Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150
numbers of illegal migrants move directly from China into large Chinese communities in Guatemala, Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica . In those countries...done from Russian boats and because the entrenched Russian “ poaching mafia” is an integral part of harvesting rare fish and sea products by Chinese...Megan Saunders, “Triads Sink Hooks into Reef Fish ,” The Australian [Sydney], 17 February 2003, 5. 35 Faligot, 305-06. 36 Faligot, 306. 37 Faligot, 306
Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo
There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…
An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…
This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model. PMID:24381636
Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel
This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…
Chen, Lei; Liu, Yi; Liang, Sheng-Wang
Zebrafish has become an important model organism in many fields of biomedical studies and been increasingly used in Chinese materia medica studies in recent years. This article summarized the achievements and prospect for zebrafish as a pharmacological and toxicological tool in the study and development of Chinese materia medica.
Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Si-Long; Zhang, Wei-Dong
By using 13C stable isotope tracer technique, this paper studied the effects of Chinese fir litter addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, microbial biomass carbon, and dissolved organic carbon in 0-5 cm and 40-45 cm layers. The decomposition rate of SOC in 40-45 cm layer was significantly lower than that in 0-5 cm layer, but the priming effect induced by the Chinese fir litter addition showed an opposite trend. The Chinese fir litter addition increased the soil total microbial biomass carbon and the microbial biomass carbon derived from native soil significantly, but had less effects on the soil dissolved organic carbon. Turning over the subsoil to the surface of the woodland could accelerate the soil carbon loss in Chinese fir plantation due to the priming effect induced by the litters.
Zhang, De; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Baiyin
This paper examines the applicability of the learning organization concept and its measurement in a Chinese context. Based on the theoretical framework proposed by Watkins and Marsick (1993, 1996, 1997), this paper identifies the differences in seven of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) between traditional state-owned…
Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin
Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants.
Xuemei, Liu; Youping, Li; Senlin, Yin; Shangqi, Song
Background Result publication is the key step to improve the transparency of clinical trials. Objective To investigate the result publication rate of Chinese trials registered in World Health Organization (WHO) primary registries. Method We searched 11 WHO primary registries for Chinese trials records. The progress of each trial was analyzed. We searched for the full texts of result publications cited in the registration records. For completed trials without citations, we searched PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (Chinese), China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals Database for result publications. The search was conducted on July 14, 2009. We also called the investigators of completed trials to ask about results publication. Results We identified 1294 Chinese trials records (428 in ChiCTR,743 in clinicaltrials.gov,55 in ISRCTN, 21 in ACTRN). A total of 443 trials had been completed. The publication rate of the Chinese trials in WHO primary registries is 35.2%(156/443).The publication rate of Chinese trials in clinicaltrials.gov, ChiCTR, ISRCTN, and ACRTN was 36.5% (53/145), 36.3% (89/245), 26.0%(9/44), and 55.6%(5/9), respectively. The publication rate of trials sponsored by industry(23.8%) was lower than that of sponsored by central and local government(31.7%), hospital(35.1%), and universities (40.7%). The publication rate for randomized trials was higher than that of cohort study and case-control study (33.2% versus 16.7%, 22.2%). The publication rate for interventional studies and observational studies was similar(33.4% versus 33.3%). Conclusion The publication rate of the registered Chinese trials was low, with no significant difference between ChiCTR and clinicaltrials.gov. An effective mechanism is needed to promote publication of results for registered trials in China. PMID:20856888
Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang
Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.
Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum
Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…
This paper examines citizenship learning and identity construction of new Chinese immigrants in a Canadian immigration settlement organization (ISO). I address the gap between the concept of "settlement" and "citizenship" generated by government-funded ISOs and new immigrants' actual practices in these programs. I adopt Dorothy…
Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan
A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples.
Lyman, Stanford M.
This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…
He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan
Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.
Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, HyeRan; Park, Sang Un
In this study, we investigated the expression of seven MYB transcription factors (a total of 17 genes that included Dof1.1, IQD1-1, MYB28, MYB29, MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 and their isoforms) involved in aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate (GSL) biosynthesis and analyzed the aliphatic and indolic GSL content in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapassp. Pekinensis). MYB28 and MYB29 expression in the stem was dramatically different when compared with the levels in the other organs. MYB34, MYB122, MYB51, Dof1.1, and IQD1-1 showed very low transcript levels among different organs. HPLC analysis showed that the glucosinolates (GSLs) consisted of five aliphatic GSLs (progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, and glucobrassicanapin) and four indolic GSLs (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxygluco-brassicin, and neoglucobrassicin). Aliphatic GSLs exhibited 63.3% of the total GSLs content, followed by aromatic GSL (19.0%), indolic GSLs (10%), and unknown GSLs (7.7%) in different organs of Chinese cabbage. The total GSL content of different parts (ranked in descending order) was as follows: seed > flower > young leaves > stem > root > old leaves. The relationship between GSLs accumulation and expression of GSLs biosynthesis MYB TFs genes in different organs may be helpful to understand the mechanism of MYB TFs regulating GSL biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage.
Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian
Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015.
Chen, J X; Zhang, T M; Lim, F L; Wu, H C; Lei, T F; Yeong, P K; Xia, S J
Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square tests, and a logistic regression analysis. We found that blood donors showed significantly better awareness of heart, liver, lung, skin, and tendon donation among commonly transplanted organs/tissues. As to the willingness for cadaveric organ donation, 61.3% of respondents consented, 8.5% objected, and 30.3% answered "not sure." The percentage holding an organ donor card was 15.7% among students from Hong Kong; 3.0%, mainland China; 2.8%, Macau; 2.6%, Taiwan, and 4.0%, other regions of the world. In a logistic regression analysis, female students (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 3.72) and blood donors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.32) did, but age and study specialty (medical vs nonmedical) did not show significantly more positive attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. Compared with students from mainland China, overseas Chinese students from various regions did not show significantly different attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. In summary, blood donors among university students have a greater knowledge of transplantation and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Since university students are an important source of blood donors in China, they will be a potential pool of organ donors in the future.
Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liao, Hong-Kai; Long, Jian; Li, Juan; Liu, Ling-Fei
Taking 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-5), 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO- 17), 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-30) and the forest land (FL, about 60 years) in typical demonstration area of desertification control test in southwestern Guizhou as our research objects, the aim of this study using a batch incubation experiment was to research the mineralization characteristics of soil organic carbon and changes of the labile soil organic carbon contents at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm). The results showed that: the cumulative mineralization amounts of soil organic carbon were in the order of 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard, the forest land, 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard and 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard at corresponding depth. Distribution ratios of CO2-C cumulative mineralization amount to SOC contents were higher in Chinese prickly ash orchards than in forest land at each depth. Cultivation of Chinese prickly ash in long-term enhanced the mineralization of soil organic carbon, and decreased the stability of soil organic carbon. Readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon in forest land soils were significantly more than those in Chinese prickly ash orchards at each depth (P < 0.05). With the increasing times of cultivation of Chinese prickly ash, the contents of readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon first increased and then declined at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth, respectively, but an opposite trend was found at 30-50 cm depth. At 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm, cultivation of Chinese prickly ash could be good for improving the contents of labile soil organic carbon in short term, but it was not conducive in long-term. In this study, we found that cultivation of Chinese prickly ash was beneficial for the accumulation of labile organic carbon at the 30-50 cm depth.
Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo; Bao, Xuemei; Römheld, V; Roelcke, M
Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N, 28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources. In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production. This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.
Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo; Bao, Xuemei; Römheld, V; Roelcke, M
Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N, 28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources. In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production. This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.
Ma, Qing; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Zhang, Yujie; Murata, Masaki; Isahara, Hitoshi
This paper presents a method involving self-organizing monolingual semantic maps that are visible and continuous representations where Chinese or Japanese words with similar meanings are placed at the same or neighboring points so that the distance between them represents the semantic similarity. We used the self-organizing map, SOM, as a self-organizing device. The words to be self-organized are defined by sets of co-occurring words collected from Chinese or Japanese newspapers, according to their grammatical relationships. The words are then coded into vectors to be forwarded to the SOM, taking into account the semantic correlation between them, which is established using a form of word-similarity computation. The self-organized monolingual semantic maps are assessed by numerical evaluations of accuracy, recall, and the F-measure, as well as by intuition, and by the comparisons with a clustering method and with multivariate statistical analysis. This paper further discusses the possibility that the method we propose can be extended to constructing Japanese-Chinese bilingual semantic maps, with the aim of providing a semantics-based approach to word alignment in Japanese-Chinese parallel corpora. We also show the effectiveness of this extended method through small-scale comparative experiments with a baseline method, where the alignment of Japanese and Chinese words is directly determined through the Euclidean distance of vectors representing the words, with a clustering method, and with multivariate statistical analysis.
Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Bingjian
The identification and localization of organic binders in artworks are big challenges in archaeology and conservation science. Immunological techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) have the potential to become powerful tools for the analysis of organic materials in ancient samples. In this study, ELISA and IFM techniques were combined to identify chicken ovalbumin, glue from several mammalian species, bovine milk, and fish glue in ancient Chinese painting samples. As binders, egg ovalbumin was found in two painting samples and animal glue was found in three samples, which were dated from the 4th to 8th centuries. The results clearly demonstrate that ELISA and IFM can be used to validate results from ancient samples.
Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Catherine So-Kum
Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age plus or minus 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was associated with a greater expectation of medical neglect and a lower level of self-efficacy. Moreover, a higher level of death anxiety was also correlated with a lower likelihood of donor card signing and discussion of organ donation. The results of regression analyses suggested a mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between death anxiety and these behaviors. That is, death anxiety, by lowering one's perceived self-efficacy, reduces his/her likelihood to sign the donor card or to tell his/her donation decision. Findings suggest that death education program should be included in promotion campaigns for Chinese adults.
Cheng, Libao; Li, Shuyan; Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing
The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut.
Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing
The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut. PMID:27716802
Liu, Y; Zhang, P F
In modern China, most of the mass organizations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were civilian and established by the individuals with self support financially.The TCM Improvement Research Association of Shanxi Province was the first official TCM organization in modern China. For the purpose of ruling and recognition of TCM, Yan Xishan, the chief executive of Shanxi province, gave a full support to its creation, development, and operation of the Association with the military and political officials in the government served as part-time staff members of a few of important position in the Association. The Association was given funding and policy support by official ways. The local administrative departments cooperated with the Association affairs actively. Because of the stable organization and the abundant fund, the TCM Improvement Research Association developed quickly and steadily. As a result, the Association had been playing an important and increasing role in academic research, TCM education, medical and epidemic prevention and so on. It had become one of the great national TCM academic societies with prolonged existence. As an official Association, it was characterized with a dual property: a better foundation for development and little independency.
Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng; Guo, Wei-Yuan; Wuang, Yee-Pay
The Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) is a measure of visuosynthetic ability. Previously, the psychometric properties of the HVOT have been evaluated for Chinese-speaking children aged 5-11 years. This study reports development and further evidence of reliability and validity for a second version involving an extended age range of healthy…
Chen, Zhen; Li, Meng-Tao; Xu, Dong; Leng, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Qian; Tian, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shang-Zhu; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Feng
With this study, we provide insight into the clinical characteristics, laboratory characteristics, and organ damage associated with incomplete lupus syndromes (ILE) and search for predictors of organ damage in ILE. A retrospective chart review was performed on 77 hospitalized patients with ILE. The control patient group comprised 2104 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who were entered into the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR). The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/ACR Damage Index (SDI) was used to classify damage features. Based on their SDI score, ILE patients were divided into SDI > 0 and SDI = 0 groups. The percentages of anti-SSA-seropositive (54.5 %) and anti-RNP-seropositive (24.7 %) patients with ILE were higher than those found among the SLE patients from CSTAR (p < 0.001). The mean SDI score was 0.66 (range 0-2), and a damage score greater than 0 was present in 41 (53.3 %) patients. The most prevalent damage category was pulmonary damage, present in 17 (22.1 %) patients. Peripheral vascular damage occurred in individuals who were significantly older than those who had musculoskeletal damage (p = 0.031). The subgroup with SDI > 0 had a higher mean age (36.8 ± 2.04 years) than those with SDI = 0 (30.8 ± 2.08 years; p = 0.044). The mean SLEDAI score in the SDI > 0 patient group (8.2 ± 0.74) was higher than that of the SDI = 0 group (4.8 ± 0.54; p = 0.001). ILE patients may include a subset that is likely to experience progressive organ damage. Organ damage was more common in patients of older age and with high SLEDAI scores.
Shi, Yun-Zhen; Hu, Hao; Wang, Chunming
The significance of R&D capabilities of China has become increasingly important as an emerging force in the context of globalization of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). While China has prospered in its R&D capability in the past decade, how to integrate the rising pharmaceutical R&D capability of China into the global development chain for innovative drugs remains challenging. For many multinational corporations and research organizations overseas, their attempt to integrate China's pharmaceutical R&D capabilities into their own is always hindered by policy constraints and reluctance of local universities and pharmaceutical firms. In light of the situation, contract research organizations (CROs) in China have made great innovation in value proposition, value chain and value networking to be at a unique position to facilitate global and local R&D integration. Chinese CROs are now being considered as the essentially important and highly versatile integrator of local R&D capability for global drug discovery and innovation.
Zhang, Ying; Bi, Erping
In the in-situ remediation of ammonium (NH4+) in groundwater by a sequential reactive barrier filled with zeolite, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms of NH4+ sorption to zeolite. In this study, the effect of dissolved natural organic matter on NH4+ sorption to natural Chinese clinoptilolite was studied by batch experiments taking humic acid (HA) as a model substance. The surface of clinoptilolite was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A needle cluster of sorbed HA could be observed on the surface of the clinoptilolite. The negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption is thought to be their competition for sorption sites, the surface coverage and blockage of the pores of clinoptilolite by HA. The fitting results of kinetic sorption data indicated that the rate-controlling step for NH4+ sorption by clinoptilolite in both NH4+ and NH4+ + HA systems is the heterogeneous chemisorption. The existence of HA (10 mg/L) significantly reduced the initial sorption rate of NH4+, but the effect of a further concentration increase of HA was slight. The effect of HA on maximum sorption capacity was found to be insignificant in the experiments. A high aqueous Ca2+ concentration can decrease the negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption by precipitation of calcium humate.
Few studies have examined the impact of government support and policies on immigrant services within ethnic enclaves. This paper seeks to address this gap and examines the structure and challenges of ethnic community based organizations (CBOs) that serve low income immigrant populations and the impact of government support and policies on these CBOs. The study utilized case study and ethnographic methodologies and examined 2 Chinese and 2 Vietnamese CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The findings show that ethnic CBOs critically depend on government fiscal support for survival. In exchange for fiscal support, ethnic CBOs represent public assistance and legitimacy interests for government in immigrant communities. However, culturally proficient and community leadership resources of ethnic CBOs can serve as bargaining chips to secure government funding, reduce compliance to government demands, and advance immigrant community interests. Nevertheless, in times of government fiscal crisis, ethnic CBOs and immigrant services tend to be most vulnerable to budget cuts due to lack of political voice. In sum, government-community collaboration through ethnic CBOs has a central role to play in facilitating and strengthening health and human services for rapidly growing, culturally diverse immigrant populations. These collaborative efforts in immigrant services are vital to cultivating healthy immigrant human capital and multicultural communities across the United States.
Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Pan, Xiaole; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Miyakawa, Takuma; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa
The emission factors (EFs) of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted during the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency in laboratory experiments. NMVOCs, including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Rape plant was burned in dry conditions and wheat straw was burned in both wet and dry conditions to simulate the possible burning of damp crop residue in regions of high temperature and humidity. We compared the present data to field data reported by Kudo et al. (2014). Good agreement between field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics under relatively more smoldering combustion of dry samples, but laboratory data were slightly overestimated compared to field data for oxygenated VOC (OVOC). When EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the consistency between the field and laboratory data for OVOCs was stronger than for dry samples. This may be caused by residual moisture in crop residue that has been stockpiled in humid regions. Comparison of the wet laboratory data with field data suggests that Kudo et al. (2014) observed the biomass burning plumes under relatively more smoldering conditions in which approximately a few tens of percentages of burned fuel materials were wet.
Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; PAN, X.; Taketani, F.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.
The emission factors (EFs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency by the laboratory experiments. The VOCs including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Two samples, wheat straw and rape plant, were burned in dry conditions and for some experiments wheat straw was burned under wet conditions. We compared the present data to the field data reported by Kudo et al. . The agreement between the field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics for relatively more smoldering data of dry samples but the field data were slightly underestimated compared with the laboratory data for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and acetonitrile. When the EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the underestimations for OVOCs and acetonitrile were improved compared with the data of dry samples. It may be a property of the burning of crop residue in the region of high temperature and high humidity that some inside parts of piled crop residue and/or the crop residue facing on the ground are still wet. But the ratios for acetic acid/glycolaldehyde was still lower than 1. This may suggest that strong loss processes of acetic acid/glycolaldehyde are present in the fresh plume.Kudo S., H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Saito, X. L. Pan, Y. Kanaya, F. Taketani, Z. F. Wang, H. Chen, H. Dong, M. Zhang, and K. Yamaji (2014), Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 7684-7698, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021044.
Merli, M. Giovanna; Verdery, Ashton; Mouw, Ted; Li, Jing
The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population. Here, we use a novel network-based approach, Network Sampling with Memory, which overcomes the challenges of sampling ‘hidden’ populations in the absence of a sampling frame, to recruit a sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and collect information on the demographic characteristics, migration histories and social ties of members of this sample. These data reveal a heterogeneous Chinese community composed of “state-led” migrants who come to Africa to work on projects undertaken by large Chinese state-owned enterprises and “independent” migrants who come on their own accord to engage in various types of business ventures. They offer a rich description of the demographic profile and social organization of this community, highlight key differences between the two categories of migrants and map the structure of the social ties linking them. We highlight needs for future research on inter-group differences in individual motivations for migration, economic activities, migration outcomes, expectations about future residence in Africa, social integration and relations with local communities. PMID:27746912
Merli, M Giovanna; Verdery, Ashton; Mouw, Ted; Li, Jing
The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population. Here, we use a novel network-based approach, Network Sampling with Memory, which overcomes the challenges of sampling 'hidden' populations in the absence of a sampling frame, to recruit a sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and collect information on the demographic characteristics, migration histories and social ties of members of this sample. These data reveal a heterogeneous Chinese community composed of "state-led" migrants who come to Africa to work on projects undertaken by large Chinese state-owned enterprises and "independent" migrants who come on their own accord to engage in various types of business ventures. They offer a rich description of the demographic profile and social organization of this community, highlight key differences between the two categories of migrants and map the structure of the social ties linking them. We highlight needs for future research on inter-group differences in individual motivations for migration, economic activities, migration outcomes, expectations about future residence in Africa, social integration and relations with local communities.
Hecht, Stephen S.; Seow, Adeline; Wang, Mingyao; Wang, Renwei; Meng, Lei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Han, Shaomei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min
Background Epidemiologic studies associate lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women with Chinese-style wok cooking. Our goal was to quantify carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers in Chinese women who reported regularly doing home cooking compared to women randomly selected from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as controls. Methods Biomarkers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), HPLC-with fluorescence detection, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Compared with controls, women who engaged in regular home cooking had significantly higher levels of mercapturic acids of acrolein [geometric mean 1959 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 1554–2467) vs.1370 (95% CI 1077–1742), P = 0.038], crotonaldehyde [geometric mean 232 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 193–277) vs. 142 (95% CI 118–171) P = 0.0004], and benzene [geometric mean 0.58 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 0.44–0.78) vs. 0.18 (95% CI 0.14–0.24) P < 0.0001]. No significant differences were found in levels of mercapturic acids of 1,3-butadiene, pyrene and phenanthrene metabolites, or acetaldehyde-leukocyte DNA adduct levels between the groups. Levels of the ethylene oxide mercapturic acid were significantly higher in the controls. Conclusions The higher levels of the mercapturic acid of benzene, a multi-organ carcinogen, in the women who cooked are particularly notable. Overall, the results showing increased exposure to the volatile toxicants and carcinogens acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and benzene in Chinese women who regularly cook provide a plausible lead for further investigating the role of volatile compounds generated during high temperature cooking with oils as causes of lung cancer. Impact A new direction for research on lung cancer etiology is suggested. PMID:20406956
Mao, Xin; Yang, Yue
The study aims to explore the challenges and the gaps faced by Chinese Drug Control Institutes in achieving the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) Medicine Prequalification. The study was undertaken with 6 Provincial Drug Control Institutes in China from November 2012 to November 2013. The study assessed key elements required to comply with WHO Good Practices for Pharmaceutical Quality Control Laboratories (GPPQCL). For GPPQCL, the study found gaps in quality management system, control of documentation, data-processing equipment, premises and equipment, contracts, reagents (water), reference substances and reference materials, calibration, verification of performance and qualification of equipment, instruments and other devices, analytical worksheet, evaluation of test results, personnel, and validation of analytical procedures. The study indicates that gaps are attributed to differences between the standards of Chinese Accreditation Standards and WHO-GPPQCL.
