the FFM and MFM and assessing demographic and socio-economic status twice within a 2 week period. SLE activity, disease-related damage and quality of life were assessed using the BILAG, SLICC/ACR Damage Index and SF-36 Health Survey, respectively. Scale psychometric properties were assessed through factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, quantifying test-retest differences and known-groups construct validity. Factor analysis identified 1 factor corresponding to the FFM and 2 factors corresponding to the MFM. Internal consistency for the FFM was excellent (alpha = 0.92) while that for the MFM was acceptable (alpha = 0.62). Mean (s.d.) test-retest differences were 0.06 (1.54) points for the FFM and 0.03 (2.08) points for the MFM. 11 and 10 of 13 a priori hypotheses relating the FFM and MFM, respectively, to demographic, disease and quality of life variables were confirmed, supporting the construct validity of these scales. The Chinese FFM and MFM are valid and reliable measures of family and marital functioning in Chinese-speaking SLE patients, with psychometric properties very similar to the source English version.

  15. Reductions in Pain Medication Use Associated with Traditional Chinese Medicine for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Charles; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Aickin, Mikel; Hammerschlag, Richard; Dworkin, Samuel; Mist, Scott; Harris, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Context: Participants in a randomized trial of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) had a linear decline in pain over 16 TCM visits. Objective: To investigate whether reductions in pain among participants receiving TCM can be explained by increased use of pain medications, or whether use of pain medications also declined in this group. Design: One hundred sixty-eight participants with TMD were treated with TCM or enhanced self-care according to a stepped-care design. Those for whom self-care failed were sequentially randomized to further self-care or TCM. This report includes 111 participants during their first 16 TCM visits. The initial 8 visits occurred more than once a week; participants and practitioners determined the frequency of subsequent visits. Outcome measures: Average pain (visual analog scale, range 0–10) and morphine and aspirin dose equivalents. Results: The sample was 87% women and the average age was 44 ± 13 years. Average pain of narcotics users (n = 21) improved by 2.73 units over 16 visits (p < 0.001). Overall narcotics use trended downward until visit 11 (−3.27 doses/week, p = 0.156), and then trended upward until week 16 (+4.29 doses/week, p = 0.264). Among those using narcotics, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) declined linearly over visits 1–16 (−1.94 doses/week, p = 0.002). Among the top quartile of NSAID-only users (n = 22), average pain decreased linearly over 16 visits (−1.52 units, p = 0.036). Overall NSAID doses/week declined between visits 1 and 7 (−9.95 doses/week, p < 0.001) and then remained stable through 16 visits. NSAID use also declined among the third quartile (n = 23) and remained low and stable among the lower half (sorted by total intake) of NSAID users. Conclusions: Among the heaviest NSAID users, we observed a short-term reduction in NSAID use that was sustained as TCM visits became less frequent. There was no indication that pain reduction

  16. Reductions in pain medication use associated with traditional Chinese medicine for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Elder, Charles; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Aickin, Mikel; Hammerschlag, Richard; Dworkin, Samuel; Mist, Scott; Harris, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Participants in a randomized trial of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) had a linear decline in pain over 16 TCM visits. To investigate whether reductions in pain among participants receiving TCM can be explained by increased use of pain medications, or whether use of pain medications also declined in this group. One hundred sixty-eight participants with TMD were treated with TCM or enhanced self-care according to a stepped-care design. Those for whom self-care failed were sequentially randomized to further self-care or TCM. This report includes 111 participants during their first 16 TCM visits. The initial 8 visits occurred more than once a week; participants and practitioners determined the frequency of subsequent visits. Average pain (visual analog scale, range 0-10) and morphine and aspirin dose equivalents. The sample was 87% women and the average age was 44 ± 13 years. Average pain of narcotics users (n = 21) improved by 2.73 units over 16 visits (p < 0.001). Overall narcotics use trended downward until visit 11 (-3.27 doses/week, p = 0.156), and then trended upward until week 16 (+4.29 doses/week, p = 0.264). Among those using narcotics, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) declined linearly over visits 1-16 (-1.94 doses/week, p = 0.002).Among the top quartile of NSAID-only users (n = 22), average pain decreased linearly over 16 visits (-1.52 units, p = 0.036). Overall NSAID doses/week declined between visits 1 and 7 (-9.95 doses/week, p < 0.001) and then remained stable through 16 visits. NSAID use also declined among the third quartile (n = 23) and remained low and stable among the lower half (sorted by total intake) of NSAID users. Among the heaviest NSAID users, we observed a short-term reduction in NSAID use that was sustained as TCM visits became less frequent. There was no indication that pain reduction during TCM treatment was influenced by drug use.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of different body weight and height-based definitions of childhood obesity in identifying overfat among Chinese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen

    2015-08-20

    Various body weight and height-based references are used to define obese children and adolescents. However, no study investigating the diagnostic accuracies of the definitions of obesity and overweight in Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents has been conducted. The current study aims to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of BMI-based definitions and 1993 HK reference in screening excess body fat among Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 2,134 participants (1,135 boys and 999 girls) were recruited from local schools. The foot-to-foot BIA scale was applied to assess %BF using standard methods. The criterion of childhood obesity (i.e., overfat) was defined as over 25 %BF for boys and over 30 %BF for girls. Childhood obesity was also determined from four BMI-based references and the 1993 HK reference. The diagnostic accuracy of these existing definitions for childhood obesity in screening excess body fat was evaluated using diagnostic indices. Overall, %BF was significantly correlated with anthropometry measurements in both genders (in boys, r = 0.747 for BMI 0.766 for PWH; in girls, r = 0.930 for BMI 0.851 for PWH). The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity determined by BMI-based references were similar with the prevalence rates of obesity in the 1993 HK reference in both genders. All definitions for childhood obesity showed low sensitivity (in boys, 0.325-0.761; in girls, 0.128-0.588) in detecting overfat. Specificities were high for cut-offs among all definitions for childhood obesity (in boys, 0.862-0.980; in girls, 0.973-0.998). In conclusion, prevalence rates of childhood obesity or overweight varied widely according to the diagnostic references applied. The diagnostic performance for weight and height-based references for obesity is poorer than expected for both genders among Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents. In order to improve the diagnosis accuracy of childhood obesity, either cut-off values of body weight and

  18. Parental refusal of life-saving treatments for adolescents: Chinese familism in medical decision-making re-visited.

    PubMed

    Hui, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports two cases in Hong Kong involving two native Chinese adolescent cancer patients (APs) who were denied their rights to consent to necessary treatments refused by their parents, resulting in serious harm. We argue that the dynamics of the 'AP-physician-family-relationship' and the dominant role Chinese families play in medical decision-making (MDM) are best understood in terms of the tendency to hierarchy and parental authoritarianism in traditional Confucianism. This ethic has been confirmed and endorsed by various Chinese writers from Mainland China and Hong Kong. Rather than giving an unqualified endorsement to this ethic, based more on cultural sentimentalism than rational moral reasoning, we warn that a strong familism in MDM, which deprives 'weak' family members of rights, represents the less desirable elements of this tradition, against which healthcare professionals working in this cultural milieu need to safeguard. Specifically for APs, we suggest that parental authority and family integrity should be re-interpreted in terms of parental responsibility and the enhancement of children's interests respectively, as done in the West. This implies that when parents refuse to consent to necessary treatment and deny their adolescent children's right to consent, doctors, as the only remaining advocates of the APs' interest, have the duty to inform the state, which can override parental refusal to enable the doctors to fulfill their professional and moral obligations. In so doing the state exercises its 'parens patriae' power to defend the defenseless in society and the integrity of the medical profession.

  19. Learning tumor diagnostics and medical image processing via the WWW--the case-based radiological textbook ODITEB.

    PubMed

    Horsch, A; Balbach, T; Melnitzki, S; Knauth, J

    2000-09-01

    New Internet technologies offer excellent chances to build high-quality on-line learning media for the education in medicine. Especially, the teaching of diagnostics with medical imaging as well as medical image processing can be supported by the excellent visualization and interaction capabilities. In cooperation with three radiological departments at German universities in Munich, Erlangen and Würzburg, the case-based open distributed Internet text book (ODITEB) for tumor diagnosis of the GI-tract, liver, pancreas and thorax has been developed at the Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie (IMSE) of the Technische Universität München. It offers a big collection of clinical tumor cases located on servers at the provider sites Munich, Erlangen and Würzburg, visualization and interaction similar to a real CT or MRI console, original DICOM data, X-rays and endoscopic and endosonographic videos, and expert-guided tours through the cases. In a first evaluation in summer 1998, 32 medical students graded the application with 1.9 ('good') on a scale from 1 ('very good') to 5 ('very bad'). The textbook supports German language, an English version is in preparation. In a second part, it contains lessons in medical image processing for students of medical informatics. An ODITEB release 2 with several improvements will be finished until February 2000. The use of the textbook is free of cost.

  20. The patient's photograph in the medical record as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Golan-Cohen, Avivit; Horn, Oded; Sive, Philip H; Vinker, Shlomo

    2008-12-01

    Two case reports are presented: one of acromegaly and the other of hyperthyroidism. Previous photographs of the patients that appeared in their military medical record were of considerable assistance in making the correct diagnoses. When "smart cards" are issued in the future, inclusion of a photograph as an integral part of the patient's medical information should be considered.

  1. Lunar phases, myocardial infarction and hemorrheological character. A Western medical study combined with appraisal of the related traditional Chinese medical theory.

    PubMed

    Sha, L R; Xu, N T; Song, X H; Zhang, L P; Zhang, Y

    1989-09-01

    Lunar phases and their connections with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and hemorrheological character (HCh) are studied with the lunar calendar (LC) instead of the solar calendar. AMI onset is maximal on the 1st day of the LC month, decreasing with an obvious trough around the 15th day. After the 15th day, occurrence increases gradually. The end and beginning of the lunar months show sharp peaks of AMI incidence. This study shows also that HCh variations have similar LC monthly rhythms. Our investigation demonstrates the correctness of traditional Chinese medical theory. This monthly rhythm forecasts the onset of AMI peaks and contributes to the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD).

  2. Modified Alvarado Scoring System as a diagnostic tool for Acute Appendicitis at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Decision-making in patients with acute appendicitis poses a diagnostic challenge worldwide, despite much advancement in abdominal surgery. The Modified Alvarado Scoring System (MASS) has been reported to be a cheap and quick diagnostic tool in patients with acute appendicitis. However, differences in diagnostic accuracy have been observed if the scores were applied to various populations and clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Modified Alvarado Scoring System in patients with acute appendicitis in our setting. Methods A cross-sectional study involving all patients suspected to have acute appendicitis at Bugando Medical Centre over a six-month period between November 2008 and April 2009 was conducted. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively enrolled in the study. They were evaluated on admission using the MASS to determine whether they had acute appendicitis or not. All patients underwent appendicectomy according to the hospital protocol. The decision to operate was the prerogative of the surgeon or surgical resident based on overall clinical judgment and not the MASS. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software. Results A total number of 127 patients were studied. Their ages ranged from eight to 76 years (mean 29.64 ± 12.97). There were 37 (29.1%) males and 90 (70.9%) females (M: F = 1:2.4). All patients in this study underwent appendicectomy. The perforation rate was 9.4%. Histopathological examination confirmed appendicitis in 85 patients (66.9%) and the remaining 42 patients had normal appendix giving a negative appendicectomy rate of 33.1% (26.8% for males and 38.3% for females). The sensitivity and specificity of MASS in this study were 94.1% (males 95.8% and females 88.3%) and 90.4% (males 92.9% and females 89.7%) respectively. The Positive

  3. Validation of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale among Chinese medical workers and firefighters: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binghai; Hu, Mengna; Yu, Shitian; Jiang, Yiru; Lou, Baona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the C-Compassion Fatigue (CF)-Short Scale among 4 independent samples of Chinese emergency workers (medical workers and firefighters). Design Cross-sectional. Setting 6 hospitals in Zhejiang Province and 12 fire stations in Shanghai. Participants Emergency workers (medical and firefighters) were consecutively recruited and divided into 4 groups: the MW1 group (medical workers, n=167), the FF1 group (firefighters, n=157), the MW2 group (medical workers, n=265) and the FF2 group (firefighters, n=231). Interventions All patients completed the C-CF-Short Scale to identify factors associated with compassion fatigue. The MW1 and FF1 groups were used for the exploratory analyses. The MW2 and FF2 groups were used for the confirmatory factor analyses. Primary and secondary outcome measures Factor loading, correlations with previously validated questionnaires (the Ego-Resiliency Scale, the Social Support Questionnaire and the Job Pressure Scale) and Cronbach's α coefficient were tested for each factor. Results The C-CF-Short Scale demonstrated excellent construct validity and good internal consistency. Specifically, the results of exploratory factor analyses in the MW1 and FF1 groups showed that secondary trauma and job burnout were associated with compassion fatigue in these emergency workers. The confirmatory factor analyses in the MW2 and FF2 groups indicated that all the fit indices of the 2-factor model were satisfactory. Finally, the Cronbach's α coefficient of each factor was excellent. Conclusions The findings suggest that the C-CF-Short Scale has good psychometric properties and can be applied to study Chinese emergency workers. PMID:27363817