Li, Jie; Alagaraja, Meera
The authors suggest a conceptual framework for developing CU's in the Chinese organizational context. We reviewed literature on existing conceptual frameworks and chose the CU wheel as proposed by Prince and Stewart. Four core processes identified in the CU wheel were realigned and readjusted in developing our framework of Corporate University in…
Liu, Hui; Peng, Changsheng; Dai, Min; Gu, Qingbao; Song, Shaoxian
The crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil controlled by natural organic material was considered a very important reason to enhance the property of ancient Chinese organic Sanhetu (COS), but how the organic material affected the crystallization of CaCO3 in COS is still unclear. In this paper, a natural organic material (sticky rice, SR) and a synthetic organic material (anionic polyacrylamide, APAM) were selected as additives to investigate their effect on the crystallization of CaCO3. The experimental results showed that the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of additives and reaction time, while only the size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of reactant. Although the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals varied greatly with the variation of additive concentration, reactant concentration and reaction time, the polymorph of CaCO3 crystals were always calcite, according to SEM/EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses. This study may help us to better understand the mechanism of the influence of organic materials on CaCO3 crystallization and properties of COS.
Chen, Ligong; Takizawa, Miho; Chen, Eugene; Schlessinger, Avner; Segenthelar, Julie; Choi, Ji Ha; Sali, Andej; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Shinko; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Naoko
Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1; SLC22A1) seems to play a role in the efficacy and disposition of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin. Genetic variants in OCT1 have been identified largely in European populations. Metformin is increasingly being used in Asian populations where the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is on the rise. The goal of this study is to identify genetic variants of OCT1 in Chinese and Japanese populations, which may potentially modulate response to metformin. We used recent data from the 1000 Genomes Project (Chinese and Japanese) and direct sequencing of selected amplicons of OCT1 in 66 DNA samples from Japanese patients with T2D. A total of six nonsynonymous variants were identified. Three of them (Q97K, P117L, and R206C) had not been functionally characterized previously and had allele frequencies of 0.017, 0.023 and 0.008, respectively. The uptake of metformin in cells expressing Q97K, P117L, and R206C was significantly reduced relative to the OCT1 reference (62 ± 4.3, 55 ± 6.8, and 22 ± 1.5% for Q97K, P117L, and R206C, respectively). Kinetic studies indicated that P117L and R206C exhibited a reduced Vmax, whereas Q97K showed an increased Km. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Q97K and P117L variants localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the GFP-tagged R206C was retained mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Replacement of the highly conserved R206 with different amino acids modulated the subcellular localization and function of the transporter. This study suggests that nonsynonymous variants of OCT1 in Chinese and Japanese populations may affect the differential response to metformin. PMID:20639304
City. In 1271 Kublai Khan adopted a Chinese dynastic name, giving birth to the Yuan Dynasty. The Chinese culture was strong enough to survive the...leader, Timuchin, who was to become known as Genghis Khan , established the Yuan Dynasty. The Mongols were a loosely connected ethnic tribal community...that lived on the edge of the Gobi Desert in an area now known as Outer Mongolia. Genghis Khan organized a small ruthless army of only about 120
An attempt has been made to compare the hypoglycemic effect of the organic constituents and the inorganic constituents in traditional Chinese medicine, Jinqi compound recipe. Alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The body weights, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin secretion, and glycogen synthesis of the mice were analyzed respectively. After the mice were administered (oral) with organic constituents, the blood glucose and the HbA1c of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice decreased (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) and the glycogen synthesis of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice elevated (p < 0.05). Also, the body weight of the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice was increased gradually. However, the same result did not occur in the inorganic constituent-treated groups. It is noted that neither organic constituents nor inorganic constituents could elevate the level of serum insulin in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice significantly. It is implied that the hypoglycemic effect for type 2 diabetes was caused by the organic constituents of Jinqi recipe. The results can be used to set new standards to control the quality of the Jinqi recipe.
Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng; Guo, Wei-Yuan; Wuang, Yee-Pay
The Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) is a measure of visuosynthetic ability. Previously, the psychometric properties of the HVOT have been evaluated for Chinese-speaking children aged 5-11 years. This study reports development and further evidence of reliability and validity for a second version involving an extended age range of healthy children and children with developmental disabilities (DD) from 5 to 14 years of age. Rasch analysis revealed that after deletion of 6 items, a 24-item version conformed to a unidimensional scale. The test showed satisfactory internal consistency; 3-week test-retest coefficients all exceeded .85 for three DD subsamples. The second version was able to successfully differentiate between the three DD subgroups (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and mental retardation) and the healthy control group, with correct classification rates ranging from 86.6% to 94.1%. Its construct validity was supported by expected correlations. Accordingly, age-based normative data were established as a basis for interpretation of performance. In sum, the second Chinese version of the HVOT has good psychometric properties and norms that are suited for use in clinical practice.
Fan, Juan; Wang, Jinsong; Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus V
Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest.
Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus v.
Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791
The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...
He, Ying; Johnson, Chris
Security incidents can have negative impacts on healthcare organizations, and the security of medical records has become a primary concern of the public. However, previous studies showed that organizations had not effectively learned lessons from security incidents. Incident learning as an essential activity in the "follow-up" phase of security incident response lifecycle has long been addressed but not given enough attention. This paper conducted a case study in a healthcare organization in China to explore their current obstacles in the practice of incident learning. We interviewed both IT professionals and healthcare professionals. The results showed that the organization did not have a structured way to gather and redistribute incident knowledge. Incident response was ineffective in cycling incident knowledge back to inform security management. Incident reporting to multiple stakeholders faced a great challenge. In response to this case study, we suggest the security assurance modeling framework to address those obstacles.
Wuang, Yee-Pay; Wang, Li-Chen; Su, Chwen-Yng
The aim of this study was to examine the validation of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) for use in children by testing for item fit, unidimensionality, item hierarchy, reliability, and screening capacity. A modified scoring system was devised for the HVOT so that children received some credit for being able to describe the function of…
Shih, B.-J.; Shih, J.-L.; Chen, R.-L.
This research aims to use hierarchical topic maps to compile digital learning material and to discuss its design and application possibilities. The system renders tremendous original assets and then embeds a self-organizing map (SOM) in the material database to produce topical learning materials, as in this case, an illustration through Chinese…
Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…
Wang, Kai; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten
Organic aerosol constitutes a substantial fraction (20-90%) of submicrometer aerosol mass, playing an important role in air quality and human health. Over the past few years, ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) has been applied to elucidate the chemical composition of ambient aerosols. However, most of the UHRMS studies used direct infusion without prior separation by liquid chromatography, which may cause the loss of individual compound information and interference problems. In the present study, urban ambient aerosol with particle diameter < 2.5 μm was collected in Mainz, Germany and Beijing, China, respectively. Two pretreatment procedures were applied to extract the organic compounds from the filter samples: One method uses a mixture of acetonitrile and water, the other uses pure water and prepared for the extraction of humic-like substances. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer in both negative and the positive modes. The effects of pretreatment procedures on the characterization of organic aerosol and the city-wise difference in chemical composition of organic aerosol will be discussed in detail.
Lopez, A.; Rols, M.P.; Teissie, J.
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 ..mu..s). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 4/sup 0/C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. The authors proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells.
Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yaheng; Xu, Hongliang; Gu, Ming
Elemental composition determination of volatile organic compounds through high mass accuracy and isotope pattern matching could not be routinely achieved with a unit-mass resolution mass spectrometer until the recent development of the comprehensive instrument line-shape calibration technology. Through this unique technology, both m/z values and mass spectral peak shapes are calibrated simultaneously. Of fundamental importance is that calibrated mass spectra have symmetric and mathematically known peak shapes, which makes it possible to deconvolute overlapped monoisotopes and their (13)C-isotope peaks and achieve accurate mass measurements. The key experimental requirements for the measurements are to acquire true raw data in a profile or continuum mode with the acquisition threshold set to zero. A total of 13 ions from Chinese rose oil were analyzed with internal calibration. Most of the ions produced high mass accuracy of better than 5 mDa and high spectral accuracy of better than 99%. These results allow five tested ions to be identified with unique elemental compositions and the other eight ions to be determined as a top match from multiple candidates based on spectral accuracy. One of them, a coeluted component (Nerol) with m/z 154, could not be identified by conventional GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and library search. Such effective determination for elemental compositions of the volatile organic compounds with a unit-mass resolution quadrupole system is obviously attributed to the significant improvement of mass accuracy. More importantly, high spectral accuracy available through the instrument line-shape calibration enables highly accurate isotope pattern recognition for unknown identification.
Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan
A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously.
Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan
Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410
Liu, Dong; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Difeng; Zhang, Lin
Real-time monitoring of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the associated controlling factors is essential to coastal ocean management. This study was the first to simulate the monthly DOC concentrations at the Datong Hydrometric Station for the Changjiang River and at the Lijin Hydrometric Station for the Yellow River from 2000 to 2013 using a multilayer back-propagation neural network (MBPNN), along with basin remote-sensing products and river in situ data. The average absolute error between the modeled values and in situ values was 9.98% for the Changjiang River and 10.84% for the Yellow River. As an effect of water dilution, the variations of DOC concentrations in the two rivers were significantly negatively affected by discharge, with lower values reported during the wet season. Moreover, vegetation growth status and agricultural activities, represented by the gross primary product (GPP) and cropland area percent (CropPer) in the river basin, respectively, also significantly affected the DOC concentration in the Changjiang River, but not the Yellow River. The monthly riverine DOC flux was calculated using modeled DOC concentrations. In particular, the riverine DOC fluxes were affected by discharge, with 71.06% being reported for the Changjiang River and 90.71% for the Yellow River. Over the past decade, both DOC concentration and flux in the two rivers have not shown significant changes.
Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang
The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.
Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun
Marginal seas are estimated to account for up to 90% of organic carbon (OC) burial in marine sediments, and thus play an important role in global carbon cycle. However, comprehensive assessments of carbon budgets for marginal sea systems are challenging due to their inherent complexity, with spatial and temporal variability in carbon inputs and dispersal processes. We examine the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea (BS-YS) in order to further our understanding of sedimentary OC delivery, translocation and accumulation in a shallow marginal sea system. Bulk properties and the content and isotopic compositions (Δ14C, δ13C) of source-specific plant wax n-alkyl lipid biomarkers were determined for a suite of surficial sediment samples. Variable δ13C values (-25.1‰ to -28.5‰) and contemporary radiocarbon ages of short-chain n-fatty acids (FAs; C16, C18) reflect modern autochthonous marine and/or fresh terrestrial plant input. In contrast, extremely depleted Δ14C values (-932‰ to -979‰) of short-chain n-alkanes (C16, C18) suggest a predominant input from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC) or petroleum. Abundance-weighted average δ13C and Δ14C values of long-chain leaf wax lipids (C26+28+30n-FAs, C24+26+28n-alkanols, C27+29+31n-alkanes) are -29.1 ± 1.1‰ to -30.2 ± 0.3‰, and -286 ± 150‰ to -442 ± 119‰, respectively, illustrating that terrestrial OC delivery is dominated by pre-aged (∼3000-5000 14C yrs) C3 vegetation sources. A coupled carbon-isotopic mixing model, based on the bulk and compound-specific biomarker δ13C and Δ14C values, is used to partition the BS-YS sedimentary OC into three components that reflect both origins and transport processes. For all sampling sites, 31-64% is modern/contemporary OC, 24-49% is pre-aged terrestrial OC, and 7-26% is fossil OC, the latter likely derived from both physical erosion of ancient sedimentary rocks and fossil fuel sources. Pre-aged soil OC is most prominent in front of the modern and old Huanghe (Yellow
Wang, Jinsong; Wu, L; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Bu, Wensheng; Gadow, Klaus V
The response of soil respiration (Rs) to nitrogen (N) addition is one of the uncertainties in modelling ecosystem carbon (C). We reported on a long-term nitrogen (N) addition experiment using urea (CO(NH2)2) fertilizer in which Rs was continuously measured after N addition during the growing season in a Chinese pine forest. Four levels of N addition, i.e. no added N (N0: 0 g N m(-2) year(-1)), low-N (N1: 5 g N m(-2) year(-1)), medium-N (N2: 10 g N m(-2) year(-1)), and high-N (N3: 15 g N m(-2) year(-1)), and three organic matter treatments, i.e. both aboveground litter and belowground root removal (LRE), only aboveground litter removal (LE), and intact soil (CK), were examined. The Rs was measured continuously for 3 days following each N addition application and was measured approximately 3-5 times during the rest of each month from July to October 2012. N addition inhibited microbial heterotrophic respiration by suppressing soil microbial biomass, but stimulated root respiration and CO2 release from litter decomposition by increasing either root biomass or microbial biomass. When litter and/or root were removed, the "priming" effect of N addition on the Rs disappeared more quickly than intact soil. This is likely to provide a point of view for why Rs varies so much in response to exogenous N and also has implications for future determination of sampling interval of Rs measurement.
Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup
organ-specific expression data, we identified nine R2R3-MYBs that were constitutively expressed in male reproductive tissue, which may provide an important key for studying male sterility in Chinese cabbage. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of MYB genes in stress resistance in addition to their growth regulatory functions, ultimately providing the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate MYB genes for genetic engineering of Chinese cabbage.
Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un
This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.
Zhan, Changlin; Cao, Junji; Han, Yongming; Huang, Shaopeng; Tu, Xiaming; Wang, Ping; An, Zhisheng
Concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), char, and soot in topsoils (0-20 cm) and vertical soil profiles (0-100 cm) from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were investigated. Objectives of the study were to establish the spatial distributions and estimate the sequestrations of these substances. The SOC, BC, char and soot concentrations were higher in the eastern and southeastern parts of the plateau and lower in the north, which is consistent with the patterns of economic development and energy consumption. The highest average SOC concentration was found in the clayey loess zone, followed by the loess and sandy loess zones. Similar trends were observed for BC, char and soot, suggesting interactions with clay and silt are potentially important influences on OC and BC. The SOC contents in topsoils varied from 0.31 to 51.81 g kg(-1), with a mean value of 6.54 g kg(-1), while BC and char concentrations were 0.02 to 5.5 g kg(-1) and 0.003 to 4.19 g kg(-1), respectively, and soot ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 g kg(-1). Unlike SOC, both BC and char decreased with soil depth, whereas soot showed little variation with depth. BC and char were correlated in the topsoils, and both correlated moderately well with SOC (R(2)=0.60) and soot (R(2)=0.53). The SOC pools sequestered in the 0 to 20 cm and 0 to 100 cm depths were estimated to be 0.741 and 3.63 Pg, respectively, and the BC pools sequestered in the 0 to 20 cm and 0 to 100 cm depths were 0.073 and 0.456 Pg, respectively. Therefore the quantity of carbon stored in the sediments of the CLP evidently exceeds 10(9) tons. The char contained in the upper 20 cm layer was 0.053 Pg, which amounted to 72.5% of the BC in that layer.
Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan
This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects.
Fu, Xiaojing; Qi, Jinlei; Hu, Yifei; Pan, Xiaohong; Li, Youfang; Liu, Hui; Wu, Di; Yin, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yuan; Shan, Duo; Zhang, Nanci Nanyi; Zhang, Dapeng
The epidemic of HIV/AIDS among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) is rapidly escalating. We implemented partner notification among HIV-infected MSM, cooperating with MSM-serving community-based organizations (CBOs) in two Chinese cities from June 2014 to May 2015. CBOs participated in identifying new HIV-positive MSM utilizing rapid HIV tests and partner notification among index cases. 253 index cases were recruited and 275 sexual partners were notified and tested with 10.5% screened positive. Compared with previously identified index cases, the proportion of contactable sexual partners of newly identified index cases was higher, but the testing rate was lower (p < 0.001). Overall, 83.7% of sexual partners were casual with a contactable rate of 24.9% and a HIV testing rate of 71.1%. Having no contact information for sexual partners and fear of disclosure of HIV status are the main reasons for declining partner notification. It is feasible and effective to perform partner notification in cooperation with CBOs serving Chinese MSM. PMID:27140946
Chen, Xing; Zhang, Xing
Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization's adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization's intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization's intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization's adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.
Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization's adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization's intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization's intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization's adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty. PMID:28115932
Wang, Danni; Mei, Guangliang; Xu, Xiaoru; Zhao, Ran; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
HIV/AIDS is a major public health and social problem worldwide, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played an irreplaceable role in HIV/AIDS prevention and control. At the present time, however, NGOs have not fully participated in HIV/AIDS prevention and control in China. As an emerging focus on international academic inquiry, social capital can provide a new perspective from which to promote the growth of NGOs. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommends creating regional policies tailored to multiple and varying epidemics of HIV/AIDS. In order to provide evidence to policymakers, this paper described the basic information on NGOs and their shortage of social capital. This paper also compared the actual NGOs to "government-organized non-governmental organizations" (GONGOs). Results indicated that i) Chinese NGOs working on HIV/AIDS are short of funding and core members. GONGOs received more funding, had more core members, and built more capacity building than actual NGOs; ii) Almost half of the NGOs had a low level of trust and lacked a shared vision, networks, and support. The staff of GONGOs received more support from their organization than the staff of actual NGOs. Existing intra-organizational social capital among the staff of NGOs should be increased. Capacity building and policymaking should differentiate between actual NGOs and GONGOs. The relationship between social capital and organizational performance is a topic for further study.
Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Solek, Przemysław; Wronski, Mariusz; Potocki, Leszek; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Wnuk, Maciej
The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with particular attention to the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their methylation status. We confirmed that the small Bs of the red fox show a typical fluorescent telomeric distal signal, whereas medium-sized Bs of the Chinese raccoon dog were characterized by clusters of telomeric sequences along their length. We also found different DNA methylation patterns for the B chromosomes of both species. Therefore, we concluded that DNA methylation may maintain the transcriptional inactivation of DNA sequences localized to B chromosomes and may prevent genetic unbalancing and several negative phenotypic effects.
In view of the benefit of improving employees' organization commitment, it is important to study the major influencing factors of organization commitment. According to previous literature, organizational justice and job burnout have been considered two major influencing variables of affective commitment; however, little empirical research can be…
Xu, Libin; Wu, Fengchang; Wan, Guojiang; Liao, Haiqing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Xing, Baoshan
This report demonstrates that organic matter was an important factor in lake sediment (210)Pb(ex) dating. Sediment cores from lakes in central and western China with different-trophic levels were collected, and the (210)Pb(ex) activity and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured. The Rock-Eval pyrolysis technique was used to deconvolute TOC into free hydrocarbons (S1), thermally less-stable macromolecular organic matter (S2a), kerogen (S2b), and residual carbon (RC). The results show significant correlations between TOC and (210)Pb(ex), particularly between S2a and (210)Pb(ex), in all the sediment cores. This indicated that the algal-derived organic component S2a may play the most important role in controlling the distribution of (210)Pb(ex). Scavenging by algal-derived organic matter may be the main mechanism. As chronology is the key to the understanding of pollution reconstruction and early diagenesis in sediments, more attention should be paid to the influence of organic matter on (210)Pb(ex).
Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei
Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p < 0.05), PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p < 0.05), PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3).
Background Under the circumstance of global population aging, the issue on how to facilitate the quality of life (QOL) for older people brings us grand challenge. On the way to solve this problem, it is inextricable to measure QOL for older people accurately at onset. This study is aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD). Methods We received 1005 valid WHOQOL-OLD questionnaires from 1050 respondents who were 60 and older by quota sampling method. To calculate the test-retest correlation coefficient we re-interviewed 101 participants from the community. Psychometric properties were evaluated from the aspect of feasibility, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, construct validity and discriminant validity. Results Missing item responses took up 0.0%-2.7% in the scale. The WHOQOL-OLD showed satisfactory reliability with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients ranging from 0.711 (Social participation) to 0.842 (Sensory ability) for each domain. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) presenting test-retest reliability were all over 0.7. In Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.084 (a little more than 0.08) and comparative fit index (CFI) 0.95 (>0.90) which meant acceptable construct validity. There were higher correlation coefficients between items and their hypothesized domains than other domains (P < 0.001), indicating good content validity. The results of t-test showed good discriminant validity of the WHOQOL-OLD between the healthy group and the unhealthy group (P < 0.0083). Conclusion The Chinese version of WHOQOL-OLD showed good feasibility, reliability and validity in this study. However, before it can be used national-widely, further research should be conducted in other areas of China. PMID:24034698
Ma, C; Looney, J E; Leu, T H; Hamlin, J L
We have recently isolated overlapping recombinant cosmids that represent the equivalent of two complete dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) amplicon types from the methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line CHOC 400. In the work described in this report, we used pulse-field gradient gel electrophoresis to analyze large SfiI restriction fragments arising from the amplified dhfr domains. The junction between the 260-kilobase type I amplicons (which are arranged in head-to-tail configurations in the genome) has been localized, allowing the construction of a linear map of the parental dhfr locus. We also show that the 220-kilobase type II amplicons are arranged as inverted repeat structures in the CHOC 400 genome and arose from the type I sequence relatively early in the amplification process. Our data indicate that there are a number of minor amplicon types in the CHOC 400 cell line that were not detected in previous studies; however, the type II amplicons represent ca. 75% of all the amplicons in the CHOC 400 genome. Both the type I and type II amplicons are shown to be composed entirely of sequences that were present in the parental dhfr locus. Studies of less resistant cell lines show that initial amplicons can be larger than those observed in CHOC 400. Once established, a given amplicon type appears to be relatively stable throughout subsequent amplification steps. We also present a modification of an in-gel renaturation method that gives a relatively complete picture of the size and variability of amplicons in the genome.