  4. Validation of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale among Chinese medical workers and firefighters: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binghai; Hu, Mengna; Yu, Shitian; Jiang, Yiru; Lou, Baona

    2016-06-30

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the C-Compassion Fatigue (CF)-Short Scale among 4 independent samples of Chinese emergency workers (medical workers and firefighters). Cross-sectional. 6 hospitals in Zhejiang Province and 12 fire stations in Shanghai. Emergency workers (medical and firefighters) were consecutively recruited and divided into 4 groups: the MW1 group (medical workers, n=167), the FF1 group (firefighters, n=157), the MW2 group (medical workers, n=265) and the FF2 group (firefighters, n=231). All patients completed the C-CF-Short Scale to identify factors associated with compassion fatigue. The MW1 and FF1 groups were used for the exploratory analyses. The MW2 and FF2 groups were used for the confirmatory factor analyses. Factor loading, correlations with previously validated questionnaires (the Ego-Resiliency Scale, the Social Support Questionnaire and the Job Pressure Scale) and Cronbach's α coefficient were tested for each factor. The C-CF-Short Scale demonstrated excellent construct validity and good internal consistency. Specifically, the results of exploratory factor analyses in the MW1 and FF1 groups showed that secondary trauma and job burnout were associated with compassion fatigue in these emergency workers. The confirmatory factor analyses in the MW2 and FF2 groups indicated that all the fit indices of the 2-factor model were satisfactory. Finally, the Cronbach's α coefficient of each factor was excellent. The findings suggest that the C-CF-Short Scale has good psychometric properties and can be applied to study Chinese emergency workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Diagnostic performance of two mental status tests in the older chinese: influence of education and age on cut-off values.

    PubMed

    Sahadevan, S; Lim, P P; Tan, N J; Chan, S P

    2000-03-01

    To (1) establish the clinical usefulness of the 10-item Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and the 18-item Chinese Mini-Mental Status Examination (CMMSE) for detecting cognitive impairment associated with dementia in the elderly Chinese; (2) determine how the tests' optimal cut-off scores varied with the patients' educational level and age; and (3) evaluate which was the more accurate test. 151 cognitively-healthy, community dwelling elderly Chinese subjects and 95 elderly Chinese outpatients with dementia were administered the AMT and CMMSE. Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the tests' optimal cut-off scores for each of the education-by-age subgroups and their areas-under-the-curve were compared non-parametrically to evaluate which test was more accurate. Both the AMT and CMMSE could identify cognitive impairment accurately, but higher cut-off values were necessary for the younger and more educated cohort, while lower values were adequate for the older and less educated subgroup. The AMT appeared to reach a ceiling effect in the more educated categories. The diagnostic accuracies of the two instruments were statistically equivalent; there was a trend, however, for the CMMSE to be performing better in the more educated subgroups. To maximise the diagnostic efficiency of these two clinically useful mental status tests, it is important to adjust their cut-off scores for the patients' education and age. Though no clear superiority of either instrument was established in this study, we recommend the AMT for patients with 0-6 years of education, whereas for those with greater levels of literacy, we think it better to administer the CMMSE.

  6. Integrating Nursing Diagnostic Concepts into the Medical Entities Dictionary Using the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jee-In; Cimino, James J.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a terminology model for defining nursing diagnostic concepts in the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) and (2) to create the additional hierarchical structures required for integration of nursing diagnostic concepts into the MED. Design and Measurements: The authors dissected nursing diagnostic terms from two source terminologies (Home Health Care Classification and the Omaha System) into the semantic categories of the ISO model. Consistent with the ISO model, they selected Focus and Judgment as required semantic categories for creating intensional definitions of nursing diagnostic concepts in the MED. Because the MED does not include Focus and Judgment hierarchies, the authors developed them to define the nursing diagnostic concepts. Results: The ISO model was sufficient for dissecting the source terminologies into atomic terms. The authors identified 162 unique focus concepts from the 266 nursing diagnosis terms for inclusion in the Focus hierarchy. For the Judgment hierarchy, the authors precoordinated Judgment and Potentiality instead of using Potentiality as a qualifier of Judgment as in the ISO model. Impairment and Alteration were the most frequently occurring judgments. Conclusions: Nursing care represents a large proportion of health care activities; thus, it is vital that terms used by nurses are integrated into concept-oriented terminologies that provide broad coverage for the domain of health care. This study supports the utility of the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a facilitator for the integration process. PMID:12668692

  7. Assessing musculoskeletal examination skills and diagnostic reasoning of 4th year medical students using a novel objective structured clinical exam.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, R Brent; Diponio, Lisa; Craig, Cliff; Zeller, John; Chadd, Edmund; Miller, Joshua; Monrad, Seetha

    2016-10-14

    Medical students have difficulty performing and interpreting musculoskeletal physical examinations and interpreting the findings. Research has focused on students' knowledge deficits, but there are few direct assessments of students' ability to perform a hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE). We developed a novel musculoskeletal Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) focusing on HDPE skills for disorders of the shoulder, back and knee, and used it to explore medical student diagnostic reasoning. A multidisciplinary group of musculoskeletal specialists developed and gathered validity evidence for a three station OSCE focusing on the HDPE of the shoulder, back and knee, emphasizing the ability to anticipate (identify pre-encounter) expected physical exam findings, and subsequently perform discriminatory physical examination maneuvers. The OSCE was administered to 45 final year medical students. Trained faculty observed and scored students' ability to anticipate exam findings and perform diagnostic examination maneuvers on simulated patients. Encounters were digitally recorded and scored again by another trained faculty member. Inter-rater reliability for each maneuver was estimated using type-2 intra-class correlations (ICC). Percentages of perfect scores for anticipation and performance were calculated. Pearson's correlation between anticipation and performance scores was computed for each maneuver and their relationship to diagnostic accuracy was tested with logistic regression. Inter-rater reliability was good (ICC between .69 and .87) for six exam maneuvers. Maneuver performance was overall poor, with no discriminatory maneuver performed correctly by more than two thirds of students, and one maneuver only performed correctly by 4 % of students. For the shoulder and knee stations, students were able to anticipate necessary discriminatory exam findings better than they could actually perform relevant exam maneuvers. The ability to anticipate a

  8. New Technologies for Diagnosing Pediatric Tumors Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun S.; Badgett, Thomas C.; Khan, Javed

    2008-01-01

    Background The completion of Human Genome Project (HGP) has paved the way for novel, more detailed and accurate molecular diagnostic classification of cancer. With the information from the HGP, cancers can be categorized not only on the morphology or limited immunohistological markers, but according to their “molecular fingerprints” such as gene expression profiles. Technologies detecting these signatures have been developed to simultaneously measure multiple genes or proteins in one assay with high sensitivity and specificity. Objective To evaluate potential innovative novel methods of diagnosis and prognosis in pediatric cancers. Methods We selected a variety of promising new diagnostic technologies utilizing molecular signatures which harness the results from HGP including DNA microarray, bead-based detection system, multiplexed RT-PCR, MesoScale Discovery (MSD), and isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT), as well as their applications in biomarker discovery for pediatric tumors. Label-free detection technologies and the obstacles for taking these new diagnostic technologies from the bench to the bedside are also discussed. Conclusion The use of molecular signatures is gaining acceptance in clinical practice. However, technical challenges need to be addressed before incorporating these new technologies into current diagnostic and prognostic schema. PMID:19554203

  9. Visualizing and Measuring the Temperature Field Produced by Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound Using Thermography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachutka, J.; Grec, P.; Mornstein, V.; Caruana, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    The heating of tissues by diagnostic ultrasound can pose a significant hazard particularly in the imaging of the unborn child. The demonstration of the temperature field in tissue is therefore an important objective in the teaching of biomedical physics to healthcare professionals. The temperature field in a soft tissue model was made visible and…

  10. Visualizing and Measuring the Temperature Field Produced by Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound Using Thermography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachutka, J.; Grec, P.; Mornstein, V.; Caruana, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    The heating of tissues by diagnostic ultrasound can pose a significant hazard particularly in the imaging of the unborn child. The demonstration of the temperature field in tissue is therefore an important objective in the teaching of biomedical physics to healthcare professionals. The temperature field in a soft tissue model was made visible and…

  11. [Textual research on Han-Chinese formulae collected in Tubo medical manuscript unearthed in 'Bum-pa-Che Tower].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Nong, H C

    2016-11-28

    A Tibetan manuscript with title of Sman-dpyad gces-pa grub-pa kun-'dus-pa in the Collection of Practiced Medical Quintessence, was found in the basement of a Buddhist tower named 'Bum-pa-che in Lhokha (Shannan), Tibet. It contains a purgative recipe of TCM with its title "Powder of Han Region" and several ingredients in Chinese transliteration. Based upon the rule of medieval Chinese system of pronunciation with reference of related texts and studies, a textual research identifies it as a kind of Maren (seed of Cannabis sativa L. ) wan in TCM. Although no identical formulae of its kind has been found in extant literature of TCM prior to the Song Dynasty(960 AD), yet its ingredients, pharmaceutical preparation and efficacy are very similar to the Modified maren wan, the variant formulae of Maren wan in Wai tai mi yao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) of the Tang Dynasty.

  12. [Treatment of functional dyspepsia by Chinese medical syndrome typing: a randomized control research].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-hong; Cai, Li-jun; Xu, Guo-ping

    2012-12-01

    To assess the short- and long-term efficacy and safety of treating functional dyspepsia (FD) by Chinese medical syndrome typing (CMST). A randomized, positive-drug parallel controlled study was conducted. Recruited were 170 FD patients who were randomly assigned to the test group (13 cases, treated by Chinese herbs) and the control group (34 cases, treated by Western medicine) in the ratio of 4:1. Different recipes were administered to patients in the test group according to CMST at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th week, respectively, while those in the control group took Domperidone or Esomeprazole Magnesium Enteric-coated Tablet according to Roma III Criteria. The therapeutic efficacy was observed at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th week of the treatment, including (1) clinical symptom score; (2) the score of SF-36 quality of life scale; (3) safety (4) compliance; (5) satisfaction; (6) the relapse rate; (7) cost-effectiveness ratio (C/E). The follow-up were performed at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th month. Sixteen patients fell off in the test group and 4 fell off i the control group, and the expulsion rate being 11.76% in the two groups, showing no statistical difference ( P > 0.05). The clinical symptom scores in the test group decreased from 5.62 +/- 2.30 before treatment to 1.41 +/- 1.22 after 4-week treatment, showing statistical difference (P < 0.01), but with no statistical difference when compared with the control group at the same time point (P>0.05). The healing rate and the total effective rate at week 4 were 38.24% and 86.76% respectively in the test group, and they were 60.00% and 65.00% at 6-month withdrawal. They were 41.18%, 79.41%, 46.67%, and 50.00%, respectively, in the control group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The scores of physical component-summary (PCS) and mental component-summary (MCS) both increased after 4-week treatment in the two groups, showing no statistical difference when compared with before treatment (P>0.05). There

  13. Damaged goods: return to sender. A review of the historical medical records of repatriated Chinese miners.

    PubMed

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Murray, Jill; Seopela, Simon

    2006-01-01

    After the Anglo-Boer (South African) War (1899-1902), there was a shortage of unskilled labor on the South African gold mines. Chinese men were imported to make up for the deficit. This article reviews the records of indentured Chinese mine workers examined for repatriation in 1905. The records tell of high proportions of social disorders, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, opium addiction, and injury. These reflect the social and physical conditions to which these men were exposed in the mines.

  14. [A comparison of three diagnostic criterions for metabolic syndrome applied in a Chinese population aged 35-64 in 11 provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Dong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wen-hua; Sun, Jia-yi; Qin, Lan-ping; Jia, Yan-na; Wu, Zhaosu

    2007-01-01

    To compare the differences of three diagnostic criterions for metabolic syndrome( MS), issued by the National Cholesterol Education Program(NECP), International Diabetes Federation(IDF) and CDS,in a Chinese population aged 35-64 years in 11 provinces. A total of 29 564 Chinese resedents aged 35-64 years were recruited from 11 provinces and a survey on cardiovascular risk factors was conducted in 1992. Additionally,3129 participants were added into the study from 1996 to 1999. MS prevalence was calculated according to three definitions and results of MS components distributions and risk factor aggregation were analyzed. (1)The age-adjusted prevalence of MS in Chinese population were 18.7% for ATP III criterion, 14.6% for IDF criterion and 9.0% for CDS criterion,respectively. (2)Seventy-seven point eight percent of the subjects with MS diagnosed by ATP II criterion presented central obesity. Four point six percent of subjects without MS diagnosed by IDF criterion and 11.2% of subjects without MS diagnosed by CDS criterion presented at least 3 risk factors, respectively. (3)Kappa index showed 0.795 for ATPIII criterion and 0.899 for IDF criterion when applied in Chinese population. (4)The shortest distance in ROC curve for forecasting risk factor aggregation of MS was 0.40 in male and 0.34 in female when waist circumferences were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females respectively. ATPIII definition could be used to detect the highest prevalence of MS and the percent of risk factor aggregation among three definitions. The appropriate cut-off points of waist circumference for Chinese were 85 cm for male and 80 cm for female respectively.

  15. Research on the Present Status of the Five-Year Medical Training Program in Chinese Medical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhe; Miao, Le; Ke, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The five-year program is the main path for undergraduate medical training in China. Studies have shown that during the past eleven years, the scale of medical student enrollment increased annually with a relatively simple entrance exam. The ideas, teaching contents and methods, assessment and evaluation should be updated and improved. In general,…

  16. Research on the Present Status of the Five-Year Medical Training Program in Chinese Medical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhe; Miao, Le; Ke, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The five-year program is the main path for undergraduate medical training in China. Studies have shown that during the past eleven years, the scale of medical student enrollment increased annually with a relatively simple entrance exam. The ideas, teaching contents and methods, assessment and evaluation should be updated and improved. In general,…

  17. The Application of Whole Cell-Based Biosensors for Use in Environmental Analysis and in Medical Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gui, Qingyuan; Lawson, Tom; Shan, Suyan; Yan, Lu; Liu, Yong

    2017-07-13

    Various whole cell-based biosensors have been reported in the literature for the last 20 years and these reports have shown great potential for their use in the areas of pollution detection in environmental and in biomedical diagnostics. Unlike other reviews of this growing field, this mini-review argues that: (1) the selection of reporter genes and their regulatory proteins are directly linked to the performance of celllular biosensors; (2) broad enhancements in microelectronics and information technologies have also led to improvements in the performance of these sensors; (3) their future potential is most apparent in their use in the areas of medical diagnostics and in environmental monitoring; and (4) currently the most promising work is focused on the better integration of cellular sensors with nano and micro scaled integrated chips. With better integration it may become practical to see these cells used as (5) real-time portable devices for diagnostics at the bedside and for remote environmental toxin detection and this in situ application will make the technology commonplace and thus as unremarkable as other ubiquitous technologies.

  18. The Application of Whole Cell-Based Biosensors for Use in Environmental Analysis and in Medical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Qingyuan; Lawson, Tom; Shan, Suyan; Yan, Lu; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Various whole cell-based biosensors have been reported in the literature for the last 20 years and these reports have shown great potential for their use in the areas of pollution detection in environmental and in biomedical diagnostics. Unlike other reviews of this growing field, this mini-review argues that: (1) the selection of reporter genes and their regulatory proteins are directly linked to the performance of celllular biosensors; (2) broad enhancements in microelectronics and information technologies have also led to improvements in the performance of these sensors; (3) their future potential is most apparent in their use in the areas of medical diagnostics and in environmental monitoring; and (4) currently the most promising work is focused on the better integration of cellular sensors with nano and micro scaled integrated chips. With better integration it may become practical to see these cells used as (5) real-time portable devices for diagnostics at the bedside and for remote environmental toxin detection and this in situ application will make the technology commonplace and thus as unremarkable as other ubiquitous technologies. PMID:28703749

  19. University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC): an assessment of its utility for teaching diagnostic imaging in the medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil; Malin, Greg; Trinder, Krista; Pinelle, David

    2015-01-01

    We have found it very challenging to integrate images from our radiology digital imaging repository into the curriculum of our local medical school. Thus, it has been difficult to convey important knowledge related to viewing and interpreting diagnostic radiology images. We sought to determine if we could create a solution for this problem and evaluate whether students exposed to this solution were able to learn imaging concepts pertinent to medical practice. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a novel interactive web application that enables preclinical medical students to acquire image interpretation skills fundamental to clinical practice. This web application reformats content stored in Medical Imaging Resource Center teaching cases for BlackBoard Learn™, a popular learning management system. We have deployed this solution for 2 successive years in a 1st-year basic sciences medical school course at the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan. The "courseware" content covers both normal anatomy and common clinical pathologies in five distinct modules. We created two cohorts of learners consisting of an intervention cohort of students who had used USRC for their 1st academic year, whereas the nonintervention cohort was students who had not been exposed to this learning opportunity. To assess the learning experience of the users we designed an online questionnaire and image review quiz delivered to both of the student groups. Comparisons between the groups revealed statistically significant differences in both confidence with image interpretation and the ability to answer knowledge-based questions. Students were satisfied with the overall usability, functions, and capabilities of USRC. USRC is an innovative technology that provides integration between Medical Imaging Resource Center, a teaching solution used in radiology, and a Learning Management System.

  20. Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kenny; Kendall, Catherine; Stone, Nicholas; Notingher, Ioan

    2015-07-15

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique based on inelastic scattering of light by vibrating molecules and can provide chemical fingerprints of cells, tissues or biofluids. The high chemical specificity, minimal or lack of sample preparation and the ability to use advanced optical technologies in the visible or near-infrared spectral range (lasers, microscopes, fibre-optics) have recently led to an increase in medical diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy. The key hypothesis underpinning this field is that molecular changes in cells, tissues or biofluids, that are either the cause or the effect of diseases, can be detected and quantified by Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, multivariate calibration and classification models based on Raman spectra can be developed on large "training" datasets and used subsequently on samples from new patients to obtain quantitative and objective diagnosis. Historically, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been known as a low signal technique requiring relatively long acquisition times. Nevertheless, new strategies have been developed recently to overcome these issues: non-linear optical effects and metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance the Raman signals, optimised fibre-optic Raman probes can be used for real-time in-vivo single-point measurements, while multimodal integration with other optical techniques can guide the Raman measurements to increase the acquisition speed and spatial accuracy of diagnosis. These recent efforts have advanced Raman spectroscopy to the point where the diagnostic accuracy and speed are compatible with clinical use. This paper reviews the main Raman spectroscopy techniques used in medical diagnostics and provides an overview of various applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Mobile phone based data acquisition and evaluation system for the alternative four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ran

    2013-01-01

    This study is dedicated to integrate the theories of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and the methods of mobile healthcare so as to achieve the goal of the four diagnostic functions of TCM on mobile phone. An Android smartphone based data acquisition system has been developed and experimentally demonstrated. It was shown that the prototype could successfully achieve the fundamental function of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and thus help preliminarily interpret the symptoms of human diseases.

  2. [Diagnostic assessment of knowledge and competencies in medical students at the end of the second year of medical school: the challenge of building an airplane while it's flying].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Adrián; Trejo Mejía, Juan Andrés; Fortoul van der Goes, Teresa Imelda; Flores Hernández, Fernando; Morales López, Sara; Sánchez Mendiola, Melchor

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America there is almost no published information about knowledge retention and formative assessment of competencies in medical students, during medical school training and curricular changes. To assess knowledge level and clinical competencies in medical students at the end of the second year in a new curriculum. Observational, cross-sectional study in UNAM Faculty of Medicine students. A diagnostic evaluation was performed in the first class of the "Plan of Studies 2010" curriculum, as part of an integral program evaluation strategy. The assessment had two components: theoretical and practical. 456 (87%) of the 524 students that successfully completed the second year of Plan 2010 were assessed. The written test had 211 items, a mean score of 60 ± 14.5, mean difficulty index of 0.60, reliability with Cronbach's alpha of 0.85. The OSCE mean global score was 58 ± 9, Cronbach's alpha of 0.36, and G-coefficient of 0.48, and results were provided for each station. Results by area of knowledge, course, and station were reported. The results in general are acceptable, compared with previous written evaluations at the end of the second year, suggesting that the new program is achieving its educational goals. Competencies were formally assessed for the first time in our Institution, establishing a starting point for follow-up. The study provided useful information to the institution, teachers and students.

  3. Diagnostic imaging rates for head injury in the ED and states' medical malpractice tort reforms.

    PubMed

    Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; McCulloch, Charles E; Ding, Alexander; Ding, Alex; Quale, Christopher; Chu, Philip W

    2011-07-01

    Physicians' fears of being sued may lead to defensive medical practices, such as ordering nonindicated medical imaging. We investigated the association between states' medical malpractice tort reforms and neurologic imaging rates for patients seen in the emergency department with mild head trauma. We assessed neurologic imaging among a national sample of 8588 women residing in 10 US states evaluated in an emergency setting for head injury between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2001. We assessed the odds of imaging as it varied by the enactment of medical liability reform laws. The medical liability reform laws were significantly associated with the likelihood of imaging. States with laws that limited monetary damages (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.99), mandated periodic award payments (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.97), or specified collateral source offset rules (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.96) had an approximately 40% lower odds of imaging, whereas states that had laws that limited attorney's contingency fees had significantly higher odds of imaging (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.99-2.4), compared to states without these laws. When we used a summation of the number of laws in place, the greater the number of laws, the lower the odds of imaging. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for individual and community factors, the total number of laws remained significantly associated with the odds of imaging, and the effect of the individual laws was attenuated, but not eliminated. The tort reforms we examined were associated with the propensity to obtain neurologic imaging. If these results are confirmed in larger studies, tort reform might mitigate defensive medical practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Consensuses on lung cancer treatment by Chinese medicine experts from Beijing and Guangzhou and medication features in the North and South China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-mei; Lin, Li-zhu; Nie, Hui

    2011-07-01

    To study the consensuses on lung cancer treatment by Chinese medicine experts from North China and South China, and to analyze their medication features from viewpoints such as the medication frequency, combination laws, medication classification by collecting 800 recipes on the treatment of lung cancer patients prescribed by 8 Chinese oncologists from Guanganmen Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, the Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Results showed that coix seed, poria, pinelliae tuber were the three herbs most commonly used in treatment of lung cancer by all experts. They generally accepted Pi invigorating and phlegm removing method as the basic treatment method for treating lung cancer. Secondly, they usually used white peony root, heterophylla falsestarwort root, and ophiopogonis tuber, etc. (with higher medication frequency) to nourish yin and moisten Fei. Thirdly, consistency was also shown in clearing heat, detoxication, and anticancer. Smilacis glabra, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Herba Hedyotis diffusae, Herba Scutellariae Barbatae were herbs used by all experts. However, there were differences between oncologists in North China and South China. Oncologists in South China paid more attention to heat toxin and blood stasis, while those in North China paid more attention to supplementing both qi and yin.

  5. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) or its shorter versions more useful to identify risky drinkers in a Chinese population? A diagnostic study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Benjamin H K; Chung, Roger Y; Chung, Vincent C H; Kim, Jean; Chan, Iris W T; Wong, Martin C S; Wong, Samuel Y S; Griffiths, Sian M

    2015-01-01

    To examine the diagnostic performance of shorter versions of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), including Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-C), in identifying risky drinkers in primary care settings using conventional performance measures, supplemented by decision curve analysis and reclassification table. A cross-sectional study of adult males in general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study included only patients who reported at least sometimes drinking alcoholic beverages. Timeline follow back alcohol consumption assessment method was used as the reference standard. A Chinese translated and validated 10-item AUDIT (Ch-AUDIT) was used as a screening tool of risky drinking. Of the participants, 21.7% were classified as risky drinkers. AUDIT-C has the best overall performance among the shorter versions of Ch-AUDIT. The AUC of AUDIT-C was comparable to Ch-AUDIT (0.898 vs 0.901, p-value = 0.959). Decision curve analysis revealed that when the threshold probability ranged from 15-30%, the AUDIT-C had a higher net-benefit than all other screens. AUDIT-C improved the reclassification of risky drinking when compared to Ch-AUDIT (net reclassification improvement = 0.167). The optimal cut-off of AUDIT-C was at ≥5. Given the rising levels of alcohol consumption in the Chinese regions, this Chinese translated 3-item instrument provides convenient and time-efficient risky drinking screening and may become an increasingly useful tool.

  6. Inappropriateness of medication prescriptions about chronic kidney disease patients without dialysis therapy in a Chinese tertiary teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping; Chen, Na; Wang, Rong-Rong; Li, Lu; Jiang, Sai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background With the increasing incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD), inappropriate use of medicine in CKD patients is an important issue, as it may cause adverse effects in patients and progression to chronic renal failure. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of inappropriate medicine use among CKD patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1 to December 1, 2014 in a Chinese teaching tertiary hospital. All medication prescriptions for CKD patients with serum creatinine level above normal value were enrolled. The prescriptions, including unreasonable dosage, contraindicated, and cautiously used medicines in CKD patients, were evaluated and the related medications were also analyzed and classified. Results Two hundred and two patients were included, and a total of 1,733 lines of medication prescriptions were evaluated. The prevalence of inappropriate medication prescriptions in CKD patients was 15.18%, of which, unreasonable dosage (n=56), contraindicated (n=46), and cautiously used medicines (n=161) accounted for 3.23%, 2.65%, and 9.29%, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient implied that there was a significant correlation between the severity of renal insufficiency and frequency of inappropriate medication prescriptions (P=0.02, r=0.056). Among the inappropriate medication prescriptions, nutraceutical and electrolytes (n=65, 24.71%), cardiovascular drugs (n=61, 23.19%), and antimicrobial drugs (n=55, 20.91%) represented the top three medicine categories in CKD patients. Conclusion The study confirmed that inappropriate medication prescriptions were prevalent in CKD patients. Improving the quality of medication prescriptions in CKD patients is necessary. PMID:27785039

  7. The progress of Chinese burn medicine from the Third Military Medical University-in memory of its pioneer, Professor Li Ao.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisheng; Zhou, Junyi; Peng, Yizhi; Zhang, Jiaping; Peng, Xi; Luo, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Yan, Hong; Peng, Daizhi; He, Weifeng; Wang, Fengjun; Liang, Guangping; Huang, Yuesheng; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing

    2017-01-01

    Professor Li Ao was one of the founders of Chinese burn medicine and one of the most renowned doctors and researchers of burns in China. He established one of the Chinese earliest special departments for burns at Third Military Medical University (TMMU) in 1958. To memorialize Professor Li Ao on his 100th birthday in 2017 and introduce our extensive experience, it is our honor to briefly review the development and achievement of the Chinese burn medicine from TMMU. The epidemiology and outcomes of admitted burn patients since 1958 were reviewed. Furthermore, main achievements of basic and clinical research for the past roughly 60 years were presented. These achievements mainly included the Chinese Rule of Nine, fluid resuscitation protocol, experience in inhalation injury, wound treatment strategies, prevention and treatment of burn infections, nutrition therapy, organ support therapies, and rehabilitation. The progress shaped and enriched modern Chinese burn medicine and promoted the development of world burn medicine.

  8. Tuina-Focused Integrative Chinese Medical Therapies for Inpatients with Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Pu, Jiang Hui; Cheng, Ying Wu; Chen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of Tuina-focused integrative Chinese medical therapies (TICMT) on inpatients with low back pain (LBP). Methods. 6 English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TICMT for in-patients with LBP. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was assessed based on PEDro scale. And the meta-analyses of TICMT for LBP on pain and functional status were conducted. Results. 20 RCTs were included. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was poor. The meta-analyses' results showed that TICMT had statistically significant effects on pain and functional status, especially Tuina plus Chinese herbal medicine (standardised mean difference, SMD: 1.17; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.60 on pain; SMD: 1.31; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.14 on functional status) and Tuina plus acupuncture (SMD: 0.94; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.50 on pain; SMD: 0.53; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.85 on functional status). But Tuina plus moxibustion or hot pack did not show significant improvements on pain. And the long-term evidence of TICMT was far from sufficient. Conclusions. The preliminary evidence from current studies suggests that TICMT might be effective complementary and alternative treatments for in-patients with LBP. However, the poor methodological quality of the included RCTs means that high-quality RCTs with long follow-up are warranted. PMID:23346207

  9. Tuina-focused integrative chinese medical therapies for inpatients with low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Pu, Jiang Hui; Cheng, Ying Wu; Chen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of Tuina-focused integrative Chinese medical therapies (TICMT) on inpatients with low back pain (LBP). Methods. 6 English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TICMT for in-patients with LBP. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was assessed based on PEDro scale. And the meta-analyses of TICMT for LBP on pain and functional status were conducted. Results. 20 RCTs were included. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was poor. The meta-analyses' results showed that TICMT had statistically significant effects on pain and functional status, especially Tuina plus Chinese herbal medicine (standardised mean difference, SMD: 1.17; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.60 on pain; SMD: 1.31; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.14 on functional status) and Tuina plus acupuncture (SMD: 0.94; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.50 on pain; SMD: 0.53; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.85 on functional status). But Tuina plus moxibustion or hot pack did not show significant improvements on pain. And the long-term evidence of TICMT was far from sufficient. Conclusions. The preliminary evidence from current studies suggests that TICMT might be effective complementary and alternative treatments for in-patients with LBP. However, the poor methodological quality of the included RCTs means that high-quality RCTs with long follow-up are warranted.

  10. Medical Diagnostic Consultation concerning Mental Retardation: An Analogue Study of School Psychologists' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer; Balles, John; Gorin, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Recent research of relevance to school psychologists suggests that the cause, or etiology, of mental retardation can be established by medical diagnosticians in approximately one-half of cases. In the current study, 109 practicing school psychologists considered a hypothetical case of an elementary student with mental retardation and indicated…

  11. Fiber lasers for medical diagnostics and treatments: state of the art, challenges and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccheo, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Fiber laser is a fast growing yet quite young type of laser with huge potential in healthcare due to versatility and reliability. The talk discusses present and future for fiber lasers for medical applications and address future challenges and competitions with other sources.

  12. Medical Diagnostic Consultation concerning Mental Retardation: An Analogue Study of School Psychologists' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer; Balles, John; Gorin, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Recent research of relevance to school psychologists suggests that the cause, or etiology, of mental retardation can be established by medical diagnosticians in approximately one-half of cases. In the current study, 109 practicing school psychologists considered a hypothetical case of an elementary student with mental retardation and indicated…

  13. Diagnostic Potential of Zymogen Granule Glycoprotein 2 Antibodies as Serologic Biomarkers in Chinese Patients With Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shulan; Wu, Ziyan; Luo, Jing; Ding, Xuefeng; Hu, Chaojun; Li, Ping; Deng, Chuiwen; Zhang, Fengchun; Qian, Jiaming; Li, Yongzhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The need for reliable biomarkers for distinguishing Crohn disease (CD) from ulcerative colitis (UC) is increasing. This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic potential of anti-GP2 antibodies as a biomarker in Chinese patients with CD. In addition, a variety of autoantibodies, including anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (PANCA), anti-intestinal goblet cell autoantibodies (GAB), and anti-pancreatic autoantibodies (PAB), were evaluated. A total of 91 subjects were prospectively enrolled in this study, including 35 patients with CD, 35 patients with UC, 13 patients with non-IBD gastrointestinal diseases as disease controls (non-IBD DC), and 8 healthy controls (HC). The diagnosis of IBD was determined based on the Lennard-Jones criteria, and the clinical phenotypes of the IBD patients were determined based on the Montreal Classification. Anti-GP2 IgG antibodies were significantly elevated in patients with CD, compared with patients with UC (P = 0.0038), HC (P = 0.0055), and non-IBD DC (P = 0.0063). The prevalence of anti-GP2 IgG, anti-GP2 IgA and anti-GP2 IgA, or IgG antibodies in patients with CD was 40.0%, 37.1%, and 54.3%, respectively, which were higher than those in non-IBD DC (anti-GP2 IgG, 15.4%; anti-GP2 IgA, 7.7%; and anti-GP2 IgA or IgG, 23.1%) and those in patients with UC (anti-GP2 IgG, 11.4%; anti-GP2 IgA, 2.9%; and anti-GP2 IgA or IgG, 14.3%). For distinguishing CD from UC, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratios (LR+) were 40%, 88.6%, 77.8%, and 3.51 for anti-GP2 IgG, 37.1%, 97.1%, 92.9%, and 13.0 for anti-GP2 IgA, and 54.3%, 85.3%, 79.2%, and 3.69 for anti-GP2 IgA or IgG. For CD diagnosis, the combination of anti-GP2 antibodies with ASCA IgA increased the sensitivity to 68.6% with moderate loss of specificity to 74.3%. Spearman's rank of order revealed a significantly positive correlation of anti-GP2 IgG with

  14. Belief elicitation to populate health economic models of medical diagnostic devices in development.

    PubMed

    Haakma, Wieke; Steuten, Lotte M G; Bojke, Laura; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-06-01

    Bayesian methods can be used to elicit experts' beliefs about the clinical value of healthcare technologies. This study investigates a belief-elicitation method for estimating diagnostic performance in an early stage of development of photoacoustic mammography (PAM) imaging versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting breast cancer. Eighteen experienced radiologists ranked tumor characteristics regarding their importance to detect malignancies. With reference to MRI, radiologists estimated the true positives and negatives of PAM using the variable interval method. An overall probability density function was determined using linear opinion pooling, weighted for individual experts' experience. The most important tumor characteristics are mass margins and mass shape. Respondents considered MRI the better technology to visualize these characteristics. Belief elicitation confirmed this by providing an overall sensitivity of PAM ranging from 58.9 to 85.1% (mode 75.6%) and specificity ranging from 52.2 to 77.6% (mode 66.5%). Belief elicitation allowed estimates to be obtained for the expected diagnostic performance of PAM, although radiologists expressed difficulties in doing so. Heterogeneity within and between experts reflects this uncertainty and the infancy of PAM. Further clinical trials are required to validate the extent to which this belief-elicitation method is predictive for observed test performance.

  15. [Traditional Chinese medicine inheritance system analysis of professor Ding Yuanqing in treating tic disorder medication based on experience].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu-yan; Li, Qing-peng; Zhao, Li-li; Ding, Yuan-qing

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the incidence of tic disorders has increased, and it is not uncommon for the patients to treat the disease. The pathogenesis and pathogenesis of Western medicine are not yet clear, the clinical commonly used western medicine has many adverse reactions, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is increasingly valued. Based on the software of TCM inheritance assistant system, this paper discusses Ding Yuanqing's experience in treating tic disorder with Professor. Collect yuan Qing Ding professor in treating tic disorder of medical records by association rules Apriori algorithm, complex system entropy clustering without supervision and data mining method, carries on the analysis to the selected 800 prescriptions, to determine the frequency of use of prescription drugs, the association rules between the drug and digging out the 12 core combination and the first six new prescription, medication transferred to the liver and extinguish wind, cooling blood and relieving convulsion, Qingxin soothe the nerves, with the card cut, flexible application, strict compatibility.

  16. Mutual benefit for foreign medical students and Chinese postgraduates: A mixed team-based learning method overcomes communication problems in hematology clerkship.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianling; Chen, Buyuan; Li, Xiaofan; Song, Qingxiao; Chen, Yuanzhong

    2017-03-04

    Hematology is difficult for students to learn. A beneficial education method for hematology clerkship training is required to help students develop clinical skills. Foreign medical students often encounter communication issues in China. To address this issue, Chinese post-graduates from our institute are willing to assist with educating foreign students. Therefore, we propose a mixed team-based learning method (MTBL) which might overcome communication problems in hematology clerkship. Twenty-two foreign medical Students attended a 2-week hematology clerkship in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital. Twenty-one foreign African medical students were assigned randomly into two groups. Fourteen foreign African medical students were assigned to MTBL group. Each MTBL team included two foreign African medical students and one Chinese post-graduate. Seven foreign African medical students were assigned to lecture-based learning method (LBL) group, which had a foreign medical classmate from Hong Kong or Chinese intern volunteers to serve as translators. The practice test scores of MTBL were significantly higher than LBL group (p < 0.05). The MTBL group had increased motivation to prepare before class, an engaged classroom atmosphere, and an improvement in their understanding of difficult topics. Interestingly, the Chinese post-graduates also benefited from this setting, as they found that this interaction improved their communication in the English language. The mixed team-based learning method overcomes communication problems in hematology clerkship. Foreign medical students and Chinese post-graduates alike can benefit from MTBL. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):93-96, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiao-fang; Liu, Yan-jin; Wang, Ai-xia; Lv, Pei-hua

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that stroke has a higher incidence and mortality rate in the People’s Republic of China compared to the global average. These conditions can be managed by proper medication use, but ensuring medication adherence is challenging. Objective To translate the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale into Chinese and test its validity and reliability in patients with stroke. Methods Instrument performances were measured from January 15, 2015 to April 28, 2015 on a convenience sample of 400 patients with stroke recruited at four neurology departments of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Questionnaires included the Chinese versions of the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale (C-SEAMS) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (C-GSE). Construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability were measured. Results Item analysis showed that item-to-total correlations were in the range of 0.362–0.672. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors (which accounted for 60.862% of total variance), with factor loading ranging from 0.534 to 0.756. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to support the results, with an acceptable fit (χ2=73.716; df=64; P<0.01; goodness-of-fit index =0.902; adjusted goodness-of-fit index =0.897; comparative fit index =0.865; root-mean-square error of approximation =0.058). The convergent validity of the C-SEAMS correlated well with the validated measure of the C-GSE in measuring self-efficacy (r=0.531, P<0.01). Good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.826 to 0.915) and test–retest reliability (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r=0.642, P<0.01) were found. Conclusion The C-SEAMS is a brief and psychometrically sound measure for evaluating self-efficacy for medication adherence in the Chinese population with stroke. PMID:27042023

  18. Some sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of military patients treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy.

    PubMed

    Acikel, Cengiz Han; Kir, Tayfun; Komurcu, Seref; Kilic, Selim; Ozett, Ahmet; Rzayev, Maharet; Arpaci, Fikret; Ozturk, Bekir; Ogur, Recai; Ataergin, Selmin; Kuzhan, Okan; Hasde, Metin

    2006-05-01

    Today, chronic diseases have increased importance. Cancer, for which 10 million new cases are diagnosed around the world each year, is in the lead of such diseases. This study included military personnel with cancer who applied to the Department of Medical Oncology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy, in the period between 1998 and 2003, and it aims to describe some sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of the patients. The total number of cases was 938, which included both active duty and retired military personnel with diagnoses of cancer who were given medical care between 1998 and 2003 in the Department of Medical Oncology. For the study group, the five most common diagnoses were lung cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Although the first three diagnoses among officers were lung cancer, testicular cancer, and Hodgkin's disease, those among retired officers were colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Among noncommissioned officers, the first three diagnoses were colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, and Hodgkin's disease for active duty patients and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and gastric cancer for retired patients. In the group of privates, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were the first three diagnoses. When we consider the characteristics of cancers, such as high costs of treatment, loss of manpower, and high mortality rates, prevention of cancers and early diagnosis are very important. Because the frequent types of cancers differed for groups according to age and occupation, those characteristics should be considered when cancer screening programs are being developed for the Armed Forces.

  19. [Forensic-medical diagnostics of an electrical mark resulting from the injury inflicted by technical electricity in the aqueous environment].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Skovorodnikov, S V; Dubrovin, I A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop the criteria for forensic-medical diagnostics of an electrical injury inflicted in the aqueous environment based on the characteristics of the electrical mark. The specific morphological features of the electrical injuries inflicted in the aqueous environment that were discovered in the materials available for the forensic medical expertise were analysed taking into consideration the results of the relevant research reported in the forensic medical literature. It was shown that an electrical injury inflicted in the aqueous environment results in the formation of an unusual mark in the form of blisters containing no watery liquid associated with electrogenic oedema in the surrounding tissues. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of the electrical mark failed to reveal the signs of grade III and IV grade thermal burning or thermally affected hair. It is concluded that the consistent characteristics of the electrical mark resulting from the injury inflicted by technical electricity in the aqueous environment include cell lengthening, blister formation inside the corneal layer, and the separation of epidermis from the skin proper.

  20. The benomyl test as a fundamental diagnostic method for medical mycology.

    PubMed Central

    Summerbell, R C

    1993-01-01

    The fungicide benomyl has long been known to differentially affect major taxonomic groups of fungi. In the present study 163 species or aggregates of closely similar species of medically important fungi and actinomycetes, as well as species commonly isolated as clinical contaminants, were tested to determine their reactions to three concentrations of benomyl. Fungi of basidiomycetous, endomycetous, and microascaceous affinities were highly resistant, including all common yeasts and Geotrichum, Pseudallescheria, Scedosporium, and Scopulariopsis species. Also resistant were fungi of pleosporalean affinities with poroconidial anamorphs, such as Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, and Exserohilum species. Most other fungi of ascomycetous affinity were moderately to strongly susceptible. Such fungi included dermatophytes; Coccidioides, Blastomyces, and Histoplasma species; Sporothrix schenckii; medically important aspergilli; and "black yeasts." Benomyl testing aided in the provisional identification of nonsporulating mycelia, including common basidiomycetous isolates obtained as contaminants as well as nonsporulating Aspergillus fumigatus from pulmonary sources. PMID:8458952

  1. Comparison of grayscale and color-scale renderings of digital medical images for diagnostic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Akio; Kamakura, Aoi; Kaneko, Youhei; Kitaoka, Tomoya; Hayashi, Norio; Taniguchi, Anna

    2017-03-27

    Medical images are increasingly being rendered as digital images that are displayed on a monitor to provide diagnoses. However, these images are often rendered in grayscale. In this context, we compare the detectability of low-contrast signals between digital grayscale images and color-scale images. Low-contrast phantom images were rendered with the use of five color tables (gray, blue, red, yellow, and green). The 32 acquired images sorted in random order were evaluated by nine observers, and their observations were subjected to receiver operating characteristic analysis. In addition, the evaluators' preferred color and their eye fatigue upon image observation were compared. The low-contrast resolutions of yellow and green color scales were superior to that of grayscale. The use of yellow resulted in the least eye fatigue, and importantly our results indicate that the interpretation of digital medical images can be improved when these images are rendered in a "yellow scale" rather than grayscale.

  2. A Diagnostic Analysis of Erroneous Language in Iranian Medical Specialists’ Research Papers

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Javad; Zeinolabedini, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As English has increasingly become the lingua franca in science and international journals require native-like academic writing standards from nonnative researchers, there is more pressure on nonnative scholars to write their research articles more accurately and appropriately in English. This study was conducted to determine the most-occurring language-related errors which Iranian medical authors/researchers commit while trying to have their research published in international English journals. Also, this article seeks to provide useful guidelines to reduce such linguistic mistakes. Methods: The present study investigated the most common language-related errors in Iranian medical specialists’ research articles. To this end, the first drafts of 60 published research articles in medical sciences were cross-checked against their peer-reviewed published versions in order to identify the most frequent non-target language forms which received discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions by peer editors. Results: The findings revealed that the editors had surprisingly dealt with discoursal errors more than any other linguistic aspects of these research articles. This was followed by lexical replacements. In third place were grammatical improvements, where erroneous structures mostly related to tenses, usage of articles and prepositions, and agreement between verbs and nouns were treated. The least common revisions were on the mechanics of academic writing, consisting of hyphenating, spelling, case lettering, spacing, and spacing with commas. Conclusion: Although most of the Iranian medical authors/researchers enjoyed a good level of proficiency in English, their manuscripts required discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions before publication in credited international journals. PMID:26157466

  3. A history of evidence in medical decisions: from the diagnostic sign to Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference in medical decision making is a concept that has a long history with 3 essential developments: 1) the recognition of the need for data (demonstrable scientific evidence), 2) the development of probability, and 3) the development of inverse probability. Beginning with the demonstrative evidence of the physician's sign, continuing through the development of probability theory based on considerations of games of chance, and ending with the work of Jakob Bernoulli, Laplace, and others, we will examine how Bayesian inference developed.

  4. Urban-rural disparities in hypertension prevalence, detection, and medication use among Chinese Adults from 1993 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Shi, Leiyu; Li, Shixue; Xu, Lingzhong; Qin, Wen; Wang, Heng

    2017-03-14

    China has experienced a rapid increase in hypertension over the past decade, especially in rural. Therefore, the aim of this research is to examine the dynamic trends in urban-rural disparities in hypertension prevalence, detection, and medication use among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2011. Data were extracted from the seven latest waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We used the hukou system to distinguish between urban and rural residents. Chi-square tests were performed to examine urban-rural gaps in hypertension prevalence, detection and medication use. Multiple logistic regressions were used to confirm these disparities and to explore whether the urban-rural gaps have narrowed or widened from 1993 to 2011, after controlling for health-related behaviors, BMI, demographic variables and socioeconomic characteristics. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was also used to calculate the extent to which urban-rural disparities reflect an endowments effect or a coefficients effect. Hypertension prevalence, detection, and medication use among rural adults were significantly lower than urban adults, with the significant level at p < 0.001. The urban-rural gaps in hypertension prevalence and medication use gradually narrowed during the period 1993-2011, whereas the gaps in hypertension detection grew wider. After controlling for confounding variables, urban adults were about 24.5, 49.4, and 89.5% more likely to be hypertensive, detected, and medicated than their rural counterparts (p < 0.01), respectively. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition suggested that approximately 22 and 26% of the urban-rural gap in hypertension detection and medication use could be attributed to coefficient difference, respectively. Although hypertension prevalence among rural adults was comparable to that of urban adults, hypertension detection and medication use of rural adults were still suboptimal. Unusually large urban-rural gaps and an expanding trend in

  5. Use of digital patient photographs and electronic medical record data as diagnostic tools in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Koichi; Suzuki, Muneoh; Araki, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    An electronic medical record (EMR) system was introduced to the University of Miyazaki Hospital, in Japan, in 2006. This hospital is the only one in Japan to store digital photographs of patients within EMRs. In this paper, we report on the utility of these digital photographs for disease diagnosis. Digital photographs of patients were taken at the time of hospitalization, and have been used for patient identification by medical staff. More than 20,000 digital photographs have been saved, along with examination data and medical history classified by disease, since the introduction of EMR. In the first part of the present study, we analyzed the facial cheek color of patients using photographs taken at the time of hospitalization in relation to diagnoses in six disease categories that were considered to lead to characteristic facial skin characteristics. We verified the presence or absence of a characteristic color for each disease category. Next, we focused on four diseases, Analysis of the facial skin color of 1268 patients found the same patterns of characteristic color. Overall, we found significant differences in complexion according to disease type, based on the analysis of color from digital photos and other EMR information. We propose that color analysis data should become an additional item of information stored in EMRs.

  6. Microfluidic blood plasma separation for medical diagnostics: is it worth it?

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, W S; Obaje, E A; Bachmann, T T; Kersaudy-Kerhoas, M

    2016-09-21

    Circulating biomarkers are on the verge of becoming powerful diagnostic tools for various human diseases. However, the complex sample composition makes it difficult to detect biomarkers directly from blood at the bench or at the point-of-care. Blood cells are often a source of variability of the biomarker signal. While the interference of hemoglobin is a long known source of variability, the release of nucleic acids and other cellular components from hemocytes is a new concern for measurement and detection of circulating extracellular markers. Research into miniaturised blood plasma separation has been thriving in the last 10 years (2006-2016). Most point-of-care systems need microscale blood plasma separation, but developed solutions differ in complexity and sample volume range. But could blood plasma separation be avoided completely? This focused review weights the advantages and limits of miniaturised blood plasma separation and highlights the most interesting advances in direct capture as well as smart blood plasma separation.

  7. The Biplot as a diagnostic tool of local dependence in latent class models. A medical application.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, R; Vicente-Villardón, J L; Galindo, M P

    2008-05-20

    Latent class models (LCMs) can be used to assess diagnostic test performance when no reference test (a gold standard) is available, considering two latent classes representing disease or non-disease status. One of the basic assumptions in such models is that of local or conditional independence: all indicator variables (tests) are statistically independent within each latent class. However, in practice this assumption is often violated; hence, the two-LCM fits the data poorly. In this paper, we propose the use of Biplot methods to identify the conditional dependence between pairs of manifest variables within each latent class. Additionally, we propose incorporating such dependence in the corresponding latent class using the log-linear formulation of the model.

  8. Focal congenital hyperinsulinism managed by medical treatment: a diagnostic algorithm based on molecular genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Arianna; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Boiani, Arianna; Rufini, Vittoria; Pizzoferro, Milena; Francalanci, Paola; Faletra, Flavio; Nichols, Colin G; Grimaldi, Chiara; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Rahier, Jacques; Henquin, Jean-Claude; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) requires rapid diagnosis and treatment to avoid irreversible neurological sequelae due to hypoglycaemia. Aetiological diagnosis is instrumental in directing the appropriate therapy. Current diagnostic algorithms provide a complete set of diagnostic tools including (i) biochemical assays, (ii) genetic facility and (iii) state-of-the-art imaging. They consider the response to a therapeutic diazoxide trial an early, crucial step before proceeding (or not) to specific genetic testing and eventually imaging, aimed at distinguishing diffuse vs focal CHI. However, interpretation of the diazoxide test is not trivial and can vary between research groups, which may lead to inappropriate decisions. Objective of this report is proposing a new algorithm in which early genetic screening, rather than diazoxide trial, dictates subsequent clinical decisions. Two CHI patients weaned from parenteral glucose infusion and glucagon after starting diazoxide. No hypoglycaemia was registered during a 72-h continuous glucose monitoring (CGMS), or hypoglycaemic episodes were present for no longer than 3% of 72-h. Normoglycaemia was obtained by low-medium dose diazoxide combined with frequent carbohydrate feeds for several years. We identified monoallelic, paternally inherited mutations in KATP channel genes, and (18) F-DOPA PET-CT revealed a focal lesion that was surgically resected, resulting in complete remission of hypoglycaemia. Although rare, some patients with focal lesions may be responsive to diazoxide. As a consequence, we propose an algorithm that is not based on a 'formal' diazoxide response but on genetic testing, in which patients carrying paternally inherited ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutations should always be subjected to (18) F-DOPA PET-CT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Diagnostic Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Diagnostic Laparoscopy? A laparoscope is a telescope designed for medical use. It is connected to ... just below the ribs. A laparoscope (a tiny telescope) connected to a special camera is inserted through ...

  10. Nanostructured oxide-based selective gas sensor arrays for chemical monitoring and medical diagnostics in isolated environments.

    PubMed

    Gouma, Pelagia-Irene

    2005-01-01

    MoO3 and MoO3-WO3-based resistive type sensors/arrays have been used for the detection of toxic gaseous compounds important to environmental monitoring and to medical diagnostics. The responses of the sensing elements when exposed to 400 ppm of methanol, 10 ppm of isoprene, and 15 ppm of ammonia at temperatures between 400 degrees C and 500 degrees C have been assessed. A correlation was made between the crystallography of the nanostructured oxide sensing films and their relative gas selectivity to the analytes of interest. Arrays of selective sensing elements are proposed as valuable tools for the survival of humans in isolated environments and for space exploration.

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic values of serum exosomal microRNA-21 in children with hepatoblastoma: a Chinese population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanbo; Chen, Sheng; Liu, Bing

    2016-11-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver in young children. The aim of this study is to identify the diagnostic and prognostic values of serum exosomal miR-21 in Chinese patients with HB. We retrospectively reviewed 32 children with HB. The expressions of miR-21 were detected by real-time PCR. The comparison of diagnostic performance of plasmatic, exosomal miR-21 and AFP levels was measured using the Area Under ROC Curve. For patients in HB group, miR-21 concentration was significantly higher in the exosomes compared with the exosome-depleted supernatants and whole plasma. Expression of miR-21 was significantly higher in patients with HB compared with control group in both plasma and exosomes. With respect to the diagnosis of patients with HB, exosomal miR-21 was significantly more accurate compared with the Alpha-fetoprotein levels. Moreover, exosomal miR-21 was an independent predictor of Even-free survival for patients with HB. In this study, we found that expression of miR-21 was significantly higher in patients with HB compared with control group in both plasma and exosomes, and we confirmed that exosomal miR-21 could be defined as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with HB.

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of deployment-related medical conditions and shipboard training-related injuries in a Chinese Navy population.

    PubMed

    Qi, R-R; Wang, J-Q; Pan, L-L; Zhou, W; Liu, J-L; Ju, J-T; Cai, Y-L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the deployment-related medical conditions and shipboard tactical training-related injuries in a Chinese Navy population. A retrospective study with the Chinese Navy was conducted. The medical records of 1543 Navy crewmembers from 2011 to 2015 were collected. The distribution and incidence rate (IR) of different types of medical conditions were provided and compared between the Aden Gulf deployment and nondeployment periods. The occurrence of military training-related injuries in crewmembers receiving 12-week shipboard tactical training was compared with that of 956 marines and 4371 recruits receiving combat and physical training, respectively. The anatomic locations and types of training-related injury were analyzed. Compared with the nondeployment period, the percentages of the following injuries were significantly higher during deployment: injuries and certain other consequences of external causes (16.97% vs 7.76%), diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (15.40% vs 10.34%) and mental and behavioral disorders (11.23% vs 3.45%); however, respiratory system diseases had a lower percentage (19.84% vs 28.35%). Far seas deployment significantly increased the IRs of acute upper respiratory infection, skin and eye infection, sprains and low back pain as well as aphthous ulcer, insomnia, and seasickness (P < 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001). Shipboard training induced higher IRs of injuries to the upper extremities, spine and back and head and face than physical training and a higher incidence of head and face injury than combat training (P < 0.05 or 0.001). Physical training had higher IRs of overuse injuries than shipboard and combat training (P < 0.001). The IR of fracture was higher during combat and physical training than shipboard training (P < 0.01 and 0.001). The Chinese Navy has experienced novel health issues in crewmembers in recent years. Corresponding countermeasures should be taken to address deployment-related medical

  13. Explaining medical disputes in Chinese public hospitals: the doctor-patient relationship and its implications for health policy reforms.

    PubMed

    He, Alex Jingwei; Qian, Jiwei

    2016-10-01

    In recent years China has witnessed a surge in medical disputes, including many widely reported violent riots, attacks, and protests in hospitals. This is the result of a confluence of inappropriate incentives in the health system, the consequent distorted behaviors of physicians, mounting social distrust of the medical profession, and institutional failures of the legal framework. The detrimental effects of the damaged doctor-patient relationship have begun to emerge, calling for rigorous study and serious policy intervention. Using a sequential exploratory design, this article seeks to explain medical disputes in Chinese public hospitals with primary data collected from Shenzhen City. The analysis finds that medical disputes of various forms are disturbingly widespread and reveals that inappropriate internal incentives in hospitals and the heavy workload of physicians undermine the quality of clinical encounters, which easily triggers disputes. Empirically, a heavy workload is associated with a larger number of disputes. A greater number of disputes are associated with higher-level hospitals, which can afford larger financial settlements. The resolution of disputes via the legal channel appears to be unpopular. This article argues that restoring a healthy doctor-patient relationship is no less important than other institutional aspects of health care reform.

  14. A structural equation model relating work stress, coping resource, and quality of life among Chinese medical professionals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siying; Li, Huangyuan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaorong

    2010-11-01

    Work stress and coping resource may contribute to the quality of life in medical professionals. This study is to determine the relationships among work stressor, personal strain, coping resource and the quality of life (QOL) and its two dimensions in medical professionals. The Chinese version of Short Form-36 Health Survey was used to measure QOL, the modified edition of the Occupational Stress Inventory was applied to evaluate the work stressor, personal strain and coping resources among 2,721 medical professionals. The structural equation model was established to assess the relationships among these variables. Work stressor and coping resources had both direct and indirect effects on QOL and its two dimensions, the indirect effects were mediated by personal strain. Personal strain had a negative direct effect on QOL and its two dimensions. This study confirmed a complex relationship among these variables. Countermeasures targeting work stressor, reducing personal strain and strengthening coping resources are necessary in order to improve the QOL among medical professionals. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Medical logistics: principles applied to diagnostics and therapy in women with symptoms and signs of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Kåresen, Rolf; Hervik, Arild; Schlichting, Ellen

    2003-06-12

    Using breast cancer as an example, we suggest that medical logistics should be introduced as a method for continuous improvement of quality and cost-effectiveness in the health care system. Ullevaal University Hospital has approximately 500 newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer per year. The triple diagnostic test supplemented by MRI are the diagnostic tools. We rely on fine needle aspiration cytology as the only morphological test before surgery, which is done as day surgery. 70 % of the patients return home on the same day, the others stay in a patient hotel until the drains can be removed. The sentinel node procedure is routine and has been done on 610 patients. Of 1502 radically operated, 2 had false positive cytology (0.12 per cent). Of 610 sentinel node cases, 91 % were found; of these, 23 % had metastasis. Among the negative cases, two have so far experienced recurrence of the disease in the axilla. The patients are well satisfied. Total yearly savings compared to the era before sentinel node and use of a patient hotel has been calculated to approximately 400 000 euro. We find our results so far acceptable as regards the use of fine needle aspiration cytology as well as the sentinel node. Both techniques are, however, technically demanding and should only be used in centres that have continuous quality monitoring.

  16. Performance of physical examination skills in medical students during diagnostic medicine course in a University Hospital of Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (p<0.001). The average error frequency per student in females (0.875) was lower than in males (1.375) although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.167). The average error frequency per student in cardiac (1.267) and pulmonary (1.389) examinations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p = 0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (p<0.001). These data suggest that PE skills in cardiac and pulmonary examinations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students.

  17. Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (p<0.001). The average error frequency per student in females (0.875) was lower than in males (1.375) although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.167). The average error frequency per student in cardiac (1.267) and pulmonary (1.389) examinations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p = 0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (p<0.001). These data suggest that PE skills in cardiac and pulmonary examinations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

  18. Framework negotiations: diagnostic insights among alternative medical practitioners participating in integrative medicine case conferences.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Ellen J

    2014-03-01

    Medical anthropology concerns itself with cultural interpretations of health and illness in complex pluralistic societies whose members incorporate multiple strategies to address health issues. This research explored the variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) topics introduced into biomedically structured clinical evaluation. A field study of routine case conferences held within a clinical fellowship program in integrative medicine (IM) provided the ideal setting to explore contrasting conceptualizations of disease. Study results yielded five core sources of information sought by CAM practitioners, typically not addressed in biomedicine: social relations history within family of origin, emotional health, energetic health, spiritual health, and in-depth nutritional evaluation. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. Zhong Yi acupuncture and low-back pain: traditional Chinese medical acupuncture differential diagnoses and treatments for chronic lumbar pain.

    PubMed

    Birch, S; Sherman, K

    1999-10-01

    Little attention has been given to selecting treatments in clinical trials of acupuncture. Yet in order to perform objective tests of this procedure, it is crucial that the selected treatments are considered representative of the style of practice being tested. We examined 16 traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) acupuncture texts or treatment articles to determine the consistency of diagnosis and recommended treatment for chronic low-back pain. Although 24 diagnostic patterns were described by 1 or more texts, only 4 patterns were described by at least half of the texts. Most texts (12/16) described only 3 or 4 patterns. These could be categorized into 3 broad types: cold, damp, wind, heat channel obstruction patterns; kidney vacuity patterns (sometimes differentiated into yang and yin patterns); and blood (or blood and qi) stasis patterns. Several acupuncture points were recommended by most texts regardless of the diagnosis, whereas other acupoints were recommended for specific diagnostic patterns. There was, however, substantial variation between texts in recommended acupoints, with less than 20% of all acupoints recommended by half or more of the texts. This varibility will make it difficult to select TCM treatments for clinical trials of chronic low-back pain that have wide applicability. We believe that examining treatment patterns in actual clinical practice is crucial in this situation. We suggest that this method of selecting treatments should be part of the process used when selecting treatments for all clinical trials of acupuncture, regardless of the style of practice.

  20. Comparison of the Quality of Life, Perceived Stigma and Medication Adherence of Chinese with Schizophrenia: A Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Petrini, Marcia; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-02-01

    The community-based mental health services were encouraged to improve the quality of life for individuals with chronic mental disorders in Mainland China. This study aims to explore how the quality of life, perceived stigma, and medication adherence differ among a Chinese population with schizophrenia prior to and one-month following discharge. One hundred and twenty-eight Chinese people with schizophrenia completed the self-report scales: the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), the Link' Stigma Scale, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) prior to discharge and at one month after discharge. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a paired sample t-test. The findings of SQLS demonstrate deterioration on psychosocial and motivation/energy domain (P<0.001) accompanied by improvement of symptom/side effect (P<0.05) after discharge. The scores of perceived stigma and actual stigma coping orientations (P<0.001) after discharge were found to be significantly higher than before discharge. Medication adherence was significantly reduced after discharge than before discharge (P<0.001). The results of this study provide implications for clinical practices, such as provision of psychosocial and educational rehabilitation programs for individuals who are in a stable mental status and plan to discharge; and to provide effective family education in order to improve family coping strategies and caring capabilities when patients return to the community. The findings provide important policy implications as well to facilitate individuals with schizophrenia to reintegrate into the community and benefit from a favorable QOL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A cross-sectional study on compliance with topical glaucoma medication and its associated socioeconomic burden for a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Man-Hin; Lam, Jason Chun Ho; Kwong, Yi Lee; Wong, Tak Siu; Cheung, Pak Long; Lai, Sherri Shun Yan; Yuen, Pak Lun; Lam, Wai Yiu; Chan, Ho Yan; Wong, Yiu Fai; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2017-01-01