The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…
Shi, Guohua; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Meng; Shi, Shengwei; Yang, Yanzheng; Chu, Junyao; Zhang, Junjun; Lin, Guanghui; Shen, Yan; Zhu, Qiuan
The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting the lateral flow of dissolved organic carbon can lead to an underestimation of the organic carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems. It is thus necessary to integrate DOC concentrations and flux into carbon cycle models, particularly with regard to the development of models that are intended to directly link terrestrial and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed to better understand and predict DOC dynamics. In this study, we compiled an inclusive database of available data collected from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River in China. The database is collected based on online literature survey and analysed by statistic method. Overall, our results revealed a positive correlation between DOC flux and discharge in all three rivers, whereas the DOC concentration was more strongly correlated with the regional net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated the total DOC flux exported by the three rivers into the China Sea to be approximately 2.73 Tg yr-1. Specifically, the annual flux of DOC from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River was estimated to be 1.85 Tg yr-1, 0.06 Tg yr-1 and 0.82 Tg yr-1, respectively, and the average annual DOC concentrations were estimated to be 2.24 ± 0.53 mg L-1, 2.70 ± 0.38 mg L-1 and 1.51 ± 0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Seasonal variations in DOC concentrations are greatly influenced by the interaction between temperature and precipitation. NPP is significantly and positively related to the DOC concentration in the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. In addition, differences in climate and the productivity of the vegetation may influence both the flux and concentrations of DOC transported by the rivers and thus potentially affect estuarine geochemistry. PMID:27755581
Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.
Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)
Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…
Chen, Shurui; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Yinxiao; Chen, Bing; Wang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zheng, Mei; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing; Sun, Yele; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Li, Weijun
Many studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles in unusually severe haze episodes in North China instead of the more frequent and less severe hazes. Consistent with this lack of attention, the morphology and mixing state of organic matter (OM) particles in the frequent light and moderate (L & M) hazes in winter in the North China Plain (NCP) have not been examined, even though OM dominates these fine particles. In the present work, morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were systematically characterized using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer, with the comparisons among an urban site (Jinan, S1), a mountain site (Mt. Tai, S2), and a background island site (Changdao, S3) in the same hazes. Based on their morphologies, the OM particles were divided into six different types: spherical (type 1), near-spherical (type 2), irregular (type 3), domelike (type 4), dispersed-OM (type 5), and OM-coating (type 6). In the three sampling sites, types 1-3 of OM particles were most abundant in the L & M hazes and most of them were internally mixed with non-OM particles. The abundant near-spherical OM particles with higher sphericity and lower aspect ratio indicate that these primary OM particles formed in the cooling process after polluted plumes were emitted from coal combustion and biomass burning. Based on the Si-O-C ratio in OM particles, we estimated that 71 % of type 1-3 OM particles were associated with coal combustion. Our result suggests that coal combustion in residential stoves was a widespread source from urban to rural areas in NCP. Average OM thickness which correlates with the age of the air masses in type 6 particles only slightly increased from S1 to S2 to S3, suggesting that the L & M hazes were usually dry (relative humidity < 60 %) with weak photochemistry and
Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Zhou, Guomo; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Weifeng
The Grain for Green Program (GGP), initiated in 1999, is the largest ecological restoration project in central and western China. Here, for the first time, we performed a meta-analysis and found that the GGP largely increased the soil organic carbon (SOC). The SOC was increased by 48.1%, 25.4%, and 25.5% at soil depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm, respectively. Moreover, this carbon accumulation has significantly increased over time since GGP implementation. The carbon accumulation showed a significantly more active response to the GGP in the top 20 cm of soil than in the deeper soil layers. Conversion of cropland to forest could lead to significantly greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion of cropland to grassland. Conversion from cropland to woodland could lead to greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion to either shrubland or orchard. Our results suggest that the GGP implementation caused SOC to accumulate and that there remains a large potential for further accumulation of carbon in the soil, which will help to mitigate climate change in the near future.
Li, Weiguang; Su, Chengyuan; Liu, Xingzhe; Zhang, Lei
The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor used for treating real traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater were investigated. Over 90% of the COD removal by the EGSB reactor was observed at the OLRs of 4 to 13 kg COD/(m(3) day). However, increasing the OLR to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day) by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 h) reduced the COD removal efficiency to 78%. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 512.22 mg/L, resulting in an accumulation of VFAs, and propionic acid was the main acidification product, accounting for 66.51% of the total VFAs. When the OLR increased from 10 to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day), the average size of the granule sludge decreased from 469 to 258 μm. There was an obvious reduction in the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the granular sludge. The visible humic acid-like peak was identified in the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of the soluble microbial products (SMPs). The fatty acid bond, amide II bond, amide III bond, and C-H bond bending were also observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the SMPs. Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus, and Bacteria populations exhibited significant shifts, and these changes were accompanied by an increase in VFA production. The results indicated that a short HRT and high OLR in the EGSB reactor caused the accumulation of polysaccharides, protein, and VFAs, thereby inhibiting the activity of methanogenic bacteria and causing granular sludge corruption.
This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…
Sung, Betty Lee
Notes that in many ways the makeup of today's Chinese immigrants tends toward the extremes. At one end they are highly educated, at the other, they are the beneficiaries of the nonquota provisions of the immigration law. (Author/AM)
Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee
The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…
POLANYI AND THE CHINESE YUAN by David A. Weas December 2007 Thesis Co-Advisors: Robert Looney Robert McNab THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...AND SUBTITLE Globalization, Polanyi , and the Chinese Yuan 6. AUTHOR(S) Weas, David A. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...NUMBER OF PAGES 102 14. SUBJECT TERMS Globalization, China, Chinese Yuan, Polanyi , Market Integration, Political Communication, Technology 16
Wang, Fred Fangyu
This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the…
Explored the feasibility of using Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to facilitate Chinese language teaching and learning. Describes procedures for organizing and conducting chat sessions and discusses the benefits and problems of using IRC. (Author/VWL)
China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…
Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864
Astry, Brian; Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Laurence, Arian; Christensen-Quick, Aaron; Garzinodemo, Alfredo; Frieman, Matthew B; O’Shea, John J.; Moudgil, Kamal D.
Inflammation is an integral component of autoimmune arthritis. The balance of pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) and protective T regulatory (Treg) cells can influence disease severity, and its resetting offers an attractive approach to control autoimmunity. We determined the frequency of Th17 and Treg in the joints of rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA), a model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also investigated the impact of Celastrol, a bioactive compound from the traditional Chinese medicine Celastrus that can suppress AA, on Th17/Treg balance in the joints. Celastrol treatment reduced Th17 cells but increased Treg in the joints, and it inhibited Th17 differentiation but promoted Treg differentiation in vitro by blocking the activation of pSTAT3. Furthermore, Celastrol limited the production of Th17-differentiating cytokines and chemokines (CCL3, CCL5). Thus, Celastrol suppressed arthritis in part by altering Th17/Treg ratio in inflamed joints, and it should be tested as a potential adjunct/alternative for RA therapy. PMID:25660987
Chai, Zhi-Fang; Zhu, Mang-Mang; Bai, Zhan-Tao; Liu, Tong; Tan, Miao; Pang, Xue-Yan; Ji, Yong-Hua
In the present study, BmK alphaIV, a novel modulator of sodium channels, was cloned from venomous glands of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) and expressed successfully in Escherichia coli. The BmK alphaIV gene is composed of two exons separated by a 503 bp intron. The mature polypeptide contains 66 amino acids. BmK alphaIV has potent toxicity in mice and cockroaches. Surface-plasmon-resonance analysis found that BmK alphaIV could bind to both rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes and cockroach neuronal membranes, and shared similar binding sites on sodium channels with classical AaH II (alpha-mammal neurotoxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector), BmK AS (beta-like neurotoxin), BmK IT2 (the depressant insect-selective neurotoxin) and BmK abT (transitional neurotoxin), but not with BmK I (alpha-like neurotoxin). Two-electrode voltage clamp recordings on rNav1.2 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that BmK alphaIV increased the peak amplitude and prolonged the inactivation phase of Na+ currents. The structural and pharmacological properties compared with those of other scorpion alpha-toxins suggests that BmK alphaIV represents a novel subgroup or functional hybrid of alpha-toxins and might be an evolutionary intermediate neurotoxin for alpha-toxins.
Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian
Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008
Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.
Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei
Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.0001). Both the field campaigns and the laboratory contamination experiment revealed that CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources.
Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin
Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field.
This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…
Jo, Moon H.
Chinese immigration to the United States, which began around 1850, sparked strong anti-Asian sentiment and legal and economic restrictions upon these immigrants. Although some Chinese organizations helped immigrants, the overall response of the Chinese to systematic oppression was one of meekness and compliance. The Japanese began to immigrate to…
Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.
Texts in spoken Standard Chinese were developed to improve and update Chinese materials to reflect current usage in Beijing and Taipei. The focus is on communicating in Chinese in practical situations. The overall course is organized into 10 situational modules, student workbooks for each module, and resource modules. This text contains resource…
Application of Oxford classification, and overexpression of transforming growth factor-β1 and immunoglobulins in immunoglobulin A nephropathy: correlation with World Health Organization classification of immunoglobulin A nephropathy in a Chinese patient cohort.
Meng, Hongxue; Zhang, Lei; E, Xiaoqiang; Ye, Fei; Li, Huining; Han, Changsong; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Jin, Xiaoming
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by the qualitative abnormality of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in circulation and deposits of IgA in the renal mesangium. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in fibrogenesis and the progression of renal damage. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic data on IgAN in northeastern China and the presence of TGF-β1, total IgA, and secretory IgA in the glomeruli and sera, as well as changes in galactose-deficient IgA1 in the serum. We investigated the clinicopathologic data of 1050 cases of IgAN diagnosed in a single center over 13 years. We then assessed the concentrations of TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins in the serum of 100 patients with IgAN and 56 healthy control subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and investigated their presence in the glomeruli by immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From our data, 76.17% of the IgAN cases belonged to classes I and II according to the World Health Organization classification, representing the early stage. Compared with other studies, we found significantly lower frequencies of segmental glomerulosclerosis (27.71%) but higher frequencies of endocapillary proliferation (50.67%), and a similar proportion of mesangial hypercellularity (68.48%) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (moderate, 17.81%; severe, 1.52%) in the northeastern Chinese cohort. There was an increased presence of TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins in the serum and glomeruli of IgAN, which correlates with the progression of pathologic classification. The pathologic variables of the Oxford classification correlated significantly with the WHO classifications. TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins could be used as biomarkers of IgAN pathogenic mechanisms, acting as important adjuncts to the original Oxford Classification.
Liu, Yuan; Liu, Guijian; Qu, Qinyuan; Qi, Cuicui; Sun, Ruoyu; Liu, Houqi
Vanadium in coals may have potential environmental and economic impacts. However, comprehensive knowledge of the geochemistry of V in coals is lacking. In this study, abundances, distribution and modes of occurrence of V are reviewed by compiling >2900 reported Chinese coal samples. With coal reserves in individual provinces as the weighting factors, V in Chinese coals is estimated to have an average abundance of 35.81 μg/g. Large variation of V concentration is observed in Chinese coals of different regions, coal-forming periods, and maturation ranks. According to the concentration coefficient of V in coals from individual provinces, three regions are divided across Chinese coal deposits. Vanadium in Chinese coals is probably influenced by sediment source and sedimentary environment, supplemented by late-stage hydrothermal fluids. Specifically, hydrothermal fluids have relatively more significant effect on the enrichment of V in local coal seams. Vanadium in coals is commonly associated with aluminosilicate minerals and organic matter, and the modes of V occurrence in coal depend on coal-forming environment and coal rank. The Chinese V emission inventory during coal combustion is estimated to be 4906 mt in 2014, accounting for 50.55 % of global emission. Vanadium emissions by electric power plants are the largest contributor.
Presents comments spoken at a human rights conference by Han Dongfang, a Chinese activist who was jailed after an attempt to organize China's first independent union from a tent in Tiananmen Square during the democracy movement. Today, he is barred from the mainland but works from Hong Kong through Radio Free Asia. Comments focus on foreign…
Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun
Chinese medicinal formulae( CMF) were often used in the clinics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which were critical for modernization of Chinese medicine to shed light on the interaction between CMF and biological organisms. In current studies, correlation between system and part, macroscopic actions and microcosmic mechanism, ADME process and pharmacologic actions were often neglected. Thus, we put forward integrative pharmacology, which could integrate the correlation between CMF and biological organisms from multi-levels and multi-dimensional views. Integrative pharmacology would reveal the molecular mechanism of CMF for ailments treatment and screen out effective material systematically, which would be the new paradigm of TCM research.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi
Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi
Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading.
Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Bawaskar, Pramodini Himmatrao; Bawaskar, Parag Himmatrao
In India, eating Chinese food has become very popular. We hereby report a case who presented with angioneurotic edema of the uvula and the surrounding structures, after eating Chinese food, which resulted in severe difficulty in swallowing saliva and inability to speak. PMID:28197052
Huang, Joe, Ed.
Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…
The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)
Kent, George W.
The world of classical Chinese is distant both in time and space from the world of the English-speaking American. The instructor must not, however, use a no-attention-to-meaning approach assuming some words are untranslateable or create confusion in discussing the nature of Chinese script. (CFM)
A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…
Kostic, N.; Segan, S.
In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.
Lau, Sing, Ed.
This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…
Tzeng, O J; Chen, S; Hung, D L
In recent years, research on the relationship between brain organization and language processing has benefited tremendously from cross-linguistic comparisons of language disorders among different types of aphasic patients. Results from these cross-linguistic studies have shown that the same aphasic syndromes often look very different from one language to another, suggesting that language-specific knowledge is largely preserved in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics. In this paper, Chinese aphasic patients were examined with respect to their (in)ability to use classifiers in a noun phrase. The Chinese language, in addition to its lack of verb conjugation and an absence of noun declension, is exceptional in yet another respect: articles, numerals, and other such modifiers cannot directly precede their associated nouns, there has to be an intervening morpheme called a classifier. The appropriate usage of nominal classifiers is considered to be one of the most difficult aspects of Chinese grammar. Our examination of Chinese aphasic patients revealed two essential points. First, Chinese aphasic patients experience difficulty in the production of nominal classifiers, committing a significant number of errors of omission and/or substitution. Second, two different kinds of substitution errors are observed in Broca's and Wernicke's patients, and the detailed analysis of the difference demands a rethinking of the distinction between agrammatism and paragrammatism. The result adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that grammar is impaired in fluent as well as nonfluent aphasia.
DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS
THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF TEXTS PREPARED AT SETON HALL UNIVERSITY, THIS ADVANCED TEXT PRESUPPOSES MASTERY OF "BEGINNING CHINESE,""BEGINNING CHINESE READER," AND LESSONS 1 TO 6 OF "INTERMEDIATE CHINESE READER." A COMPANION VOLUME TO THIS ONE, "CHARACTER TEXT FOR ADVANCED CHINESE," PROVIDES READING PRACTICE AND…
As part of my fourth-year rotation, in June 2008 I had the opportunity to do my very first rotation in China and Japan as part of a foreign study program organized by Nova Southeastern University School of Pharmacy, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Coursework would include a two-week introductory course on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and one week of "cultural exploration" in Japan. Fourty-five students stayed at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, International School dorms. We toured the Chinese Medicine museum and two TCM hospitals in Beijing-Pharmacology Dongfang Hospital and Xi Yuan Hospital.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Da-Ning; Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi
Focusing on the problems of Chinese materia medica resources,and combining with the national Chinese materia medica resources survey, the paper probes into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources. The establishment of the monitoring mechanism needs one organization and management agencies to supervise and guide monitoring work, one network system to gather data information, a group of people to perform monitoring work, a system of technical methods to assure monitoring work scientific and practical, a series of achievements and products to figure out the methods for solving problems, a group of monitoring index system to accumulate basic data, and a plenty of funds to keep normal operation of monitoring work.
Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
Kwok, Carolyn; Harris, R. Carl
The article describes several young Chinese musical prodigies as well as principles of the Shanghai Music Conservatory's middle and primary schools which provide intensive musical training to musically gifted students. (DB)
... some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been blamed for ... possible that some people are particularly sensitive to food additives. MSG is chemically similar to one of the ...
Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Zhigang; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun
Metabolomics represent a global understanding of metabolite complement of integrated living systems and dynamic responses to the changes of both endogenous and exogenous factors and has many potential applications and advantages for the research of complex systems. As a systemic approach, metabolomics adopts a "top-down" strategy to reflect the function of organisms from the end products of the metabolic network and to understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in a holistic context. This property agrees with the holistic thinking of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complex medical science, suggesting that metabolomics has the potential to impact our understanding of the theory behind the evidence-based Chinese medicine. Consequently, the development of robust metabolomic platforms will greatly facilitate, for example, the understanding of the action mechanisms of TCM formulae and the analysis of Chinese herbal (CHM) and mineral medicine, acupuncture, and Chinese medicine syndromes. This review summarizes some of the applications of metabolomics in special TCM issues with an emphasis on metabolic biomarker discovery.
Li, Ling; Liu, Jiangang; Chen, Feiyan; Feng, Lu; Li, Hong; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang
This study examined the resting state neural networks for visual Chinese word processing in Chinese children and adults. Both the functional connectivity (FC) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approaches were used to analyze the fMRI data collected when Chinese participants were not engaged in any specific explicit tasks. We correlated time series extracted from the visual word form area (VWFA) with those in other regions in the brain. We also performed ALFF analysis in the resting state FC networks. The FC results revealed that, regarding the functionally connected brain regions, there exist similar intrinsically organized resting state networks for visual Chinese word processing in adults and children, suggesting that such networks may already be functional after 3-4 years of informal exposure to reading plus 3-4 years formal schooling. The ALFF results revealed that children appear to recruit more neural resources than adults in generally reading-irrelevant brain regions. Differences between child and adult ALFF results suggest that children's intrinsic word processing network during the resting state, though similar in functional connectivity, is still undergoing development. Further exposure to visual words and experience with reading are needed for children to develop a mature intrinsic network for word processing. The developmental course of the intrinsically organized word processing network may parallel that of the explicit word processing network.
Wu, Cheng-Tsu, Ed.
The contents of this compendium, which presents a bit of the history of the racial prejudice against the Chinese, are organized in four chapters. Chapter 1, "Institutionalization of Prejudice," reviews the body of legislation and State and Federal court decisions pertaining to the Chinese, beginning with the migration to California during the…
Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.
Ip, Po Keung
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…
Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen
The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…
Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.
This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…
Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing
Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…
The article describes the active network of workers' education in China. Topics discussed include the broad range of disciplines available; school calendars; the use of guest teachers, televised programs, and self-study; and the new Chinese workers' audiovisual center. (CH)
the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105
Bell, Daniel A.
Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…
Swinson, Derek B.
Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to…
Green, Sandra Aili
Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…
Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)
Hong, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Fu-Mei
During the 100 years from 1850 to 1949, six English textbooks on internal medicine were translated into Chinese and published. Publication of these books was a response to the increased demand for Chinese textbooks after the opening of several Western-style hospitals and medical schools in China where the instruction was in Chinese. Throughout this period, textbooks translated from English were regarded as symbols of mainstream and authority within medical communities in China. There was a shift of translators from British and American medical missionaries to Chinese medical elites. Publishers also changed from missionary hospitals or missionary organizations to the Chinese Medical Association, which was led by ethnic Chinese. After the 1950s, translation activity continued in Taiwan, but it was halted in China until after the Cultural Revolution. This paper provides bibliographic information about these books. The transition of medical authority in China during this 100-year period is also reviewed through the successive publication of translated textbooks on internal medicine.
Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi
Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.
Association of Chinese Teachers, San Francisco, CA.
In this brief collection of facts and figures about Chinese Americans, information and data are presented on the geographic location of Chinese in America, the pattern of Chinese immigration to the United States, and income and occupations of Chinese Americans. In addition, a brief chronology of Chinese American history is presented. (Author/AM)
Zhao, Peishan; Hu, Fengling
More than 60 years have passed since 3 pioneer Chinese anesthesiologists were trained by American physicians. After returning to China, they applied their new knowledge and skills to develop a new anesthesia specialty in their own country. Over the past 2 decades, close to 600 Chinese medical graduates have been trained in the United States and have become part of the American anesthesia workforce. Unlike their elder generation, they did not go back to China after their training. People are always wondering how this new generation of American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists is doing in a different culture and different health care and political systems. This review indicates that these newly American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists not only provide high-quality patient care but also conduct outstanding anesthesia teaching and research. In addition, as their pioneer anesthesiologists did in China, they use professional organizations and publications as 2 major means to advance professional development and promote academic exchanges between Chinese and American anesthesiologists, through which American anesthesiology continues to have influence on modern Chinese anesthesiology.
This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.
Department of State, Washington, DC.
A COMPILATION FROM LISTS OF DICTIONARIES USED BY SEVERAL U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS, THIS DOCUMENT INCLUDES THE TITLES OF AND INFORMATION CONCERNING DICTIONARIES COVERING OVER 25 TOPICS IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL FIELDS, AND NUMEROUS AREAS OF ECONOMICS, AND POLITICAL, AND SOCIOLOGICAL TOPICS. MANY CHINESE-FOREIGN LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES ARE…
Yen, Isabella Y.
This workbook accompanies the second volume (FL 002 776) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, translation, and expansion drills, and question and answer practice. For related documents…
Yen, Isabella Y.
This workbook accompanies the first volume (FL 002 774) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, expansion, and translation drills, dialogues, and questions and answers for practice. For…
This article examined organizational leadership in the context of China. Taking a cultural perspective, this literature review traced the cultural roots of Chinese leadership and analyzed the cultural impact on leadership practice in organizations. It further provided general guidelines for leadership development in China, followed by…
photographs is a result of difterent enlargement factors. 3. Isolation 4nd Clonlng of Enzyme Sections. ’he 5-endctox, a of 3.t nr: nsie ls ’s generally...from Chinese original] Plasmids of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. keanyae 404 and Bacillus thuriagiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-i were isolated . Through in...sucrose concentration gradient centrifugal method, we isolated DNA fragments larger than 4 kb from Sau3Ai partially digested plasmid DNA of the two B.t
In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.
In 1994, a 44-year-old woman progressed from normal renal function to advanced renal failure and end-stage renal disease within 8 months. Biopsy revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with focal lymphocytic infiltration. She received a cadaveric renal transplant in January 1996 and had an uneventful posttransplant course. As a result of a minor motor vehicle accident, the patient had received acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine for pain relief approximately 5 months before the onset of renal symptoms. After the transplant, analysis of the herbal remedies clearly indicated the presence of aristolochic acid in 2 of the 6 Chinese herbs ingested. Ingestion of aristolochic acid has been linked to a newly defined entity, Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). This article discusses the history of CHN and its implication in the current case and in other recent similar cases and makes recommendations to avoid future problems caused by unregulated use of herbal medicines. This is the first reported case of CHN in the USA. PMID:16389336
Koh, T C
Wushu (Martial Arts), mistakenly known in the West as Kung-Fu, is a system of Chinese boxing which is closely linked with the traditional practice of Chinese medicine. Many of the masters (Sifu) are Chinese physicians who often recommend health exercises and the soft form of martial arts to their patients, while the hard form is suitable for sport and self-defense. Martial arts is a great discipline for body and mind, suitable for all who treasure physical and mental health.
PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute (AFRI),Air & Space Power Journal,155 N. Twining Street,Maxwell AFB, AL ,36112 8...20Preliminary%20Analysis%20of% 20t he%20Chinese%20ASAT%20Test%20handout.pdf (accessed 1 November 2008); and Geoffrey Forden, “A Preliminary Analysis of the...Michael R. Mantz, The New Sword: A Theory of Space Combat Power, research report no. AU-ARI 94-6 (Maxwell AFB, AL : Air University Press, May 1995), 99
Liang, Xing; Mao, Wei; Liu, Xu-Sheng
Aquaporins are a group of membrane proteins, which are known as the passages of water molecules transforming through the biological membrane lipid bilayer and distributing in almost all of the organs and tissues of living creatures. Aquaporins play important roles in maintaining water balance and internal environment stability. As a new entry point, aquaporins are involved in the researches on water metabolism, physiological regulation and pathological essence in viscera-state more and more widely in recent years. The literature on traditional Chinese medical studies, which related to aquaporins and were published in the last decade, was reviewed and the progress on application of aquaporin in Chinese medicine was summarized in this paper.
Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying
Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.
Chan, Lilian Y. O.
The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)
Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti
This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…
Chan, Stella W.
The San Francisco Public Library has developed some special services for Chinese-speaking patrons. A collection of Chinese materials at the Chinatown branch now contains 9,000 fiction and non-fiction books, 9 newspapers, 19 periodicals, and over 300 phonograph records. Bilingual citizenship books are provided, as are reference books on China and…
Martinez, Maria L.
This in-country grounded theory study examined the lived experiences of 24 Chinese returnees who completed advanced degrees in the United States. The study found that the four types of organizations in mainland China determine the social context of the application of Western education of the Chinese returnees. Returnees working in multinational…
Wang, Xueying, Ed.
A collection of essays on Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States addresses these topics: the schools, their curricula, and organization (Theresa Hsu Chao); school administration and management (Chao, Lydia Chen, Edward Chang); academic curriculum (Pay-Fen Serena Wang); non-heritage Chinese learners: practices and…
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…
Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan
This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…
Lamb, John F., Jr.
Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)
Sung, Betty Lee
A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…
Relatively few public school students are currently learning the Chinese language, but experts predict the number of K-12 schools offering such instruction will soon soar. With China poised to become the next global economic superpower, policymakers say it is essential that American schools expand their Chinese studies. Here, the author discusses…
This unit will introduce secondary level students to Chinese literature. The first part of the unit discusses poetry which has always been the most highly prized form of Chinese literature. The discussion examines the "Complete Tang Poems," the "Book of Songs" compiled by Confucius, the "Songs of Chu," and the "Li Sao." Students learn about the…
Hou, John Y.
In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…
Increasing social consciousness about human rights issues in China has, in turn, stimulated Chinese women's awareness of their individual rights. The Chinese government, however, has maintained tight control over the dissemination of feminist ideas and restricted media coverage of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995. To discredit feminism, Chinese officials link it with sexual liberation, single motherhood, and lesbianism. Nonetheless, there is a new awareness that government statistics on the high rates of female employment conceal the reality that Chinese women are concentrated in low-paying, low-status occupations. In contrast to official propaganda, a United Nations Development Report ranked China 23rd in the world for women's participation in politics and the economy. In the course of preparing for the World Conference, a few nonofficial, grass-roots Chinese women's organizations were able to present their ideas.
Liu, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua
Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23 °C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18 °C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33 °C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.
Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua
Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788
Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu
This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial.
Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en
Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.
The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.
Li, Min; Hu, Yichun; Mao, Deqian; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jing; Li, Weidong; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Lichen
This paper presents an analysis of the level of blood hemoglobin and the rates of anemia in Chinese rural residents in the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the change in its prevalence in rural residents during the last ten years. Our methodology included data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010–2012, where samples were selected through the method of probability proportion to size. The study objects were from 150 sites in provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities in China. The concentration of blood hemoglobin was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia was judged by the anemia standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), combined with elevation correction standard. The level of blood hemoglobin, the prevalence of anemia, and the 95% CI (Confidence interval) value were analyzed using complex sampling weighted processing, combined with the population figures released by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009. Our results indicate that the level of blood hemoglobin of the Chinese rural area population was 145.92 ± 0.83 g/L, with the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population at 9.7% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.0%). The prevalence of anemia in children 6–11 years old was 5.5% (95% CI: 5.0%–6.0%), 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–8.7%) for 12–17-year-old teenagers, 10.0% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.6%) for 18–44-year-old adults, 9.6% (95% CI: 9.0%–10.1%) for 45–59-year-old adults, and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.9%–13.3%) for the elderly above 60 years old. Our conclusion shows that the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population in 2010–2012 had obviously decreased compared to the last decade; however, women of reproductive age and the elderly still had a high prevalence of anemia. PMID:28245576
This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…
Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others
This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)
Shadick, Harold; Chien, Ch'iao
This three-volume course is intended to provide a foundation in the grammar of classical Chinese on which the student who plans to specialize in classical studies can build, and to give the student of modern Chinese sufficient knowledge of literary Chinese for his purposes. It is assumed that the student can already pronounce Chinese words, use a…
This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…
Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.
The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367
Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C
The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.
TOONI, LINDA LEWIS; AND OTHERS
AGRICULTURAL LABORERS HAVE BEEN INEFFECTIVE IN ORGANIZING A LABOR UNION. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT WRITTEN IN 1935 ORIGINALLY HAD PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL LABORERS, BUT IT WAS DELETED BEFORE FINAL PASSAGE. EARLY ORGANIZING ATTEMPTS OCCURRED IN THE LATE YEARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY WHEN CHINESE IMMIGRANTS ORGANIZED PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS…
Natural products represent one of the most important reservoirs of structural and chemical diversity for the generation of leads in the drug development process. A growing number of researchers have shown interest in the development of drugs based on Chinese herbs. In this review, the use and potential of omic technologies as powerful tools in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine are discussed. The analytical combination from each omic approach is crucial for understanding the working mechanisms of cells, tissues, organs, and organisms as well as the mechanisms of disease. Gradually, omic approaches have been introduced in every stage of the drug development process to generate high-quality Chinese medicine-based drugs. Finally, the future picture of the use of omic technologies is a promising tool and arena for further improvement in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:28250795
Ryu, Hong-Duck; Lim, Chae-Sung; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Sang-Ill
The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.
Wu, Yan Jing; Thierry, Guillaume
Bilingual individuals have been shown to access their native language while reading in or listening to their other language. However, it is unknown what type of mental representation (e.g., sound or spelling) they retrieve. Here, using event-related brain potentials, we demonstrate unconscious access to the sound form of Chinese words when advanced Chinese-English bilinguals read or listen to English words. Participants were asked to decide whether or not English words presented in pairs were related in meaning; they were unaware of the fact that some of the unrelated word pairs concealed either a sound or a spelling repetition in their Chinese translations. Whereas spelling repetition in Chinese translations had no effect, concealed sound repetition significantly modulated event-related brain potentials. These results suggest that processing second language activates the sound, but not the spelling, of native language translations.
Yang, Fan; Song, Jie; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Mao, Xinliang; Zhang, Wanwan
Abstract Anti-aging Chinese medicines have been used in traditional beverages to promote health and prevent diseases. Interestingly, these functional beverages may be used differently between men and women, reflecting the “yin-yang” philosophy of Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that some dietary natural products can slow aging in model organisms, and functional beverages containing such products have recently emerged in Chinese market, challenging the dominance of traditional functional beverages. Here we summarize both traditional anti-aging herbs and modern natural dietary compounds currently used in functional beverages in China, and also briefly outline the underlying mechanisms of the beverages in slowing aging process. PMID:24125586
Yang, Fan; Song, Jie; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Mao, Xinliang; Ma, Chung Wah; Zhang, Wanwan; Huang, Zebo
Anti-aging Chinese medicines have been used in traditional beverages to promote health and prevent diseases. Interestingly, these functional beverages may be used differently between men and women, reflecting the "yin-yang" philosophy of Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that some dietary natural products can slow aging in model organisms, and functional beverages containing such products have recently emerged in Chinese market, challenging the dominance of traditional functional beverages. Here we summarize both traditional anti-aging herbs and modern natural dietary compounds currently used in functional beverages in China, and also briefly outline the underlying mechanisms of the beverages in slowing aging process.
Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning
Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.
Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379
Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R
This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.
Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine
Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print.
Fung, Isaac CH
Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604
Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen
The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.
Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen
The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P.; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population—the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants—happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people. PMID:26644993
Li, Ming; Shang, Li; Bing, Shoulan
Shanghai New Chinese Medical College set up by Zhu Nanshan and his sons, Zhu Xiaonan and Zhu Hegao, was a medical college of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the most innovative spirit in modern time. Its affiliated research institute held the principle of "realizing the scientific truth of TCM, training TCM advanced talents", marking the beginning of the pioneering of "scientific TCM". The educational plan, clinical research and academic organization based on "carrying forward the quintessence of Chinese culture, absorbing and digesting the new knowledge" showed a certain influence at home and abroad. The College advocated the combination of communicating with famous physicians and the study of theory, cultivation of students' organization and academic society, launching of journals, and organizing students' research associations was aiming at the satisfaction of the social needs and teaching orientation. Its running experience provided useful reference for modern TCM medical education.
Tao, Peng; Zhong, Xinmin; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Guo, Weiling; Huang, Xiaoyun
Aquaporins (AQPs) are members of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins and play a significant role in the transportation of small molecules across membranes. However, currently little is known about the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage. In total, 53 non-redundant AQP genes were identified that were located on all of the 10 chromosomes. The number of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was greater than in Arabidopsis. They were classified into four subfamilies, including PIP, TIP, NIP, and SIP. Thirty-three groups of AQP orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, but orthologs corresponding to AtNIP1;1 and AtPIP2;8 were not detected. Seventeen groups of paralogous genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. Three-dimensional models of the AQPs of Chinese cabbage were constructed using Phyre2, and ar/R selectivity filters were analyzed comparatively between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Generally, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily, especially in the SIP subfamily. Intron loss events have occurred during the evolution of the PIP, TIP, and NIP subfamilies. The expression of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed in different organs. Most AQP genes were downregulated in response to salt stress. This work shows that the AQP genes of Chinese cabbage have undergone triplication and subsequent biased gene loss.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chou, Li-Fang; Chen, Fan-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
organs, circulatory and endocrine system; nutritional and metabolic diseases; and immunological disorders. Conclusion TCM was popular among the Chinese population in Taiwan during the period studied. More than 60% of all subjects had used TCM during the 6-year interval. TCM was widely used by the Chinese population to treat problems and diseases of major human organ systems recognised by western medicine. This study provides information about the use frequencies of TCM and the disease categories treated by TCM, which should be useful for health policy makers and for those considering the integration of TCM and Western medicine. PMID:17319950
Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun
Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133
Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun
Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.
Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the ... lungs Skin Bone and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...
The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.
Scalliet, Gabriel; Piola, Florence; Douady, Christophe J.; Réty, Stéphane; Raymond, Olivier; Baudino, Sylvie; Bordji, Karim; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dumas, Christian; Cock, J. Mark; Hugueney, Philippe
The phenolic methyl ether 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT) is a major scent compound of many modern rose varieties, and its fragrance participates in the characteristic “tea scent” that gave their name to Tea and Hybrid Tea roses. Among wild roses, phenolic methyl ether (PME) biosynthesis is restricted to Chinese rose species, but the progenitors of modern roses included both European and Chinese species (e.g., Rosa chinensis cv Old Blush), so this trait was transmitted to their hybrid progeny. The last steps of the biosynthetic pathways leading to DMT involve two methylation reactions catalyzed by the highly similar orcinol O-methyltransferases (OOMT) 1 and 2. OOMT1 and OOMT2 enzymes exhibit different substrate specificities that are consistent with their operating sequentially in DMT biosynthesis. Here, we show that these different substrate specificities are mostly due to a single amino acid polymorphism in the phenolic substrate binding site of OOMTs. An analysis of the OOMT gene family in 18 species representing the diversity of the genus Rosa indicated that only Chinese roses possess both the OOMT2 and the OOMT1 genes. In addition, we provide evidence that the Chinese-rose-specific OOMT1 genes most probably evolved from an OOMT2-like gene that has homologues in the genomes of all extant roses. We propose that the emergence of the OOMT1 gene may have been a critical step in the evolution of scent production in Chinese roses. PMID:18413608
This paper explores the influences of linguistic-cultural differences between Chinese and Western medicine on the English translation of Chinese medicinal terms/literature from such aspects as ideographic, phonetic writings and thinking modes, Chinese and Western medical terms, as well as Classic literature of Chinese medicine and medical English.
Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald
Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…
This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…
Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.
Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…
McBride, Catherine Alexandra
Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…
Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)
Simmons, Linda, Ed.
Reviews the history of Chinese immigration to the United States and provides a facsimilie of a form used to document immigrants under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Teaching suggestions are included. (JDH)
Meade, Robert D.; Barnard, William A.
Using a three-variable design, this study investigated conformity to male and female group pressures among Chinese and American male college students. Americans showed a greater tendency toward anticonformity than did Chinese. (JB)
Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli
The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.
Wang, Cheng-cheng; Feng, Liang; Liu, Dan; Cui, Li; Tan, Xiao-bin; Jia, Xiao-bin
Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is a complex system, featured with integrity and characteristics. Structural component TCM is a well-organized integrity of traditional Chinese medicine, reflecting multi-component integration effect of TCM. It gives us a new view on the material basis of TCM. Currently, conventional researching strategies are not enough to deal with the relationship between material basis and efficacy, multi-composition, multi-targets, and multi-section mechanism. Post-genome area gives a birth to bioinformatics, which involves systematic biology, different levels of omics, corresponding mathematics and computer techniques. It increasingly becomes a powerful tool to understand complicated system and life essential laws. Research ideas, methods. and knowledge of data mining technology of bioinformatics combined with the theory of structural components of Chinese medicine bring a new opportunity for developing structural components of Chinese medicine, systematically exploring the essence of TCM and promoting the modernization of TCM.
Huang, Jiefu; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Sheung Tat; Zhao, Baige; Zhang, Zongjiu; Hao, Lina; Huo, Feng; Liu, Yongfeng
China has developed a new national program for deceased-organ donation to address the need for organ transplantation in the country. The program adheres to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles, is compliant with the Declaration of Istanbul, and respects the cultural and social values of the Chinese people. The experience of pilot trials conducted between 2010 and 2012 was evaluated to generate a comprehensive design of a national program of organ donation and transplantation for implementation throughout China. The legal framework for this program was established from a series of legislative steps since 2007. Accountable national committees have been established to oversee activities of organ donation and transplantation across the nation. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has accredited 164 organ transplant hospitals in China, each of which has an organ procurement organization (OPO) to conduct organ donation and organ recovery. National protocols for deceased-organ donation in China include category I (organ donation after brain death), category II (organ donation after circulatory death), and category III (organ donation after brain death followed by circulatory death). The China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS) has been developed to allocate organs equitably and transparently. Scientific registries have been established to evaluate the performance of transplant centers and OPOs. China is in the process of implementing a new national program for deceased-organ donation. The program includes a unique approach of organ donation, China category III, which will be promulgated throughout China and is intended to gain widespread acceptance of Chinese society.
Lee, Cher Leng
Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…
Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan
"Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…
Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…
Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala
This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…
Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin
This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…
The Chinese lunar calendar dates back to the second millennium BC. Unlike the western calendar, which numbers the years progressively from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Chinese calendar is cyclical. Each cycle is made up of 12 years--after the 12th year, the cycle is repeated. The Chinese associate each year of a 12-year cycle with an animal, and…
Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.
This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…
Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn
Parental and community involvement play a key role in the Chinese American students' fight for their rights. In order to understand the reasons behind the parental and community support of Chinese students, a survey was conducted among Chinese parents to assess what they know about language loss, power, knowledge, and democracy. The results…
Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei
Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…
Milvaney, Susan E.
This report discusses Chinese refugees in Hong Kong. The statistics, background readings, and case studies included in the report may provide useful information to educators and curriculum developers interested in Chinese and Asian studies. Contents include the following: (1) Hong Kong Demography; (2) History of Chinese Refugees; (3) Refugees:…
Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na
In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…
Chinese Americans have been called inscrutable--not open to being understood. More casual, spontaneous, and expressive people find it hard to understand the strict discipline of feelings and highly selective and controlled expressions such as the Chinese American may practice. This paper serves as a social introduction to the Chinese American. For…
Scrimgeour, Andrew; Wilson, Philip
The International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education (ICCLE) represents a significant initiative by the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) to organise and describe objectives and content for a standardised Chinese language curriculum around the world. It aims to provide a reference curriculum for planning, a framework…
Li, Yong-Xin; Wu, Hui-Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan
Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml(-1). Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml(-1) and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity.
Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.
Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual…
Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei
Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed.
In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time.
World Health Organization aims to develop safe, effective and practical traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and other complementary and alternative medicine are being recognized in the whole world nowadays. However, the definite effect of Chinese medicine is still in need of scientific research proof. Placebo control is of equal importance to active control and blank control in clinical trial of TCM. This article briefly reviewed the importance of placebo control and commented on its present situation in clinical trial of TCM. This article also brought up the preliminary proposals of placebo application in TCM clinical trial. We should emphasize scientific placebo preparation and good design of placebo-controlled trial, which are directed by International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. A good clinical trial project will avoid unnecessary wastes and provide safe and effective treatment for people.
Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde
The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes.
Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.
This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This nine-volume basic course in Cantonese Chinese is designed for 47 weeks of intense audiolingual instruction. The first book of the series introduces the pronunciation, with emphasis on the tone system, and the basic aspects of the grammar. Also introduced in this volume is the romanization system used in this series (the U.S. Army Language…
Wong, Betty Siu Junn
Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of…
HSU, KAI-YU; AND OTHERS
THIS TEXTBOOK, THE FIRST OF A FOUR-VOLUME SERIES, WAS WRITTEN FOR 9TH GRADE AMERICAN STUDENTS BEGINNING CHINESE LANGUAGE STUDY, BUT CAN ALSO BE MODIFIED FOR USE IN 7TH OR 8TH GRADE CLASSES. THE 15 UNITS BEGIN WITH A SHORT DIALOGUE WHICH INTRODUCES NEW VOCABULARY AND SENTENCE PATTERNS. THE DIALOGUES ARE EXPLAINED THROUGH PICTURES AS WELL AS A…
The visit of Bertrand Russell to China during 1920 to 1921 was one of the most significant events in May Fourth Movement, and Russell pointed out that education was the most important thing for Chinese reconstruction. The author argues that we should interpret Russell's educational idea of China from a theoretic and practical point of view. The…
Yang, T T; Koo, M W
Chinese teas with different degrees of fermentation were examined for their effect on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. The teas tested were Chinese Green tea, Jasmine, Iron Buddha, Oolong and Pu erh. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rats with a cholesterol-enriched diet for 1 week. They were then treated with different tea extracts together with a cholesterol-enriched diet for another 8 weeks. Chinese Green tea and Jasmine tea, both with a minimum degree of fermentation, were found to have significant serum and liver cholesterol lowering effects. They also reduced the increase in liver weight due to lipid deposition. All tea treatments lowered the atherogenic index and increased the HDL-total cholesterol ratio, while HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not significantly affected. Analysis of catechin levels in tea extracts showed that the individual catechin component in Chinese Green tea and Jasmine tea were significantly higher than the others. (-)-Epicatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in the tea extracts may account for their hypocholesterolemic effect.
Lin, Julia C.
This study examines the rise and development of the new genre of Chinese poetry, from 1919 to the present, focusing on the period's major poets and several lesser poets. Style, themes, characteristic techniques, faults and virtues, major concerns, and important contributions of each poet are discussed. Part 1, which covers the period before 1917,…
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.
This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these…
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution…
This document, designed to introduce all ages to a selection of popular Chinese games, describes these games and provides instructions and materials for making the items needed to play most of them. Section 1 suggests class activities that can be related to some of the games. Section 2 presents instructions for the physical or outdoor games of:…
Miller, William F.
Describes the current state of instructional technology in Chinese universities. Topics discussed include organizational patterns in audiovisual centers; the use of various media, including film, videotapes, overhead projectors, and television; the use of technology in language instruction; audiovisual equipment and appropriate technology; and…
An American instructor taught a 5-week course on the family in American drama to a group of graduate English majors on the campus of Hebei Teachers' University in the People's Republic of China. The instructor learned as much about Chinese culture as the students learned about American culture. Lecture is the standard pedagogy even in graduate…
Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng
This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.
Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J
Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end.
In this philosophical paper, I propose a theory of music education inspired by ancient Chinese philosophy. In particular, I draw on five classical Chinese philosophical texts: the Analects (lunyu [Chinese characters omitted]), the Mencius (Mengzi [Chinese characters omitted]), the Zhuangzi ([Chinese characters omitted]), the Xunzi ([Chinese…
DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS
THIS READER, ALONG WITH "BEGINNING CHINESE READER, PART II," IS CLOSELY INTEGRATED WITH THE SETON HALL UNIVERSITY TEXTS FOR SPOKEN AND WRITTEN CHINESE, "BEGINNING CHINESE" AND "CHARACTER TEXT FOR BEGINNING CHINESE." OF THE 400 CHARACTERS IN THESE TWO READERS, ALL BUT 33 HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO THE STUDENT IN "BEGINNING CHINESE" AND "CHARACTER…
Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of job insecurity (past job downsizing and anticipated job downsizing) and current remuneration--via wellbeing (burnout and work engagement)--on organizational outcomes (organization commitment and low turnover intention) of Chinese family-owned business. Design/methodology/approach: The…
This paper explores the problems of EFL classroom writings in the Chinese college teaching context from the perspective of textual organization and pragmatic strategy. Influence of their native cultural thought pattern causes the problem of discourse pattern and cohesion; lack of sufficient pragmatic strategy renders students' unawareness in…
This article describes the author's experience as a teacher in an orientation and mobility program for Chinese special educators. It addresses course organization, vocational opportunities for blind adults, an "orienteering" meet held during the last session, the Handicapped Awareness Day activity, and program evaluation. (DB)
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The organization and research programs of the Social Welfare Practice and Research Centre (SWPRC) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong are outlined. There are five regular research programs (Family and Group Practice Research Centre, Human Behavior and the Social Environment Research Program, Mutual Aid and Social Capital Research Program,…
Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.
This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…
Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang
Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. PMID:25609922
Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung
Autoimmune diseases are a group of illnesses with multiple organ involvement. The prototype of this group of disorders is rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that aside from systemic organ involvement mainly presents with progressive destruction of many joints. Both activation and defective apoptosis of immune effector cells like T and B lymphocytes and macrophages play critical roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Current therapy for autoimmune diseases recommends a combination of several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that preserve different immunomodulatory mechanisms. Because of limited success in prevention of RA joint destruction for currently available DMARDs, the development of more effective and less toxic DMARDs has been one of the major goals for pharmaceutical companies. The introduction of leflunomide and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies to the market recently serves as examples. In this context, the experience from ancient Chinese medicine gives an alternative consideration looking for potential DMARDs. Two commonly prescribed Chinese antirheumatic herbs are Tripterygium wilfordii hook f (TWHf) and tetrandrine (Tet) that preserve both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Importantly, the TWHf- or Tet-mediated immunomodulatory mechanisms are evidently different from the known DMARDs. The synergistic effects have also been demonstrated between these two Chinese antirheumatic herbs and DMARDs like FK506, cyclosporin and possibly chloroquine. Another potential Chinese herb for this consideration is Ginkgo biloba. This review summarizes evidence-based in vivo and in vitro studies on Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential DMARDs.
Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei
Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs.
Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.
Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu
Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record.
MIMED7( UU MO E in4~ M- USAWC RESEARCH ELEMENT (Thesis) Analysis of Chinese Communist Power by Lt Col Stewart V. Spragins USAF US Army War College...development to the turn of the century to determine if the PRC can rise to be a great power. In the research paper, a detailed study of the pre-Communist...used: the technical-scientific, psychological-social, mili- tary, political, and economic systems. The result of the research indicates that the PRC
Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming
Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.
Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai
For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well.
Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao
According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved.
Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun
In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.
Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Lopes, Agnaldo José
Chinese medicine practitioners apply the differentiation reasoning for decision-making. The wide scope of Chinese medicine intervention provides coverage of methods and techniques with applications to primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. The rapid evolution of mathematical and computational techniques allowed the implementation of several models for pattern differentiation that were tested for several physiologic systems. Concurrently, it is argued that pattern differentiation might improve the efficacy of either traditional or conventional medical interventions. This article reviewed the influence of pattern differentiation into clinical practice organized by medical field: general pattern differentiation; genitourinary (recurrent cystitis); cardiovascular (coronary heart disease; arterial hypertension; angina pectoris); neurology (stroke); surgery; metabolic (diabetes mellitus); hepatic (cirrhosis); gastrointestinal (chronic superficial gastritis); orthopedic (low back pain; rheumatoid arthritis; cervical spondylosis; elbow arthritis); oncology (gastric mucosal dysplasia; lung cancer); gynecologic and obstetric manifestations (nausea and vomiting). The reviewed studies presented achievements that have contributed to the integration of Chinese medicine and evidence-based medicine in the treatment of many mild and severe diseases. Target diseases considered as major public health problems were also investigated and the results are promising regarding the possibility to treat guided by pattern differentiation.
Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines.
Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Zuohong; Guo, Xiaoquan
Telocytes (TCs) and their telopodes (Tps) have been found in various organs of many mammals, including in lower animals. However, knowledge of TCs in lower animals is still very limited. This study identified TCs and their Tps in the ileum of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus (Amphibia: Caudata), by transmission electron microscopy. The TCs/Tps were found near epithelial cells, glandular cells and unmyelinated nerve fibres. Moreover, exosomes were also found to be present in between TCs/Tps and these cells.
The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…
Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea
This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…
Lai, Him Mark
Because past frames of reference and perspectives on Chinese Americans have relied mainly on English language sources, they seldom reflected the attitudes and experiences of the Chinese themselves. This bibliography attempts to remedy that situation by listing over 1,500 available works in the Chinese language which can be found in libraries and…
Having acquired some degree of oral proficiency but low (or non-existent) literacy, the learning of Chinese heritage learners' (CHLs) learning needs are different from those of Chinese foreign language learners (CFLs), who have learned Chinese only in the classroom setting. Although researchers have advocated for a separate curriculum for…
Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting
Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041
Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning
The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…
Sun, Da-zhi; Li, Shao-dan; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yin; Mei, Rong; Yang, Ming-hui
To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body.
Ben chao shi jian was a monograph of dietary Chinese materia medica written by Japanese doctor: [see text], following the style of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica). The book consulted Ben cao gang mu and associated with the actual situation of Japan, making elaborate illustrations on the function, toxicity, form feature, manufacture and collection of 442 kinds of dietary Chinese material medica produced from Japan and combining organically with all kinds of knowledges including medicice and pharmacology, health preservation, nutriology and gastrology etc. It was a very important work in the developmental history of dietology and medicative dietology in Japan with high practical and academic values.
Qi, Shengda; Li, Yuqin; Wu, Shuixian; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide
Nonaqueous CE (NACE) coupled to UV detection is described for the separation and determination of bioactive flavone derivatives in Chinese herbs extraction. After optimization of electrophoresis parameters, including the electrolyte nature and the organic solvent composition, a reliable separation of the analytes in an ACN/methanol (60:40, v/v) mixture containing 80 mM Tris and 10 mM sodium cholate was performed. The detection was performed at 254 nm. Method performances, including migration time and peak area reproducibility, linearity, sensitivity, and accuracy, were evaluated. The method was applied to determine bioactive flavone derivatives in seven Chinese herbs.
Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See
This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…
Dow, Ewan G.
This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE…
Mote, F.W., Ed.
The two Chinese Linguistics Conferences held at Princeton in October 1966 and 1967 treated respectively (1) the relevance and specific application of computer methods to the problems of Chinese Linguistics and (2) a series of interrelated problems in teaching Chinese--dictionaries, courses in classical Chinese, and methods of teaching and…
Mak, Winnie W. S.; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Amy G.; Yiu, Venus F. L.
To explore the cultural mechanisms underlying the distress experience among Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese, Chinese Americans, and European Americans, this investigation examined the role of face concern in psychological distress through a series of studies in both college students and community samples. Face concern refers to one's concern over…
In recent years a broad range of magnetoresistance phenomena have been reported for organic-based semiconductors, conductors and magnets. Organic systems illustrating magnetoresistance, include molecular- and polymer-based nonmagnetic semiconductors, organic-based spin polarized magnetic semiconductors, nonmagnetic conducting polymers, and ferromagnet/organic semiconductor/ferromagnet heterojunctions. Examples of each of these organic-based systems will be presented together with a discussion of the roles of magnetotransport mechanisms including interconversion of singlets and triplets, compression of the electronic wavefunction in presence of a magnetic field, quantum interference phenomena, effects of a ``Coulomb gap'' in π* subbands of organic magnetic semiconductors with resulting near complete spin polarization in conduction and valence bands of magnetic organic semiconductors.[2,3] Opportunities for magnetotransport in Ferromagnet/Organic Semiconductor/Ferromagnet heterojunctions will be discussed. [4pt]  V.N. Prigodin et al., Synth. Met. 156, 757 (2006); J.D. Bergeson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 067201 (2008) [0pt]  V.N. Prigodin et al., Adv. Mater. 14, 1230 (2002. [0pt]  J.B. Kortright et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 257204 (2008). [0pt]  J.D. Bergeson, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 172505 (2008).
Huang, X Y; Tao, P; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, particularly in acquired thermotolerance. We analyzed heat tolerance mechanisms in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 30 Hsfs were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database. The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, expression analysis, and interaction networks of the Hsfs were predicted and analyzed. Thirty BrHsfs were classified into 3 major classes (class A, B, and C) according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 8 subclasses. Distribution mapping results showed that Hsf genes were located on 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The expression profile indicated that Hsfs play differential roles in 5 organs in Chinese cabbage, and likely participate in the development of underground parts and regulation of reproductive growth. An orthologous gene interaction network was constructed, and included MBF1C, ROF1, TBP2, CDC2, and HSP70 5 genes, which are closely related to heat stress. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of Hsfs in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further functional gene research.
Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang
The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537
Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.
Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald
Two recent studies indicated that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills. The current study investigated whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. The Scholastic Assessment Test—Mathematics (SAT-Math) scores were analysed for 150 CA undergraduates: 42 writers of Chinese and 108 non-writers of Chinese. The results suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. An underlying mechanism may be the common cognitive components that encompass writing Chinese, spatial tasks, and SAT-Math. Contrary to previous findings with other populations in the USA, CA females scored slightly higher on SAT-Math than males. The finding supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.
Sui, Weiguo; Zheng, Can; Yang, Ming; Dai, Yong
Development of effective immunosuppressive agents and advances in surgical practice are the main reasons for the success of transplantation in China. In some key areas such as liver, lung, and kidney transplants, Chinese transplant success rates are similar to the rates in developed countries. Organ donation also has developed rapidly. However, China is facing a serious organ shortage that restricts clinical treatment and medical research. This shortage is due to imperfect laws and improper management of organ donation, as well as Chinese traditional ethics. Finding an efficient way to make the number of donated organs keep pace with the need for organ transplants and to optimize allocation of organ resources is a long-term and arduous task. In some ways, Chinese organ donation nowadays is constrained more by legal issues than by medical issues. The current status of and challenges facing organ donation in China are analyzed with respect to ethics, management, laws, and policy, and the future development of transplantation in China is discussed.
Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun
The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal.
Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter
This study aims to benchmark Chinese TEFL academics' research productivities to identify and address research productivity issues. Using a literature-based survey, this study examined 182 Chinese TEFL academics' research output, perceptions about research, personal dispositions for conducting research and workplace context for conducting research…
In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…
Li, Jin; Yue, Xiaodong
We present our recent research on children's learning goals and personal agency in the domain of learning in order to show the complexity of selves in Chinese culture. Our research poses challenges to the widely claimed collectivist self-concept in Chinese children and calls for reexamination of selves in specific domains across cultures.…
The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...
China has one of the oldest educational testing systems in the world, yet its modern form was influenced by various western educational modes borrowed during the twentieth century. This essay reviews the history of the Chinese traditional educational testing system: its origin, features, and its past impact on Chinese people's lives as well as on…
New trends in Chinese higher education are attracting the attention of global educators. Since the establishment of Western-oriented modern universities at the end of nineteenth century, Chinese higher education has continued to evolve. Over the past two decades, however, tremendous economic development in China has stimulated reforms in higher…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This seven-volume series constitutes the Defense Language Institute (Army Language School) 47-week course in the Toishan dialect of Cantonese. Beginning lessons present the tone and sound system in romanized script. Chinese characters are introduced in the fourth lesson. (See related document AL 001 479, "Chinese Cantonese Basic Course,"…
Chinese television started in 1958 but variety in programming and production of sets priced within reach of individuals were slowed by the Cultural Revolution. Since the economic and political reform movement began in 1979, Chinese television has been maturing as an important cultural and political force. The People's Republic of China is a Third…
This curriculum guide for teachers of elementary school children provides information on Chinese people in America from the 1800's to the present. The purpose is to increase the Chinese American student's awareness and appreciation of his own heritage. Moreover, the guide attempts to develop among all people an understanding and appreciation of…
Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani
As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…
Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei
Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…
Dimmock, Clive; Leong, Jason Ong Soon
This paper reports a study aimed at developing a substantive theory on the perspectives of Mainland Chinese studying in Singaporean universities. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) Why do university students from Mainland China choose to study in Singapore? and (2) How do Mainland Chinese university students manage the experience…
Liow, Susan J. Rickard; Poon, Kenneth K. L.
Investigated the impact of phonological awareness in English and Chinese of 57 multilingual pupils whose language backgrounds were English, Chinese (Mandarin/dialect), or Bahasa Indonesia, using a homophone decision task, an English lexicality spelling test, and a Hanyu Pinyin spelling test. (Author/JL)
Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly
This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…
Historians have traditionally either denied the existence or distorted the experience of women of color in U.S. history. As a result, Chinese American women, despite the fact that they have been in the United States since 1834, have remained nearly invisible. The Chinese Women of America Research Project embarked on an ambitious journey four years…
Chinese publicity materials are the windows for foreigners to know about China. There has been some problems in the translation for publicity materials both made by the enterprises and government departments. Especially for the growing international communication, the dispute between Chinese and its foreign counterpart is increasingly coming into…
Dufour, Joanne, Comp.
While nearly 85 percent of the U.S. population is currently made up of immigrants and their descendants, some groups were specifically targeted for exclusion and deliberately expelled. The Chinese were the first to experience this. In the 1850s, many Chinese who came to this land to search for gold or to help build the transcontinental railroad,…
Since a reading knowledge of Japanese is an indispensable research tool for advanced work in Chinese studies, the student of Chinese is faced with the task of "developing a facility in two of the most difficult written languages of the world." With the goal of making this task as easy as possible, a course has been developed at Cornell University…
Edelson, B.; Haas, S.; Harford, J.; Jaffe, L.; Nansen, R.; Schnapf, A.; Yarymovych, M.
The article describes the current status of satellite and related technology in the People's Republic of China. Attention is given to areas of potential cooperation and scientific and technical 'exchanges'. It is reported that the Chinese technology is 'advanced, but simple' and that the Chinese showed great interest in receiving U.S. technical know-how.
Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han
The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia and examined the cognitive profile of dyslexic adolescents in order to better understand this important problem. The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27…
Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao
Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth…
Clayton, Carmen Lau
The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…
Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao
The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…
Tavassoli, Nader T.
Investigated spatial memory for written words as a behavioral consequence of verbal processing differences. Across three experiments with Chinese and U.S. college students, spatial memory for real and nonsense words was greater for Chinese logographs than for alphabetic English words. This spatial memory advantage was absent for pictures and…
McMurtrie, Beth; Farrar, Lara
American-style summer programs in China, catering to Chinese-born students, have taken American universities by surprise. They are yet one more player in the complex and often opaque Chinese education industry, an industry in which American colleges are finding themselves increasingly entwined. These programs have become a booming enterprise,…
Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…
English-Chinese (E-C) translation is part of tertiary curriculum and is generally text- or reading-based, and any course in relation to it is meant to develop the competence of reading, on a higher level, from a language comparative perspective. Chinese-English (C-E) translation is deemed by many as a productive skill, possible when the overall…
Purpose: This study seeks to examine the managerial behavior of Chinese managers, as observed by their superiors, subordinates, and peers in a state-owned enterprise in China. Specifically, this study aims to explore two questions. First, what managerial behaviors are perceived as being effective in the Chinese state-owned enterprise? Second, what…
Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan
The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th.
Yao, Esther Lee
American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)
This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…
Nuffield Foundation, London (England).
A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…
Yang, Chunsheng; Xie, Ying
This paper reports on an action research study using iPads during the teaching of Chinese idioms to heritage learners. A class of 12 second-year Chinese learners were engaged in a self-generated learning process focused on learning abstract and concrete idioms using iPads. Students' short-term and long-term learning was measured; feedback from a…
Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu
A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…
Describes a study showing how the classical Chinese world view finds its way into Chinese students' written compositions. English teachers must help students progress from writing based on reasoning and rhetoric indigenous to their own culture, to writing in line with the thought and rhetoric patterns of the English-speaking context. (CB)
English translations can be used to teach classical Chinese poetry to students above the intermediate level who have a limited vocabulary. To overcome this deficiency, and to bridge the gap between vernacular and literary Chinese, several texts are suggested. Examples are given to show the benefit of English translations. (PJM)
Describes the Chinese-language program at Portland State University. Elements of this program include newspaper and classical courses; textbooks from China, Taiwan, and English-speaking countries; the use of characters on the first day; and a diverse student body. The university's goal is to make a solid Chinese education available to anyone in…
Peng, Dai-Yin; Wang, De-Qun; Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Ming-En; Zhang, Ling
In order to guarantee the smooth progress of census work, complete the traditional Chinese medicine resources survey pilot tasks better, Anhui province founded the three-combined technical team organization model and practical management model. Around the objectives, integrating the professionality with the existing distribution of traditional Chinese medicine resources and the reality of technical team of the census in Anhui province. The technical team organization model combining universities, experts, locality, expressed the strength of all parties and formed efficient working groups. The establishment of responsible management, funds management and process management ensured that the Anhui census work had a high level of quality and relatively consistent progress. The result shows that the organization and management model of Anhui census technical team were the important guarantee of finishing the Anhui census work smoothly with great quality and quantity on time.
French, Doran C; Chen, Xinyin; Chung, Janet; Li, Miao; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan
Quartets of Chinese (n=125) and Canadian (n=133) 7-year-old children were observed as they played with a single attractive toy. Chinese children exhibited more assertive and general rule bids, engaged in more spontaneous giving, and reacted more positively to assertions of others whereas Canadian children more frequently referred to norms of sharing. Evidence of cultural scripts for dealing with potential conflict, that is, sharing for Canadian children and hierarchical organization for Chinese children, emerged. Passive and reticent behaviors in Chinese children and assertion and object control by Canadian children were associated with group acceptance, results suggesting the meaning of these patterns of social behavior may differ in these two countries.
Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology.
Documentary and archaeological evidence testifies the early origin and continuous development of ancient Chinese astronomy to meet both the ideological and practical needs of a society largely based on agriculture. There was a long period when the beginning of the year, month, and season was determined by direct observation of celestial phenomena, including their alignments with respect to the local skyline. As the need for more exact study arose, new instruments for more exact observation were invented and the system of calendrical astronomy became entirely mathematized.
The Chinese calendar (li 历) was a system of mathematical astronomy that included mathematical techniques for the computation of celestial movements. It was the basis for producing astronomical ephemerides and annual almanacs. Calendar making started early in China. Since the Great Inception calendar reform in 104 BC, China has produced about 100 calendars (astronomical systems). The focus of calendar making was the prediction of solar, lunar, and planetary motions. As astronomy developed, new observational discoveries were incorporated into the calendar to make the system more precise. The history of astronomy in ancient China was largely a history of calendar making.
Background: Acupuncture is an often sought-out treatment modality for migraine. The World Health Organization lists headache as one of the several conditions treated effectively by acupuncture. Case Description: This single case reports on a 32-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of migraine. Methods: The patient was treated with acupuncture, dietary modiﬁcations, and Chinese herbal medicine enemas over a course of 2 months. Results: The patient experienced pain relief that resulted in several months without any migraine. Conclusion: This article may aid in expanding practitioners’ treatment options to include a more diverse set of modalities such as Chinese herbal enemas. More research is needed to investigate the role of Oriental medicine and Chinese herbal enemas in the treatment of pain conditions. PMID:24753996
Bergenti, I; Dediu, V; Prezioso, M; Riminucci, A
Organic semiconductors are emerging materials in the field of spintronics. Successful achievements include their use as a tunnel barrier in magnetoresistive tunnelling devices and as a medium for spin-polarized current in transport devices. In this paper, we give an overview of the basic concepts of spin transport in organic semiconductors and present the results obtained in the field, highlighting the open questions that have to be addressed in order to improve devices performance and reproducibility. The most challenging perspectives will be discussed and a possible evolution of organic spin devices featuring multi-functional operation is presented.
The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some
Fu, Nai-Fang; Luo, Chang-Hui; Wu, Jun-Cai; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Gan, Yong-Jin; Ling, Jian-An; Liang, Heng-Qiu; Liang, Dan-Yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xian-Jun; Pan, Rui-Hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-Jun
The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases.
Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun
The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583
Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R.
Organic Nomenclature requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 6.2 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher.
Organic photovoltaics are on the verge of revolutionizing building-integrated photovoltaics. For other applications, however, several basic open scientific questions need answering to, in particular, further improve energy-conversion efficiency and lifetime.
Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.