    AIM To estimate the overall drug compliance for local Chinese glaucoma patients on long-term topical treatment. METHODS This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven primary glaucoma patients from the subspecialty clinic of a publicly-funded tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on compliance with topical glaucoma medication, attitude towards glaucoma and therapy and vision related quality of life. Noncompliance was defined as reporting missing more than or equal to 10% of the prescribed topical glaucoma medication during the 2wk immediately prior to the consultation. Relationships between noncompliance and demographics, attitude, disease and treatment status was studied. Cost was estimated with quality of life and direct medical cost involved with noncompliance. Multivariable logistic regression on noncompliance was performed on selected factors. RESULTS Compliance was calculated as 75% (95% CI: 64%-87%) among 57 subjects (mean age 69y, female 51%). No statistical significant relationship was established between noncompliance and any single factors or outcomes. Age (P=0.048) and forgetfulness (P=0.064) were found to be marginally significant predictive factors on noncompliance in multivariable logistic regression. Noncompliance might be related (P=0.130) to poorer self-rated vision-associated quality of life. The societal cost of noncompliance was estimated to be over 2510 life-years and US$ 3.7 million territory-wide. CONCLUSION The compliance of Chinese glaucoma patients in Hong Kong is comparable to other parts in the world, and carries detrimental impacts on individual and societal levels. Age and forgetfulness are two possible independent predictors for noncompliance. PMID:28251091

  2. Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanping; Xiao, Wengang; Li, Chengren; Liu, Yunlai; Qin, Maolin; Wu, Yi; Xiao, Lan; Li, Hongli

    2014-04-09

    Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p < 0.05). There were no substantial differences between the two groups in the mean score rate of multiple-choice questions and the short essay category (p > 0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p < 0.05). The questionnaire results indicate that the VM system improves students' productivity and promotes learning efficiency. Furthermore, students reported other positive effects of the VM system in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, ease of communication and confidence. The VM system is an effective tool at Chinese medical university to promote undergraduates' active learning and problem-solving skills as an

  3. Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Methods Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students’ teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Results Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p < 0.05). There were no substantial differences between the two groups in the mean score rate of multiple-choice questions and the short essay category (p > 0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p < 0.05). The questionnaire results indicate that the VM system improves students’ productivity and promotes learning efficiency. Furthermore, students reported other positive effects of the VM system in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, ease of communication and confidence. Conclusions The VM system is an effective tool at Chinese medical university to promote undergraduates

  4. Diagnostic medical imaging radiation exposure and risk of development of solid and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Berkes, Marschall B; Dy, Christopher J; Bogner, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Limiting patients' exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic imaging is of concern to patients and clinicians. Large single-dose exposures and cumulative exposures to ionizing radiation have been associated with solid tumors and hematologic malignancy. Although these associations have been a driving force in minimizing patients' exposure, significant risks are found when diagnoses are missed and subsequent treatment is withheld. Therefore, based on epidemiologic data obtained after nuclear and occupational exposures, dose exposure limits have been estimated. A recent collaborative effort between the US Food and Drug Administration and the American College of Radiology has provided information and tools that patients and imaging professionals can use to avoid unnecessary ionizing radiation scans and ensure use of the lowest feasible radiation dose necessary for studies. Further collaboration, research, and development should focus on producing technological advances that minimize individual study exposures and duplicate studies. This article outlines the research used to govern safe radiation doses, defines recent initiatives in decreasing radiation exposure, and provides orthopedic surgeons with techniques that may help decrease radiation exposure in their daily practice.

  5. Munchausen's syndrome by proxy and Lyme disease: medical misogyny or diagnostic mystery?

    PubMed

    Sherr, Virginia T

    2005-01-01

    Chronic, tertiary Lyme disease, a vector-borne infection most accurately designated neuroborreliosis, is often misdiagnosed. Infectors of the human brain, Lyme borrelial spirochetes are neurotropic, similar to the spirochetes of syphilis. Symptoms of either disease may be stable and persistent, transient and inconsistent or severe yet fleeting. Characteristics may be incompatible with established knowledge of neurological dermatomes, appearing to conventional medical eyes as anatomically impossible, thus creating confusion for doctors, parents and child patients. Physicians unfamiliar with Lyme patients' shifting, seemingly vague, emotional, and/or bizarre-sounding complaints, frequently know little about late-stage spirochetal disease. Consequently, they may accuse mothers of fabricating their children's symptoms--the so-called Munchausen's by proxy (MBP) "diagnoses." Women, following ancient losses of feminine authority in provinces of religion, ethics, and healing - disciplines comprising known fields of early medicine, have been scapegoated throughout history. In the Middle Ages, women considered potentially weak-minded devil's apprentices became victims of witch-hunts throughout Europe and America. Millions of women were burned alive at the stake. Modern medicine's tendency to trivialize women's "offbeat" concerns and the fact that today's hurried physicians of both genders tend to seek easy panaceas, frequently result in the misogyny of mother-devaluation, especially by doctors who are spirochetally naïve. These factors, when involving cases of cryptic neuroborreliosis, may lead to accusations of MBP. Thousands of children, sick from complex diseases, have been forcibly removed from mothers who insist, contrary to customary evaluations, that their children are ill. The charges against these mothers relate to the idea they believe their children sick to satisfy warped internal agendas of their own. "MBP mothers" are then vilified, frequently jailed and

  6. [Discussing the safety application of Chinese materia medics in patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Min-Zhou; Kong, Xiang-Zhao

    2012-07-01

    Along with the development of Chinese medicine and pharmacy (CMP), Chinese materia medica (CMM) has been used more and more widely at home and abroad. But we have to confront worsening problems such as lack of safety evidence, immature self -formulation technologies, lack of knowledge about their toxicities, and public misunderstanding, especially for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we cardiovascular physicians are requested improve knowledge for CMM preparations and their effects and side effects, supervise and identify the interactions between CMM and Westem medicine. Meanwhile, the researchers are also requested to assess the safety and efficacy of CMM through rigorous experimental designs, further improve the quality, safety, and efficacy of CMM, strictly formulate the specification of CMM products, guide the rational use of CMM by clinicians and the general public.

  7. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Herbal compatibility of traditional Chinese medical formulas for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyan; Song, Chunxin

    2012-09-01

    Because herbal compatibility is one of the most important reasons why Traditional Chinese Medcine (TCM) formulas are effective for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), our study aimed to determine the compatibility of herbs based on published AIDS clinical research in Chinese periodicals. To achieve this aim, we designed a new data-mining algorithm according to TCM data characteristics. We found 25 clinical AIDS studies, all using Chinese herbs for treatment, in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database System, and information on diagnosis and treatment was extracted. To find out herbal compatibility, especially the formulae for herbal combinations, we proposed an improved association rule algorithm based on the frequency of combinations. In this algorithm, all the compatibility relationships were displayed in a tree structure, by which the relationship between formulas and their derivation could be clearly inferred. Data analysis showed that approximately 100 herbs have been used for treating AIDS. Based on the whole herb compatibility tree, we calculated a basic formula for AIDS: Huang Qi combined with Ren Shen, Fu Ling, Bai Zhu, Bai Zhu, Dang Gui, and Bai Shao. This formula, deriving from most of clinical prescriptions, and was chosed by most of clinicians for AIDS treatment. From data mining we found that Qi replenishment and detoxification were the main treatment principles, which coincided with the AIDS pathological mechanism in which immune function is destroyed by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our data-mining results suggest that the core TCM treatment of AIDS is replenishing Qi and detoxification, by which AIDS patients' immune system may be enhanced. Compatibility of Huang Qi with some frequently-used herbs have shown real efficacy in clinical practice, which warrants pharmacological research in the future.

  9. Clinical simulation training improves the clinical performance of Chinese medical students

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-ya; Cheng, Xin; Xu, An-ding; Luo, Liang-ping; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    Background Modern medical education promotes medical students’ clinical operating capacity rather than the mastery of theoretical knowledge. To accomplish this objective, clinical skill training using various simulations was introduced into medical education to cultivate creativity and develop the practical ability of students. However, quantitative analysis of the efficiency of clinical skill training with simulations is lacking. Methods In the present study, we compared the mean scores of medical students (Jinan University) who graduated in 2013 and 2014 on 16 stations between traditional training (control) and simulative training groups. In addition, in a clinical skill competition, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores of participating medical students trained using traditional and simulative training were compared. The data were statistically analyzed and qualitatively described. Results The results revealed that simulative training could significantly enhance the graduate score of medical students compared with the control. The OSCE scores of participating medical students in the clinical skill competition, trained using simulations, were dramatically higher than those of students trained through traditional methods, and we also observed that the OSCE marks were significantly increased for the same participant after simulative training for the clinical skill competition. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that clinical skill training with a variety of simulations could substantially promote the clinical performance of medical students and optimize the resources used for medical education, although a precise analysis of each specialization is needed in the future. PMID:26478142

  10. Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: early diagnostics and effects of medication and brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brabenec, L; Mekyska, J; Galaz, Z; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-03-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation. A systematic literature search of articles written in English before March 2016 was conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, SpringerLink, and IEEE Xplore databases using and combining specific relevant keywords. Articles were categorized into three groups: (1) articles focused on neural correlates of HD in PD using functional imaging (n = 13); (2) articles dealing with the acoustic analysis of HD in PD (n = 52); and (3) articles concerning specifically dopaminergic and brain stimulation-related effects as assessed by acoustic analysis (n = 31); the groups were then reviewed. We identified 14 combinations of speech tasks and acoustic features that can be recommended for use in describing the main features of HD in PD. While only a few acoustic parameters correlate with limb motor symptoms and can be partially relieved by dopaminergic medication, HD in PD seems to be mainly related to non-dopaminergic deficits and associated particularly with non-motor symptoms. Future studies should combine non-invasive brain stimulation with voice behavior approaches to achieve the best treatment effects by enhancing auditory-motor integration.

  11. [Analysis on medication regularity of Chinese patent medicines containing Scutellaria baicalensis].

    PubMed

    Jia, Qiang; Shen, Dan; Tang, Shi-Huan; Li, De-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the composition regularity of prescriptions containing Scutellaria baicalensis in Drug Standard of Ministry of Public Health of the Peoples Republic of China--Chinese Patent Medicines and Preparations on the basis of the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS), in order to provide reference for new drug R&D. the platform's software V2.0 was applied to establish a database of prescriptions containing S. baicalensis. The software's statistical statement module, association rules and improved mutual information method and other data mining technologies were adopted to analyze commonly used drugs, combination rules and core combination of S. baicalensis prescriptions. Having analyzed 477 prescriptions containing S. baicalensis, the researchers summarized 45 most commonly used drug combinations, whose ingredients mostly had functions of heat-clearing and damp-drying, purging fire for removing toxin and hemostasis. Drugs adopted in core combinations were relatively concentrated and selected according to definite composition methods. There were 23 diseases that S. baicalensis were most frequently applied in the treatment. Having compared three highly frequent diseases--cold, cough and dizziness, the researchers concluded that S. baicalensis could show different therapeutic effects through different combination ratios. Therefore, TCMISS (V2.0) is an important tool in analyzing the composition regularity of traditional Chinese medicines. The longitudinal and parallel comparison method is an effective method for studying the clinical composition regularity of S. baicalensis, while providing reference for new drug R&D.

  12. Traditional Chinese infant supplementary medical foods given by mothers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Sung, R Y; Lui, S; Lo, L; Leung, S S; Davies, D P

    1988-01-01

    Chinese mothers living in Hong Kong are used to giving their babies special medicinal food to strengthen the infant's internal defences and to restore the body's harmonious state. However since the majority of registered doctors are trained in the Western pharmacological tradition it is difficult for them to comprehend the concepts and idioms of this practice. This paper set out to investigate the frequency and varieties of medicinal foods given to 166 Chinese infants during the first 30 months after birth. One hundred and forty seven babies were given medicinal foods at some stage. The frequency of their administration varied from weekly to once or twice per month. The most popular medicinal food was "Job's tears" and the most widely administered compound herb preparations were milk preparation solution, flower teas and various cool teas. The potential pharmacological effects of these medicinal foods were searched from a Chinese medicines computerized database and found to be principally anti-inflammatory, bacteriostatic, diuretic and appetite stimulant. This study contributed a better appreciation of the popularity of infant supplementary medicinal foods in Hong Kong and the rationale for their use.

  13. Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

    2008-07-01

    Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

  14. A Retrospective Survey of Research Design and Statistical Analyses in Selected Chinese Medical Journals in 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhichao; Yu, Danghui; Zhang, Luoman; Meng, Hong; Lu, Jian; Gao, Qingbin; Cao, Yang; Ma, Xiuqiang; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Rui; He, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Background High quality clinical research not only requires advanced professional knowledge, but also needs sound study design and correct statistical analyses. The number of clinical research articles published in Chinese medical journals has increased immensely in the past decade, but study design quality and statistical analyses have remained suboptimal. The aim of this investigation was to gather evidence on the quality of study design and statistical analyses in clinical researches conducted in China for the first decade of the new millennium. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten (10) leading Chinese medical journals were selected and all original articles published in 1998 (N = 1,335) and 2008 (N = 1,578) were thoroughly categorized and reviewed. A well-defined and validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation. Main outcomes were the frequencies of different types of study design, error/defect proportion in design and statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT in randomized clinical trials. From 1998 to 2008: The error/defect proportion in statistical analyses decreased significantly ( = 12.03, p<0.001), 59.8% (545/1,335) in 1998 compared to 52.2% (664/1,578) in 2008. The overall error/defect proportion of study design also decreased ( = 21.22, p<0.001), 50.9% (680/1,335) compared to 42.40% (669/1,578). In 2008, design with randomized clinical trials remained low in single digit (3.8%, 60/1,578) with two-third showed poor results reporting (defects in 44 papers, 73.3%). Nearly half of the published studies were retrospective in nature, 49.3% (658/1,335) in 1998 compared to 48.2% (761/1,578) in 2008. Decreases in defect proportions were observed in both results presentation ( = 93.26, p<0.001), 92.7% (945/1,019) compared to 78.2% (1023/1,309) and interpretation ( = 27.26, p<0.001), 9.7% (99/1,019) compared to 4.3% (56/1,309), some serious

  15. A retrospective survey of research design and statistical analyses in selected Chinese medical journals in 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhichao; Yu, Danghui; Zhang, Luoman; Meng, Hong; Lu, Jian; Gao, Qingbin; Cao, Yang; Ma, Xiuqiang; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Rui; He, Jia

    2010-05-25

    High quality clinical research not only requires advanced professional knowledge, but also needs sound study design and correct statistical analyses. The number of clinical research articles published in Chinese medical journals has increased immensely in the past decade, but study design quality and statistical analyses have remained suboptimal. The aim of this investigation was to gather evidence on the quality of study design and statistical analyses in clinical researches conducted in China for the first decade of the new millennium. Ten (10) leading Chinese medical journals were selected and all original articles published in 1998 (N = 1,335) and 2008 (N = 1,578) were thoroughly categorized and reviewed. A well-defined and validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation. Main outcomes were the frequencies of different types of study design, error/defect proportion in design and statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT in randomized clinical trials. From 1998 to 2008: The error/defect proportion in statistical analyses decreased significantly ( = 12.03, p<0.001), 59.8% (545/1,335) in 1998 compared to 52.2% (664/1,578) in 2008. The overall error/defect proportion of study design also decreased ( = 21.22, p<0.001), 50.9% (680/1,335) compared to 42.40% (669/1,578). In 2008, design with randomized clinical trials remained low in single digit (3.8%, 60/1,578) with two-third showed poor results reporting (defects in 44 papers, 73.3%). Nearly half of the published studies were retrospective in nature, 49.3% (658/1,335) in 1998 compared to 48.2% (761/1,578) in 2008. Decreases in defect proportions were observed in both results presentation ( = 93.26, p<0.001), 92.7% (945/1,019) compared to 78.2% (1023/1,309) and interpretation ( = 27.26, p<0.001), 9.7% (99/1,019) compared to 4.3% (56/1,309), some serious ones persisted. Chinese medical research seems to have made

  16. Computer assisted development of diagnostic expert systems. A domain-independent package (EMPTY) for acquisition and use of expert's medical knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Molino, G.; Molino, F.; Torasso, P.; Console, L.; Ardissono, L.; Pogliano, P.

    1992-01-01

    The package EMPTY has been developed with the aim of providing a tool based on well assessed methodological principles which can support both the organisation and use of medical knowledge for diagnostic and educational purposes. EMPTY is domain-independent and results in two interactive programs: ASK guides the acquisition of medical knowledge and RUN supports medical decision-making and provides facilities for medical education. The knowledge bases developed on ASK have a standard formal structure: they include taxonomies, definitions and descriptions of diseases, clinical findings and investigations; production rules for activation and refinement of diagnostic hypotheses; frame-like profiles of diseases; and quantitative criteria for scoring the clinical evidence on the base of available data. PMID:1482894

  17. Factor Analysis of Teacher Professional Development in Chinese Military Medical Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…

  18. Factor Analysis of Teacher Professional Development in Chinese Military Medical Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…

  19. [Forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with certain poisonous mushrooms in the case of the lethal outcome in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Zaraf'aynts, G N

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with a view to improving forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with poisonous mushrooms in the cases of patients' death in a hospital. A total of 15 protocols of forensic medical examination of the corpses of the people who had died from acute poisoning were available for the analysis. The deathly toxins were amanitin and muscarine contained in various combinations in the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the early false morels (Gyromitra esculenta and G. gigas). The main poisoning season in the former case was May and in the latter case August and September (93.4%). The mortality rate in the case of group intoxication (such cases accounted for 40% of the total) amounted to 28.6%. 40% of the deceased subjects consumed mushrooms together with alcohol. The poisoning caused the development of either phalloidin- or gyromitrin-intoxication syndromes (after consumption of Amanita phalloides and Gyromitra esculenta respectively). It is emphasized that the forensic medical experts must substantiate the diagnosis of poisoning with mushroom toxins based on the results of the chemical-toxicological and/or forensic chemical investigations. The relevant materials taken from the victim or the corpse should be dispatched for analysis not only within the first day but also on days 2-4 after intoxication. The mycological and genetic analysis must include the detection and identification of mushroom microparticles and spores in the smears from the oral cavity, vomiting matter, wash water, gastric and intestinal contents. In addition, the macro- and microscopic morphological signs, clinical data (major syndromes, results of laboratory studies, methods of treatment) should be taken into consideration as well as the time (season) of mushroom gathering, simultaneous poisoning in a group of people, and other pertinent information.

  20. Building a diagnostic algorithm on localized neuropathic pain (LNP) and targeted topical treatment: focus on 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Roberto; Mattia, Consalvo

    2014-01-01

    Within the broad definition of neuropathic pain, the refinement of clinical diagnostic procedures has led to the introduction of the concept of localized neuropathic pain (LNP). It is characterized by consistent and circumscribed area(s) of maximum pain, which are associated with negative or positive sensory signs and/or spontaneous symptoms typical of neuropathic pain. This description outlines the clinical features (currently lacking in guidelines and treatment recommendations) in patients for whom topical targeted treatment with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster is suggested as first-line therapy. Few epidemiologic data are present in the literature but it is generally estimated that about 60% of neuropathic pain conditions are localized, and therefore identifiable as LNP. A mandatory clinical criterion for the diagnosis of LNP is that signs and symptoms must be present in a clearly identified and defined area(s). Cartographic recordings can help to define each area and to assess variations. The diagnosis of LNP relies on careful neurological examination more than on pain questionnaires, but it is recognized that they can be extremely useful for recording the symptom profiles and establishing a more targeted treatment. The most widely studied frequent/relevant clinical presentations of LNP are postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and neuropathic postoperative pain. They successfully respond to treatment with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster with equal if not better pain control but with fewer side effects versus conventional systemic treatments. Generally, the more localized the pain (ie, the area of an A4 sheet of paper) the better the results of topical treatment. This paper proposes an easy-to-understand algorithm to identify patients with LNP and to guide targeted topical treatments with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. PMID:24790451

  1. Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hong; Sun, Sida; Fang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced air dispersion modelling scheme is proposed to cope with the building layout and complex terrain of a typical Chinese nuclear power plant (NPP) site. In this modelling, the California Meteorological Model (CALMET) and the Stationary Wind Fit and Turbulence (SWIFT) are coupled with the Risø Mesoscale PUFF model (RIMPUFF) for refined wind field calculation. The near-field diffusion coefficient correction scheme of the Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in the Building Wakes Computer Code (ARCON96) is adopted to characterize dispersion in building arrays. The proposed method is evaluated by a wind tunnel experiment that replicates the typical Chinese NPP site. For both wind speed/direction and air concentration, the enhanced modelling predictions agree well with the observations. The fraction of the predictions within a factor of 2 and 5 of observations exceeds 55% and 82% respectively in the building area and the complex terrain area. This demonstrates the feasibility of the new enhanced modelling for typical Chinese NPP sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuing violence against medical personnel in China: A flagrant violation of Chinese law.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Gan; Tang, Qi; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-07-19

    Over the past few years, China has witnessed a surge in violence against medical personnel, including widely reported incidents of violent abuse, riots, attacks, and protests in hospitals, where doctors suffer from heavy workloads and little protection. China has engaged in serious efforts, such as investing large amounts into the healthcare system and implementing several decades of healthcare reform, to make medical care more accessible to and affordable for the public. However, incidents of violence against medical personnel have increased in intensity, reflecting deteriorating relations between medical staff and their patients in China over the past few decades. Hence, the effectiveness of healthcare legislation needs to be examined and medical reform and development of the healthcare system need to be reevaluated. Only by enhancing oversight, promoting healthcare reform, and improving the healthcare system can we repair the doctor-patient relationship and decrease violence against doctors in China.

  3. Non-medical use of psychoactive drugs in relation to suicide tendencies among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Juan, Wang; Jian-Xiong, Deng; Lan, Guo; Yuan, He; Xue, Gao; Jing-Hui, Huang; Guo-Liang, Huang; Ci-Yong, Lu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drug (NMUPD) among adolescents and to explore the associations between non-medical psychoactive prescription drug use and depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, and suicide. A two-stage stratified cluster sample design produced a representative sample of 12-19-year-old students in grades 1-6 who attended public middle schools in Guangdong province. Prevalence estimates (SE) of non-medical psychoactive prescription drug use were calculated, and logistic regression was used to examine its association with depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, and suicide. Overall, 7.5% of adolescents reported non-medical use of opioids, and 4.8% of adolescents reported non-medical use of sedatives. Lifetime, last-year, and last-month non-medical use of opioids and sedatives were positively associated with depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts among different gender and age-group adolescents. Those who reported last month non-medical use of opioids and sedatives had the greatest odds of reporting depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts. Males who were last month non-medical users of opioids or sedative had 8.9 or 10.7 times greater odds of reporting a suicidal attempt, and 8.8 or 9.8 times greater odds of reporting a suicidal attempt were observed among adolescents aged 16-19 who were last-month non-medical users of opioids or sedatives. These findings provide evidence for improving adolescents' suicide prevention strategy by targeting supervision on high risk current non-medical users of psychoactive drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatic segmentation of medical images using image registration: diagnostic and simulation applications.

    PubMed

    Barber, D C; Hose, D R

    2005-01-01

    Automatic identification of the boundaries of significant structure (segmentation) within a medical image is an are of ongoing research. Various approaches have been proposed but only two methods have achieved widespread use: manual delineation of boundaries and segmentation using intensity values. In this paper we describe an approach based on image registration. A reference image is prepared and segmented, by hand or otherwise. A patient image is registered to the reference image and the mapping then applied to ther reference segmentation to map it back to the patient image. In general a high-resolution nonlinear mapping is required to achieve accurate segmentation. This paper describes an algorithm that can efficiently generate such mappings, and outlines the uses of this tool in two relevant applications. An important feature of the approach described in this paper is that the algorithm is independent of the segmentation problem being addresses. All knowledge about the problem at hand is contained in files of reference data. A secondary benefit is that the continuous three-dimensional mapping generated is well suited to the generation of patient-specific numerical models (e.g. finite element meshes) from the library models. Smoothness constraints in the morphing algorithm tend to maintain the geometric quality of the reference mesh.

  5. Guided-mode resonance sensors for rapid medical diagnostic testing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawro, D.; Ding, Y.; Gimlin, S.; Zimmerman, S.; Kearney, C.; Pawlowski, K.; Magnusson, R.

    2009-02-01

    A new tag-free photonic resonance concept occurring on subwavelength waveguide gratings is applied for rapid medical testing applications. These high-resolution sensors operate in real time while being sensitive to a wide variety of analytes, including microbials. This method does not require extensive processing steps, thus simplifying assay tests and enabling a rapid response (less than 30 minutes is possible). In this work, a sensor system that uses a single, fixed-wavelength source with a shaped input wavefront to auto-scan in angle has been developed. As binding events occur at the sensor surface, shifts in a resonance reflection peak (or a corresponding transmission minimum) are tracked as a function of incident angle. The amount of angular shift is correlated to the quantity of analyte in the test sample. Due to inherent polarization diversity, two narrow peaks shift their positions on the sensor surface when a bioreaction occurs, thereby providing cross-referenced data. The sensor system connects to portable interfaces for data acquisition and analysis by dedicated software codes. A portable guided-mode resonance sensor system prototype has been developed. Its performance for the detection of the microbial S. aureus in buffer and rat serum is presented in this paper.

  6. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) or Its Shorter Versions More Useful to Identify Risky Drinkers in a Chinese Population? A Diagnostic Study