Deng, Jiagang; Qin, Huazhen; Liu, Lei; Liang, Yanjun
To summarize the biological effects of four natures of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the recent 40 years, including cold, hot, warm and cool, which have the effect on central nervous system, endocrine system on the activity of sympathetic nerves, basal metabolic rate, the function of organs and tissues and secretion of cytokine out of body. And to review the new concepts and new hypotheses in recent 10 years which proposed on the four natures of traditional Chinese medicine. Based on the above summary we pointed out that the previous studies on biological effects have shortage in the following aspects: The studies had little connection with the TCM theory; The research highly concentrated on the biological effects of the cold and heat natures of drug; There is almost no research on the biological effects of the neutral nature; The research on the biological effects of the natures of traditional Chinese medicine had no combination with effects of drugs. And pointed out that studies on four natures of traditional Chinese medicine will be a multi-level, multi-disciplinary, multi-factor, multi-targe research, connecting Chinese medicine theory. The research will be a combination of the macro research and the micro research, the qualitative research and the quantitative research and the experimental research and the clinical research.
Liu, James H; Ng, Sik Hung; Loong, Cynthia; Gee, Susan; Weatherall, Ann
Hierarchical cluster analyses of a trait sorting task were used to investigate social representations (and cultural stereotypes) of elderly New Zealanders (NZers) of Chinese and European origin, held by young (mean age = 17) and middle-aged (mean age = 46) NZers from both ethnic groups. Consistent with cultural theories of aging in Chinese societies, organizational features for NZ Chinese were: evaluative simplicity, role-governed representations (e.g., division between socio-emotional and task-oriented elders), little differentiation as a consequence of the ethnicity of elders or age group of subject, and an overall structure dominated by good/bad. NZ Europeans' social representations were more evaluatively complex, had fewer subtypes and more differences as a consequence of target person ethnicity. The Curmudgeon and the Nurturant were the most consensual stereotypes across the 8 cluster analyses (2 subject ethnicity x 2 target ethnicity x 2 subject age group), with the most power to organize stereotypical perceptions of elders across cultural groups. Only the majority group, NZ Europeans, displayed out-group homogeneity effects by creating more categories of elderly Europeans than Chinese. Both ethnic groups held representations of elderly Europeans as higher status in society, and both had more contact with European than Chinese elders outside the family.
dearth of English language literature that attempts to determine the existence of a Chinese way of war.4...contrast [to scholarship in Chinese], relatively little work on Chinese military history has been published in English and other Western languages …For...professionals about some of the strategic implications of the Chinese way of war. While there are many exceptional English language works on
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…
Chou, Chun-Hui; Bartz, Kevin
This paper evaluates the effect of Chinese non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) on Chinese ESL students' struggles with English syntax. The paper first classifies Chinese learners' syntactic errors into 10 common types. It demonstrates how each type of error results from an internal attempt to translate a common Chinese construction into…
This paper discusses one Chinese graduate student's experience with English writing. Through a literature review and personal interviews with other Chinese students, the paper explores the differences between Chinese and English writing. It summarizes the literature on differences between Chinese and English writing conventions in ideological and…
Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce
Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…
Li, Ee Hui; Hew, Soon Hin; Choo, Siew Hwa
In recent years, the growth of China has successfully boosted the Chinese language to be studied by people from different language-speaking societies. The Chinese language has become the most preferred second or third language among non-Chinese native novices due to the great development of China and global economic change. The Chinese idiom is…
King, Haitung; Locke, Frances B.
Examines the changing occupational patterns of Chinese Americans in the past 100 years. Considers the historic background of legal and socioeconomic restrictions, occupation accommodation, differences between native and foreign-born Chinese, Chinese entrepreneurship, the Chinatown sub-economy, and the health status of Chinese with work experience.…
This study investigated the effects of a 16-week reading instruction program with discourse structure graphic organizers (DSGOs) on the development of English reading comprehension among college-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. A total of 340 first and third semester students of non-English majors at a Chinese university…
Tang, Z; Trovato, F
The study examines Chinese fertility in Canada in the context of minority-status and fertility. Chinese-Canadians are compared with British-Canadians, who are considered in this analysis as the majority group. The study is unique in three ways. First, we argue that discrimination brings a minority group not only psychological insecurity but also social-economic insecurity, which can be measured by Chinese husbands' economic status relative to the British. Second, we analyze the relationship between discrimination against the Chinese at the social class level and Chinese fertility behavior at the individual level, which has been ignored by most previous studies. Third, we describe "insecurities" effects to explain the fertility behavior of the Chinese across social classes, including the lower classes to which many researchers believe the minority status hypothesis is not applicable. We conclude that discrimination variations over social classes combined with normative influence are a major factor in causing class fertility differentials between the Chinese and the British in Canada.
Cyn, Khoo Wei; Ganapathy, Malini
The ideology of Chinese racial pride in an online essay "Proud to be born a Chinese" by Dr. Chan-Lui Lee is described and analysed by using the sociocognitive approach to critical discourse analysis (CDA). The research design is based on the notion that Chinese racial pride is a tool to persuade Chinese Malaysians to prioritise their…
Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu
This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…
Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.
Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…
This study examined the differences in attitudes toward science education among American, Chinese-American, and Chinese parents and students. Parents' expectations for their high school children's science performance were also compared among the three cultural groups. It was found that both Chinese parents and students had more positive attitudes toward science education than did their American counterparts. Chinese parents placed greater emphasis on self-improvement, set higher standards, and more often helped their children to learn science than did American parents. The attitudes of the Chinese-Americans appeared to show the influences of both their Chinese heritage and American culture. Overall, a high positive correlation was found between parents' and students' attitudes toward science education.
Sun, Wenjuan; Jia, Xianghong; Xie, Tianwu; Xu, Feng; Liu, Qian
With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000-10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO).
Chen, Shi-lin; Zhang, Ben-gang; Yang, Zhi; Su, Gang-qiang; Zhao, Run-huai; Huang, Lin-fang; Ma, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jin-sheng; Xiao, Pei-gen
The survey of Chinese medicines resources concerns the development of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. It also directly influences the modernization process of traditional Chinese medicines. Owing to lacking of the scientific data on the Chinese medicines resources, it is a extremely urgent work to carry out survey of main Chinese medicine resources in nationwide. This paper explains the meaning and necessity. And it also investigated the survey object, contents, new technologies and methods.
Koriat, A; Levy, I
Hebrew-speaking subjects were presented with 42 pairs of Chinese characters designating antonymic concepts and were required to match them with their corresponding Hebrew words. Correct translation was significant and was related to foreign language study and academic experience. Highest success was found for the activity domain of the semantic differential and for attributes judged to afford a diagrammatic representation. Examination of the character-referent relationships suggested that translation success was due to principles of figural symbolism rather than to pictographic representation of the attributes in question. The results are seen as suggestive of the effects of figural symbolization on the invention and/or evolution of natural scripts and are discussed in terms of the manner in which the graphic medium has been fashioned to convey abstract concepts.
Wang, M C; Ho, T F; Block, G; Lee, M; Anderson, J; Sabry, Z
During the last decade, childhood obesity has been on the increase in Singapore and many newly industrialized Asian countries. We compared the mean body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF) values, as well as the dietary and physical activity patterns of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese American youths. Chinese Americans had a higher mean BMI but a lower mean TSF than Singaporean Chinese. Dietary comparisons suggest that Singaporean Chinese ate fish and grain products more often than Chinese American youths, while Chinese American youths consumed processed meats, dairy products and snack foods more frequently. Mean frequency of consumption of low fat, traditional Chinese foods such as rich porridge was higher among the Singaporean Chinese, while typical 'American' foods including cheese were consumed more often among the Chinese Americans. Certain food items that were more 'neutral' in terms of their cultural identity, such as carbonated drinks, cookies and bread were consumed with the same mean frequencies in both cohorts. In terms of physical activity, Singaporean Chinese youths, on average, spent more time in sedentary activities, less time sitting, and more time in light or moderate activities. The mean time spent on vigorous activities per day was only one hour in both cohorts. Our study suggests differences in body fat distribution and composition, as well as in dietary and activity patterns, between Chinese American and Singaporean Chinese youths. There is a need to develop obesity indicators that are appropriate for the specific populations involved, and to carefully investigate environmental influences on childhood obesity.
Sebestyén, Nóra; Ivaskevics, Krisztián; Fülöp, Márta
The present study aimed to reveal the effect of migration processes on the conceptualisation of effort involving two cultures with different approaches towards effort: China with an effort-promoting mindset and Hungary with an effort-repressing mindset. In the study, narrative approach was used in cross-sectional design involving Chinese, Hungarian and Chinese immigrant students living in Hungary. Altogether 139 students-49 Hungarian, 47 Chinese, 43 Chinese immigrants-aged 13-15 years provided narratives on past personal effort. Content analyses were done on 222 narratives. The results showed that the Chinese narratives of effort were characterised by learning and achievement orientation with elaborated effort process. In contrast, the Hungarian narratives were characterised by relationship orientation and emotional coping with a non-elaborated effort process. The narratives of the Chinese immigrants showed great similarity to those of the Chinese students reflecting academic effort, achievement goals and elaborated process. The findings suggest that the traditional Chinese approach towards effort persists in cultural transition, and academic effort tends to be a primary resource for educational success for the Chinese immigrant students in Hungary.
Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Escrivà, Hector
Understanding how the chordate body plan originated and evolved is still controversial. The discovery by Spemann and Mangold in 1924 of the vertebrate organizer and its inductive properties in patterning the AP and DV axis was followed by a long gap until the 1960s when scientists started characterizing the molecular events responsible for such inductions. However, the evolutionary origin of the organizer itself remained obscure until very recently; did it appear together with the origin and radiation of vertebrates, or was it a chordate affair? A recent study by Yu and collaborators,1 which analyses the expression of several organizer-specific genes in amphioxus together with recent phylogenetic data that reversed the position of invertebrate extant chordates (e.g. urochordates and cephalochordates), indicates that the organizer probably appeared in early chordates. It likely had separate signalling centres generating BMP and Wnt signalling gradients along the DV and AP axis. The organizer was then lost in the urochordate lineage, most probably as an adaptation to a rapid and determinate development.
Hays, David G.
Aside from phonological and syntactical structures, text is organized by its dramatis personae, plot, figures, point of view, and theme. These are, respectively, the entities mentioned, the spatial-temporal and causal linkages of events, comparisons and contrasts, propositional attitudes, and correspondence to some pattern. These modes of…
Technology & Learning, 2005
Good organization skills are key to running an efficient classroom, and having the right tools makes it easier to manage all of the tasks, save time, and be more productive. Having the power of information when and where anyone need it makes a difference in how well any teacher runs the classroom and knows his or her students. A Palm handheld…
Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan
House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to children's blood Pb. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with geometric mean and median concentration of 54 mg/kg and 42 mg/kg, respectively. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decorative materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decorative materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Pb bearing particles appeared as cylindrical, flaky and irregular aggregates with the particle size ranging from about 10 to 800 μm. The energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) suggested that Pb in the dust particles may be associated with calcium compounds. But the major fraction of Pb in the household dust samples was found to be strongly bound to Fe-Mn oxide phases (37%) while Pb present in minor fractions individually making up between 14 and 18% was characterized in falling order as residual, carbonate, organic/sulphide and exchangeable fractions by the sequential extraction method applied. Bioaccessible Pb making up an average proportion of 53% in the household dusts was significantly correlated to the Fe-Mn oxide phases of Pb.
Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia
To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine.
Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian
Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737
Okurowski, Mary Ellen
Presents a description of textual cohesion in Modern standard Chinese (MSC), and describes three types of relations as discourse and text features that contribute to the overall unity or coherence of a text. (24 references) (Author/VWL)
Zhong, Zhangfeng; Qiang, William W.; Tan, Wen; Zhang, Haotian; Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Chunming; Qiang, Wenan; Wang, Yitao
Emerging evidence promotes a reassessment of metabolic reprogramming regulation in cancer research. Although there exists a long history of Chinese herbs applied in cancer treatment, few reports have addressed the effects of Chinese herbal components on metabolic reprogramming, which is a central cancer hallmark involved in the slowing or prevention of chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this review, we have focused on four core elements altered by metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. These include glucose transport, glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid synthesis. With this focus, we have summarized recent advances in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in response to specific Chinese herbal components. We propose that exploring Chinese herbal interference in cancer metabolic reprogramming might identify new therapeutic targets for cancer and more ways in which to approach metabolism-related diseases. PMID:27242914
Feinerman, James V.
Describes a criminal case decided in the People's Republic of China in March 1991. Discusses the development of the modern Chinese legal system. Compares criminal law in China and the United States. (CFR)
Chen, Bing-Chun; Zheng, Li-Li; Wang, Hai-Yan; Dong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Yu
Traditional mineral Chinese medicine is a characteristic part of Chinese medicine, in the development of traditional Chinese medicine has its unique role. With the development of science and technology and the increase of the medical level, traditional mineral medicine research is gradually thorough and wide-ranging. In recent years, traditional mineral Chinese medicine research mainly includes the physical properties of mineral medicine, structure, chemical composition, pharmacology and treatment mechanism research. The above several aspects of research in the mineral medicine has important practical and theoretical significance. The above several aspects of research status and the problems existing in the research were briefly summarized and reviewed in this paper, and its development were discussed, to provide reference for further studies in the future.
n the study of fossil insects, Chinese amber from Fushun has been largely overlooked. A new study now reveals a highly diverse biota and provides a wealth of new information on the past Asian insect fauna.
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En
Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.
Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo
From the point of view of no-arbitrage pricing, what matters is how much volatility the stock has, for volatility measures the amount of profit that can be made from shorting stocks and purchasing options. With the short-sales constraints or in the absence of options, however, high volatility is likely to mean arbitrage from stock market. As emerging stock markets for China, investors are increasingly concerned about volatilities of Chinese two stock markets. We estimate volatility's models for Chinese stock markets' indexes using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and GARCH. We find that estimated values of volatility parameters are very high for all data frequencies. It suggests that stock returns are extremely volatile even at long term intervals in Chinese markets. Furthermore, this result could be considered that there seems to be arbitrage opportunities in Chinese stock markets.
Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.
Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations
The Chinese writing system has traditionally organized the typographic text vertically, with one square-shaped character placed on top of another. With the influence of globalization, an increasing number of reading materials have been presented in the Western horizontal format, including school textbooks for children in Taiwan. This study looked…
The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...
Indian and Chinese cosmologies are compared, each containing five cosmic elements. The Indian elements are Akasha, Air Fire, Water, and Earth. Akasha connotes Creative energy. As depicted it is substituted by reproduction projected as creation. Hence the male and female generative organs as Lingam-Yoni, already recognized in Hinduism as symbolizing the source of creative energy, have been depicted as such. The other four elements represent creation proper. In Chinese cosmology the full term is "Yin-Yang Wu-Hshing." Wu-Hshing signifies Five=Cosmic elements and these are Wood, Fire, Water, Earth, and Metal. They are taken from Iran. Since there is no element to represent creative energy this is expressed by the term Yin-Yang, or Black and White in lieu of male-female or Lingam-Yoni of Indian cosmology. The organs of reproduction have been projected as the opposites that generate creative energy. Virtually Yin-Yang=Lingam-Yoni=Creative energy generators.
Xu, Nan; Xu, Yi-Feng; Xu, Shuo; Li, Jing; Tao, Hu-Chun
Great efforts have been made in China to retrofit and upgrade the existing municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for enhanced removal of organic substrates and in particular nutrients. However, the removal of trace recalcitrant or hazardous organic chemicals, e.g. steroid estrogens, one group of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals, has long been overlooked. The extensive investigations on estrogen removal rates in global and Chinese WWTPs and the estrogen biodegradation kinetics results in batch laboratory experiments are reviewed in this study. The effects of estrogen initial concentration and nitrifying activated sludge are highlighted. Challenges existing in current estrogen studies are pointed out, which are relevant for researches on fate and behavior of similar down-the-drain chemicals in both Chinese and global WWTPs.
Ye, Xin-hai; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Yue, Qi; Xu, Zai-fu
Abstract The Chinese fauna of the family Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) is reviewed and illustrated for the first time. Twelve species of Leucospis Fabricius, 1775 are recorded; of which two species are new to science: Leucospis aequidentata sp. n. and Leucospis shaanxiensis sp. n. and one species is reported new for China: Leucospis intermedia Illiger, 1807. An identification key to Chinese species is included. A lectotype is designated for Leucospis aurantiaca Shestakov, 1923. PMID:28331388
Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng
Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.
Yan, Yun; Deng, Tianbai
In the recent twenty years, with China's reform and opening policy to the outside world, there is a sharp increase in English loan words in Chinese. On the one hand, it demonstrates that China's soft power has been booming up. But on the other hand, some language pollution in the meanwhile is caused by non-standard use of loan words in Chinese.…
27709 86a 10 7 16 UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON MATEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER THE CHINESE REMAINDER PROBLEM AND POLYNOMIAL INTERPOLATION Isaac J...Classifications: lOA10, 41A10 Key Words: Chinese Remainder Theorem, Polynomial Interpolation Work Unit Number 3 (Numerical Analysis and Scientific...Street Wisconsin Numerical Analysis and Madison, Wisconsin 53705 Scientific Computing " 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE U. S
Xu, Zefeng; Gale, Robert Peter; Zhang, Yue; Qin, Tiejun; Chen, Huishu; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Tianjiao; Liu, Liu; Qu, Shiqiang; Xiao, Zhijian
Clinical and laboratory features of 642 consecutive Chinese subjects with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were analyzed and compared with those of 1054 predominately white subjects with PMF. Chinese subjects were significantly younger, fewer had constitutional symptoms, and fewer had a palpable spleen or liver. Anemia, in contrast, was significantly more common in Chinese as was an increased white blood cell count and low platelet count. The reason for these differences is unclear, but it does not seem to be correlated with delayed diagnosis. A small but significantly increased proportion of Chinese had the JAK2(V617F) mutation but no difference in the frequency of haplotypes associated with PMF in whites. Survival of Chinese with PMF was also significantly longer than that of whites with PMF. We found commonly used staging systems for PMF such as the International Prognostic Scoring System and the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System were suboptimal predictors of survival in Chinese with PMF, and we developed a revised prognostic score that should help in comparison of data between studies of PMF in different populations and planning of clinical trials.
Li, C; Nuttall, R L; Zhu, W
Our recent study with Chinese and Chinese-American undergraduates indicated that writing Chinese characters was associated with better performance on the Piagetian Water-Level Task for Chinese-American men. The current study investigated whether the same effects would apply to the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Two alternative hypotheses (bilingualism and birth place) were also tested. Participants were two groups of Chinese-American undergraduates: 48 writers of Chinese (21 men, 27 women) and 130 nonwriters of Chinese (58 men, 72 women). Analysis suggested that writing Chinese and birth in the USA contributed significantly to the success on Mental Rotation Test. Students who were born in the USA and able to write Chinese scored the highest on this test. Being bilingual was not associated with performance on the Mental Rotation Test. Men performed significantly better than women.
Chinese migrants bring their Chinese culture and Chinese beliefs to New Zealand. The acculturation process can be long and may affect their access to dental services. Analysis of recent research suggests a pattern whereby the greater the acculturation, the greater the use of dental services. Four aspects of Chinese culture are highlighted: wrong perception of the cause of caries as 'Qi'; intention to seek self-treatment; a preference for keeping teeth against dentists' advice; and complex attitudes towards New Zealand dentists. These issues require dentists to be culturally aware when dealing with Chinese patients. Because existing models fail to capture the complexities of Chinese culture, a dynamic model is proposed to help dental practitioners to understand Chinese migrants' dental behaviours. Chinese culture also has implications for researchers who want to carry out research with the Chinese community.
Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A
This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.
Chu, Cordia M Y
In Chinese society, traditional postnatal practices and family support protect the health and well-being of women after childbirth. The absence of support for these practices for Chinese migrants in Western societies can have negative implications for their health. Recent studies reveal that postnatal stress is a growing concern among Chinese migrant women in Brisbane, Australia. There is a need to investigate the experiences of these women in order to understand factors affecting their postnatal health and to identify gaps in, and ways to improve, existing services and support identified needs. This paper examines postnatal experience and health needs of Chinese migrant women in Brisbane from three different places of origin: Taiwan, Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Previous studies on reproductive health beliefs and practices of Chinese women have found that a relationship exists between postnatal maternal health and postnatal cultural practices, appropriate family and community support and social circumstances, particularly pressures relating to employment. This study further tests and confirms these findings by comparing the experience of the three Chinese groups who have different migration circumstances, socio-economic and employment status, and support networks. The study reveals that among the three groups, PRC migrants are more likely to have encountered downward social mobility, economic hardship, social isolation, employment and language problems. While all three groups believe in the necessity of traditional postnatal practices, the PRC group has less support and is also more likely to have experienced postnatal health problems than the other two groups. This paper concludes with two sets of recommendations: one for community organizations with a focus on empowerment and cooperation; and one for service providers concerning improvement of multi-sectoral partnership, cross-cultural communication and the development of a postnatal care
Matkowski, A; Jamiołkowska-Kozlowska, W; Nawrot, I
Medicinal plants are an essential part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), an ancient complex therapy considered today as one of the most complete complementary medicine system. Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) listings included in Chinese Materia Medica cover more than 1500 plants and a great number of composite preparations. Recently, several TCM herbs have been included into European Pharmacopoeia and many more are on the waiting list. The efficiency of TCM is based on the reinforcing of an organism's natural healing power and the ability to restore the energy homoeostasis. A likely mechanism of at least some of the activities is interacting with redox balance and prevention of oxidative stress. During the past two decades, hundreds of crude herbs, extracts, and isolated compounds have been screened for their antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, some of traditional Chinese herbs can be regarded as source of very efficient antioxidant compounds, and this activity could explain some of their therapeutic and preventive usefulness. In this review, we outline the recent achievements in the worldwide quest for more efficient antioxidants, with Chinese medicinal and food plants in the central point. Various classes of antioxidant compounds will be mentioned, such as polyphenols or terpenoids that can act either as direct reactive oxygen species scavengers, transition metal reducers and chelators, or as chain breaking antioxidants. Some methodological considerations will be also discussed, with emphasis on the potential importance of the results obtained with antioxidant assays for human health and disease prevention. In this context, several examples of selected, most promising Chinese medicinal plants will be also presented in more detail.
57 Human traffickers also make use of the Chinese smuggling network, known as “snakeheads,” which often moves aliens into the United States in...connections to engage in human trafficking . Generally, trafficking networks reportedly are loose alliances among various groups that join forces to...83 Jennifer Bolz, “Chinese Organized Crime and Illegal Alien Trafficking : Humans as a Commodity, Asian Affairs, an American Review, 22, no. 3
Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang
Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.
International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.
Sato, Takashi; Honma, Michio; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Iriki, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Norihiko; Onodera, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Arima, Sumika; Kadota, Kazuya
The category and objective of DFM production management are shown. DFM is not limited to an activity within a particular unit process in design and process. A new framework for DFM is required. DFM should be a total solution for the common problems of all processes. Each of them must be linked to one another organically. After passing through the whole of each process on the manufacturing platform, quality of final products is guaranteed and products are shipped to the market. The information platform is layered with DFM, APC, and AEC. Advanced DFM is not DFM for partial optimization of the lithography process and the design, etc. and it should be Organized DFM. They are managed with high-level organizational IQ. The interim quality between each step of the flow should be visualized. DFM will be quality engineering if it is Organized DFM and common metrics of the quality are provided. DFM becomes quality engineering through effective implementation of common industrial metrics and standardized technology. DFM is differential technology, but can leverage standards for efficient development.
The discovery of organic superconductors in 1980 was an happy conclusion of a search for high T c superconductors (although T c was modestly in the Kelvin range). The first generation of organic superconductors belonged to a large family of quasi-one-dimensional conducting cation radical salts. Most of them exhibit a wide range of new phenomena, including the competition between ground states, the influence of a magnetic field on the non ordered phase of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas and the onset of spin density wave phases at high magnetic field with quantized Hall effect. The extensive study of the (TM) 2X series has shown that electron interactions are repulsive and of the order of the electron bandwidth. However, the nature of the ground states relies essentially on the balance between charge localisation boosted by the Umklapp scattering and the interchain hopping intergal. Second and third generation organic superconductors are two and three dimensional molecular conductors respectively with maximum T c of 12K (ET) 2X and 33 K (fullerides).
Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Lee, Yeong Yeh
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world’s population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide. Each year, many of people die from gastric cancer; thus application of effective vaccine can reduce this relatively high mortality worldwide. H. pylori can be eliminated by antibiotics but efficacy is sharply decreasing. Moreover, current therapy is also expensive and with side effects. Vaccine may be the best solution to the above problem but there are many challenges in producing such an effective therapeutic vaccine. Recently, the Chinese group published in Lancet, a single-center, randomized, phase III study of an oral recombinant vaccine (Urease B subunit fused with heat-labile enterotoxin B derived from Escherichia coli) prescribed in the Chinese children (6-15 years) without a history of H. pylori infection. This review provides an insight into this new solution for an old challenge. PMID:27602242
Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Liu, Zheng-Jin; Tan, Li-Wen; Qiu, Ming-Guo; Li, Qi-Yu; Liao, Rong-Xia; Li, Kai; Cui, Gao-Yu; Guo, Yan-Li; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Guang-Jiu; Shan, Jing-Lu; Liu, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Chen, Xian-Hong; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Lu, Ming; You, Jian; Pang, Xue-Li; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Yong-Ming
The United States Visible Human Project (VHP) created a digital image data set of complete human male (data acquisition finished in November 1994) and female (data acquisition finished in December 1995) cadavers in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and anatomical (anatomic serial section) modes. VHP aroused worldwide enthusiasm for Visible Human Research (VHR), and the data set is being used in a variety of research and educational domains. The Visible Korean Human (VKH) male was produced in March 2001. To accelerate worldwide VHR and to promote virtual anatomy as a revolutionary break with conventional anatomy, more visible human data sets representative of different populations of the world are in demand. The Chinese Visible Human (CVH) male (created in October 2002) and female (created in February 2003) project achieved greater integrity of images, easier blood vessel identification, and were free of organic lesion (unlike the other visible human projects). We performed data acquisition, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, and visualization with improved technology to create CVH male and female. CVH is the first volumetric data representing a complete normal adult human male and female of an Asian population. This article presents the history of Chinese Visible Human cadavers and the methods and technology used to produce the data set.
Background Modern breeding and artificial selection play critical roles in pig domestication and shape the genetic variation of different breeds. China has many indigenous pig breeds with various characteristics in morphology and production performance that differ from those of foreign commercial pig breeds. However, the signatures of selection on genes implying for economic traits between Chinese indigenous and commercial pigs have been poorly understood. Results We identified footprints of positive selection at the whole genome level, comprising 44,652 SNPs genotyped in six Chinese indigenous pig breeds, one developed breed and two commercial breeds. An empirical genome-wide distribution of Fst (F-statistics) was constructed based on estimations of Fst for each SNP across these nine breeds. We detected selection at the genome level using the High-Fst outlier method and found that 81 candidate genes show high evidence of positive selection. Furthermore, the results of network analyses showed that the genes that displayed evidence of positive selection were mainly involved in the development of tissues and organs, and the immune response. In addition, we calculated the pairwise Fst between Chinese indigenous and commercial breeds (CHN VS EURO) and between Northern and Southern Chinese indigenous breeds (Northern VS Southern). The IGF1R and ESR1 genes showed evidence of positive selection in the CHN VS EURO and Northern VS Southern groups, respectively. Conclusions In this study, we first identified the genomic regions that showed evidences of selection between Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds using the High-Fst outlier method. These regions were found to be involved in the development of tissues and organs, the immune response, growth and litter size. The results of this study provide new insights into understanding the genetic variation and domestication in pigs. PMID:24422716
The educational tradition of China has developed from traditional Chinese culture. Without an understanding of the cultural impact on traditional education, it is impossible to comprehend the educational tradition of China and to change its traditional educational ideas. There are fine traditions and feudal remains in Chinese culture which ought…
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan; Liu, Phil D.; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping
In the present study, maternal Pinyin mediation and its relations with young Chinese children's word reading and word writing development were explored. At time 1, 43 Mainland Chinese children and their mothers were videotaped on a task in which children were asked to write 12 words in Pinyin (a phonological coding system used in Mainland China as…
Katyal, Kokila Roy; King, Mark Edward
This paper addresses some fundamental methodological and ethical issues confronting non-Chinese researchers undertaking research in Hong Kong Chinese society. Among other things, it considers problems pertaining to data collection, the challenges of data interpretation, and the implication that this has for research. Whilst the issues are by no…
Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe
How can the education of teacher-researchers from China be framed in ways so that they might make Chinese learnable for primary and secondary school learners for whom English is their everyday language of instruction and communication. The concept "making Chinese learnable" and the characters of the language learners are explained in the…
Dunn, Robert, Comp.
An annotated bibliography of the Library of Congress' Chinese-English holdings on all subjects, as well as certain polyglot and multilingual dictionaries with English and Chinese entries. Included are general, encyclopaedic and comprehensive dictionaries; vocabularies; word lists; syllabaries; lists of place names, personal names, nomenclature,…
This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers.…
Mu, Guanglun Michael
Large-scale international comparative studies and cross-ethnic studies have revealed that Chinese students, living either in China or overseas, consistently outperform their counterparts in mathematics. Empirical research has discussed psychological, educational, and cultural reasons behind Chinese students' better mathematics performance.…
Wu, C.K.; Wu, K.S.
Compiled here for the first time in Yale romanization are 2,000 common Chinese sayings, idioms, proverbs, and other figures of speech. The entries are arranged in two series: once in alphabetic order according to the Yale romanization and then again by the stroke-count of the Chinese characters. The romanized entries are accompanied by several…
Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim
Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…
Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…
Mu, Guanglun Michael
The identity-language link has been widely recognised. In Heritage Language research, the complex entanglement between Chinese ethnic identity and Chinese Heritage Language has gained increasing attention in recent decades. Both social psychological and poststructural schools have offered meaningful insights into this field, but have also received…
Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xiaofei
This study examined variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners' development of the Chinese numeral classifier system from a dynamic systems approach. Our data consisted of a longitudinal corpus of 657 essays written by CFL learners at lower and higher intermediate levels and a corpus of 100 essays written by native speakers (NSs)…
Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
This paper reports evidence on the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI), an instrument developed to assess family functioning in Chinese populations. A convenience sample of 1,462 adolescents from junior secondary schools completed the C-FAI and measures of parent-adolescent conflict.…
Hampton, Nan Zhang; Xiao, Fei
The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between traditional Chinese values and attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities. A total of 534 college students in China participated in the study. Two instruments that measure Chinese values and attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities were used. Results indicated…
Shen, Helen H.
This study first identifies commonly used Chinese character learning strategies employed by non-native (English-speaking) learners of Chinese and generalizes about the factors underlying these commonly used strategies. Then, it defines linear trends between learning levels and students' perceptions of the usefulness of the commonly used strategies…
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Yue, Xiao Dong
The list of recognized creators is constantly changing with the passage of time. An up-to-date list of recognized Chinese creators emerges from a survey of a large sample of Chinese students in various places in China. To understand the sustainability of the creators' fame, this study examines how the creators' personal characteristics affect…
Su, Xiaoxiang; Kim, Young-Suk
In the present study, we examined the relation of knowledge of semantic radicals to students' language proficiency and word reading for adult Chinese-as-a-foreign language students. Ninety-seven college students rated their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in Chinese, and were administered measures of receptive and…
Ma, Xiao-jing; Guo, Juan; Tang, Jin-fu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying; Dai, Zhu-bo; Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi
For thousands of years, the natural resource for Chinese materiamedica has been the foundation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry, which provides abundant medicine for human. In recent years, increasing demands and irrational exploitation led to a lot of problems such as rapid decrease of traditional Chinese herbs reserves, low quality of medicine and dismishing traditional cultures. These restricted the development of the traditional Chinese medicine. To solve these problems, scientists have done much work on investigating traditional Chinese medicine resources, exploring the metabolic pathway of bioactive ingredients, cultivating new varieties, and carrying out synthetic biology. These studies provided a theoretical basis for sustainable utilizationand future developmentof traditional Chinese medicine resources.
Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang
The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.
This paper explores the influence of ethnicity on attitudes towards sexual behavior of British-born Chinese teenagers. Using an ethnographic approach and snowball sampling, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 British-born Chinese teenagers and 20 Chinese-born parents. The parents highlighted the influence of Chinese culture and religion on their sexual values and wanted to convey these values to their children. Although direct communication about sex-related topics was rare within these families because of a number of barriers, the parents used other strategies to pass on their values. The paper concludes that sexual values within families and the influence of culture need to be considered in order to provide culturally competent health services. Chinese parents need extra support and help to discuss sex-related topics and pass on their values, which encourage teenage sexual abstinence. Considering the fundamental influence of the parents, this support will be crucial.
Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya
In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk.
Hao, Qin; Du, Pengcheng; Zhang, Wen; Hou, Xuexia; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Wei; Chen, Chen; Wan, Kanglin
In China, B. burgdorferi, B.garinii, B. afzelii and B. yangtze sp. nov have been reported; B.garinii and B. afzelii are the main pathogenic genotypes. But until now only one Chinese strain was reported with whole genome sequence. In order to further understand the genomic characteristics and diversity of Chinese Borrelia strains, 5 isolates from China were sequenced and compared with the whole genome sequences of strains in other areas. The results showed a high degree of conservation within the linear chromosome of Chinese strains, whereas plasmid showed a much larger diversity according to the majority genomic information of plasmids. The genome sequences of the five Chinese strains were compared with the corresponding reference strains, respectively, according to the genospecies. Pairwise analysis demonstrates that there are only 70 SNPs between the genomes of CS4 and B31. However, there are many more SNPs between the genomes of QX-S13 and VS116, PD91 and PBi, FP1 and PKo, R9 and Pko, respectively. Gene comparison showed some important different genes. OspA was one of the important different genes. Comparative genomic studies have found that OspA gene sequences of PD91 and R9 had great differences compared with the sequence of B31. OspA gene sequence of R9 had a 96bp deletion; OspA gene of PD91 had two deletions: 9bp and 10 bp. To conclude, we showed the genomic characteristics of four genotype Chinese B. burgdorferi strains. The genomic sequence of B. yangtze sp. nov and differences from B. valaisiana were first reported. Comparative analysis of Chinese strains with the different Borrelia species from other areas will help us to understand evolution and pathogenesis of Chinese Borrelia burgdorferi strains.
Leung, Ping-Chung; Biji, Sreedhar; Yeung, Chung-Kwong
The surgeon aims at a direct, complete removal of the pathology. In spite of the modern advancements of imaging facilities and precision instrumentations, unsatisfactory results and recurrences are not uncommon. This paper provides a general review of the four specific areas in surgery that would benefit from Chinese medicine. Extensive searches were made on four surgical areas based on available English language journals, viz. low-back pain, chronic ulcers, renal calculus, and enuresis in children, in the past 10 years. The quoted communications are mainly related to clinical evidences, while a smaller number of crucial laboratory reports are also included. Low-back pain, a most frequent orthopaedic problem, would benefit from acupuncture treatment. Chronic leg ulcers could achieve better results of healing using herbal supplements. Problems of renal stones, besides the conventional methods of removal, could be further supplemented with herbal drinks that aim at prevention of recurrences. Enuresis in children, an untreatable common condition, may respond well to acupuncture. Surgeons should keep an open mind. In case of difficulties, they could seriously consider options of traditional treatment.
Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured
Saito, Gunzi; Yoshida, Yukihiro
The present status of organic superconductors of charge-transfer (CT) type based on donor molecules is reviewed. Along with the superconducting phases of such materials and also of oxide superconductors, reside spin-ordered phases such as spin-density wave (SDW) and antiferromagnetic (AF) phases. We briefly describe the recent development of superconductors having a superconducting phase next to a spin-disorder state (quantum spin liquid state). In addition to the CT type superconductors, there are a few single-component superconductors under high pressure.
Yuan, Jiang-Di; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Huang, Xing; Gao, Xiao-Chan; Zhang, Qi-Ya
Known as lethal pathogens, Ranaviruses have been identified in diseased fish, amphibians (including Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, the world's largest amphibian) and reptiles, causing organ necrosis and systemic hemorrhage. Here, three Chinese giant salamander cell lines, thymus cell line (GSTC), spleen cell line (GSSC) and kidney cell line (GSKC) were initially established. Their sensitivities to ranaviruses, wild-type Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV) and recombinant Rana grylio virus carrying EGFP gene (rRGV-EGFP) were tested. Temporal transcription pattern of ranavirus major capsid protein (MCP), fluorescence and electron microscopy observations showed that both the wild-type and recombinant ranavirus could replicate in the cell lines.
Li, Shan; Lin, Ruokuang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D. Y.
Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language. PMID:28006026
Li, Shan; Lin, Ruokuang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch
Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language.
Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yu, Wen-Ya
Combining the world health organization's (WHO), the United States and the European union's relevant laws and guidelines on post-marketing drug surveillance to judge the status of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in China. We found that due to the late start of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine, the appropriate guidelines are yet to be developed. Hence, hospitals, enterprises and research institutions do not have a shared foundation from which to compare their research results. Therefore there is an urgent need to formulate such post-marketing surveillance guidelines. This paper has used as guidance various technical documents such as, "procedures to formulate national standards" and "testing methods of management in formulating traditional Chinese medicine standards" and has combined these to produce a version of post-marketing surveillance particular to Chinese medicine in China. How to formulate these guidelines is discussed and procedures and methods to formulate technical specifications are introduced. These provide a reference for future technical specifications and will assist in the development of TCM.
Cao, Xin; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin
Bi-directional regulation is referred to a balancing effect of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions when the human body is experiencing a hyperactivity or hypoactivity due to abnormal intrinsic or external factors. In the present paper, the authors analyze their identical and different characteristics from: 1) definition; 2) characters of regulative effects of acu-moxibustion therapy: A) differentiation of meridian and zangfu-organs being the basis of treatment, B) four factors (acupoint-location, body's functional state, acupoint-formula and needle-manipulation techniques) dependant, C) entirety regulation, and D) centrotaxis modulation; 3) characters of Chinese materia medica intervention: including a) correspondence between the drug property and the syndrome being the basis of the regulative effect, b) multi-factors [components (antagonist and agonist), combination, dosages and processing quality of Chinese materia medica, and functional state of the human body] dependant, c) entirety regulation, and d) both centrotaxis and deviation adjustment. In one word, the bi-directional regulation effect is one of the basic characteristics of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica in clinical practice, but their basis and modes for inducing effects are different.
Meng, Yan; Ma, Jie; Jiang, Nan; Zeng, Ling-Bing; Xiao, Han-Bing
The Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, is a nationally protected and cultured species in China. Recently, a severe epizootic occurred in cultured Chinese giant salamanders in Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Zhejiang provinces of China, causing substantial economic losses. The typical clinical signs of diseased larval animals were jaw and abdominal swelling and subcutaneous hemorrhaging. Diseased adult animals exhibited skin hemorrhages, ulceration of the hind limbs, and multiple hemorrhagic spots in the visceral organs. Histopathological observation indicated tissue necrosis and cytoplasmic inclusions in the spleen, liver and kidney, suggestive of viral disease. A viral agent was isolated from affected tissues in cell culture. The virus was determined to be pathogenic after experimental infection. Electron microscopy revealed iridovirus-like virions with a size of 140-180 nm in diameter inside the kidney of naturally infected animals and in cell culture. The major capsid protein (MCP) of the virus exhibited 98-99 % sequence identity to ranaviruses. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus belonged to the genus Ranavirus. Comparative analysis of the MCP gene sequence with those of other viruses previously isolated from Chinese giant salamanders revealed that these isolates were highly similar, although a few variations were observed. The virus was preliminarily named Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV).
Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong
The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low and fraught with a number of difficulties. In the past, traditional Chinese culture focused on preserving the human body intact, which often limited body donation. In recent years, the public has become more open toward body donation. At Nanjing Medical University, only 20 bodies were donated in 2001. After the university became involved in an organized body donation program, this number increased to 70 donated bodies per year (2007 to 2012). This article describes and reviews Chinese medical colleges as a special case study among body donation programs, particularly in terms of the multiple responsibilities and roles that such institutions must assume in the course of adopting these programs. Medical colleges in China must serve as advocates, coordinators, builders, managers, educators, and beneficiaries in undertaking body donation programs. It is important for medical colleges to recognize these pluripotent roles and educate the public in order to promote body donation programs. This case study may also effectively guide and encourage Chinese medical colleges in refining their own body donation programs in the future.
Gong, Xubo; Lu, Xingguo; Xiao, Xibin; Wang, Weiqin; Yang, Jin; Fu, Yanbiao; Zheng, Yanbo; Tang, Qiusu; Zhang, Xiaohong
The clinicopathologic features of patients with prefibrotic-early primary myelofibrosis (PEPMF) are still uncertain, and the characteristics of PEPMF in Asian patients are rarely reported. This study analyzed the clinicopathologic characteristics of 42 Chinese patients with PMF newly diagnosed according to the 2008 World Health Organization criteria. Some clinical and laboratory features of the patients differed significantly from those of the predominantly white patients in Western countries. Chinese patients with PEPMF were more often male (1.28:1) and younger, less likely to have higher median hemoglobin concentrations (126 g/L), less frequently had palpable spleens (35.7%), and had longer median times between prefibrotic-early and classical PEPMF (64 months). On bone marrow trephine sections, Chinese patients were more likely to have increased granulopoiesis (78.6%) and less frequently had balloon-like megakaryocytes (61.9%), giant and staghorn megakaryocytes (35.7%), or megakaryocytes with hyperchromatic and dysplastic nuclei (40.4%). In conclusion, some clinicopathologic characteristics of PEPMF in Chinese patients in China differ substantially from those seen in predominantly white patients in Western countries, and more clinicopathologic studies involving different ethnic populations and geographic regions of the world should help unfold the characteristics of this disease.
Courtois, Y.A.; Min, S.; Lachenal, C.; Jacquot-Deschamps, J.M.; Callais, F.; Festy, B.
Experiments to evaluate the genotoxic potentialities of urban air particles sampled in Paris (France) after organic solvent extraction have been carried out using four in vitro genotoxicity tests. The two bacterial tests (the Ames test and the SOS Chromotest) demonstrate the genotoxicity of the organic extracts of atmospheric particles; two additional tests (induction of 6-thioguanine mutants and sister chromatid exchanges), carried out on V79 Chinese hamster cells, also confirm these potentialities. These results show clearly that particulate organic extracts induce point mutations in both bacteria and mammalian cells, or the cellular response (SOS repair) to these mutations in bacteria; likewise, they are responsible for clastogenic effects in mammalian cells. Genotoxicity is due either to direct genotoxic chemicals or to active metabolic products of the action of microsomal enzymes. The optimalization of testing procedures is discussed in order to appreciate the contribution of genotoxicity tests to the study of atmospheric pollution.
Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.
Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113
Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Samet, Jonathan M
Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries?
Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813
Lai, Daniel W L
In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.
Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng
Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption . But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters . The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most
Pritzker, Sonya E; Hui, Ka-Kit
This article introduces the document, Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why the Considerations is necessary, the specificity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and specific issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-specific language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.
Zheng, Xiaomei; Li, Dongyang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Lin; Gao, Yanyuan; Zhu, Yuanyuan
The automatic composition has achieved rich results in recent decades, including Western and some other areas of music. However, the automatic composition of Chinese music is less involved. After thousands of years of development, Chinese folk music has a wealth of resources. To design an automatic composition mode, learn the characters of Chinese folk melody and imitate the creative process of music is of some significance. According to the melodic features of Chinese folk music, a Chinese folk music composition based on Markov model is proposed to analyze Chinese traditional music. Folk songs with typical Chinese national characteristics are selected for analysis. In this paper, an example of automatic composition is given. The experimental results show that this composition model can produce music with characteristics of Chinese folk music.
Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan
Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing.
Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.
Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)
Chow, C S
This article explores the relationship between US immigration laws, Chinese immigrants' initial choices of residences and occupations in New York City, and the recent expansion of New York's Chinatown. Data were obtained from a questionnaire administered to 121 Chinese immigrants in New York in 1980. It was hypothesized that a high degree of immigrant concentration in areas such as Chinatown is a result of migration policies that favor chain migration. During the period of time (1943-65) when Chinese immigration was severely restricted by the Chinese Exclusion Act and a quota system, the Chinese population in New York remained small. By 1980, however, the Chinese population in New York City had grown to 124,764 (1.8% of the city's population). This was largely a result of the 1965 Immigration Act, which allows an annual quota of 20,000 immigrants per country and gives preference to family members of American citizens and permanent residents. Support for the hypothesis that the current immigration law encourages chain migration was provided by the finding that the majority of Chinese immigrants surveyed immigrated under the sponsorship of close relatives (53.7%) or as children with parents (13.2%). 53.4% had their initial residence arranged for or provided by relatives, and another 33.1% by friends--a pattern that has contributed to the expansion of Chinatown. To minimize the risk of having their applications for the immigration of family members declined, Chinese in New York refrain from seeking public assistance and take whatever jobs are available. 55% of immigrants surveyed obtained work in restaurants or garment factories in Chinatown, further sustaining a Chinese enclave. It is concluded that a theoretical perspective that emphasizes the link between migration policy and immigrants' choices regarding residence and occupation has more utility than hypotheses that assert a causal relationship between racial discrimination against minorities, nonassimilation of
Tang, C S; Yik, M S; Cheung, F M; Choi, P K; Au, K C
Sexual harassment of Chinese college students with a focus on their awareness, experiences, responses, and expectations of institutional intervention to the problem was examined. 358 male and 491 female Chinese college students in Hong Kong participated. There were no gender differences in students' awareness of the phenomenon. Students' own experiences were less frequent than what they had heard about sexual harassment. Peer harassment occurred twice as frequently as faculty harassment. Compared to men, twice as many women said they had been sexually harassed. About one in four women students experienced various forms of sexual harassment and 1% were coerced into sexual activities during their college years by either teachers or peers. Students typically avoided and ignored the harassers and felt that the university should take up active roles in combating the problem. Comparisons with U.S. studies suggested that Chinese college students had a lower awareness and experience level in sexual harassment than U.S. students.
Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.
Kim, Su Yeong
"Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua , has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.
Kim, Su Yeong
“Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua , has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:27182075
Brownstein, D.G.; Brooks, A.L.
Twenty-one endomyometrial neoplasms among 93 nulliparous noninbred Chinese hamsters were evaluated. The median survival time of the 93 females was 1040 days. The median age of hamsters with endomyometrial neoplasms was 1200 days. Neoplasms were classified as carcinomas or malignant mixed muellerian tumors of the endometrium and benign or malignant myometrial neoplasms. There were 13 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Three tumors were mixed adenosquamous carcinomas, which occurred in significantly older Chinese hamsters than did adenocarcinomas. Three malignant mixed muellerian tumors consisted of 2 carcinosarcomas and 1 mixed mesodermal tumor. The 2 myometrial neoplasms were a lelomyoma and a lelomyosarcoma. The classification and relative frequency of these neoplasms were similar to endomyometrial neoplasms of women, which makes Chinese hamsters useful subjects for studies of spontaneous endomyometrial cancers.
Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032
Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong
In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094
Chen, Ruiying; Wei, Ping; Liu, Jinghong
With Chinese fir thinnings as raw material, and through measuring the physical-mechanical indices of its compressed wood, observing the variation of its microstructure and using IR analysis, an optimized technique of compressing Chinese fir thinnings was established. The technique was: compression ratio 50%-60%, thickness after compression 20 mm, moisture content before compression 50%, compressing time 20-30 minutes, and hot compressing temperature 180-200 degrees C. CH, an environmentally friendly cooking additive, had positive effects on softening the wood. During compressing, only the cells of fast-growing Chinese fir were extruded, their cavity became smaller, while the cell wall was not destroyed. The thickness reversion ratio of compressed wood was 2.68%, and its size stability and mechanical quality were as good as hardwoods (Betula lumninifera).
Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping
In this article, we present normative data for 2,423 Chinese single-character words. For each word, we report values for the following 15 variables: word frequency, cumulative frequency, homophone density, phonological frequency, age of learning, age of acquisition, number of word formations, number of meanings, number of components, number of strokes, familiarity, concreteness, imageability, regularity, and initial phoneme. To validate the norms, we collected word-naming latencies. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis show that naming latencies of Chinese single-character words are predicted by frequency, semantics, visual features, and consistency, but not by phonology. These analyses show distinct patterns in word naming between Chinese and alphabetic languages and demonstrate the utility of normative data in the study of nonalphabetic orthographic processing.
The primary aim of this classified bibliography is to provide students of Asian studies, and the Chinese community at large, with references to the Chinese in Hawaii. Titles are cited in Chinese and in English. In scope the bibliography includes mainly works in Chinese, and relevant Chinese-English bilingual works published from 1897 to the…
Guo, Hao; Li, Lei; Hou, Jin-Cai; Liu, Jian-Xun
Remaining organic and functional damage of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease is always a main trouble puzzling the clinicians. After the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), researchers realize that postnatal angiogenesis is an important biological process, which play a key role to repair the ischemia tissue and improve the function. So a new concept which names therapeutic angiogenesis supply a new treament way for the ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich experience on treating the ischemia disease, studies found that many Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, howerer the mechanisms were not the same, they mainly manifest in regular the secretion of angiogenic factors, increase the proliferation and differentiation etc. In this paper, we review recent studies, summary the Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients which can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, and analyze the differernt pathway. We view to provide reference for the later researchers.
Zhao, Xiaolei; Fu, Jialei; Van Wijk, Eduard; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Hua; Zhang, Yufeng
Ultraweak photon emission emitted by all living organisms has been confirmed to be a noninvasive indicator for their physiological and pathological characteristics. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of spontaneous photon emission (SPE) and the contents of specific active compounds of roots and flowers buds of several fresh Chinese herbal medicines (natural medicines) with different growth ages and varieties. The results revealed that the contents of specific active compounds from same species herbs with different growth ages and varieties were significantly different, and this difference could be reflected by their SPE. Because the contents of specific bioactive constituents in Chinese herbs are closely related to their quality and curative effect, the SPE measurement technique may contribute to the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine in the future. PMID:28250790
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Second Life (SL) for improving the oral output of overseas Chinese students learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin). More than 1000 overseas Chinese students attend a university in northern Taiwan every year to learn Mandarin as a heritage language after graduating…
Garcia, Cecilia; Lien, Eric J.
Chinese and Chumash traditional medical approaches are similar in terms of disease causation, use of acupuncture or healing touch, plants, spiritual and philosophical approaches. This article provides a brief comparison and discussion of Chinese and Chumash traditional medical practices. A table of 66 plants is presented along with Chinese and Chumash uses of each plant. These uses are compared and contrasted. PMID:18955312
Gu, Qing; Schweisfurth, Michele
From a comparative perspective, this paper analyses Chinese learners' intercultural experiences in Chinese and British educational contexts. In the Chinese context, interview and questionnaire research was carried out in 24 universities that hosted the British Council's English teaching development programmes. The research uncovered perspectives…
It is proposed that in the teaching and testing of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), emphasis should be placed on features that are universal to all languages rather than particular to Chinese. Shared properties of Chinese and other languages, particularly English, are illustrated through examination of three major language components:…
Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Reitsma, Pieter; Rispens, Judith
This 2-year longitudinal study examined both concurrent and longitudinal relations of a variety of reading-related cognitive tasks and Chinese word reading and word dictation among 187 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners aged 4-6. Homophone awareness, visual skills and syllable awareness were all uniquely associated with Chinese word reading across…
Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.
Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…
Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Li, Xian-yun; Phillips, Michael Robert; Kleinman, Arthur
Since suicide in Chinese people exhibits certain distinctive characteristics, it is important to develop indigenous measures to assess Chinese attitudes toward suicide that may be used to inform suicide reduction programs. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed a Hong Kong version of the Chinese Attitude toward Suicide…
Lay, Nancy Duke S.
This guide is designed to help college-level teachers of English as a Second Language address the particular linguistic characteristics and instructional needs of native Chinese-speaking students. The first chapter profiles four Chinese students at the City College of New York, focusing on their basic literacy in Chinese, immigration issues,…
Demeritt, Robert W.
This university independent course of study of Chinese civilization uses a non-disciplinary approach for the purpose of catching a glimpse of what the preponderant body of Chinese have thought and valued throughout the ages. The literature is approached from a Chinese point of view. The course consists of nine lessons: (1) Mencius, (2)Confucius,…
This booklet provides a two day lesson plan that may be used by teachers in conjunction with a videotape program to familiarize their students with Chinese music, musical instruments, and playing techniques. Appended are descriptions and photographs of popular Chinese instruments, a guide to Chinese music resources in the San Francisco Bay area,…
Using Kuhn and McPartland's approach, 116 Chinese college students were recruited and asked to write as many sentences as possible beginning with "Chinese...," "Americans...," and "Japanese...." The population of sentences consisted of 258 adjectives, of which 96 described Chinese, 53 described Americans, and 109…
Zha, Qiang; Hayhoe, Ruth
This paper attempts to address connections between the Chinese model for development or the "Beijing Consensus" and Chinese universities. Chinese universities seem to be caught between serving governmental agendas and pursuing their own goals as an academic community. Up until recently, they had become used to following the lead of the…
Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan
This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…
Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing
The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…
This booklet provides: (1) background information on the traditional celebration of the Chinese New Year and on the Chinese New Year Festival as celebrated in the United States; (2) a three day lesson plan which focuses, respectively, on the Chinese New Year Festival in San Francisco, a field trip to San Francisco's Chinatown, and the Chinese…
Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Objectives: Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (C-IRI) for the assessment of empathy in Chinese people were examined. Method: The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was translated to Chinese, and an expert panel reviewed its content validity and cultural relevance. The translated instrument…
San Francisco State Coll., CA.
THIS TEACHER'S HANDBOOK IS FOR LANGUAGE LABORATORY INSTRUCTION IN MANDARIN CHINESE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE PLANNED ACCORDING TO THE CHINESE CURRICULUM ADOPTED BY THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CHINESE LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IN CALIFORNIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS, AND CONSTITUTE THE FIRST LEVEL OF A 4-YEAR SEQUENCE TO BE USED BY NINTH-GRADE…
Surveyed college students with a background of three semesters in Chinese who were enrolled in business Chinese to determine their knowledge and perceptions of Chinese business culture and expectations from the course. Results indicated that the students lacked cultural knowledge in business settings, suggesting the importance of addressing…
Ching-Hsiang Chen; Chin-Chuan Cheng
A report is made of a computer based instructional project in Chinese using the system known as PLATO conducted at the University of Illinois that has resulted in the creation of a file of three thousand Chinese characters and a set of Chinese lessons for first year students. (RM)
It is widely believed that the Chinese elderly enjoy high levels of family support. The success of the "one couple one child" campaign has made the Chinese and non-Chinese aware of the fragility of intergenerational transfer payments. The spectre is raised of a typical family as one with a couple in their early 40s caring for four…
Addresses issues related to bilingual creativity in Chinese English and their implications for world Englishes in the Chinese context. The language examined is drawn from Ha Jin's novella, "In the Pond, in which the author's use of English is nativized in the Chinese context in order to recast the cultural meanings of the language.…
This study investigates the attitudes and approaches to literacy in the homes of eight Chinese families settled in a region of Central Scotland. The Chinese parents in the study were interviewed at home, using the assistance of a bilingual teacher. The findings indicate that the Chinese parents have varied educational backgrounds and linguistic…
Wang, Xue-Yong; Liao, Cai-Li; Liu, Si-Qi; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Shao, Ai-Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi
This paper put forward a more accurate identification method for identification of Chinese materia medica (CMM), the systematic identification of Chinese materia medica (SICMM) , which might solve difficulties in CMM identification used the ordinary traditional ways. Concepts, mechanisms and methods of SICMM were systematically introduced and possibility was proved by experiments. The establishment of SICMM will solve problems in identification of Chinese materia medica not only in phenotypic characters like the mnorphous, microstructure, chemical constituents, but also further discovery evolution and classification of species, subspecies and population in medical plants. The establishment of SICMM will improve the development of identification of CMM and create a more extensive study space.
Herbert, J D; Coulson, T D; Coulson, R A
Growth rates in two closely related species, Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator) and Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator), were compared under identical conditions for at least 1 year after hatching. When hatched, Chinese alligators were approximately 2/3 the length and approximately 1/2 the weight of American alligator hatchlings. At the end of 1 year of growth in captivity in heated chambers, the Chinese alligators were approximately 1/2 as long and weighed approximately 1/10 as much as American alligator yearlings. When the animals were maintained at 31 degrees C, Chinese alligator food consumption and length gain rates dropped to near zero during autumn and winter and body weights decreased slightly, apparently in response to the change in day length. At constant temperature (31 degrees C), food consumption by American alligators remained high throughout the year. Length gain rates in American alligators decreased slowly as size increased, but were not affected by photoperiod. Daily weight gains in American alligators increased steadily throughout the year. In autumn, provision of artificial light for 18 h a day initially stimulated both length and weight gain in Chinese alligators, but did not affect growth in American alligators. Continuation of the artificial light regimen seemed to cause deleterious effects in the Chinese alligators after several months, however, so that animals exposed to the normal light cycle caught up to and then surpassed the extra-light group in size. Even after removal of the artificial light, it was several months before these extra-light animals reverted to a normal growth pattern. These findings may be of interest to those institutions engaged in captive growth programs intended to provide animals for reintroduction to the wild or to protected habitat.
Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Yudong
Two phonemes that may induce minimal pairs constitute a phonemic contrast. Some phonemic contrasts may disappear for various reasons, which, nevertheless, does not seem to seriously impede linguistic communication. Does it mean that the disappeared phonemic contrasts are unimportant? In our study, we calculated the proportions (here termed degree of contrast) of minimal pairs to the words in which the two contrastive phonemes occur and explored the role of phonemic contrasts in the phonemic combinations. The degree of contrast of phonemes reflects the relation between phonemes. Our results indicate that (1) the average degree of contrast of Chinese phonemes declines exponentially with the increase in the number of syllables, rapidly approaching zero; (2) the average degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature and of the consonants that are absent in some Chinese dialects is significantly higher than that of other consonants; (3) the degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature is not significantly different from that of the consonants absent in some Chinese dialects; (4) Chinese phonemic combinations exhibit high degree of sparsity, which increases exponentially with the number of syllables and rapidly approaches 1. All these results show that the high degree of sparsity and the low degree of contrast of human languages not only leave enough room for new words, new dialects and new languages to appear but also contribute to effective and reliable communication, because a few phonemic mistakes are not likely to cause wrong decoding (sound recognition) and failed communication.
The Shan Shui in the World project recreated Manhattan, New York, in the style of traditional Chinese shanshui paintings by using a generative algorithm to transform its buildings into mountains. This project revisits the ideas implicit in Chinese literati paintings of shan shui: the relationship between urban life and people's yearning for nature and between social responsibility and spiritual purity. Shan Shui in the World was made possible by the growing ubiquitousness of data and the development of data visualization techniques, especially generative art.
Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali
Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent.
Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun
There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.
Cheng, Min; Berman, Steven L
This chapter begins with a discussion of the unique experience of adolescents and emerging adults who grew up with globalization in China and how it has affected their sense of self. We then discuss the effects of globalization on identity development in general, with a special focus on the sociohistorical context of China. We also review and critique the psychological literature that has been conducted on identity within Chinese and Chinese American populations. Finally, we discuss the applicability of Western concepts of identity on a culture that does not necessarily share the same value structure.
Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ying; Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Lu, Bingsong; Xiao, Li; Wang, Nan; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang
This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.
"Teachers' Schools and the Making of the Modern Chinese Nation-State" is an innovative account of educational and social transformations in politically tumultuous early twentieth-century China. It focuses on the unique nature of Chinese teachers' schools, which bridged Chinese and Western ideals, and the critical role that these schools…
Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter
Workplace influences on Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) academics' development as researchers were examined in two Chinese higher education institutions in this qualitative collective case study. Data sources included research documentation and interviews with 12 Chinese TEFL academics. Both institutions were keen on research…
Zhang, Chun-Qing; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Si, Gangyan; Liu, Jing Dong
The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) across two samples of Chinese college students (n = 183 and n = 366) and a sample of elite Chinese athletes (n = 330). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of a…
Kwan, Ming Kai Marko
Before 1997, no formal curriculum on Chinese cultural education for primary schools was developed in Hong Kong although the education authority had started to introduce some items of Chinese cultural learning into the Chinese language syllabus when the Target Oriented Curriculum was implemented in 1996. However, such items were incorporated into…
Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae
The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…
Wu, Xin-Yin; Tang, Jin-Ling; Mao, Chen; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Qin, Ying; Chung, Vincent C H
Systematic reviews (SRs) that fail to search non-English databases may miss relevant studies and cause selection bias. The bias may be particularly severe in SRs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as most randomized controlled trials (RCT) in TCM are published and accessible only in Chinese. In this study we investigated how often Chinese databases were not searched in SRs of TCM, how many trials were missed, and whether a bias may occur if Chinese databases were not searched. We searched 5 databases in English and 3 in Chinese for RCTs of Chinese herbal medicine for coronary artery disease and found that 96.64% (115/119) eligible studies could be identified only from Chinese databases. In a random sample of 80 Cochrane reviews on TCM, we found that Chinese databases were only searched in 43 or 53.75%, in which almost all the included studies were identified from Chinese databases. We also compared SRs of the same topic and found that they may draw a different conclusion if Chinese databases were not searched. In conclusion, an overwhelmingly high percentage of eligible trials on TCM could only be identified in Chinese databases. Reviewers in TCM are suggested to search Chinese databases to reduce potential selection bias.
Yi, Yeong-Deug; Chang, Il-Moo
Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as 'Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.' By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.
Wang, Na; Parimi, Leela; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Furen
Dapsone is a bactericidal and bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium leprae, a causative agent of leprosy. Dapsone is also applied in a range of medical fields because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare yet serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) caused by dapsone involving multiple organs. We performed a systematic review of published articles describing dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, including all Chinese articles and the latest literature available in online databases published between October 2009 and October 2015. We determined the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and mortality rate of DHS. Importantly, we also summarized the recent advances in genetic testing allowing prediction of ADRs. In an initial systematic electronic search, we retrieved 191 articles. Subsequently, these articles were further filtered and ultimately 84 articles (60 Chinese case reports, 21 non-Chinese articles, and three epidemiological studies) were selected, which included 877 patients. The prevalence of DHS among Chinese patients was 1.5% with a fatality rate of 9.6%. Early withdrawal of dapsone and appropriate treatment reduced the fatality rate. Most importantly, genetic screening for the HLA-B 13:01 allele among high-risk populations showed a significant utility as a useful genetic marker to DHS. In conclusion, this review discusses the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of DHS among Chinese patients, which may help physicians to understand this syndrome.
Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua
There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory.
The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.
Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli
The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm(-2) in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an
Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli
The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm‑2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie
Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514
Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan
This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying.
Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith
We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.
Nie, Lixing; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuangcheng
Like chemical drugs, research and development of herbal medicine also have a need to resolve enantiomers. To help illustrating the antiviral bioactivity of Isatidis Radix, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was used for analytical and preparative separation of (R,S)-goitrin, which was reported as the active ingredient of the herbal. Improved resolution was achieved on Chiralpak IC column, using acetonitrile as the organic modifier, representing a tenfold increase in speed, compared to the previous normal phase HPLC (NPLC) method. The newly developed chromatographic method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Scale-up purification of (R)-goitrin and (S)-goitrin was performed on a preparative column with >90% total recovery. The absolute stereochemical assignment of the purified isomers was determined through optical rotation study. This attempt explored SFC's application in chiral research of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27022502
Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing
Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.
Cheng, S K; Chong, G H; Wong, C W
Recent research has shown that perfectionism is an important psychological variable in explaining various disorders. This study evaluated (a) the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS) and (b) the relative predictive power of its subscales for self-esteem and psychological distress, including depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Nine hundred and forty-seven Chinese adolescents from Hong Kong between 13 and 18 years of age participated in the study. Results indicated that five of the original six factors emerged in the factor analysis. The CFMPS and its subscales were found to have satisfactory internal consistencies. Replicating and extending previous findings, the factors "Concern over Mistakes" and "Doubt about Action" accounted for most of the variances of self-esteem and psychological distress. The factor "Organization" might have positive value on psychological health. Possible cultural influence on the development of perfectionism and limitations of the study are discussed.
Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo
Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help.
Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu
A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals.