Science.gov

Sample records for chinese scientific literature

  1. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  2. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  3. Scientific publications on systematic review and meta-analysis from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the English literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiping; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2012-03-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are playing an increasingly important role in clinical research and practice. This study aimed to measure the scientific production of systematic review and meta-analysis from the three major regions of China: the Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). English articles on systematic review and meta-analysis from ML, HK, and TW from 2001 to 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The total number of articles, impact factors (IF), and articles published in high-impact journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons among the three regions. There were 1 587 published articles from ML (1 292), HK (203), and TW (92) during the past ten years. The annual total numbers of articles in the three regions increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 (from 13 to 677). The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from TW since 2001, and surpassed that from HK in 2003. The accumulated IF of articles from ML (3 488.24) was higher than those from HK (493.16) and TW (216.39). HK had the highest average IF of 3.31, followed by ML of 2.90 and TW of 2.85. Researchers from HK published a larger proportion of papers in high-impact journals than those from ML and TW. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was the most popular journal in China. Chinese authors have been very active to enhance the systematic review and meta-analysis research over the past ten years, especially in ML. The gap between ML and the other two regions has been narrowed. But there is still considerable room for Chinese authors to improve their studies on systematic review and meta-analysis.

  4. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  5. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  6. Scientific publication in orthopedics journals from Chinese authors: a survey of 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Chenglong; Chu, Jianjun; Yang, Cheng; Kong, Jinhai; Sun, Zhengwang; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Tielong; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-08-01

    In the scientific community, a scientist's productivity is usually measured by his scientific output. The productivity of a group, an institution or, on a larger scale, a country can be assessed in similar manner. This study aims to show the contribution of Chinese authors to orthopedics research, from three major regions, namely Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Articles published in 63 orthopedics journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong from 2003 to 2012 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Journal Citation Report. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted for the total number of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trails, case reports, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were totally 3473 articles from Mainland China (1859), Taiwan (1111), and Hong Kong (503) from 2003 to 2012, showing gradual increase from 2003 to 2012. From 2006 onward, the number of published articles from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong and exceeded that from Taiwan in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from Mainland China (3746.21) was higher than that from Taiwan (2466.74) and that from Hong Kong (1089.35). However, Taiwan witnessed the highest mean IF (2.22), followed by Hong Kong (2.17), and Mainland China (2.02). Hong Kong displayed the highest mean citations of each article (9.35), followed by Taiwan (9.12), and Mainland China (5.71). By contract, Spine was the most popular journal to choose in these three regions. The total number of orthopedics articles in China increased markedly from 2003 to 2012. Of the three regions, Mainland China published the most articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trails, and case reports. In general, Spine was the most popular journal to choose in the three regions.

  7. An Introduction to Chinese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit will introduce secondary level students to Chinese literature. The first part of the unit discusses poetry which has always been the most highly prized form of Chinese literature. The discussion examines the "Complete Tang Poems," the "Book of Songs" compiled by Confucius, the "Songs of Chu," and the "Li Sao." Students learn about the…

  8. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Liao, Zhuan; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-10-01

    People of Chinese ethnicity are the largest population in the world. Critical care medicine in China is developing rapidly and has achieved great advances in recent 20 years. The research contribution in critical care medicine among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China--Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW)--is unknown. Articles published in 18 journals on critical care medicine originating from ML, TW, and HK from 1999 to 2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Science Citation Index Expanded. Quantity and quality analyses were conducted for the total numbers of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were 932 articles from ML (268), TW (506), and HK (158) from 1999 to 2008. The annual total numbers of articles of the three regions increased gradually from 1999 to 2008 (from 57 to 157). From 2002 onward, the number of articles published from ML exceeded that from HK, but TW still has the dominance in both annual and total number of articles published compared with ML and HK. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (1676.67) was higher than that from ML (708.25) and HK (449.51). TW had the highest average IF of 3.31 followed by HK of 2.85 and ML of 2.64. HK had the highest average citations of each article of 10.73, followed by TW of 6.74 and ML of 5.34. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions. The total numbers of articles in China increased markedly from 1999 to 2008. TW published the most number of articles, clinical trials, and randomised controlled trials among the three regions. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions.

  9. Scientific publications in respiratory journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: a 10-year survey of literature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bo; Du, Ting-Ting; Xie, Ting; Ji, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Liao, Zhuan; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-02-28

    Respiratory disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in China. However, little is known about the research status of respirology in three major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW). A 10-year survey of literature was conducted to compare the three regions' outputs in the research of respirology. A bibliometric study. China. A literature search in PubMed database, updated as of September 2012, led to the identification of the related articles from 2000 to 2009. The number of total articles, randomised controlled trials, case reports, meta-analysis, impact factors (IF), citations and articles published in top general medicine journals was collected for quantity and quality comparisons. 2208 articles were collected, 814 from ML, 909 from TW and 485 from HK. The total number of articles from the three regions has increased significantly from 2000 to 2009. The number of articles published per year from ML has exceeded that from HK in 2005 and TW in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (3192.417) was much higher than that from ML (2409.956) and HK (1898.312). HK got the highest average IF of respirology articles and the majority of articles were published in top general medicine journals. The total number of published articles from the three major regions of China has increased notably from 2000 to 2009. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK is better than that from ML.

  10. Chemical sensitivity: the scientific literature.

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, N; Kipen, H

    1997-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the scientific literature in which chemically sensitive patients have been directly evaluated. For that purpose, consideration of various case definitions is offered along with summaries of subjects' demographic profiles, exposure characteristics, and symptom profiles across studies. Controlled investigations of chemically sensitive subjects without other organic illnesses are reviewed. To date, psychiatric, personality, cognitive/neurologic, immunologic, and olfactory studies have been conducted comparing subjects with primary chemical sensitivity to various control groups. Thus far, the most consistent finding is that chemically sensitive patients have a higher rate of psychiatric disorders across studies and relative to diverse comparison groups. However, since these studies are cross-sectional, causality cannot be implied. Demonstrating the role of low-level chemical exposure in a controlled environment has yet to be undertaken with this patient group and is crucial to the understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:9167974

  11. Access to the scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarède, Francis

    The Public Library of Science Open Letter (http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org) is a very generous initiative, but, as most similar initiatives since the advent of electronic publishing, it misses the critical aspects of electronic publishing.Ten years ago, a Publisher would be in charge of running a system called a “scientific journal.” In such a system, the presence of an Editor and peer Reviewers secures the strength of the science and the rigor of writing; the Publisher guarantees the professional quality of printing, efficient dissemination, and long-term archiving. Publishing used to be in everyone's best interest, or nearly everyone. The Publisher, because he/she is financially motivated, ensures widespread dissemination of the journal amongst libraries and individual subscribers. The interest of the Author is that the system guarantees a broad potential readership. The interest of the Reader is that a line is drawn between professionally edited literature, presumably of better quality, and gray literature or home publishing, so that he/she does not waste time going through ‘low yield’ ungraded information. The Publisher could either be a private company, an academic institution, or a scholarly society. My experience is that, when page charges and subscription rates are compounded, journals published by scholarly societies are not necessarily cheaper. The difference between these cases is not the cost of running an office with rents, wages, printing, postage, advertisement, and archiving, but that a private Publisher pays shareholders. Shareholders have the bad habit of minding their own business and, therefore, they may interfere negatively with scientific publishing. Nevertheless, while the stranglehold imposed by private Publishers on our libraries over the last 10 years by increasing subscription rates may in part be due to shareholders' greed, this is true only in part. The increases are also a consequence of the booming number of pages being

  12. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on.

  13. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement.

  14. Predicting future discoveries from current scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Petrič, Ingrid; Cestnik, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in biomedicine is a time-consuming process starting from the basic research, through preclinical testing, towards possible clinical applications. Crossing of conceptual boundaries is often needed for groundbreaking biomedical research that generates highly inventive discoveries. We demonstrate the ability of a creative literature mining method to advance valuable new discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. When emerging ideas from scientific literature are put together as fragments of knowledge in a systematic way, they may lead to original, sometimes surprising, research findings. If enough scientific evidence is already published for the association of such findings, they can be considered as scientific hypotheses. In this chapter, we describe a method for the computer-aided generation of such hypotheses based on the existing scientific literature. Our literature-based discovery of NF-kappaB with its possible connections to autism was recently approved by scientific community, which confirms the ability of our literature mining methodology to accelerate future discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature.

  15. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M

    2014-10-01

    Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.

  16. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  17. Scientific Utilization Planning for Chinese Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidong, Gu

    The program of building Chinese Space Station (CSS) , which is planned to be launched around 2020-2022, was approved in 2010 by Chinese government. As the key task for CSS program, the scientific utilization planning started even earlier. With contribution from hundreds of scientists, the science domain for CSS is now defined at present, and the related experimental facilities are also preliminary determined. The scientific utilization plan for Chinese space station covers 9 fields, which will be human medical science, space life science and space bio-technology, microgravity fluid physics and combustion, space Material science, fundamental physics in microgravity, space physics and space environment, space astronomy, space geo-science, and new technology demonstration for space utilization. This paper will give a brief introduction about technical background of CSS, scientific utilization plan in main field, and general information of the research facilities. CSS will serve on orbit for almost 10 years, and the utilization planning for CSS is a long-term and sustained process. The utilization plan will be updated and extended in the further, and make CSS an outstanding solution for space utilization of larger scale.

  18. Scientific publications in gastroenterology and hepatology journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: 10-year survey of literature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Liao, Zhuan; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2008-03-01

    People of Chinese ethnicity are one of the groups at most risk of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in the world. The research status in gastroenterology and hepatology (gastrointestinal [GI]) among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China-the mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW)-are unknown. The outputs of articles published in international GI journals from the three regions were compared in this study. Articles published in 52 journals related to GI originating from the ML, TW, and HK from1996-2005 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The numbers of total articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors (IF), citation reports, and articles published in the top general medical journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons. The number of articles from the three regions increased significantly from 1996 to 2005. There were 5170 articles from the ML (2969), TW (1551), and HK (650). However, nearly 90% of articles from the ML were published in World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG), a controversial Chinese journal. Following the exclusion of WJG, the ML had published the least number of articles and had the least total citations. The accumulated IF of the articles from TW (3747.893) was much higher than the ML (775.084) and HK (2272.972). HK had the highest average IF of articles in GI journals and the most articles published in the top, general medical journals among the three regions. The difference between the number of GI research articles published in the ML, TW, and HK still appears to be considerable, particularly when assessed by IF, although the gap appears to be narrowing.

  19. Scientific publications in cardiology and cardiovasology journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: 10-year survey of literature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang-Hao; Liao, Zhuan; Gao, Rui; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2010-04-30

    People of Chinese ethnicity make up one of the largest populations in the world. Heart and vessel diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. The research status in cardiology and cardiovasology among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China--Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW)--are unknown. The outputs of cardiology and cardiovasology articles published in international journals from the three regions were compared in this study. Articles published in 83 journals related to cardiology and cardiovasology originating from the ML, TW and HK from 1998-2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The number of total articles, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, case reports, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in top general medicine journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons. The total number of articles from the three regions increased significantly from 1998 to 2007 (from 154 to 591). There were 2801 articles from ML (883), TW (1404) and HK (514) in the past ten years. The number of articles published per year from the ML (297) have exceeded those from TW (235) and HK (59) in 2007. The accumulated impact factor of the articles from TW (4082.736) was much higher than ML (2221.699) and HK (1673.049). HK had the highest average IF of cardiology and cardiovasology articles and the most articles published in top general medicine journals among the three regions. The total number of articles from the three major regions of China increased significantly from 1998 to 2007. The number of articles published per year from the ML have exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK is better than that from ML. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Harnessing Scientific Literature Reports for Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objectives We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers’ capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. Methods A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. Results All usability test participants cited the tool’s ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool’s automated literature search relative to a manual ‘all fields’ PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Conclusions Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction. PMID:28326432

  1. Understanding Scientific Literatures: A Bibliometric Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Joseph C.

    To operate effectively, libraries must develop methods by which to identify literatures of high utility to their clientele and must acquire and organize these literatures in such a way as to optimize their usefulness. One such method, the bibliometric approach, is based on the assumption of certain regularities in patterns of authorship,…

  2. Recognizing Scientific Artifacts in Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Hunter, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today’s search engines and digital libraries offer little or no support for discovering those scientific artifacts (hypotheses, supporting/contradicting statements, or findings) that form the core of scientific written communication. Consequently, we currently have no means of identifying central themes within a domain or to detect gaps between accepted knowledge and newly emerging knowledge as a means for tracking the evolution of hypotheses from incipient phases to maturity or decline. We present a hybrid Machine Learning approach using an ensemble of four classifiers, for recognizing scientific artifacts (ie, hypotheses, background, motivation, objectives, and findings) within biomedical research publications, as a precursory step to the general goal of automatically creating argumentative discourse networks that span across multiple publications. The performance achieved by the classifiers ranges from 15.30% to 78.39%, subject to the target class. The set of features used for classification has led to promising results. Furthermore, their use strictly in a local, publication scope, ie, without aggregating corpus-wide statistics, increases the versatility of the ensemble of classifiers and enables its direct applicability without the necessity of re-training. PMID:23645987

  3. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  4. The contamination of scientific literature: looking for an antidote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotta, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Science may have very strong implications for society. The knowledge of the processes occurring around the society represents a good opportunity to take responsible decisions. This is particularly true in the field of geosciences. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, climate changes and many other natural phenomena still need to be further investigated. The role of the scientific community is to increase the knowledge. Each member can share his own ideas and data thus allowing the entire scientific community to receive a precious contribution. The latter one often derives from research activities, which are expensive in terms of consumed time and resources. Nowadays the sharing of scientific results occurs through the publication on scientific journals. The reading of available scientific literature thus represents a unique opportunity to define the state of the art on a specific topic and to address research activities towards something new. When published results are obtained through a rigorous scientific process, they constitute a solid background where each member can add his ideas and evidences. Differently, published results may be affected by scientific misconduct; they constitute a labyrinth where the scientists lose their time in the attempt of truly understanding the natural processes. The normal scientific dialectic should unmask such results, thus avoiding literature contamination and making the scientific framework more stimulating. The scientific community should look for the best practice to reduce the risk of literature contamination.

  5. Aristotle's biological works as scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Föllinger, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    This contribution deals with the question of where and why in his biological writings Aristotle uses dialogical elements, examining which dialogical structures can be found and what the meaning of the dialogical structures is in respect of the argumentative strategies used in literature. This discursive style has to be seen in relation to the importance of the dialectical method which was practiced in the Platonic Academy and on which Aristotle reflected in his Topics. For Aristotle the dialectical method also becomes the method of the investigator researching for himself. But more than that one can see the reason for the dialogical structures in Aristotle's writings in his attempt to combine the way of acquiring knowledge with the way of presenting knowledge. It can thus be said that at the moment in which the dialectical procedure is translated into the medium of writing, a fact-oriented presentation is also an addressee-oriented representation. Nowadays we are more accustomed to a technical literature which, after completing the first step of the deduction of knowledge, presents the results in a systematic and hierarchical way in its literary representation; in such technical literature, normally an individual's thought process is not set out in writing. Admittedly, with the application of the dialectical method and with the attempt to set down one's own thought process in the medium of writing, other elements also come in.

  6. Scientific Literature as Hierarchy: Library Instruction and Robert M. Gagne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Constance R.

    1982-01-01

    Establishes the connection between the learning theories of Robert M. Gagne and systematic patterns in scientific literature and discusses implications of this connection for instruction in library use. Twenty-four references are listed. (Author/EJS)

  7. Literature-Based Scientific Learning: A Collaboration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Susan L.; Somerville, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Amidst exponential growth of knowledge, student insights into the knowledge creation practices of the scientific community can be furthered by science faculty collaborations with university librarians. The Literature-Based Scientific Learning model advances undergraduates' disciplinary mastery and information literacy through experience with…

  8. Literature-Based Scientific Learning: A Collaboration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Susan L.; Somerville, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Amidst exponential growth of knowledge, student insights into the knowledge creation practices of the scientific community can be furthered by science faculty collaborations with university librarians. The Literature-Based Scientific Learning model advances undergraduates' disciplinary mastery and information literacy through experience with…

  9. Images of Women in Chinese Literature. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu-ning, Li, Ed.

    This book examines the ways in which Chinese literature offers a vast array of prospects, new interpretations, new fields of study, and new themes for the study of women. As a result of the global movement toward greater recognition of gender equality and human dignity, the study of women as portrayed in Chinese literature has a long and rich…

  10. Sources of error in the retracted scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Steen, R. Grant; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    Retraction of flawed articles is an important mechanism for correction of the scientific literature. We recently reported that the majority of retractions are associated with scientific misconduct. In the current study, we focused on the subset of retractions for which no misconduct was identified, in order to identify the major causes of error. Analysis of the retraction notices for 423 articles indexed in PubMed revealed that the most common causes of error-related retraction are laboratory errors, analytical errors, and irreproducible results. The most common laboratory errors are contamination and problems relating to molecular biology procedures (e.g., sequencing, cloning). Retractions due to contamination were more common in the past, whereas analytical errors are now increasing in frequency. A number of publications that have not been retracted despite being shown to contain significant errors suggest that barriers to retraction may impede correction of the literature. In particular, few cases of retraction due to cell line contamination were found despite recognition that this problem has affected numerous publications. An understanding of the errors leading to retraction can guide practices to improve laboratory research and the integrity of the scientific literature. Perhaps most important, our analysis has identified major problems in the mechanisms used to rectify the scientific literature and suggests a need for action by the scientific community to adopt protocols that ensure the integrity of the publication process.—Casadevall, A., Steen, R. G., Fang, F. C. Sources of error in the retracted scientific literature. PMID:24928194

  11. Scientific psychology within the Chinese language and cultural context.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heyong

    2006-01-01

    The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.

  12. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S

    2016-03-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  13. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education†

    PubMed Central

    Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Lijek, Rebeccah S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public. PMID:27047607

  14. Fifteen years of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Yang, Jingsui; Wang, Chengshan; An, Zhisheng; Li, Haibing; Wang, Qin; Su, Dechen

    2017-05-01

    Continental scientific drilling can be regarded as a telescope into the Earth's interior because it provides process insight and uncompromised samples of rocks, fluids, and even sampled from the deep biosphere from the Earth's surface to great depths. As one of the three founding members of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), ICDP China has made great achievements in many scientific drilling-related research fields. Based on the ICDP participation it attracted global attention of scientists and set up not only the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Program in 2001 but also a growing number of ambitious drilling projects in the country. The 5158 m deep borehole of the CCSD project at Donghai County in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrain demonstrates that large amounts of crustal rocks of the South China Block have been subducted to at least 120 km, followed by rapid uplift. After successful completion of drilling at Donghai, several continental scientific drilling projects were conducted with funding of the Chinese government and partially with support of ICDP, resulting in a total drilling depth of more than 35 000 m. These projects encompass the Continental Environmental Scientific Drilling Program of China, the Scientific Drilling Project of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone, the Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Cretaceous Songliao Basin, and the Program of Selected Continental Scientific Drilling and Experiments. On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the ICDP and the 15th anniversary of the CCSD Program, this paper reviews the history and major progress of the CCSD Program.

  15. Sources of error in the retracted scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Steen, R Grant; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-09-01

    Retraction of flawed articles is an important mechanism for correction of the scientific literature. We recently reported that the majority of retractions are associated with scientific misconduct. In the current study, we focused on the subset of retractions for which no misconduct was identified, in order to identify the major causes of error. Analysis of the retraction notices for 423 articles indexed in PubMed revealed that the most common causes of error-related retraction are laboratory errors, analytical errors, and irreproducible results. The most common laboratory errors are contamination and problems relating to molecular biology procedures (e.g., sequencing, cloning). Retractions due to contamination were more common in the past, whereas analytical errors are now increasing in frequency. A number of publications that have not been retracted despite being shown to contain significant errors suggest that barriers to retraction may impede correction of the literature. In particular, few cases of retraction due to cell line contamination were found despite recognition that this problem has affected numerous publications. An understanding of the errors leading to retraction can guide practices to improve laboratory research and the integrity of the scientific literature. Perhaps most important, our analysis has identified major problems in the mechanisms used to rectify the scientific literature and suggests a need for action by the scientific community to adopt protocols that ensure the integrity of the publication process.

  16. Electronic Scientific Data & Literature Aggregation: A Review for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The advent of large-scale digital repositories, along with the need for sharing useful data world-wide, demands change to the current information structure. The merging of digital scientific data with scholarly literature has the potential to fulfill the Semantic Web design principles. This paper will identify factors leading to integration of…

  17. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 2: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taib, Rosna

    1989-01-01

    Describes the acquisition of scientific literature by academic libraries in Malaysia. The discussion covers the impact of government policies, library acquisition policies, the selection process, acquisition of special materials, the role of gifts and exchanges, and problems with customs clearance and censorship. Progress in cooperative…

  18. Electronic Scientific Data & Literature Aggregation: A Review for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The advent of large-scale digital repositories, along with the need for sharing useful data world-wide, demands change to the current information structure. The merging of digital scientific data with scholarly literature has the potential to fulfill the Semantic Web design principles. This paper will identify factors leading to integration of…

  19. From Tewksbury to Du Fu: Exercises toward Introducing Graduate Students to the Study of Chinese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhauser, William H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a series of exercises designed to convince advanced Chinese language students that the careful study of classical Chinese literature is both a necessary and enjoyable part of their scholarly training. Several excerpts from Chinese literature are given. (PJM)

  20. [Investigation methodology and application on scientific and technological personnel of traditional Chinese medical resources based on data from Chinese scientific research paper].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams.

  1. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  2. Chinese Graduate Students' Experiences with Writing a Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Jun; Krugly-Smolska, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Based on interview data, this study investigated four Chinese graduate students' experiences with writing a literature review at a medium-sized university in Canada. These students, from four subject areas, held varying perceptions of a literature review, but all saw the writing challenges that they encountered mainly as linguistic problems,…

  3. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{ňa, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  4. Nobel Prize winners for literature as palliative for scientific English.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, Sachi

    2003-02-01

    Plagiarism causes a serious concern in scientific literature. I distinguish two types of plagiarism. What is routinely highlighted and discussed is the reprehensible type of stealing another author's ideas and words. This type I categorize as "heterotrophic" plagiarism. A more prevalent and less-discussed type of plagiarism is the verbatim use of same sentences repetitively by authors in their publications. This I categorize as "autotrophic" plagiarism. Though harmless per se, autotrophic plagiarism is equally taxing on the readers. The occurrence of autotrophic plagiarism is mainly caused by the lack of proficiency in the current lingua franca of science, ie, English. The writings of 22 Nobel literature laureates who wrote in English, especially their travelogues, essays, and letters to the press can be used for benefit of improving one's own vocabulary and writing skills and style. I suggest the writings of three literati--Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, and Ernest Hemingway--as palliatives for autotrophic plagiarism in scientific publishing.

  5. Training students to appraise the quality of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Sebastian P; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Implementing evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) into clinical practice requires not only the ability to retrieve, interpret, and apply the results of published scientific studies, but also the ability to critically evaluate the quality of the literature. These skills, however, are not widely taught in the veterinary curriculum. The objective of this study was to test a literature evaluation form (LEF) designed to assist veterinary students in appraising the quality of literature on animal reproduction and to compare their ability to do so with that of students who were provided with a control form (CF). The 68 participants were in their fifth year of study and attended a clinical rotation at the Clinic for Animal Reproduction. Students in the LEF group determined the quality of two scientific papers, considering statements about study design, information content, and objectivity, and determined rating points to obtain an overall score. Participants using the CF ranked the quality of the article without the assistance of the quality assessment form. The LEF group was able to more correctly assess the quality of the literature and the variability of the chosen evidence levels was higher in the CF group. The questionnaire was found to be a useful tool for the systematic assessment of the quality of publications within a reasonable period of time. Seventy-eight per cent of the participants agreed that the LEF helps them evaluate the quality and validity of biomedical scientific information. We conclude that courses that introduce EBVM should be taught in the first semesters of the veterinary curriculum so that students can develop competence in defining a clinical problem, retrieving information from the literature, and developing independent critical thinking.

  6. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  7. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes for Essential Hypertension: A Literature Analysis of 13,272 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination. PMID:24660016

  9. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Martin, Tyronne; Conti, Joseph; Hurt, Indy

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the nano-toxicological literature is dispersed across a range of disciplines and sub-fields; focused on in vitro testing; often does not specify an exposure pathway; and tends to emphasize acute toxicity and mortality rather than chronic exposure and morbidity. Finally, there is very little research on consumer products, particularly on their environmental fate, and most research is on the toxicity of basic nanomaterials. The implications for toxicologists, regulators and social scientists studying nanotechnology and society are discussed. PMID:21170129

  10. Incorporating Early Chinese Scientific Ideas into the Teaching of School Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an initiative to develop and incorporate early Chinese scientific ideas into the teaching of physics in Hong Kong schools. Provides the background and rationale for the development and gives as an illustration an account of some of the scientific ideas included. Ideas include the Chinese magic mirror, force and motion, and atomic theory.…

  11. Incorporating Early Chinese Scientific Ideas into the Teaching of School Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an initiative to develop and incorporate early Chinese scientific ideas into the teaching of physics in Hong Kong schools. Provides the background and rationale for the development and gives as an illustration an account of some of the scientific ideas included. Ideas include the Chinese magic mirror, force and motion, and atomic theory.…

  12. Open access to the scientific journal literature: situation 2009.

    PubMed

    Björk, Bo-Christer; Welling, Patrik; Laakso, Mikael; Majlender, Peter; Hedlund, Turid; Gudnason, Gudni

    2010-06-23

    The Internet has recently made possible the free global availability of scientific journal articles. Open Access (OA) can occur either via OA scientific journals, or via authors posting manuscripts of articles published in subscription journals in open web repositories. So far there have been few systematic studies showing how big the extent of OA is, in particular studies covering all fields of science. The proportion of peer reviewed scholarly journal articles, which are available openly in full text on the web, was studied using a random sample of 1837 titles and a web search engine. Of articles published in 2008, 8.5% were freely available at the publishers' sites. For an additional 11.9% free manuscript versions could be found using search engines, making the overall OA percentage 20.4%. Chemistry (13%) had the lowest overall share of OA, Earth Sciences (33%) the highest. In medicine, biochemistry and chemistry publishing in OA journals was more common. In all other fields author-posted manuscript copies dominated the picture. The results show that OA already has a significant positive impact on the availability of the scientific journal literature and that there are big differences between scientific disciplines in the uptake. Due to the lack of awareness of OA-publishing among scientists in most fields outside physics, the results should be of general interest to all scholars. The results should also interest academic publishers, who need to take into account OA in their business strategies and copyright policies, as well as research funders, who like the NIH are starting to require OA availability of results from research projects they fund. The method and search tools developed also offer a good basis for more in-depth studies as well as longitudinal studies.

  13. Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Bo-Christer; Welling, Patrik; Laakso, Mikael; Majlender, Peter; Hedlund, Turid; Guðnason, Guðni

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet has recently made possible the free global availability of scientific journal articles. Open Access (OA) can occur either via OA scientific journals, or via authors posting manuscripts of articles published in subscription journals in open web repositories. So far there have been few systematic studies showing how big the extent of OA is, in particular studies covering all fields of science. Methodology/Principal Findings The proportion of peer reviewed scholarly journal articles, which are available openly in full text on the web, was studied using a random sample of 1837 titles and a web search engine. Of articles published in 2008, 8,5% were freely available at the publishers' sites. For an additional 11,9% free manuscript versions could be found using search engines, making the overall OA percentage 20,4%. Chemistry (13%) had the lowest overall share of OA, Earth Sciences (33%) the highest. In medicine, biochemistry and chemistry publishing in OA journals was more common. In all other fields author-posted manuscript copies dominated the picture. Conclusions/Significance The results show that OA already has a significant positive impact on the availability of the scientific journal literature and that there are big differences between scientific disciplines in the uptake. Due to the lack of awareness of OA-publishing among scientists in most fields outside physics, the results should be of general interest to all scholars. The results should also interest academic publishers, who need to take into account OA in their business strategies and copyright policies, as well as research funders, who like the NIH are starting to require OA availability of results from research projects they fund. The method and search tools developed also offer a good basis for more in-depth studies as well as longitudinal studies. PMID:20585653

  14. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicher, Bob G; Kulesz, James J; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  15. Meditation, Health and Scientific Investigations: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Cynthia Vieira Sanches; Lima, Manuela Garcia; Ladeia, Ana Marice

    2017-04-01

    A growing number of people are seeking health recovery treatments with a holistic approach to the human being. Meditation is a mental training capable of producing connection between the mind, body and spirit. Its practice helps people to achieve balance, relaxation and self-control, in addition to the development of consciousness. At present, meditation is classified as a complementary and integrative technique in the area of health. The purpose of this review of the literature was to describe what meditation is, its practices and effects on health, demonstrated by consistent scientific investigations. Recently, the advances in researches with meditation, the discovery of its potential as an instrument of self-regulation of the human body and its benefits to health have shown that it is a consistent alternative therapy when associated with conventional medical treatments.

  16. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew W; Allison, David B

    2014-01-01

    Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers) completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, "Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that are discordant?" 1) Microworkers who passed a qualification test (19% passed) evaluated abstracts to determine if they were about human studies investigating nutrition and obesity. Agreement between the first two raters' conclusions was moderate (κ = 0.586), with consensus being reached in 96% of abstracts. 2) Microworkers iteratively synthesized free-text answers describing the studied foods into one coherent term. Approximately 84% of foods were agreed upon, with only 4 and 8% of ratings failing manual review in different steps. 3) Microworkers were asked to rate the perceived obesogenicity of the synthesized food terms. Over 99% of responses were complete and usable, and opinions of the microworkers qualitatively matched the authors' expert expectations (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages were thought to cause obesity and fruits and vegetables were thought to prevent obesity). 4) Microworkers extracted citation counts for each paper through Google Scholar. Microworkers reached consensus or unanimous agreement for all successful searches. To answer the example question, data were aggregated and analyzed, and showed no significant association between popular opinion and attention the paper received as measured by Scimago Journal Rank and citation counts. Direct microworker costs totaled $221.75, (estimated cost at minimum wage: $312.61). We discuss important points to consider to ensure good quality control and appropriate pay for microworkers. With good reliability and low

  17. Statistical algorithms for ontology-based annotation of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ontologies encode relationships within a domain in robust data structures that can be used to annotate data objects, including scientific papers, in ways that ease tasks such as search and meta-analysis. However, the annotation process requires significant time and effort when performed by humans. Text mining algorithms can facilitate this process, but they render an analysis mainly based upon keyword, synonym and semantic matching. They do not leverage information embedded in an ontology's structure. Methods We present a probabilistic framework that facilitates the automatic annotation of literature by indirectly modeling the restrictions among the different classes in the ontology. Our research focuses on annotating human functional neuroimaging literature within the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO). We use an approach that combines the stochastic simplicity of naïve Bayes with the formal transparency of decision trees. Our data structure is easily modifiable to reflect changing domain knowledge. Results We compare our results across naïve Bayes, Bayesian Decision Trees, and Constrained Decision Tree classifiers that keep a human expert in the loop, in terms of the quality measure of the F1-mirco score. Conclusions Unlike traditional text mining algorithms, our framework can model the knowledge encoded by the dependencies in an ontology, albeit indirectly. We successfully exploit the fact that CogPO has explicitly stated restrictions, and implicit dependencies in the form of patterns in the expert curated annotations. PMID:25093071

  18. Surgery and pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis: a scientific literature review

    PubMed Central

    Subotic, Dragan; Yablonskiy, Piotr; Sulis, Giorgia; Cordos, Ioan; Petrov, Danail; Centis, Rosella; D’Ambrosio, Lia; Sotgiu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health concern, mostly affecting resource-constrained settings and marginalized populations. The fight against the disease is hindered by the growing emergence of drug-resistant forms whose management can be rather challenging. Surgery may play an important role to support diagnosis and treatment of the most complex cases and improve their therapeutic outcome. We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature based on relevant keywords through PubMed database. Papers in English and Russian were included. The search was focused on five main areas of intervention as follows: (I) diagnosis of complicated cases; (II) elimination of contagious persisting cavities, despite appropriate chemotherapy; (III) treatment of destroyed lung; (V) resection of tuberculomas; (VI) treatment of tuberculous pleural empyema. Although specific practical guidelines concerning surgical indications and approaches are currently unavailable, a summary of the evidence emerged from the scientific literature was elaborated to help the clinician in the management of severely compromised TB patients. The decision to proceed to surgery is usually individualized and a careful assessment of the patient’s risk profile is always recommended before performing any procedure in addition to appropriate chemotherapy. PMID:27499980

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine formulas for irritable bowel syndrome: from ancient wisdoms to scientific understandings.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zhong, Linda; Tsang, Siu-Wai; Lin, Ze-Si; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies.

  1. Ancient Chinese Literature Reveals Pathways of Eggplant Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Gang; Knapp, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes in key traits occurring during the processes of plant domestication have long been subjects of debate. Only in the case of genetic analysis or with extensive plant remains can specific sets of changes be documented. Historical details of the plant domestication processes are rare and other evidence of morphological change can be difficult to obtain, especially for those vegetables that lack a substantial body of archaeological data. Botanical records chronicled in the ancient literature of established ancient civilizations, such as that of China, are invaluable resources for the study and understanding of the process of plant domestication. Here, the considerable body of ancient Chinese literature is used to explore the domestication process that has occurred with the eggplant (Solanum melongena), an important vegetable in Old World. Methods Information about eggplant domestication in the ancient Chinese literature was retrieved using a variety of methods. The information obtained was then sorted by taxon, examined and taxonomic identifications verified. Key Results It was found that the earliest record of the eggplant documented in ancient Chinese literature was in a work from 59 bc. As far as is known, this is the earliest reliable and accurately dated record of eggplant in cultivation. The analysis reveals that the process of domestication of the eggplant in China involved three principal aspects of fruit quality: size, shape and taste. These traits were actively and gradually selected; fruit size changed from small to large, taste changed from not palatable to what was termed at the time sweetish, and that over time, a wider variety of fruit shapes was cultivated. Conclusions The results indicate that, in addition to data gleaned from archaeology and genetics, evidence as to changes in key traits occurring during the process of plant domestication and selective forces responsible for these changes can be traced through the ancient

  2. Networks of genetic loci and the scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeiks, J. R.; Grate, L. R.; Mian, I. S.

    This work considers biological information graphs, networks in which nodes corre-spond to genetic loci (or "genes") and an (undirected) edge signifies that two genes are discussed in the same article(s) in the scientific literature ("documents"). Operations that utilize the topology of these graphs can assist researchers in the scientific discovery process. For example, a shortest path between two nodes defines an ordered series of genes and documents that can be used to explore the relationship(s) between genes of interest. This work (i) describes how topologies in which edges are likely to reflect genuine relationship(s) can be constructed from human-curated corpora of genes an-notated with documents (or vice versa), and (ii) illustrates the potential of biological information graphs in synthesizing knowledge in order to formulate new hypotheses and generate novel predictions for subsequent experimental study. In particular, the well-known LocusLink corpus is used to construct a biological information graph consisting of 10,297 nodes and 21,910 edges. The large-scale statistical properties of this gene-document network suggest that it is a new example of a power-law network. The segregation of genes on the basis of species and encoded protein molecular function indicate the presence of assortativity, the preference for nodes with similar attributes to be neighbors in a network. The practical utility of a gene-document network is illustrated by using measures such as shortest paths and centrality to analyze a subset of nodes corresponding to genes implicated in aging. Each release of a curated biomedical corpus defines a particular static graph. The topology of a gene-document network changes over time as curators add and/or remove nodes and/or edges. Such a dynamic, evolving corpus provides both the foundation for analyzing the growth and behavior of large complex networks and a substrate for examining trends in biological research.

  3. Introducing Pre-University Students to Primary Scientific Literature through Argumentation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for…

  4. Introducing Pre-University Students to Primary Scientific Literature through Argumentation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for…

  5. Terminological resources for text mining over biomedical scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Kaljurand, Kaarel; Sætre, Rune

    2011-06-01

    We present a combined terminological resource for text mining over biomedical literature. The purpose of the resource is to allow the detection of mentions of specific biological entities in scientific publications, and their grounding to widely accepted identifiers. This is an essential process, useful in itself, and necessary as an intermediate step for almost every type of complex text mining application. We discuss some of the properties of the terminology for this domain, in particular the degree of ambiguity, which constitutes a peculiar problem for text mining applications. Without a correct recognition and disambiguation of the domain entities no reliable results can be produced. We also discuss an application that makes use of the resulting terminological knowledge base. We annotate an existing corpus of sentences about protein interactions. The annotation consists of a normalization step that matches the terms in our resource with their actual representation in the corpus, and a disambiguation step that resolves the ambiguity of matched terms. In this paper we present a large terminological resource, compiled through the aggregation of a number of different manually curated sources. We discuss the lexical properties of such resources, specifically the degree of ambiguity of the terms, and we inspect the causes of such ambiguity, in particular for protein names. This information is of vital importance for the implementation of an efficient term normalization and grounding algorithm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ILISI® digital index of the Italian scientific literature of nursing.

    PubMed

    Stievano, Alessandro; Bonfigli, Alessandra; Fanfera, Edvige; Finocchi, Giovanna; Montevecchi, Alessandro; Nappini, Patrizia; Tallarita, Fabrizio; Turci, Carlo; Rocco, Gennaro

    2011-04-01

    The IPASVI Rome Nursing Board-Centre of Excellence-began the project of building a free accessed database, Ilisi®, where the main Italian nursing and health-related journals could be consulted (including the few peer reviewed, at international level, Italian journals of nursing). Today, it includes the abstracts of more than 2700 articles from 2004 of about 25 Italian journals of nursing and/or related to nursing disciplines. The Ilisi® project has got with Thisi-Italian thesaurus of nursing science-a controlled vocabulary specifically built for nursing science, its tool of feasibility. This project was developed to foster nursing scholarship in Italy and to offer a free controlled database for all stakeholders (students, nurses, other health professionals, and scholars). The abstracts of the articles of these Italian journals are a tool for lifelong learning and constitute a patrimony for nursing science even at a wider level if this patrimony could be translated in English that will be a further step of the project. The project group who developed this database is going to value Italian nursing literature production and implement an electronic tool that, in the near future, might be used by all students and healthcare professionals in the world. Besides, with this project scientific productions by Italian students, nurses could be encouraged. More of them need to be trained in the use of the most frequently used databases, and Ilisi® could be a good training experience for them.

  7. Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

    2004-12-01

    The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once

  8. Chinese Scientific and Technical Information Institutions: Development and Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanning, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…

  9. Chinese Scientific and Technical Information Institutions: Development and Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanning, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…

  10. An annotated bibliography of scientific literature on managing forests for carbon benefits

    Treesearch

    Sarah J. Hines; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2010-01-01

    Managing forests for carbon benefits is a consideration for climate change, bioenergy, sustainability, and ecosystem services. A rapidly growing body of scientific literature on forest carbon management includes experimental, modeling, and synthesis approaches, at the stand- to landscape- to continental-level. We conducted a search of the scientific literature on the...

  11. Building Student Proficiency with Scientific Literature Using the Zotero Reference Manager Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    While mastery of the scientific literature is a strongly desirable trait for undergraduate students, the sheer volume of the current literature has complicated the challenge of teaching scientific literacy. Part of the response to this ever-increasing volume of resources includes formal instruction in the use of reference manager software while…

  12. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the...

  13. Scientific Literature Review on the Topic of Monitoring and Modeling Seabed Evolution Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    study of fossil evidence of onshore-directed storm events in estuarine sediments: Chezzetcook Inlet, Nova Scotia,” Can. J. Earth Sci. 46(2009): 193...Scientific literature review on the topic of monitoring and modeling seabed evolution rates Douglas J Schillinger GaleForce Scientific...to perform an overview literature survey of existing scientific research work into monitoring and modeling of seabed rates of evolution . This work

  14. Analysis of scientific collaboration in Chinese psychiatry research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Jin, Xing

    2016-05-26

    In recent decades, China has changed profoundly, becoming the country with the world's second-largest economy. The proportion of the Chinese population suffering from mental disorder has grown in parallel with the rapid economic development, as social stresses have increased. The aim of this study is to shed light on the status of collaborations in the Chinese psychiatry field, of which there is currently limited research. We sampled 16,224 publications (2003-2012) from 10 core psychiatry journals from Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WanFang Database. We used various social network analysis (SNA) methods such as centrality analysis, and Core-Periphery analysis to study collaboration. We also used hierarchical clustering analysis in this study. From 2003-2012, there were increasing collaborations at the level of authors, institutions and regions in the Chinese psychiatry field. Geographically, these collaborations were distributed unevenly. The 100 most prolific authors and institutions and 32 regions were used to construct the collaboration map, from which we detected the core author, institution and region. Collaborative behavior was affected by economic development. We should encourage collaborative behavior in the Chinese psychiatry field, as this facilitates knowledge distribution, resource sharing and information acquisition. Collaboration has also helped the field narrow its current research focus, providing further evidence to inform policymakers to fund research in order to tackle the increase in mental disorder facing modern China.

  15. [Process and key points of clinical literature evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion.

  16. [Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-09-01

    The compound Chinese materia medica is the medication pattern of the traditional Chinese medicine for the disease prevention and treatment. The single Chinese materia medica (mostly in decoction pieces) is the prescription composition of the compound Chinese materia medica. The study of the effective substance basis of Chinese materia medica should be based on the chemical compositions of the compound Chinese materia medica as an entry point considering the different status of "Monarch, Minister, Assistant, and Guide" for a certain single Chinese materia medica in the different compound Chinese materia medica while substance basis research of a certain single Chinese materia medica should be a full component analysis as well as both stable and controllable quality. Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica.

  17. [New bibliometric indicators for the scientific literature: an evolving panorama].

    PubMed

    La Torre, G; Sciarra, I; Chiappetta, M; Monteduro, A

    2017-01-01

    Bibliometrics is a science which evaluates the impact of the scientific work of a journal or of an author, using mathematical and statistical tools. Impact Factor (IF) is the first bibliometric parameter created, and after it many others have been progressively conceived in order to go beyond its limits. Currently bibliometric indexes are used for academic purposes, among them to evaluate the eligibility of a researcher to compete for the National Scientific Qualification, in order to access to competitive exams to become professor. Aim of this study is to identify the most relevant bibliometric indexes and to summarized their characteristics. A revision of bibliometric indexes as been conducted, starting from the classic ones and completing with the most recent ones. The two most used bibliometric indexes are the IF, which measures the scientific impact of a periodical and bases on Web of Science citation database, and the h-index, which measures the impact of the scientific work of a researcher, basing on Scopus database. Besides them other indexes have been created more recently, such as the SCImago Journal Rank Indicator (SJR), the Source Normalised Impact per Paper (SNIP) and the CiteScore index. They are all based on Scopus database and evaluate, in different ways, the citational impact of a periodic. The i10-index instead is provided from Google Scholar database and allows to evaluate the impact of the scientific production of a researcher. Recently two softwares have been introduced: the first one, Publish or Perish, allows to evaluate the scientific work of a researcher, through the assessment of many indexes; the second one, Altmetric, measure the use in the Web of the academic papers, instead of measuring citations, by means of alternative metrics respect to the traditional ones. Each analized index shows advantages but also criticalities. Therefore the combined use of more than one indexes, citational and not, should be preferred, in order to correctly

  18. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved.

  19. Capitalist Bears and Socialist Modernisation: Chinese Children's Literature in the Post-Mao Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Lijun

    2003-01-01

    Discusses what Chinese children have read in the last quarter of the 20th century. Notes that much of Chinese children's literature contains strong political, moral, and ideological messages. Examines the official guidelines for children's literature in the post-Mao era. Concludes that in the post-Mao period, the state has become more flexible,…

  20. A bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Beranuy, Marta; Bellés, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the scientific literature dealing with addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to characterize the pattern of publications in these areas. One hundred seventy-nine valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO between 1996 and 2005 related to pathological Internet, cell phone, or video game use. The years with the highest numbers of articles published were 2004 (n = 42) and 2005 (n = 40). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were the United States (n = 52), China (n = 23), the United Kingdom (n = 17), Taiwan (n = 13), and South Korea (n = 9). The most commonly used language was English (65.4%), followed by Chinese (12.8%) and Spanish (4.5%). Articles were published in 96 different journals, of which 22 published 2 or more articles. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology & Behavior (n = 41). Addiction to the Internet was the most intensely studied (85.3%), followed by addiction to video games (13.6%) and cell phones (2.1%). The number of publications in this area is growing, but it is difficult to conduct precise searches due to a lack of clear terminology. To facilitate retrieval, bibliographic databases should include descriptor terms referring specifically to Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction as well as to more general addictions involving communications and information technologies and other behavioral addictions.

  1. Searching the scientific literature: implications for quantitative and qualitative reviews.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yelena P; Aylward, Brandon S; Roberts, Michael C; Evans, Spencer C

    2012-08-01

    Literature reviews are an essential step in the research process and are included in all empirical and review articles. Electronic databases are commonly used to gather this literature. However, several factors can affect the extent to which relevant articles are retrieved, influencing future research and conclusions drawn. The current project examined articles obtained by comparable search strategies in two electronic archives using an exemplar search to illustrate factors that authors should consider when designing their own search strategies. Specifically, literature searches were conducted in PsycINFO and PubMed targeting review articles on two exemplar disorders (bipolar disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and issues of classification and/or differential diagnosis. Articles were coded for relevance and characteristics of article content. The two search engines yielded significantly different proportions of relevant articles overall and by disorder. Keywords differed across search engines for the relevant articles identified. Based on these results, it is recommended that when gathering literature for review papers, multiple search engines should be used, and search syntax and strategies be tailored to the unique capabilities of particular engines. For meta-analyses and systematic reviews, authors may consider reporting the extent to which different archives or sources yielded relevant articles for their particular review.

  2. Pattern-Based Extraction of Argumentation from the Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of publications in the biomedical field continues its exponential increase, techniques for automatically summarizing information from this body of literature have become more diverse. In addition, the targets of summarization have become more subtle; initial work focused on extracting the factual assertions from full-text papers,…

  3. Pattern-Based Extraction of Argumentation from the Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of publications in the biomedical field continues its exponential increase, techniques for automatically summarizing information from this body of literature have become more diverse. In addition, the targets of summarization have become more subtle; initial work focused on extracting the factual assertions from full-text papers,…

  4. Prader-willi syndrome: A case report and a Chinese literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qinying; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder, resulting from lack of gene expression on the paternally inherited chromosome 15. It is important to determine diagnostic methods for PWS for early treatment. In this study, we report a newborn with Prader-willi syndrome. We further summarized the genetic testing results in the Chinese literature and the relevance of high resolution chromosome and genome-wide copy number variation analysis. There is a heterozygosis deletion of a 5 Mb region in the paternal chromosome 15q11.3–q13.3 by genome-wide copy number variation analysis. However, there is no abnormality in high resolution chromosome karyotype analysis. In conclusion, genome-wide copy number variation analysis is an effective and specific diagnosis method, which will provide scientific evidence for the clinical diagnosis and early treatment of PWS. PMID:25343115

  5. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  6. [Scientific connotation of Chinese medicine refracted in bioenergetics].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Xing; Lu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of the electron leak pathways of mitochondrial respiratory chain reveals that the respiratory chain not only included in ATP synthesis through the electron transfer pathway but also included in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through the electron leak pathways. The negative effect of ROS is the reason for causing pathological event, but more important is the signaling role of ROS, which had important physiological effect. In this article we take the human body as an aggregate of a huge amount of life-engine and perceive the respiratory chain as "yin-yang" element to describe the modern life science connotation born in the "yin-yang" theory of Chinese medicine.

  7. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  8. A Versatile Module to Improve Understanding of Scientific Literature through Peer Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques-Fricke, Bridget T.; Hubert, Amy; Miller, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Using primary literature in undergraduate science classes helps teach students both scientific information and process. However, students' lack of understanding of scientific techniques can hinder their understanding of the papers. This article describes a "technique module" that uses peer teaching and active learning to facilitate…

  9. Searching for a Common Ground--A Literature Review of Empirical Research on Scientific Inquiry Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnebeck, Silke; Bernholt, Sascha; Ropohl, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of scientific inquiry in science education, researchers and educators disagree considerably regarding what features define this instructional approach. While a large body of literature addresses theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies investigate scientific inquiry on quite different levels of detail and also…

  10. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  11. [ZHU Lian--the founder of Chinese acupuncture-moxibustion scientific research].

    PubMed

    Su, Yang-Shuai; Liu, Bing; Jing, Xiang-Hong; He, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Li-Jian

    2014-12-01

    This article discussed ZHU Lian's contributions to acupuncture-moxibustion scientific research from three aspects: building the scientific thought of "new acupuncture-moxibustion", constructing the first domestic acupuncture-moxibustion institution and opening the door to modern acupuncture-moxibustion scientific research. ZHU Lian's visionary thought of "new acupuncture-moxibustion" has influenced the following researchers till now. She established the acupuncture-Moxibustion therapeutic institute affiliated to the Ministry of Health, set up the acupuncture-Moxibustion research platforms and teams and made research cooperation. She firstly carried out acupuncture-Moxibustion clinical and basic scientific research, which started the acupuncture-Moxi- bustion scientific research in China. ZHU Lian is the Pioneer of Chinese acupuncture-Moxibustion scientific research.

  12. The organization of scientists and its relation to scientific productivity: Perceptions of Chinese stem cell researchers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2010-06-01

    Chinese government funding of R&D ranks third in the world. Yet China ranks only 17th in terms of scientific productivity per unit of investment. The author recently conducted fieldwork on the team structure of 22 Chinese stem cell research groups. Interview data suggest that although Chinese research groups closely resemble their international counter-parts in many respects, there are also significant differences which are perceived by interviewees to affect levels of scientific productivity. One characteristic of Chinese research teams is a common deficiency in middle-layer positions. This shortage of experienced professionals is perceived by scientists participating in this study to have led to two consequences. First, inexperienced student researchers often form the backbone of scientific teams in China, which leads to frequent interruptions of research and extended laboratory training. Second, research teams consist of a relatively small number of personnel. These structural features are seen to create excessive social boundaries, which impede the exchange of information and further worsens the segmentation of resources. This article engages the question of the extent to which interviewees' local 'embedded' understandings of these difficulties may make a productive contribution to the analysis of the structural, and infra-structural, organization of Chinese professional bioscience teams.

  13. The organization of scientists and its relation to scientific productivity: Perceptions of Chinese stem cell researchers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2013-01-01

    Chinese government funding of R&D ranks third in the world. Yet China ranks only 17th in terms of scientific productivity per unit of investment. The author recently conducted fieldwork on the team structure of 22 Chinese stem cell research groups. Interview data suggest that although Chinese research groups closely resemble their international counter-parts in many respects, there are also significant differences which are perceived by interviewees to affect levels of scientific productivity. One characteristic of Chinese research teams is a common deficiency in middle-layer positions. This shortage of experienced professionals is perceived by scientists participating in this study to have led to two consequences. First, inexperienced student researchers often form the backbone of scientific teams in China, which leads to frequent interruptions of research and extended laboratory training. Second, research teams consist of a relatively small number of personnel. These structural features are seen to create excessive social boundaries, which impede the exchange of information and further worsens the segmentation of resources. This article engages the question of the extent to which interviewees’ local ‘embedded’ understandings of these difficulties may make a productive contribution to the analysis of the structural, and infra-structural, organization of Chinese professional bioscience teams. PMID:24143153

  14. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research. PMID:28670279

  15. Television and Human Behavior: A Guide to the Pertinent Scientific Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George; Fisher, Marilyn

    A broad search of the scientifically relevant literature on television and human behavior began in the fall of 1973 and extended over a year; the search concentrated on the literature since 1960, although it attempted to include all significant earlier works. In addition, special emphasis was placed on obtaining very recent, hard to locate, and…

  16. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  17. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. MememxGATE: Unearthing Latent Content Features for Improved Search and Relevancy Ranking Across Scientific Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; McGibbney, L. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Joyce, M.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying scientific relevancy is of increasing importance to NASA and the research community. Scientific relevancy may be defined by mapping the impacts of a particular NASA mission, instrument, and/or retrieved variables to disciplines such as climate predictions, natural hazards detection and mitigation processes, education, and scientific discoveries. Related to relevancy, is the ability to expose data with similar attributes. This in turn depends upon the ability for us to extract latent, implicit document features from scientific data and resources and make them explicit, accessible and useable for search activities amongst others. This paper presents MemexGATE; a server side application, command line interface and computing environment for running large scale metadata extraction, general architecture text engineering, document classification and indexing tasks over document resources such as social media streams, scientific literature archives, legal documentation, etc. This work builds on existing experiences using MemexGATE (funded, developed and validated through the DARPA Memex Progrjam PI Mattmann) for extracting and leveraging latent content features from document resources within the Materials Research domain. We extend the software functionality capability to the domain of scientific literature with emphasis on the expansion of gazetteer lists, named entity rules, natural language construct labeling (e.g. synonym, antonym, hyponym, etc.) efforts to enable extraction of latent content features from data hosted by wide variety of scientific literature vendors (AGU Meeting Abstract Database, Springer, Wiley Online, Elsevier, etc.) hosting earth science literature. Such literature makes both implicit and explicit references to NASA datasets and relationships between such concepts stored across EOSDIS DAAC's hence we envisage that a significant part of this effort will also include development and understanding of relevancy signals which can ultimately

  19. The Effect of Geographical Proximity on Scientific Cooperation among Chinese Cities from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haitao; Fang, Chuanglin; Pang, Bo; Li, Guangdong

    2014-01-01

    Background The relations between geographical proximity and spatial distance constitute a popular topic of concern. Thus, how geographical proximity affects scientific cooperation, and whether geographically proximate scientific cooperation activities in fact exhibit geographic scale features should be investigated. Methodology Selected statistics from the ISI database on cooperatively authored papers, the authors of which resided in 60 typical cites in China, and which were published in the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were used to establish matrices of geographic distance and cooperation levels between cities. By constructing a distance-cooperation model, the degree of scientific cooperation based on spatial distance was calculated. The relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation, as well as changes in that relationship, was explored using the fitting function. Result (1) Instead of declining, the role of geographical proximity in inter-city scientific cooperation has increased gradually but significantly with the popularization of telecommunication technologies; (2) the relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation has not followed a perfect declining curve, and at certain spatial scales, the distance-decay regularity does not work; (3) the Chinese scientific cooperation network gathers around different regional center cities, showing a trend towards a regional network; within this cooperation network the amount of inter-city cooperation occurring at close range increased greatly. Conclusion The relationship between inter-city geographical distance and scientific cooperation has been enhanced and strengthened over time. PMID:25365449

  20. The filial piety complex: variations on the Oedipus theme in Chinese literature and culture.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ming Dong

    2006-01-01

    The Oedipus complex is central to Western tradition, but not to Chinese culture. Occurrence of oedipal themes in Chinese literature is almost negligible. This phenomenon seems to support a contra-Freud claim: that a theory of European origin, the Oedipus complex, is not universal to human experience in non-Western cultures. However, this article suggests that powerful moral repression may cause the Oedipus complex to undergo structural transformations in some cultures. Through studying a sample of Chinese literary and film representations, the author argues that the Oedipus complex in Chinese culture has been transformed into a filial piety complex. Some conceptual issues are considered from a cross-cultural perspective.

  1. Biological network extraction from scientific literature: state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Liakata, Maria; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Networks of molecular interactions explain complex biological processes, and all known information on molecular events is contained in a number of public repositories including the scientific literature. Metabolic and signalling pathways are often viewed separately, even though both types are composed of interactions involving proteins and other chemical entities. It is necessary to be able to combine data from all available resources to judge the functionality, complexity and completeness of any given network overall, but especially the full integration of relevant information from the scientific literature is still an ongoing and complex task. Currently, the text-mining research community is steadily moving towards processing the full body of the scientific literature by making use of rich linguistic features such as full text parsing, to extract biological interactions. The next step will be to combine these with information from scientific databases to support hypothesis generation for the discovery of new knowledge and the extension of biological networks. The generation of comprehensive networks requires technologies such as entity grounding, coordination resolution and co-reference resolution, which are not fully solved and are required to further improve the quality of results. Here, we analyse the state of the art for the extraction of network information from the scientific literature and the evaluation of extraction methods against reference corpora, discuss challenges involved and identify directions for future research.

  2. [Clinical literature based statistical analysis of common Chinese medical syndrome types].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Jun; Shen, Chun-Ti; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-08-01

    According to the principle of evidence-based medicine (EBM), Chinese medical literatures based descriptive statistical analysis of common Chinese medical syndrome types were performed. By data extraction, standardization, and frequency calculation of disease names and syndrome types from 286 literatures in line with the inclusion criteria, the frequencies of diseases and syndromes were obtained to analyze common syndrome types in clinical practice, to analyze the distribution features of disease related syndromes and syndrome related diseases, to analyze the distribution of basic Chinese medical syndrome types in clinical common diseases as a whole, thus providing reference for clinical and basic researches.

  3. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    PubMed

    Brand, E Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes ("seeds") as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ(9)-THC are investigated.

  4. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    PubMed Central

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  5. The visibility of scientific misconduct: A review of the literature on retracted journal articles.

    PubMed

    Hesselmann, Felicitas; Graf, Verena; Schmidt, Marion; Reinhart, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Retractions of scientific articles are becoming the most relevant institution for making sense of scientific misconduct. An increasing number of retracted articles, mainly attributed to misconduct, is currently providing a new empirical basis for research about scientific misconduct. This article reviews the relevant research literature from an interdisciplinary context. Furthermore, the results from these studies are contextualized sociologically by asking how scientific misconduct is made visible through retractions. This study treats retractions as an emerging institution that renders scientific misconduct visible, thus, following up on the sociology of deviance and its focus on visibility. The article shows that retractions, by highlighting individual cases of misconduct and general policies for preventing misconduct while obscuring the actors and processes through which retractions are effected, produce highly fragmented patterns of visibility. These patterns resemble the bifurcation in current justice systems.

  6. The visibility of scientific misconduct: A review of the literature on retracted journal articles

    PubMed Central

    Hesselmann, Felicitas; Graf, Verena; Schmidt, Marion; Reinhart, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Retractions of scientific articles are becoming the most relevant institution for making sense of scientific misconduct. An increasing number of retracted articles, mainly attributed to misconduct, is currently providing a new empirical basis for research about scientific misconduct. This article reviews the relevant research literature from an interdisciplinary context. Furthermore, the results from these studies are contextualized sociologically by asking how scientific misconduct is made visible through retractions. This study treats retractions as an emerging institution that renders scientific misconduct visible, thus, following up on the sociology of deviance and its focus on visibility. The article shows that retractions, by highlighting individual cases of misconduct and general policies for preventing misconduct while obscuring the actors and processes through which retractions are effected, produce highly fragmented patterns of visibility. These patterns resemble the bifurcation in current justice systems. PMID:28943647

  7. A Flipped Classroom Exercise to Teach Undergraduates to Critically Think Using Primary Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimeri, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Critically thinking about scientific data to form opinions on controversial issues in environmental health is crucial in undergraduate education in the field. An assignment paired with a "flipped" classroom activity was designed to impart knowledge on how to search the primary literature and extract data that can help formulate a point…

  8. A Review of Scientific Topics and Literature in Abdominal Radiology in Germany - Part 1: Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Schreyer, A G; Wessling, J; Kinner, S; Juchems, M S; Holzapfel, K; Lauenstein, T C; Konietzke, P; Grenacher, L

    2016-02-01

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography. Based on recent literature and guidelines there is a change of paradigms regarding the diagnosis of esophagus and gastric cancer towards CT, which is considered equally to endosonography. For small bowel imaging in Crohn's disease ultrasound as well as MRI with a new focus on DWI are the most important imaging modalities scientifically. For colonic diagnosis virtual colonoscopy has replaced the conventional radiological methods. For staging of rectal carcinoma as well as for therapeutic stratification a high resolution MRI of the pelvis is of paramount interest. Multislice CT is considered the most important modality to assess mesenteric ischemia or bleeding. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Measuring the Disparities between Biology Undergraduates' Perceptions and Their Actual Knowledge of Scientific Literature with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates an innovative method used to determine the need for information literacy among science undergraduate students at Adelphi University. Using clickers technology, this study measured the disconnect between biology undergraduates' perceived and actual knowledge of scientific literature. The quantitative data collected in the…

  10. Drinking water from forests and grasslands: a synthesis of the scientific literature

    Treesearch

    George E. Dissmeyer; [Editor

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews the scientific literature about the potential of common forest and grassland management to introduce contaminants of concern to human health into public drinking water sources.Effects of managing water, urbanization, ecreation, roads, timber, fire, pesticides, grazing, wildlife and fish habitat, and mineral, oil, and gas resources on public drinking...

  11. Measuring the Disparities between Biology Undergraduates' Perceptions and Their Actual Knowledge of Scientific Literature with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates an innovative method used to determine the need for information literacy among science undergraduate students at Adelphi University. Using clickers technology, this study measured the disconnect between biology undergraduates' perceived and actual knowledge of scientific literature. The quantitative data collected in the…

  12. Citations, References and the Growth of Scientific Literature: A Model of Dynamic Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauze, Tadeusz K.; Hillinger, Claude

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented which explains the observed exponential growth rates of citations and references in a scientific discipline. The independent variables are the growth rate of the number of articles published and the decay rate of citation of old literature. (13 references) (Author)

  13. The Influence of Publication Delays on the Observed Aging Distribution of Scientific Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the influence of publication delays on the aging of scientific literature and explains how the undisturbed aging function and the publication delay combine to give the observed aging function through a mathematical operation called convolution. Shows the convolution of various distributions and considers a paradox between theory and real…

  14. A Hybrid Human-Computer Approach to the Extraction of Scientific Facts from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tchoua, Roselyne B.; Chard, Kyle; Audus, Debra; Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan; Foster, Ian

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of valuable data is locked within the millions of research articles published each year. Reading and extracting pertinent information from those articles has become an unmanageable task for scientists. This problem hinders scientific progress by making it hard to build on results buried in literature. Moreover, these data are loosely structured, encoded in manuscripts of various formats, embedded in different content types, and are, in general, not machine accessible. We present a hybrid human-computer solution for semi-automatically extracting scientific facts from literature. This solution combines an automated discovery, download, and extraction phase with a semi-expert crowd assembled from students to extract specific scientific facts. To evaluate our approach we apply it to a challenging molecular engineering scenario, extraction of a polymer property: the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. We demonstrate useful contributions to a comprehensive database of polymer properties. PMID:28649288

  15. A Hybrid Human-Computer Approach to the Extraction of Scientific Facts from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tchoua, Roselyne B; Chard, Kyle; Audus, Debra; Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan; Foster, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of valuable data is locked within the millions of research articles published each year. Reading and extracting pertinent information from those articles has become an unmanageable task for scientists. This problem hinders scientific progress by making it hard to build on results buried in literature. Moreover, these data are loosely structured, encoded in manuscripts of various formats, embedded in different content types, and are, in general, not machine accessible. We present a hybrid human-computer solution for semi-automatically extracting scientific facts from literature. This solution combines an automated discovery, download, and extraction phase with a semi-expert crowd assembled from students to extract specific scientific facts. To evaluate our approach we apply it to a challenging molecular engineering scenario, extraction of a polymer property: the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. We demonstrate useful contributions to a comprehensive database of polymer properties.

  16. Trauma and truth: representations of madness in Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Linder, Birgit

    2011-12-01

    With only a few exceptions, the literary theme of madness has long been a domain of Western cultural studies. Much of Western writing represents madness as an inquiry into the deepest recesses of the mind, while the comparatively scarce Chinese tradition is generally defined by madness as a voice of social truth. This paper looks at five works of twentieth-century Chinese fiction that draw on socio-somatic aspects of madness to reflect upon social truths, suggesting that the inner voice of subjectivity is perhaps not the only true voice of the self.

  17. CREATE Cornerstone: Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a New Course for STEM-Interested Freshmen, Demystifies Scientific Thinking through Analysis of Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students’ critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE also supports maturation of undergraduates’ epistemological beliefs about science. This approach, originally tested with upper-level students, has been adapted in Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a new course for freshmen. Results from this course's initial semesters indicate that freshmen in a one-semester introductory course that uses a narrowly focused set of readings to promote development of analytical skills made significant gains in critical-thinking and experimental design abilities. Students also reported significant gains in their ability to think scientifically and understand primary literature. Their perceptions and understanding of science improved, and multiple aspects of their epistemological beliefs about science gained sophistication. The course has no laboratory component, is relatively inexpensive to run, and could be adapted to any area of scientific study. PMID:23463229

  18. CREATE cornerstone: introduction to scientific thinking, a new course for STEM-interested freshmen, demystifies scientific thinking through analysis of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Alan J; Hoskins, Sally G

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE also supports maturation of undergraduates' epistemological beliefs about science. This approach, originally tested with upper-level students, has been adapted in Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a new course for freshmen. Results from this course's initial semesters indicate that freshmen in a one-semester introductory course that uses a narrowly focused set of readings to promote development of analytical skills made significant gains in critical-thinking and experimental design abilities. Students also reported significant gains in their ability to think scientifically and understand primary literature. Their perceptions and understanding of science improved, and multiple aspects of their epistemological beliefs about science gained sophistication. The course has no laboratory component, is relatively inexpensive to run, and could be adapted to any area of scientific study.

  19. TASER® conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R

    2015-03-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions.

  20. The impact of free access to the scientific literature: a review of recent research.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M; Walters, William H

    2011-07-01

    The paper reviews recent studies that evaluate the impact of free access (open access) on the behavior of scientists as authors, readers, and citers in developed and developing nations. It also examines the extent to which the biomedical literature is used by the general public. The paper is a critical review of the literature, with systematic description of key studies. Researchers report that their access to the scientific literature is generally good and improving. For authors, the access status of a journal is not an important consideration when deciding where to publish. There is clear evidence that free access increases the number of article downloads, although its impact on article citations is not clear. Recent studies indicate that large citation advantages are simply artifacts of the failure to adequately control for confounding variables. The effect of free access on the general public's use of the primary medical literature has not been thoroughly evaluated. Recent studies provide little evidence to support the idea that there is a crisis in access to the scholarly literature. Further research is needed to investigate whether free access is making a difference in non-research contexts and to better understand the dissemination of scientific literature through peer-to-peer networks and other informal mechanisms.

  1. The impact of free access to the scientific literature: a review of recent research

    PubMed Central

    Walters, William H

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews recent studies that evaluate the impact of free access (open access) on the behavior of scientists as authors, readers, and citers in developed and developing nations. It also examines the extent to which the biomedical literature is used by the general public. Method: The paper is a critical review of the literature, with systematic description of key studies. Results: Researchers report that their access to the scientific literature is generally good and improving. For authors, the access status of a journal is not an important consideration when deciding where to publish. There is clear evidence that free access increases the number of article downloads, although its impact on article citations is not clear. Recent studies indicate that large citation advantages are simply artifacts of the failure to adequately control for confounding variables. The effect of free access on the general public's use of the primary medical literature has not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions: Recent studies provide little evidence to support the idea that there is a crisis in access to the scholarly literature. Further research is needed to investigate whether free access is making a difference in non-research contexts and to better understand the dissemination of scientific literature through peer-to-peer networks and other informal mechanisms. PMID:21753913

  2. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Systematic review of scientific and lay literature.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on common alternative remedies for treatment of symptoms attributed to menopause and to contrast this with available lay literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Scientific articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and HEALTH databases from 1966 to mid-1997 for English-language articles. More than 200 references were reviewed; 85 were selected for citation based on specific reference to alternative medicine for symptoms commonly attributed to menopause (e.g., hot flashes), to the effects of changing estrogen levels (e.g., irregular menses, vaginal dryness), and to reported side effects of the treatments. MAIN FINDINGS: The scientific literature was categorized under the headings nutritional supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, and physical approaches. Some scientific evidence of the safety and efficacy of alternative treatments during menopause was uncovered, with the strongest evidence emerging in favour of phytoestrogens, which occur in high concentrations as isoflavones in soy products. CONCLUSIONS: In available controlled studies, the strongest data support phytoestrogens for their role in diminishing menopausal symptoms related to estrogen deficiency and for possible protective effects on bones and the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials, standardization of dosage, and accurate safety and efficacy labeling are required to ensure proper use of alternative remedies. PMID:9640524

  3. Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Helen S.; Carder, Gemma; Cornish, Amelia R.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The emotional lives of animals is often doubted and questioned. Due to the subjective nature of animal emotions, many think that they are out of the reach of scientific measurement. In this systematic review, of over two decades of scientific literature, we found that this was not actually the case. By using a list of keywords, formed of both positive and negative emotions, and terminology relating to animal sentience, we reviewed the scientific literature. We found that the subjective lives of animals are not only a vital part of human medical research but are regularly measured and studied with scientific rigor. Abstract Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on

  4. Chinese students studying at Australian universities with specific reference to nursing students: a narrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Carol Chunfeng; Andre, Kate; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark

    2015-04-01

    To report the current knowledge on the Chinese nursing students' learning at Australian universities. The intent is to provide educators and researchers with a background to the contexts, the methodologies, the emphases of various relevant studies, and to provide recommendations for future research. Attracting international students has become an important part of Australian universities' business and contributes to their cultural diversity. Teaching international students has received considerable attention in the educational research literature. Experiences of international students can vary greatly depending on their country of origin. This paper critically reviews current literature relating to issues for Chinese students and in particular, Chinese nursing students, the biggest single group of international nursing students at Australian universities Narrative literature review. A comprehensive search of seven electronic databases for literature between 2003 and 2014 helped to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that addressed issues of Asian international students with English as a second language (ESL) (included nursing students) studying in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the United States and China. Pertinent websites were also searched. The reference lists and bibliographies of retrieved articles were hand- searched to identify other relevant studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The majority of existing literature claimed that there is a range of challenges confronting international students including Chinese nursing students, in assimilation into their host country. These include issues with English language proficiency, cultural barriers, social problems, different learning styles, academic demands, perceived racism, homesickness, lack of assertiveness and financial problems. There is limited research about the Chinese students' study in Australia. In particular, the learning experience of Chinese nursing students

  5. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  6. Acupuncture-related adverse events: a systematic review of the Chinese literature

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Gao, Xiumei; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To systematically review the Chinese-language literature on acupuncture-related adverse events. Methods We searched three Chinese databases (the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, 1980–2009; the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database, 1980–2009; and the Weipu Journal Database, 1989–2009) to identify Chinese-language articles about the safety of traditional needle acupuncture. Case reports, case series, surveys and other observational studies were included if they reported factual data, but review articles, translations and clinical trials were excluded. Findings The inclusion criteria were met by 115 articles (98 case reports and 17 case series) that in total reported on 479 cases of adverse events after acupuncture. Fourteen patients died. Acupuncture-related adverse events were classified into three categories: traumatic, infectious and “other”. The most frequent adverse events were pneumothorax, fainting, subarachnoid haemorrhage and infection, while the most serious ones were cardiovascular injuries, subarachnoid haemorrhage, pneumothorax and recurrent cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion Many acupuncture-related adverse events, most of them owing to improper technique, have been described in the published Chinese literature. Efforts should be made to find effective ways of monitoring and minimizing the risks related to acupuncture. PMID:21124716

  7. Workplace Interventions to Prevent Disability from Both the Scientific and Practice Perspectives: A Comparison of Scientific Literature, Grey Literature and Stakeholder Observations.

    PubMed

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Bültmann, Ute; Amick, Benjamin; Munir, Fehmidah; Tveito, Torill H; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Purpose The significant individual and societal burden of work disability could be reduced if supportive workplace strategies could be added to evidence-based clinical treatment and rehabilitation to improve return-to-work (RTW) and other disability outcomes. The goal of this article is to summarize existing research on workplace interventions to prevent disability, relate these to employer disability management practices, and recommend future research priorities. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability, held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a question/answer session with an expert panel with direct employer experience. Results Evidence from randomized trials and other research designs has shown general support for job modification, RTW coordination, and organizational support, but evidence is still lacking for interventions at a more granular level. Grey literature reports focused mainly on job re-design and work organization. Panel feedback focused on organizational readiness and the beliefs and values of senior managers as critical factors in facilitating changes to disability management practices. While the scientific literature is focused on facilitating improved coping and reducing discomforts for individual workers, the employer-directed grey literature is focused on making group-level changes to policies and procedures. Conclusions Future research might better target employer practices by tying interventions to positive workplace influences and determinants, by developing more participatory interventions and research designs, and by

  8. Selecting models for a respiratory protection program: what can we learn from the scientific literature?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ronald E; Janssen, Larry L

    2015-02-01

    An unbiased source of comparable respirator performance data would be helpful in setting up a hospital respiratory protection program. The scientific literature was examined to assess the extent to which performance data (respirator fit, comfort and usability) from N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) models are available to assist with FFR model selection and procurement decisions. Ten studies were identified that met the search criteria for fit, whereas 5 studies met the criteria for comfort and usability. Analysis of these studies indicated that it is difficult to directly use the scientific literature to inform the FFR selection process because of differences in study populations, methodologies, and other factors. Although there does not appear to be a single best fitting FFR, studies demonstrate that fit testing programs can be designed to successfully fit nearly all workers with existing products. Comfort and usability are difficult to quantify. Among the studies found, no significant differences were noted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The ICDP Information Network and the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, R.; Su, D.

    2002-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD is a national key scientific and engineering project of the PR China supported by ICDP. The current drill site of CCSD is located in Donghai, Jiangsu Province, the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, which possesses global geological significance. From the spud on June 25, 2001 to April 6, 2002, the 2000m pilot hole was finished with a total core recovery of 88.7% and an average inclination angle of 3-4 degrees. The pilot hole has been transformed to the main hole by hole opening. Deepening and coring of the CCSD-1 main hole is currently in progress. Most of the basic scientific documentation and measurements are done in a large field laboratory directly beside the drill rig, which was set up using the standard of the former German Continental Scientific Drilling (KTB). It includes a powerful infrastructure for computing and electronic communication as well as a comprehensive twofold data and information management: 1. The CCSD-DMIS is a special Data Management Information System for the chinese

  10. Mining of relations between proteins over biomedical scientific literature using a deep-linguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Schneider, Gerold; Kaljurand, Kaarel; Hess, Michael; Andronis, Christos; Konstandi, Ourania; Persidis, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    The amount of new discoveries (as published in the scientific literature) in the biomedical area is growing at an exponential rate. This growth makes it very difficult to filter the most relevant results, and thus the extraction of the core information becomes very expensive. Therefore, there is a growing interest in text processing approaches that can deliver selected information from scientific publications, which can limit the amount of human intervention normally needed to gather those results. This paper presents and evaluates an approach aimed at automating the process of extracting functional relations (e.g. interactions between genes and proteins) from scientific literature in the biomedical domain. The approach, using a novel dependency-based parser, is based on a complete syntactic analysis of the corpus. We have implemented a state-of-the-art text mining system for biomedical literature, based on a deep-linguistic, full-parsing approach. The results are validated on two different corpora: the manually annotated genomics information access (GENIA) corpus and the automatically annotated arabidopsis thaliana circadian rhythms (ATCR) corpus. We show how a deep-linguistic approach (contrary to common belief) can be used in a real world text mining application, offering high-precision relation extraction, while at the same time retaining a sufficient recall.

  11. A Case of Mutual Exclusion: Portrayals by Immigrant and American-Born Chinese of Each Other in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Marlon K.

    1984-01-01

    Examines literary works by first-generation Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans. Reports that each group has been critical in its portrayals of the other, especially when some direct interaction between the two groups is depicted. Asserts that this literature has shown how ethnocentrism has divided the Chinese in America. (KH)

  12. Transnational Research Networks in Chinese Scientific Production. An Investigation on Health-Industry Related Sectors.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Lauretta; Pollio, Chiara; Di Tommaso, Marco R

    2017-08-29

    Transnational research networks (TRN) are becoming increasingly complex. Such complexity may have both positive and negative effects on the quality of research. Our work studies the evolution over time of Chinese TRN and the role of complexity on the quality of Chinese research, given the leading role this country has recently acquired in international science. We focus on the fields of geriatrics and gerontology. We build an original dataset of all scientific publications of China in these areas in 2009, 2012 and 2015, starting from the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI WoK) database. Using Social Network Analysis (SNA), we analyze the change in scientific network structure across time. Second, we design indices to control for the different aspects of networks complexity (number of authors, country heterogeneity and institutional heterogeneity) and we perform negative binomial regressions to identify the main determinants of research quality. Our analysis shows that research networks in the field of geriatrics and gerontology have gradually become wider in terms of countries and have become more balanced. Furthermore, our results identify that different forms of complexity have different impacts on quality, including a reciprocal moderating effect. In particular, according to our analysis, research quality benefits from complex research networks both in terms of countries and of types of institutions involved, but that such networks should be "compact" in terms of number of authors. Eventually, we suggest that complexity should be carefully taken into account when designing policies aimed at enhancing the quality of research.

  13. The current status of medical education literature in Chinese-language journals.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xie; Yanling, Chen; Jin, Chen; Bin, Chen; Xiaoli, Wan; Yuan, Lin; Huixian, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Many research articles on medical education have been published in Chinese-language journals, the majority within the past few years. However, there have been no objective studies to look at the quality of these, and their contribution to present day thinking. This study explored the areas of focus, and the quality, of published research on Chinese undergraduate medical education. We searched three major Chinese databases, including Chinese Biology Medicine in electronic form, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and Chinese Technological Periodicals Database, to trace the research themes and methodologies of Chinese-language research papers published from January 2000 to December 2008. The annual number of published articles on undergraduate medical education research has increased over time in China, with 70% of the articles in our 9-year study published in the past 4 years; the most popular theme was curriculum and teaching. Non-comparative studies accounted for the majority of the literature (84.6%); and comparative studies were rare. Although an increase in the number of articles on medical education research in China is encouraging, more methodologically rigorous designs are needed to improve research quality. Generic and focused training on research methodology is essential to convert quantity into quality.

  14. Toward an Understanding of Chinese-American Educational Achievement: A Literature Review. Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Sau-Fong

    This literature review addresses the relatively recent perception of Chinese-Americans as superachievers by examining empirical research studies, statistical data, historical accounts, fiction, biographies, autobiographies, and newspaper stories. It is argued that only with a historical perspective can the myths be sorted from the realities about…

  15. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key…

  16. Literature on Early Literacy Instruction in Four Languages (Chinese, Korean, Navajo, Russian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin; Albus, Debra; Shyyan, Vitaliy

    2003-01-01

    This report, sponsored by the Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA), is a summary of evidence-based research on teaching reading to Chinese, Korean, Navajo, and Russian children. It complements a recent summary of the literature on teaching reading to Spanish speaking students. There is a significant need for evidence-based research on…

  17. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jiankang; Han, Li; Liu, Juntian; Yu, Mengyun

    2017-01-01

    Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆) tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡) tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research. PMID:28298936

  18. Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease: the discrepancy between the scientific literature and dietary advice.

    PubMed

    Hoenselaar, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Given the large social impact of dietary advice, it is important that the advice have a solid scientific basis. Evidence-based dietary advice should be built on results from all studies available, according to a given methodology. Conclusions should be a valid representation of the summarized results. The association between saturated fat intake and cardiovascular disease was examined. Results from three reports of leading U.S. and European advisory committees were compared with results as they were presented in the articles referred to. Findings were put into perspective with results not included in these reports. Different lines of evidence were included in the different reports. No overlap whatsoever was found in the articles included. Most results from the scientific literature were lacking for most different lines of evidence in all reports. All three reports included the effect of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the evidence linking saturated fat to cardiovascular disease, but the effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was systematically ignored. Both U.S. reports failed to correctly describe the results from the prospective studies. Results and conclusions about saturated fat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease, from leading advisory committees, do not reflect the available scientific literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai Bo Haber; Liu, Li; Zhang, Hena; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese core journals using search terms related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, specified countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and olanzapine treatment. Following initial screening, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the search results to identify relevant studies from which data were extracted. Results A total of 489 publications were retrieved and 61 studies were identified for inclusion. Most studies were related to schizophrenia (n=54), with six studies related to bipolar disorder and one study related to both conditions. The quality of study methods and reporting in international journals was noticeably better than in Chinese language journals. Most studies included relatively small patient populations and were of short duration. The efficacy of olanzapine in Chinese populations was confirmed by multiple comparative and noncomparative studies that found statistically significant reductions in symptom measures in studies conducted for ≥6 weeks (schizophrenia) or ≥3 weeks (bipolar disorder). Findings related to effectiveness (treatment discontinuation, quality of life, and neurocognitive improvements) were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. No new safety signals specific for Chinese populations were raised for olanzapine. Conclusion Chinese and non-Chinese populations with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine display broadly similar responses. Differences between these populations, especially in relation to the relative efficacy of

  20. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.

  1. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map. PMID:28328983

  2. Automatic semantic classification of scientific literature according to the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Simon; Silins, Ilona; Guo, Yufan; Ali, Imran; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The hallmarks of cancer have become highly influential in cancer research. They reduce the complexity of cancer into 10 principles (e.g. resisting cell death and sustaining proliferative signaling) that explain the biological capabilities acquired during the development of human tumors. Since new research depends crucially on existing knowledge, technology for semantic classification of scientific literature according to the hallmarks of cancer could greatly support literature review, knowledge discovery and applications in cancer research. We present the first step toward the development of such technology. We introduce a corpus of 1499 PubMed abstracts annotated according to the scientific evidence they provide for the 10 currently known hallmarks of cancer. We use this corpus to train a system that classifies PubMed literature according to the hallmarks. The system uses supervised machine learning and rich features largely based on biomedical text mining. We report good performance in both intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations, demonstrating both the accuracy of the methodology and its potential in supporting practical cancer research. We discuss how this approach could be developed and applied further in the future. The corpus of hallmark-annotated PubMed abstracts and the software for classification are available at: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/∼sb895/HoC.html. simon.baker@cl.cam.ac.uk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Visual Analysis and Dissemination of Scientific Literature Collections with SurVis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Fabian; Koch, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic data such as collections of scientific articles and citation networks have been studied extensively in information visualization and visual analytics research. Powerful systems have been built to support various types of bibliographic analysis, but they require some training and cannot be used to disseminate the insights gained. In contrast, we focused on developing a more accessible visual analytics system, called SurVis, that is ready to disseminate a carefully surveyed literature collection. The authors of a survey may use our Web-based system to structure and analyze their literature database. Later, readers of the survey can obtain an overview, quickly retrieve specific publications, and reproduce or extend the original bibliographic analysis. Our system employs a set of selectors that enable users to filter and browse the literature collection as well as to control interactive visualizations. The versatile selector concept includes selectors for textual search, filtering by keywords and meta-information, selection and clustering of similar publications, and following citation links. Agreement to the selector is represented by word-sized sparkline visualizations seamlessly integrated into the user interface. Based on an analysis of the analytical reasoning process, we derived requirements for the system. We developed the system in a formative way involving other researchers writing literature surveys. A questionnaire study with 14 visual analytics experts confirms that SurVis meets the initially formulated requirements.

  4. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  5. Word add-in for ontology recognition: semantic enrichment of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Fink, J Lynn; Fernicola, Pablo; Chandran, Rahul; Parastatidis, Savas; Wade, Alex; Naim, Oscar; Quinn, Gregory B; Bourne, Philip E

    2010-02-24

    In the current era of scientific research, efficient communication of information is paramount. As such, the nature of scholarly and scientific communication is changing; cyberinfrastructure is now absolutely necessary and new media are allowing information and knowledge to be more interactive and immediate. One approach to making knowledge more accessible is the addition of machine-readable semantic data to scholarly articles. The Word add-in presented here will assist authors in this effort by automatically recognizing and highlighting words or phrases that are likely information-rich, allowing authors to associate semantic data with those words or phrases, and to embed that data in the document as XML. The add-in and source code are publicly available at http://www.codeplex.com/UCSDBioLit. The Word add-in for ontology term recognition makes it possible for an author to add semantic data to a document as it is being written and it encodes these data using XML tags that are effectively a standard in life sciences literature. Allowing authors to mark-up their own work will help increase the amount and quality of machine-readable literature metadata.

  6. SYMBIOmatics: synergies in Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics--exploring current scientific literature for emerging topics.

    PubMed

    Rebholz-Schuhman, Dietrich; Cameron, Graham; Clark, Dominic; van Mulligen, Erik; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Del Hoyo Barbolla, Eva; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Milanesi, Luciano; Porro, Ivan; Beltrame, Francesco; Tollis, Ioannis; Van der Lei, Johan

    2007-03-08

    The SYMBIOmatics Specific Support Action (SSA) is "an information gathering and dissemination activity" that seeks "to identify synergies between the bioinformatics and the medical informatics" domain to improve collaborative progress between both domains (ref. to http://www.symbiomatics.org). As part of the project experts in both research fields will be identified and approached through a survey. To provide input to the survey, the scientific literature was analysed to extract topics relevant to both medical informatics and bioinformatics. This paper presents results of a systematic analysis of the scientific literature from medical informatics research and bioinformatics research. In the analysis pairs of words (bigrams) from the leading bioinformatics and medical informatics journals have been used as indication of existing and emerging technologies and topics over the period 2000-2005 ("recent") and 1990-1990 ("past"). We identified emerging topics that were equally important to bioinformatics and medical informatics in recent years such as microarray experiments, ontologies, open source, text mining and support vector machines. Emerging topics that evolved only in bioinformatics were system biology, protein interaction networks and statistical methods for microarray analyses, whereas emerging topics in medical informatics were grid technology and tissue microarrays. We conclude that although both fields have their own specific domains of interest, they share common technological developments that tend to be initiated by new developments in biotechnology and computer science.

  7. SYMBIOmatics: Synergies in Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics – exploring current scientific literature for emerging topics

    PubMed Central

    Rebholz-Schuhman, Dietrich; Cameron, Graham; Clark, Dominic; van Mulligen, Erik; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Del Hoyo Barbolla, Eva; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Milanesi, Luciano; Porro, Ivan; Beltrame, Francesco; Tollis, Ioannis; Van der Lei, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background The SYMBIOmatics Specific Support Action (SSA) is "an information gathering and dissemination activity" that seeks "to identify synergies between the bioinformatics and the medical informatics" domain to improve collaborative progress between both domains (ref. to ). As part of the project experts in both research fields will be identified and approached through a survey. To provide input to the survey, the scientific literature was analysed to extract topics relevant to both medical informatics and bioinformatics. Results This paper presents results of a systematic analysis of the scientific literature from medical informatics research and bioinformatics research. In the analysis pairs of words (bigrams) from the leading bioinformatics and medical informatics journals have been used as indication of existing and emerging technologies and topics over the period 2000–2005 ("recent") and 1990–1990 ("past"). We identified emerging topics that were equally important to bioinformatics and medical informatics in recent years such as microarray experiments, ontologies, open source, text mining and support vector machines. Emerging topics that evolved only in bioinformatics were system biology, protein interaction networks and statistical methods for microarray analyses, whereas emerging topics in medical informatics were grid technology and tissue microarrays. Conclusion We conclude that although both fields have their own specific domains of interest, they share common technological developments that tend to be initiated by new developments in biotechnology and computer science. PMID:17430562

  8. Word add-in for ontology recognition: semantic enrichment of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the current era of scientific research, efficient communication of information is paramount. As such, the nature of scholarly and scientific communication is changing; cyberinfrastructure is now absolutely necessary and new media are allowing information and knowledge to be more interactive and immediate. One approach to making knowledge more accessible is the addition of machine-readable semantic data to scholarly articles. Results The Word add-in presented here will assist authors in this effort by automatically recognizing and highlighting words or phrases that are likely information-rich, allowing authors to associate semantic data with those words or phrases, and to embed that data in the document as XML. The add-in and source code are publicly available at http://www.codeplex.com/UCSDBioLit. Conclusions The Word add-in for ontology term recognition makes it possible for an author to add semantic data to a document as it is being written and it encodes these data using XML tags that are effectively a standard in life sciences literature. Allowing authors to mark-up their own work will help increase the amount and quality of machine-readable literature metadata. PMID:20181245

  9. Setting Up a Bibliographic Database from National Inventory of Scientific and Technical Literature. The CIDST Experience in Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriamparany, Louis Marius; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a bibliographic database in Madagascar through a national inventory of scientific and technical literature. The roles of the Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research for Development (MRSTD) and its information service, CIDST, are described; database products are discussed; and future prospects are suggested.…

  10. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  11. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Perceptions on the Global Scientific Literacy with Australian, Chinese, and Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mun, Kongju; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Sung-Youn; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the extent to which Australian, Chinese, and Korean middle school students perceived themselves to have scientific literacy as global citizens and attempted to identify differences and/or commonalities in their perceptions. A total of 655 middle school students (8th and 9th grades; 358 girls and 297 boys) from the three…

  12. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  13. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  14. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  15. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Perceptions on the Global Scientific Literacy with Australian, Chinese, and Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mun, Kongju; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Sung-Youn; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the extent to which Australian, Chinese, and Korean middle school students perceived themselves to have scientific literacy as global citizens and attempted to identify differences and/or commonalities in their perceptions. A total of 655 middle school students (8th and 9th grades; 358 girls and 297 boys) from the three…

  16. Older Chinese Immigrants' Relationships With Their Children: A Literature Review From a Solidarity-Conflict Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer; Dow, Briony

    2015-12-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are one of the largest and fastest growing groups in Western societies. This article used the solidarity-conflict model to synthesize current research examining parent-child relationships in this group. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed databases to identify relevant articles. A narrative approach was used to review the literature. Thirty-six articles were identified. Compared with Caucasians, older Chinese immigrants are more likely to live with children and have higher filial expectations. However, considerable numbers live independently. Of these, most live in public housing and rely on the community rather than their children for instrumental help. Many older Chinese immigrants have adjusted their filial expectations and valued being independent. They also provide extensive household help to their children. There are indications of intergenerational conflict, probably due to generational differences in attitudes toward life and limited intergenerational contact. This review suggests that although filial piety continues to influence older parent-child relationship in Chinese immigrant families, many changes have occurred. These findings have important implications for service planning and delivery for this cultural group. This review also provides evidence for the utility of the solidarity-conflict model. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Exploring access to scientific literature using content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    The number of articles published in the scientific medical literature is continuously increasing, and Web access to the journals is becoming common. Databases such as SPIE Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, indices such as PubMed, and search engines such as Google provide the user with sophisticated full-text search capabilities. However, information in images and graphs within these articles is entirely disregarded. In this paper, we quantify the potential impact of using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to access this non-text data. Based on the Journal Citations Report (JCR), the journal Radiology was selected for this study. In 2005, 734 articles were published electronically in this journal. This included 2,587 figures, which yields a rate of 3.52 figures per article. Furthermore, 56.4% of these figures are composed of several individual panels, i.e. the figure combines different images and/or graphs. According to the Image Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF), the error rate of automatic identification of medical images is about 15%. Therefore, it is expected that, by applying ImageCLEF-like techniques, already 95.5% of articles could be retrieved by means of CBIR. The challenge for CBIR in scientific literature, however, is the use of local texture properties to analyze individual image panels in composite illustrations. Using local features for content-based image representation, 8.81 images per article are available, and the predicted correctness rate may increase to 98.3%. From this study, we conclude that CBIR may have a high impact in medical literature research and suggest that additional research in this area is warranted.

  18. Representation of ethnic identity in North American social work literature: a dossier of the Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Tsang, A K

    2001-07-01

    Ethnic and cultural identities of people who are not white in North America are conceived as natural and fixed categories. Such conceptualizations are associated with a tendency to take ethnicity as a client characteristic instead of understanding ethnic and cultural differences as constituted by the engagement between social worker and client. Using Foucault's dossier approach, the author uses the Chinese people as a case example to illustrate the politics of identification and identity assignment in professional social work literature in North America. The literature was selected from the Social Work Abstracts database from 1977 to 1997. The article reveals how Chinese people are "essentialized," "otherized," and negatively positioned as an ethnic construct. Four major arguments are presented together with their implications for cross-cultural social work practice.

  19. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown. PMID:17143465

  20. Retractions in the scientific literature: is the incidence of research fraud increasing?

    PubMed

    Steen, R Grant

    2011-04-01

    Scientific papers are retracted for many reasons including fraud (data fabrication or falsification) or error (plagiarism, scientific mistake, ethical problems). Growing attention to fraud in the lay press suggests that the incidence of fraud is increasing. The reasons for retracting 742 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Reasons for retraction were initially dichotomised as fraud or error and then analysed to determine specific reasons for retraction. Error was more common than fraud (73.5% of papers were retracted for error (or an undisclosed reason) vs 26.6% retracted for fraud). Eight reasons for retraction were identified; the most common reason was scientific mistake in 234 papers (31.5%), but 134 papers (18.1%) were retracted for ambiguous reasons. Fabrication (including data plagiarism) was more common than text plagiarism. Total papers retracted per year have increased sharply over the decade (r=0.96; p<0.001), as have retractions specifically for fraud (r=0.89; p<0.001). Journals now reach farther back in time to retract, both for fraud (r=0.87; p<0.001) and for scientific mistakes (r=0.95; p<0.001). Journals often fail to alert the naïve reader; 31.8% of retracted papers were not noted as retracted in any way. Levels of misconduct appear to be higher than in the past. This may reflect either a real increase in the incidence of fraud or a greater effort on the part of journals to police the literature. However, research bias is rarely cited as a reason for retraction.

  1. Subject, function, and trend in medical ethics research: a comparative study of Chinese and non-Chinese literature using bibliometrics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lanhui; Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Deng, Shaolin; Wu, Taixiang; Chen, Baoqing; Xie, Zhiyi; Qin, Chaoyi; Yu, Zhiyuan; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Jin; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yan; Jiang, Jie

    2012-05-01

    To perform a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese and non-Chinese medical ethics literature using systematic research and literature analysis in order to discern research trends in the area and provide baseline data as a reference for relevant decision making and further study. We retrieved articles using MeSH terms and keywords related to medical ethics in PubMed and CNKI, and then constructed a set of charts by applying word co-occurrence, The Pathfinder Networks algorithms, an included subject chart, a research field relationship chart, and strategy coordination charts. The total of number of papers retrieved from PubMed was six times that retrieved from CNKI. Outside China, medical ethics has been studied in eight fully shaped subject fields, including morals, ethical review, physician-patient relationships, clinical trials, euthanasia, ethics education, clinical ethics, and health policy. In contrast, medical ethics research in China is still confined to five subject fields: morals, physician-patient relations, medical ethics education, ethical review, and medical research. Medical ethics research outside China emphasizes the application of medical ethics to solve emerging problems in clinical and medical research. It is mainly centered on morals, ethical review, and physician-patient relations. By comparison, medical ethics research in China places greater emphasis on morals and medical education. In order to narrow this gap between China and other countries, we should broaden the research scope of medical ethics and add more applied research, such as ethical review and medical education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  2. Exploitation of ontological resources for scientific literature analysis: searching genes and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Berlanga-Llavori, Rafael; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    Ontological resources such as controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies from the OBO foundry are used to represent biomedical domain knowledge. The development of such resources is a time consuming task. Once they are finished they contribute to standardization of information representation, interoperability of IT solutions, literature analysis and knowledge discovery. Text mining comprises IT solutions for information retrieval (IR) and information extraction (IE). IR technology exploits ontological resources to select documents that fit best to the processed query, for example, through indexing of the literature content with concept ids or through disambiguation of terms in the query. IE solutions make use of the ontological labels to identify concepts in the text. The text passages that denote conceptual entries are then used either to annotate named entities or to relate the named entities to each other. For knowledge discovery (KD) solutions the identified concepts in the scientific literature are used to relate entities to each other, e.g. to identify gene-disease relations based on shared molecular functions.

  3. A bibliometric study of scientific literature on the dietary therapies for epilepsy in Scopus.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Gabriella; Guido, Davide; Tagliabue, Anna

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on dietary therapies for epilepsy and perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. We searched for 'ketogenic OR low-glycemic OR medium chain OR modified Atkins in TITLE AND epilep*' in Title/Abstract/Keyword in Scopus database. A total of 661 references were retrieved, 80% had been published after 2000s, 87% were published in English, and 39% of the publications were published in nine journals. The majority (76.3%) of research articles describe the clinical application of the dietary therapies regarding the classical ketogenic diet (80%), followed by the modified Atkins diet (11.5%), medium chain triglyceride diet (6.4%), and low glycemic index treatment (2.0%); the remaining are basic science studies on the mechanisms of action. The citation analysis revealed that the latter have the highest percentage variation in citation per publication across the years. Concerning the article cohorts, the greatest number of citations per publication was in 1998. The overview of the literature on the dietary therapy of epilepsy evidences a growing interest in the field with a striking prevalence of clinical over basic science studies. The most cited clinical studies have validated the efficacy of the dietary therapies; the few studies on the mechanisms of action received a great number of citations. Bibliometric analysis measuring the trends and the impact of the scientific literature would help researchers to a best knowledge of this specific topic.

  4. Harnessing scientific literature reports for pharmacovigilance. Prototype software analytical tool development and usability testing.

    PubMed

    Sorbello, Alfred; Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-03-22

    We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers' capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. All usability test participants cited the tool's ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool's automated literature search relative to a manual 'all fields' PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction.

  5. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  6. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  7. Learning Common Chinese Chemical Terms and Characters: A Resource for Scientific Research and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsiu-Yi; Churchill, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article serves as a primer to Mandarin Chinese mainly for chemical practitioners who have no familiarity with the Mandarin Chinese language and who may travel to East Asia during their career or work in collaboration with Chinese-speaking people. Eight vocabulary lists (given in English, written Chinese, and Pinyin romanization) feature…

  8. Learning Common Chinese Chemical Terms and Characters: A Resource for Scientific Research and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsiu-Yi; Churchill, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article serves as a primer to Mandarin Chinese mainly for chemical practitioners who have no familiarity with the Mandarin Chinese language and who may travel to East Asia during their career or work in collaboration with Chinese-speaking people. Eight vocabulary lists (given in English, written Chinese, and Pinyin romanization) feature…

  9. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries. PMID:27366074

  10. Collections of traditional Chinese medical literature as resources for systematic searches.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C L

    2012-12-01

    This review evaluates and compares published collections of the traditional literature on Traditional Chinese Medicine in terms of their scope and utility as resources for systematic searches for information of relevance to traditional evidence, clinical research, and drug discovery. Published collections of books and compilation works that contain substantial samples of traditional literature on Chinese herbal medicine were located via internet, library, and bookshop searches. These sources were compared in terms of scope, size, content, and ease of searching. The fourteen included collections varied considerably in scope, format, probity of included material, and accessibility. The largest was Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica), with 2027 titles; followed by Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine), a compact disc (CD) of 1000 full books; and Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian (Great Compendium of Chinese Medical Formulas), which includes extracts derived from 680 books. Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian is an edited collection that is highly accessible because it is well-indexed with respect to herbal formulas and disorders. The most accessible of the large full-text collections is the Zhong Hua Yi Dian CD, which allows electronic searches. However, neither collection provides detailed bibliographic information on their included books. A collection that combines convenient search options with high quality bibliographic data is Si Ku Yi Xue Cong Shu (The Four Treasuries of Medical Works), but having only 104 titles, this is one of the smaller collections. A two-stage process for systematic searches is suggested. Large indexed compendia such as Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian or electronic resources such as Zhong Hua Yi Dian can be used to locate citations, and this can be followed by crossreferencing to authenticated editions of the books to verify the retrieved information.

  11. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nadhim, Evan A.; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods. PMID:27367706

  12. [Death education for nursing professors and students: a document review of the scientific literature].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Janaina Luiza; Bueno, Sonia Maria Villela

    2011-03-01

    In Western cultures, Death is not among the favorite topics. Nevertheless, how should professionals who deal with Death on a daily basis behave? What meaning does Death have to them? This study consists of a survey on scientific literature about the referred subject in nursing education. Using a qualitative method, a documentary exploratory study was performed, characterized by a survey over a five-year period. The following keywords were used: Nursing Professor and Student, Death and Dying. Twelve articles were located and comprised three categories: Nursing students and dealing with death every day; The nursing professor dealing with death every day and the teaching skills; Academic education providing support for a critical-reflexive view about death-dying. In conclusion, there is o preparation for nursing students on the referred theme. Changing the current situation is only possible with greater investments and if further studies are performed.

  13. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Nadhim, Evan A; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-06-28

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods.

  14. International governance structures for health-care waste management: a systematic review of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Caniato, M; Tudor, T; Vaccari, M

    2015-04-15

    Significant differences exist in the management of health-care waste management, globally. This is particularly so between low, middle and high-income countries. A systematic review of scientific literature on global healthcare waste management spanning the period 2000 - current was undertaken, in order to identify key policies, practices, challenges and best practice. The findings were analysed considering the Gross National Income and the Human Development Index of each country. Effective regulation and operative definitions of waste categories are key-factors requiring improvement at the national level. The economic conditions in the country are an important factor, especially regarding treatment and disposal. Areas for improvement (e.g. the need for improved governance structures, the development of regional clusters, as well as sharps waste segregation) are suggested.

  15. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, LiLi; Li, JiTao; Zhao, YanJie; Su, Yun’Ai; Si, Tianmei

    2016-01-01

    Background Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER) formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP), which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53), nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP was also an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The findings were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. Conclusion Both paliperidone ER and PP were effective and well-tolerated agents for the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population according to the data we reviewed. No new safety signals specific for the Chinese population were raised for paliperidone. Further studies may be needed to collect

  16. Vinyl chloride industry in the courtroom and corporate influences on the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Mastroangelo, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Pressure from the vinyl chloride (VC) industry on researchers involved in industry-sponsored studies and on regulatory agencies has been documented since 1970s. This commentary describes the influence of a lawsuit pursued by workers of an Italian VC plant on the recent scientific debate on VC exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Original studies carried out by consultants of the public prosecutors and by independent researchers supported the above association. VC-industry consultants published two reviews during the lawsuit, claiming that liver angiosarcoma was the only VC-related cancer. The judges concluded that the evidence of the association between HCC and VC was still not convincing. After the trial, the risk of HCC was confirmed by a re-assessment of VC carcinogenicity from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but other subsequent industry-funded reviews criticized the new evidence. Industry-funded authors cited each other, and rarely disclosed conflicts of interest. Based on a network of collaborating researchers, industrial interests can shape the literature enhancing the background noise surrounding the scientific evidence.

  17. Neuroimaging of Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Key Insights from the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Walitt, Brian; Ceko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Gracely, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes are characterized by distressing symptoms, such as pain and fatigue, in the absence of clinically obvious pathology. The scientific underpinnings of these disorders are not currently known. Modern neuroimaging techniques promise new insights into mechanisms mediating these postulated syndromes. We review the results of neuroimaging applied to five central sensitivity syndromes: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular joint disorder, and vulvodynia syndrome. Neuroimaging studies of basal metabolism, anatomic constitution, molecular constituents, evoked neural activity, and treatment effect are compared across all of these syndromes. Evoked sensory paradigms reveal sensory augmentation to both painful and nonpainful stimulation. This is a transformative observation for these syndromes, which were historically considered to be completely of hysterical or feigned in origin. However, whether sensory augmentation represents the cause of these syndromes, a predisposing factor, an endophenotype, or an epiphenomenon cannot be discerned from the current literature. Further, the result from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies of basal activity, anatomy, and molecular constituency are extremely heterogeneous within and between the syndromes. A defining neuroimaging "signature" cannot be discerned for any of the particular syndromes or for an over-arching central sensitization mechanism common to all of the syndromes. Several issues confound initial attempts to meaningfully measure treatment effects in these syndromes. At this time, the existence of "central sensitivity syndromes" is based more soundly on clinical and epidemiological evidence. A coherent picture of a "central sensitization" mechanism that bridges across all of these syndromes does not emerge from the existing scientific evidence.

  18. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary.

  19. A bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction*†

    PubMed Central

    Guardiola, Elena; Beranuy, Marta; Bellés, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to locate the scientific literature dealing with addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to characterize the pattern of publications in these areas. Methods: One hundred seventy-nine valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO between 1996 and 2005 related to pathological Internet, cell phone, or video game use. Results: The years with the highest numbers of articles published were 2004 (n = 42) and 2005 (n = 40). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were the United States (n = 52), China (n = 23), the United Kingdom (n = 17), Taiwan (n = 13), and South Korea (n = 9). The most commonly used language was English (65.4%), followed by Chinese (12.8%) and Spanish (4.5%). Articles were published in 96 different journals, of which 22 published 2 or more articles. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology & Behavior (n = 41). Addiction to the Internet was the most intensely studied (85.3%), followed by addiction to video games (13.6%) and cell phones (2.1%). Conclusions: The number of publications in this area is growing, but it is difficult to conduct precise searches due to a lack of clear terminology. To facilitate retrieval, bibliographic databases should include descriptor terms referring specifically to Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction as well as to more general addictions involving communications and information technologies and other behavioral addictions. PMID:19404500

  20. Using Scent Detection Dogs in Conservation Settings: A Review of Scientific Literature Regarding Their Selection

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Sarah C.; Howell, Tiffani J.; Bennett, Pauleen C.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are widely used for scent detection work, assisting in searches for, among other things, missing persons, explosives, and even cancers. They are also increasingly used in conservation settings, being deployed for a range of diverse purposes. Although scent detecting dogs have been used in conservation roles for over 100 years, it is only recently that the scientific literature has begun to document their effectiveness and, importantly, how suitable dogs should initially be selected by organizations wanting to develop a detection program. In this paper, we review this literature, with the aim of extracting information that might be of value to conservation groups considering whether to invest in the use of dogs. We conclude that selection of appropriate dogs is no easy task. While olfactory ability is critical, so also are a range of other characteristics. These include biological, psychological, and social traits. At present, no validated selection tools have been published. Existing organizations have adapted selection instruments from other contexts for their use, but very little published information is available regarding the effectiveness of these instruments in a conservation setting. In the absence of clear guidelines, we urge those wanting to invest in one or more dogs for conservation purposes to proceed with extreme caution and, preferably, under the watchful eyes of an experienced professional. PMID:27840815

  1. Assistance to children in palliative care in the Brazilian scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Schinzari, Nathália Rodrigues; Santos, Franklin Santana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe what has been published in Brazilian scientific literature regarding pediatric palliative care. Data sources: Bibliographic review with a descriptive approach. In LILACS and SciELO databases, the descriptors "palliative care", "child", "pediatrics", "terminal illness" and "death" were sought, from January 2002 to December 2011. The eight selected articles were analyzed according to year of publication, type of study, data collected, target population, pathology, professionals involved, types of care and main findings. Data synthesis: Regarding the year of publication, there was an increase in the number of publications related to pediatric palliative care. Regarding the type of study, four articles were literature reviews and four were qualitative researches. Data was collected mainly by semi-structured interviews. The participants of the majority of the studies were children's relatives and health professionals. The main pathology addressed was cancer and the nurses were the most frequently cited professionals. The types of care provided were related to physical aspects, general care and psychological, social and spiritual aspects (less emphasis). The main findings were: little emphasis on the children's needs, the importance of including the family in the care provided and the lack of preparation of the health team. Conclusions: Despite the difficulties and the challenges in establishing pediatric palliative care, many articles brought important considerations for the development of this practice in the country. PMID:24676197

  2. Assistance to children in palliative care in the Brazilian scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Schinzari, Nathália Rodrigues; Santos, Franklin Santana

    2014-03-01

    To describe what has been published in Brazilian scientific literature regarding pediatric palliative care. Bibliographic review with a descriptive approach. In LILACS and SciELO databases, the descriptors "palliative care", "child", "pediatrics", "terminal illness" and "death" were sought, from January 2002 to December 2011. The eight selected articles were analyzed according to year of publication, type of study, data collected, target population, pathology, professionals involved, types of care and main findings. Regarding the year of publication, there was an increase in the number of publications related to pediatric palliative care. Regarding the type of study, four articles were literature reviews and four were qualitative researches. Data was collected mainly by semi-structured interviews. The participants of the majority of the studies were children's relatives and health professionals. The main pathology addressed was cancer and the nurses were the most frequently cited professionals. The types of care provided were related to physical aspects, general care and psychological, social and spiritual aspects (less emphasis). The main findings were: little emphasis on the children's needs, the importance of including the family in the care provided and the lack of preparation of the health team. Despite the difficulties and the challenges in establishing pediatric palliative care, many articles brought important considerations for the development of this practice in the country.

  3. The scientific literature on Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) from 1982 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fabiana G

    2014-09-01

    Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) is a freshwater bivalve native to Southeast Asia, but is becoming an invasive species in several aquatic ecosystems in the world. In this study, a scientometric analysis was performed to identify the patterns, trends and gaps of knowledge for this invasive species. A survey of the published literature was conducted using the database of the Thomson Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). A total of 107 papers were surveyed that were published between 1982 and 2012 in 60 journals. The number of papers on L. fortunei over the years has increased, especially within the last eight years of the study period. Argentina, Brazil, and Japan are the countries that contributed the most papers to the literature on invasive bivalve. The majority of papers were field-observational studies. Among some important gaps that need to be addressed are the relatively small number and/or lack of studies conducted in the native countries and in countries invaded by L. fortunei, the lack of internationally collaborative publications in these countries, as well as a low number of internationally collaborative studies.

  4. Smoke-free multiunit housing: a review of the scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kimberly; Vick, Janice Hassett; King, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiunit housing (MUH) residents are susceptible to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, which can transfer between living units. This review summarises existing scientific literature relevant to smoke-free MUH, discusses knowledge gaps and provides recommendations for future research to inform public health action. Data sources We conducted a systematic search of peer-reviewed articles using three databases: EBSCOhost CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science. Study selection Article titles, abstracts and text were reviewed to ascertain three inclusion criteria: (1) English language; (2) conducted in the USA; (3) reported on baseline data, development, implementation or evaluation of smoke-free MUH. Data extraction We used a multistep process to identify eligible articles: (1) two reviewers separately evaluated article titles; (2) two reviewers separately evaluated abstracts and (3) one reviewer read each article and determined inclusion eligibility. Data synthesis We identified and included 35 articles published during 2001–2014, grouped based on broad themes: MUH resident (n=16); MUH operator (n=6); environmental monitoring and biomarkers (n=9); economic (n=2); legal (n=3); and implementation process and policy impact (n=8). Studies with multiple themes were included in all relevant groups. Conclusions Existing literature has focused on self-reported, cross-sectional studies of MUH residents and operators; some studies of environmental markers, biomarkers and economic indicators have also been conducted. Future research on smoke-free MUH policy compliance and enforcement, and on the impact of these policies on smoking behaviours and health outcomes, could further inform public health planning, policy and practice. Despite these gaps, the current literature provides sufficient evidence for action to eliminate SHS exposure in MUH. PMID:25566811

  5. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  6. Chinese physicists educated in Germany and America: Their scientific contributions and their impact on China's higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jing Cheng

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation records the historical paths of Chinese physicists educated in Germany and America, explores their representative achievements in modern physics that have not been recognized by Chinese scholars, and provides sociological analyses of their contributions to China's higher education. We have found that Chinese students of physics in Germany and America were not passive recipients of Western science, but active contributors. They were also crucial contributors to science education and important scientific projects upon their return to China. Chapter One briefly describes physics knowledge in ancient China and introduces the transplantation of modern science and technology to China. Three distinct historical periods have been identified. In Chapter Two and Chapter Three, 30 Chinese physicists educated in Germany and 89 in America have been investigated. This research analyzes the significant achievements of these physicists. It also examines the political changes, the social background, and other factors impacting on their studies in the two countries. The selected cases in the two chapters are Li Fo-ki, Chinese physics students in Berlin, Werner Heisenberg and his Chinese students, Max Born and his Chinese students, Robert Millikan and Chinese physicists, the first two Chinese physicists from Harvard, and the Science Society of China. Chapter Four explores the geographical distribution, education and careers, return and expatriation, and the social influence exerted by these Chinese physicists. Statistical compilation and quantitative analyses comprise the basic methodology. In terms of two periods and two generations, this dissertation explores the physicists' contributions to the development of modern science in China and to education in China. Significant cases from Beijing University, Qinghua University, and Yanjing University are analyzed. The last chapter, Chapter Five, concludes that some of the achievements of these Chinese physicists were

  7. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. ChemDataExtractor: A Toolkit for Automated Extraction of Chemical Information from the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Swain, Matthew C; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-24

    The emergence of "big data" initiatives has led to the need for tools that can automatically extract valuable chemical information from large volumes of unstructured data, such as the scientific literature. Since chemical information can be present in figures, tables, and textual paragraphs, successful information extraction often depends on the ability to interpret all of these domains simultaneously. We present a complete toolkit for the automated extraction of chemical entities and their associated properties, measurements, and relationships from scientific documents that can be used to populate structured chemical databases. Our system provides an extensible, chemistry-aware, natural language processing pipeline for tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition, and phrase parsing. Within this scope, we report improved performance for chemical named entity recognition through the use of unsupervised word clustering based on a massive corpus of chemistry articles. For phrase parsing and information extraction, we present the novel use of multiple rule-based grammars that are tailored for interpreting specific document domains such as textual paragraphs, captions, and tables. We also describe document-level processing to resolve data interdependencies and show that this is particularly necessary for the autogeneration of chemical databases since captions and tables commonly contain chemical identifiers and references that are defined elsewhere in the text. The performance of the toolkit to correctly extract various types of data was evaluated, affording an F-score of 93.4%, 86.8%, and 91.5% for extracting chemical identifiers, spectroscopic attributes, and chemical property attributes, respectively; set against the CHEMDNER chemical name extraction challenge, ChemDataExtractor yields a competitive F-score of 87.8%. All tools have been released under the MIT license and are available to download from http://www.chemdataextractor.org .

  9. Evolution of the scientific literature of cytochrome P450 from 1977 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Wilson, Concepción S; Guengerich, F Peter; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

    2010-02-01

    This study traces the evolution of the scientific literature on cytochrome P450 (P450) published during the last 30+ years (1977-2008). Using the Web of Science, P450 articles from the Science Citation Index Expanded published from 1977 to 2008 were retrieved and analyzed. The number of P450 papers has increased from 342 articles in 1977-1978 to 2,357 in 2007-2008, and the number of contributing countries has grown from 23 countries for 1977-1978 to 76 for 2007-2008. While the USA and Japan were the most productive countries, along with several industrialized countries (e.g. UK, Germany and Canada), two Asian countries have recently joined the group of leading countries (in 2007-2008 China ranked 4th and South Korea, 7th). During 1977-2008, the number of journals publishing papers in P450 research increased more than seven-fold (7.7): 94 journals in 1977-1978 and 724 in 2007-2008; however, citation by readers (as measured by the journal impact factor) of the top-ten leading journals increased only slightly from 3.25 for 1977-1978 to 3.81 for 2007-2008. While Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Pharmacology and Pharmacy are the two main targeted subject areas for P450 research during the period considered, there has been a gradual shift from the biophysical and biochemical fields of interest to aspects of genomics and clinical approaches. The rapid evolution of P450 research in the last 30+ years was accompanied by important changes in the landscape of the contributing countries, in the subject domains, and consequently in the scientific journals targeted by researchers.

  10. Neuroimaging of Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Key Insights from the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes are characterized by distressing symptoms, such as pain and fatigue, in the absence of clinically obvious pathology. The scientific underpinnings of these disorders are not currently known. Modern neuroimaging techniques promise new insights into mechanisms mediating these postulated syndromes. We review the results of neuroimaging applied to five central sensitivity syndromes: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular joint disorder, and vulvodynia syndrome. Neuroimaging studies of basal metabolism, anatomic constitution, molecular constituents, evoked neural activity, and treatment effect are compared across all of these syndromes. Evoked sensory paradigms reveal sensory augmentation to both painful and non-painful stimulation. This is a transformative observation for these syndromes, which were historically considered to be completely of hysterical or feigned in origin. However, whether sensory augmentation represents the cause of these syndromes, a predisposing factor, an endophenotype, or an epiphenomenon cannot be discerned from the current literature. Further, the result from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies of basal activity, anatomy, and molecular constituency are extremely heterogeneous within and between the syndromes. A defining neuroimaging “signature” cannot be discerned for any of the particular syndromes or for an over-arching central sensitization mechanism common to all of the syndromes. Several issues confound initial attempts to meaningfully measure treatment effects in these syndromes. At this time, the existence of “central sensitivity syndromes” is based more soundly on clinical and epidemiological evidence. A coherent picture of a “central sensitization” mechanism that bridges across all of these syndromes does not emerge from the existing scientific evidence. PMID:26717948

  11. Systematic assessment of the representativeness of published collections of the traditional literature on Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Yubo; Lu, Chuanjian; Zhang, Anthony L; Chang, Suyueh; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-05-01

    The traditional Chinese medical literature provides a substantial resource for natural products research. When undertaking systematic searches, investigators need to assess the scope, content, and relevance of collections both singly and in comparison. This study examines eight collections of pre-modern literature, develops an approach to quantitatively assess their content, and compares their relative inclusivity. All publications listed in each collection were collated and a uniform scoring system was developed to account for variant editions, incorporation of multiple books under a single title, addition of commentaries, and other factors affecting content. Comparisons were undertaken between collections to determine the degree of overlap, genres of literature represented, and relevance to natural products research. Following adjustments for differences in how books were listed, duplications, and variant editions, Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine) (4th edition CD) is the largest collection of complete books containing 1009 different books. Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica) contains 2026 titles including multiple editions and extracts, so after adjustments the number of different complete books is approximately 740. No collection was fully inclusive of the others, but Zhong Hua Yi Dian includes between 52.1% and 91.5% of the books in the six smaller collections. Comparing traditional collections is complex due to variant editions and multiple titles. This necessitates examination of the text rather than title alone. Prior to undertaking systematic searches, the characteristics of collections need to be investigated, duplicated books identified, and differences between editions should be assessed. Its size, electronic format, and broad spread of genres makes Zhong Hua Yi Dian suitable for systematic searches, but due to the lack of bibliographical detail on included

  12. A New Theory on the Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture Mechanisms from the Latest Medical Scientific Point of View.

    PubMed

    Inanç, Betül Battaloğlu

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is a key component of traditional Chinese medicine involving the insertion of needles through the skin at specific points on the body to achieve therapeutic effects and is an ancient Chinese art of healing. Using ancient scientific principles, acupuncture treats illnesses by bringing a person's body into harmony and regulating the balance of Yin and Yang. Balancing Yin and Yang is one basic principle of Chinese medicine, and balancing methods for combination of meridians and acupoints have been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. Clinical observations and principal research on acupuncture focus on the adjustment of the Zang-Fu organ and have shown that the adjustment by acupuncture relied largely on the effective components in different organs. What does this effectiveness mean? In fact, is acupuncture a treatment that shows its effects with signals to the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways? What role does embryology play in this area? Furthermore, molecular biology has opened avenues to newer methods for the study of embryology and to enhance our understanding of growth and development. Can evaluation of acupuncture with these branches of science be more scientific? We discuss this interesting topic in this original article. After all this time, it is reasonable that different therapeutic techniques and approaches are developed for acupuncture.

  13. Volatile transfer and recycling at UHP metamorphism; constraint from CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Iizuka, Y.; Jahn, B.; Tzeng-Fu, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Study of dehydration and decarbonation processes of subducting oceanic crust is important to understand the island arc volcanism and recycling of water and carbon to deep mantle. Recent UHP experiments in C-O-H fluid-bearing MORB system have revealed that phase change and fluid composition depend on oxygen fugacity (e.g. Molina and Poli, 2002; Crottini and Poli, 2004). If oxygen fugacities represented by the equilibrium NNO (Ni-NiO) or FMQ (fayalie-magnesite-quartz) are assumed to be the average condition of UHP metamorphism, then the phase assemblages of UHP rocks are expected to have graphite/diamond only, graphite/diamond +carbonates, or carbonates only depending on the bulk compositions (Poli and Fumagalli, 2004, EMU notes in miner. vol. 5). C-species are well described in Chinese UHP eclogites (e.g. Zhang and Kai, 1996). However, carbonates can be easily leached from outcrop. Therefore in the worst case, only graphite could be recognized from surface exposures although drilled core samples represent carbonates with graphite (e.g. Sanbagawa schist in Japan, Goto et al., 2000, Ann. Meet. Japan. Petrol. Miner. Mining Geol. Assoc.). From this point of view, CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) samples are probably the best for identification of C-species in UHP rocks. We investigated nine eclogites from various depths (170 to 2000 m). Two types of eclogite can be distinguished; dry- and phengite-eclogite. The phengite eclogite is associated with orthogneiss. Under the microscope, the dry eclogites contain relative coarse-grained (> 500 microns across) garnet, clinopyroxene and rutile with or without graphite, quartz, apatite, zircon, and pyrite. The phengite eclogites exhibit garnet, clinopyroxene, rutile, quartz, and phengite with or without graphite, pyrite, talc, apatite, zircon, and K-feldspar. Graphite is always recognized with pyrite, suggesting oxygen fugacity was low (NNO) at UHP stage. Estimated P, T conditions based on the assemblage garnet

  14. Trends and biases in global scientific literature about ecological niche models.

    PubMed

    Vaz, U L; Cunha, H F; Nabout, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, ecological niche models have been employed to investigate the potential geographical distribution of species. However, it is necessary to analyze the vast number of publications on this topic to understand the trends and biases of research using ecological niche models (ENMs). Therefore, this study aims to investigate trends in the scientific literature regarding studies on ENMs. For the quantitative analysis of the literature on ENMs, we performed a search in the Thomson ISI (Web of Science) database between 1991 and 2013. The search identified 3042 papers containing preselected keywords in either the title or abstract. The results showed that the number of papers has increased over the years (r=0.77, P<0.001), with a sharp increase in recent years, highlighting the widespread use of the ENMs. There was an increase in the diversity of journals that published papers about ENMs (r=0.97, P<0.001). The research was conducted in different countries, predominantly the United States of America (550 papers), and the most commonly used method was the Maximum Entropy method (312 papers). Regarding the taxonomic group, most research has been conducted on plants (402 papers, or 28.36% of the total). There was no relationship between the modeling method used and the taxonomic group studied (χ2=4.8, P=0.15). Finally, the wide availability of biological, environmental and computational resources has elicited the broad use of tools for ENMs. Despite the conceptual discussions of the ENMs, this method is currently the most effective way to evaluate the potential geographical distribution of species, and to predict the distribution under different environmental conditions (i.e., future or past scenarios).

  15. Health issues of female foreign domestic workers: a systematic review of the scientific and gray literature.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rahul; Arambepola, Chandima; Tarun, Samiksha; de Silva, Vijitha; Kishore, Jugal; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of female foreign domestic workers (FDWs) is increasing worldwide, little is known about their health issues. To systematically review the literature on health issues of female FDWs to ascertain the problems studied, identify limitations, and suggest future research and policy implications. A systematic database (PubMed, EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar) and bibliographic search identified the English-language scientific and gray literature published during 1990-2012 addressing health issues of female FDWs living with the family of the employer, using qualitative and/or quantitative research methods. Studies in which female FDWs constituted less than half of the participants were excluded. The health issues studied and identified were adverse work conditions and associated health problems (such as physical, verbal, and sexual abuse at the workplace, caregiving tasks associated with musculoskeletal strain, and chemical exposure associated with respiratory difficulty), mental health (psychotic, neurotic, and mood disorders), infectious diseases (most of the studies were on intestinal parasitic infections), and health knowledge/attitudes/practices (most of the studies were in context of sexual and reproductive health). Most of the studies were medical record reviews or questionnaire-based surveys utilizing convenience sampling or qualitative interviews/focus group discussions. Female FDWs face numerous health problems. Studies on representative, possibly longitudinal, samples of female FDWs focusing on specific health conditions are needed to better understand the epidemiology of such conditions. Concerted efforts through the governments of both labor-sending and host countries are required to improve the health, work conditions, and safety of this vulnerable group of women.

  16. Lack of Improvement in Scientific Integrity: An Analysis of WoS Retractions by Chinese Researchers (1997-2016).

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-09-09

    This study investigated the status quo of article retractions by Chinese researchers. The bibliometric information of 834 retractions from the Web of Science SCI-expanded database were downloaded and analysed. The results showed that the number of retractions increased in the past two decades, and misconduct such as plagiarism, fraud, and faked peer review explained approximately three quarters of the retractions. Meanwhile, a large proportion of the retractions seemed typical of deliberate fraud, which might be evidenced by retractions authored by repeat offenders of data fraud and those due to faked peer review. In addition, a majority of Chinese fraudulent authors seemed to aim their articles which contained a possible misconduct at low-impact journals, regardless of the types of misconduct. The system of scientific evaluation, the "publish or perish" pressure Chinese researchers are facing, and the relatively low costs of scientific integrity may be responsible for the scientific integrity. We suggested more integrity education and severe sanctions for the policy-makers, as well as change in the peer review system and transparent retraction notices for journal administrators.

  17. [Scientific output on transsexuality in the Spanish biomedical literature: bibliometric and content analyses (1973-2011)].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pérez, Patricia; Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Gil-García, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    To explore the scientific output on transsexuality in the Spanish biomedical literature between 1973 and 2011, through bibliometric and content analyses. We carried out a descriptive, cross-sectional study of Spanish biomedical articles on transsexuality published between 1973 and 2011. The data sources consisted of Índice Médico Español and ISOC-Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades. Bibliometric and content analyses were performed. A total of 65 papers were analyzed. Knowledge on transsexuality in Spain began to appear in medical journals between 1973 and 1984. A decade of intense productivity began in 1996 and the number of journals publishing articles on transsexuality multiplied in the following years. Until 2006, the year with the most biomedical productivity, biomedical discourses reproduced representations of transsexuality anchored in biological determinism. From 2008-2011, professionals writing on the topic incorporated feminist theories and social perspectives in their discourses. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the dominant medical discourse considered manifestations of transsexual people from a biologist perspective that conceives transsexuality as a configuration mismatch between sex and gender. The emergence of new identity categories and medical reflection from non-essentialist and non-normative gender perspectives has improved the clinical management of transsexuality. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Texts with the Help of Experimentation: The Example of Cupellation in Arabic Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Moureau, Sébastien; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The article aims to show how experimentation can help us understand historical texts, by focusing on the specific case of cupellation in Arabic scientific literature. It also provides new information about cupellation in the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The article consists of translations of three of the most detailed accounts of cupellation: Hamdānī's Kitāb al-jawharatayn al-'atīqatayn (first half of the fourth/tenth century), Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, Rutbat al-ḥakīm (339-342/950-953), and Manṣūr b. Ba'ra, Kitāb kashf al-asrār al-'ilmiyya bi-dār al-ḍarb al-miṣriyya (615-635/1218-1238). These are accompanied by commentaries based on a series of experiments carried out in the course of archaeological research on cupellation, which are here used to shed new light on the medieval texts and resolve several problems in interpreting them.

  19. Analysis of TGFBI gene mutations in Chinese patients with corneal dystrophies and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juhua; Han, Xiaoli; Huang, Dinggou; Yu, Lin; Zhu, Yihua; Tong, Yi; Zhu, Binliang; Li, Chuanbao; Weng, Mingshe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To analyze human transforming growth factor b-induced (TGFBI) gene mutations in Chinese patients with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Methods Twenty-one families with corneal dystrophies were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The corneal phenotypes of patients were documented by slit lamp photography. Mutation screening of the coding regions of TGFBI was performed by direct sequencing. An additional 43 families and 3 sporadic patients with TGFBI dystrophies from China reported in the literature were reviewed. Results Five mutations of TGFBI were identified in 21 families with CDs, including one novel small deletion mutation, c.△1838–1849 (p.Δ613–616VAEP), responsible for one variant lattice CD (LCD) family and 4 known mutations, R555W mutation for 10 granular cornea dystrophy type I (GCD1) families, R124H for 5 GCD type II (GCD2), R124C for 4 LCD1, and H626R for one variant LCD. In a cohort of Chinese patients (n=355) with TGFBI dystrophies from 64 families and 3 sporadic cases, 19 distinct mutations were found in several different CD subtypes. The 3 most common phenotypes were ranked as follows: GCD1, GCD2, and LCD1. Mutation hot spots at R124 and R555 occurred in >80% of these families. Conclusions Our findings extend the mutational spectrum of TFGBI, and this is also the first extensively delineated TGFBI mutation profile associated with the various corneal dystrophies in the Chinese population. PMID:20664689

  20. Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

    2005-12-01

    Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

  1. Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

  2. Unique Microbial Community in Drilling Fluids from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 5100 m below the ground surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increased depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively. Their optimal growth temperature was between 50-85-aC. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III) reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing Fe(III) in iron oxide and clay mineral to produce siderite and vivianite, and illite, respectively. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(II) oxidizing bacterial isolate was able to oxidize Fe(II) in clay structure. Biological iron redox cycles may be present in the deep subsurface. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface

  3. Button battery intake as foreign body in Chinese children: review of case reports and the literature.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenjing; Wen, Guangyi; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-06-01

    Button batteries have been recognized as one of the dangerous foreign bodies to children for more than 30 years, but few related studies have been published to give more concern in China. We reported 6 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children. The Chinese literature on button battery as foreign body in children was reviewed. The interval between the accidental ingestion and battery removal ranged from 6 hours to 3 days. Two patients had no sequela, 3 patients had tracheoesophageal fistulas, and 1 patient had nasal septal perforation. Twenty-eight articles about button battery as foreign body in children were obtained by Chinese-language literature searches including 25 case reports, 2 health education articles, and 1 imaging article. In total, 172 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children were identified, 23 and 10 of the 159 cases involving nasal button battery lodgment developed nasal septal perforation and nasal adhesion, respectively. Tracheoesophageal fistula was identified in 4 of the 12 ingestion cases. One case of button battery intake was in external auditory canal. A small number of children with button battery as foreign body were reported in China, which is 1 of the biggest countries with large population of children.

  4. Dental movement acceleration: Literature review by an alternative scientific evidence method

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Angela Domínguez; Cujar, Sergio Andres Velásquez

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the majority of publications using effective methods to speed up orthodontic treatment and determine which publications carry high evidence-based value. The literature published in Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 was reviewed, in addition to well-known reports that were not classified under this database. To facilitate evidence-based decision making, guidelines such as the Consolidation Standards of Reporting Trials, Preferred Reporting items for systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs check list were used. The studies were initially divided into three groups: local application of cell mediators, physical stimuli, and techniques that took advantage of the regional acceleration phenomena. The articles were classified according to their level of evidence using an alternative method for orthodontic scientific article classification. 1a: Systematic Reviews (SR) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 1b: Individual RCT, 2a: SR of cohort studies, 2b: Individual cohort study, controlled clinical trials and low quality RCT, 3a: SR of case-control studies, 3b: Individual case-control study, low quality cohort study and short time following split mouth designs. 4: Case-series, low quality case-control study and non-systematic review, and 5: Expert opinion. The highest level of evidence for each group was: (1) local application of cell mediators: the highest level of evidence corresponds to a 3B level in Prostaglandins and Vitamin D; (2) physical stimuli: vibratory forces and low level laser irradiation have evidence level 2b, Electrical current is classified as 3b evidence-based level, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field is placed on the 4th level on the evidence scale; and (3) regional acceleration phenomena related techniques: for corticotomy the majority of the reports belong to level 4. Piezocision, dentoalveolar distraction, alveocentesis, monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament

  5. Controversies in Neuroscience: A Literature-Based Course for First Year Undergraduates that Improves Scientific Confidence While Teaching Concepts.

    PubMed

    Willard, Amanda M; Brasier, D J

    2014-01-01

    Controversies in Neuroscience is a half-semester elective for first year science students at Carnegie Mellon University with an emphasis on discussing primary literature to highlight current research topics and to introduce students to neuroscience. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching first-year students using a literature-only approach, we took advantage of an opportunity to teach the same topics to a traditional textbook-based upper division course as to the first year seminar. Students in both courses took surveys at the beginning and end of the course, and self-reported confidence levels as well as exam scores were compared. At the conclusion of both courses, students reported increased level of comfort with scientific terminology and methodology. In addition, students enrolled in the first-year seminar performed at least as well or better than students involved in the upper division course on exam material. These results suggest that first year students are capable of making great strides in learning and understanding scientific principles strictly through exposure to primary literature, even with little or no access to a standard textbook. Furthermore, introducing students to primary literature-based courses early on in their undergraduate career can increase enthusiasm for learning science and improve confidence with neuroscience concepts and methodology. We therefore conclude that it is valuable to provide students opportunities to critically evaluate scientific literature early in their undergraduate careers.

  6. Terms referring to psoriasis vulgaris in the classical Chinese medicine literature: a systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; May, Brian; Yan, Yuhong; Yu, Jason Jingjie; Yao, Danni; Chang, Suyueh; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a modern medical term. In the classical Chinese medicine (CM) literature, this disorder could be classified under a diversity of terms. In order to explore how psoriasis vulgaris was conceptualized and managed throughout Chinese medical history, we undertook a systematic longitudinal analysis of descriptions in the classical CM literature of skin disorders consistent with psoriasis vulgaris. Candidate search terms were identified from 33 contemporary CM books as relevant to psoriasis vulgaris. Thirteen terms were used to search the Zhong Hua Yi Dian--'Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine', 4th edition, a digital collection of over 1000 medical books. Search results were entered in a spreadsheet, citations that were consistent with psoriasis vulgaris were identified based on: (i) a description of the features of psoriasis vulgaris and (ii) judgment by two clinicians regarding relevance to psoriasis vulgaris. Analysis focused on the use of terms by historical period (Chinese dynasty) and whether the terms were specific for psoriasis vulgaris 608 citations dating from 363 to 1947AD were included. The two criteria for determining inclusion of citations were combined to select the pool of citations most relevant to psoriasis vulgaris. Sixty citations from eight search terms were found in this pool. Among the eight terms, Bai Bi, She Shi and Bi Feng consistently identified citations that were likely to be psoriasis. The earliest was from 1368AD (Ming dynasty). The remaining five terms yielded inconsistent results. Citations of disorders consistent with psoriasis vulgaris appear prior to 1368-1644AD (Ming dynasty), but the terms used were not specific for psoriasis. Bai Bi, She Shi and Bi Feng are the terms most consistently used to refer to psoriasis vulgaris. They first appeared in 1368-1644AD (Ming dynasty) and Bai bi remains in use. Regarding the other terms, certain citations may have referred to psoriasis vulgaris, but in other cases

  7. The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research in China: Results from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Huang, L.; Dai, X.; Wang, Y.; Lu, G.; Dong, Z.; Dong, X.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial abundance and community structure from ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks and deep fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project were investigated by using geochemical and cultivation and molecular microbiology methods. The drilling site is located in the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu ultra high-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) orogenic belt at the convergent plate boundary between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plates. This integrated approach conclusively demonstrates that microbes can survive in the deep continental subsurface (down to ~4500 m) and they play important roles in biogeochemical transformations of minerals and rocks. Direct cell counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis identified microbial life in rock samples taken from as deep as ~4500 m, where the temperature was estimated to be approximately 130oC. The subsurface distribution of microorganisms was continuous and the abundance of microbial cells was unrelated to the depth. However, analysis of 16S rDNA sequences derived from the rock DNA samples by PCR showed that the diversity of microorganisms decreased with increasing depth. The bacterial clone sequences shifted from a Proteobacteria-dominated community to a Firmicutes-dominated one with increased depth. From the ground surface to 2030 m, most clone sequences were related to nitrate reducers, with a saline, alkaline, and cold habitat. From 2290 to ~4500 m most clone sequences were closely related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. A number of enrichments and isolates were obtained from the rocks and fluids, including thermophilic metal reducers and alkaliphiles. Thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria were incubated with lactate as the electron donor and structural Fe(III) in solid minerals as

  8. CREATE Cornerstone: Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a New Course for STEM-Interested Freshmen, Demystifies Scientific Thinking through Analysis of Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE…

  9. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2016-05-19

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  10. Summary of the scientific literature for pain and anxiety control in dentistry journal literature, January 1986-December 1987.

    PubMed

    Hassett, L C

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains both foreign (in brackets) and English language citations obtained from Index to Dental Literature, Index Medicus, and Psychological Abstracts for the period January 1986 to December 1987. Although a careful search of these indexes was performed, every relevant citation may not be included. Comments or suggestions regarding this bibliography are welcomed by the author.

  11. Summary of the Scientific Literature for Pain and Anxiety Control in Dentistry: Journal Literature, January 1986-December 1987

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Leslie C.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains both foreign (in brackets) and English language citations obtained from Index to Dental Literature, Index Medicus, and Psychological Abstracts for the period January 1986 to December 1987. Although a careful search of these indexes was performed, every relevant citation may not be included. Comments or suggestions regarding this bibliography are welcomed by the author. PMID:12487126

  12. Research on Evaluation of Chinese Students' Competence in Written Scientific Argumentation in the Context of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Yang; Wang, Houxiong

    2017-01-01

    Attending to practice has become a significant topic in science education today. As scientific argumentation is a typical form of scientific practice as well as an important educational practice, more and more attention has been paid to it by science education researchers. Evaluating students' competence in scientific argumentation is one of the…

  13. Research on Evaluation of Chinese Students' Competence in Written Scientific Argumentation in the Context of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Yang; Wang, Houxiong

    2017-01-01

    Attending to practice has become a significant topic in science education today. As scientific argumentation is a typical form of scientific practice as well as an important educational practice, more and more attention has been paid to it by science education researchers. Evaluating students' competence in scientific argumentation is one of the…

  14. Extracting relations from traditional Chinese medicine literature via heterogeneous entity networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Huaiyu; Moens, Marie-Francine; Luyten, Walter; Zhou, Xuezhong; Mei, Qiaozhu; Liu, Lu; Tang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a unique and complex medical system that has developed over thousands of years. This article studies the problem of automatically extracting meaningful relations of entities from TCM literature, for the purposes of assisting clinical treatment or poly-pharmacology research and promoting the understanding of TCM in Western countries. Instead of separately extracting each relation from a single sentence or document, we propose to collectively and globally extract multiple types of relations (eg, herb-syndrome, herb-disease, formula-syndrome, formula-disease, and syndrome-disease relations) from the entire corpus of TCM literature, from the perspective of network mining. In our analysis, we first constructed heterogeneous entity networks from the TCM literature, in which each edge is a candidate relation, then used a heterogeneous factor graph model (HFGM) to simultaneously infer the existence of all the edges. We also employed a semi-supervised learning algorithm estimate the model's parameters. We performed our method to extract relations from a large dataset consisting of more than 100,000 TCM article abstracts. Our results show that the performance of the HFGM at extracting all types of relations from TCM literature was significantly better than a traditional support vector machine (SVM) classifier (increasing the average precision by 11.09%, the recall by 13.83%, and the F1-measure by 12.47% for different types of relations, compared with a traditional SVM classifier). This study exploits the power of collective inference and proposes an HFGM based on heterogeneous entity networks, which significantly improved our ability to extract relations from TCM literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  16. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses: part 6 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    PubMed

    Ressing, Meike; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2009-07-01

    Because of the rising number of scientific publications, it is important to have a means of jointly summarizing and assessing different studies on a single topic. Systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses of published data, and meta-analyses of individual data (pooled reanalyses) are now being published with increasing frequency. We here describe the essential features of these methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. This article is based on a selective literature search. The different types of review and meta-analysis are described, the methods used in each are outlined so that they can be evaluated, and a checklist is given for the assessment of reviews and meta-analyses of scientific articles. Systematic literature reviews provide an overview of the state of research on a given topic and enable an assessment of the quality of individual studies. They also allow the results of different studies to be evaluated together when these are inconsistent. Meta-analyses additionally allow calculation of pooled estimates of an effect. The different types of review and meta-analysis are discussed with examples from the literature on one particular topic. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses enable the research findings and treatment effects obtained in different individual studies to be summed up and evaluated.

  18. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  19. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  20. Integrative mining of traditional Chinese medicine literature and MEDLINE for functional gene networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Zhaohui; Feng, Yi

    2007-10-01

    The amount of biomedical data in different disciplines is growing at an exponential rate. Integrating these significant knowledge sources to generate novel hypotheses for systems biology research is difficult. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a completely different discipline, and is a complementary knowledge system to modern biomedical science. This paper uses a significant TCM bibliographic literature database in China, together with MEDLINE, to help discover novel gene functional knowledge. We present an integrative mining approach to uncover the functional gene relationships from MEDLINE and TCM bibliographic literature. This paper introduces TCM literature (about 50,000 records) as one knowledge source for constructing literature-based gene networks. We use the TCM diagnosis, TCM syndrome, to automatically congregate the related genes. The syndrome-gene relationships are discovered based on the syndrome-disease relationships extracted from TCM literature and the disease-gene relationships in MEDLINE. Based on the bubble-bootstrapping and relation weight computing methods, we have developed a prototype system called MeDisco/3S, which has name entity and relation extraction, and online analytical processing (OLAP) capabilities, to perform the integrative mining process. We have got about 200,000 syndrome-gene relations, which could help generate syndrome-based gene networks, and help analyze the functional knowledge of genes from syndrome perspective. We take the gene network of Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYD syndrome) and the functional analysis of some genes, such as CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone), PTH (parathyroid hormone), PRL (prolactin), BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) and BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), to demonstrate the preliminary results. The underlying hypothesis is that the related genes of the same syndrome will have some biological functional relationships, and will constitute a functional network. This paper presents

  1. Private Science and Public Knowledge: The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal and its Use of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, T. J.; Collins, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Shows the part played by formal/informal literatures in the social construction of scientific knowledge, analyzing the work of the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal" (which critically investigates fringe-sciences). Indicates that popular literature can deconstruct facts while scientific…

  2. Representing Divorce, Reforming Interiority: Narratives of Gender, Class and Family in Post-Reform Chinese Literature and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This project stands at the juncture of modern Chinese literature, post-socialist studies, cultural history of divorce, and critical studies about global middle-class cultures. Employing analytical tools mainly from literary studies, cultural studies and feminist theories, I examine stories, novels, films and TV dramas about divorce produced…

  3. Representing Divorce, Reforming Interiority: Narratives of Gender, Class and Family in Post-Reform Chinese Literature and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This project stands at the juncture of modern Chinese literature, post-socialist studies, cultural history of divorce, and critical studies about global middle-class cultures. Employing analytical tools mainly from literary studies, cultural studies and feminist theories, I examine stories, novels, films and TV dramas about divorce produced…

  4. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family. PMID:28275379

  5. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family.

  6. Concentration of the most-cited papers in the scientific literature: analysis of journal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2006-12-20

    A minority of scientific journals publishes the majority of scientific papers and receives the majority of citations. The extent of concentration of the most influential articles is less well known. The 100 most-cited papers in the last decade in each of 21 scientific fields were analyzed; fields were considered as ecosystems and their "species" (journal) diversity was evaluated. Only 9% of journals in Journal Citation Reports had published at least one such paper. Among this 9%, half of them had published only one such paper. The number of journals that had published a larger number of most-cited papers decreased exponentially according to a Lotka law. Except for three scientific fields, six journals accounted for 53 to 94 of the 100 most-cited papers in their field. With increasing average number of citations per paper (citation density) in a scientific field, concentration of the most-cited papers in a few journals became even more prominent (p<0.001). Concentration was unrelated to the number of papers published or number of journals available in a scientific field. Multidisciplinary journals accounted for 24% of all most-cited papers, with large variability across fields. The concentration of most-cited papers in multidisciplinary journals was most prominent in fields with high citation density (correlation coefficient 0.70, p<0.001). Multidisciplinary journals had published fewer than eight of the 100 most-cited papers in eight scientific fields (none in two fields). Journals concentrating most-cited original articles often differed from those concentrating most-cited reviews. The concentration of the most-influential papers was stronger than the already prominent concentration of papers published and citations received. Despite a plethora of available journals, the most influential papers are extremely concentrated in few journals, especially in fields with high citation density. Existing multidisciplinary journals publish selectively most-cited papers from

  7. Concentration of the Most-Cited Papers in the Scientific Literature: Analysis of Journal Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background A minority of scientific journals publishes the majority of scientific papers and receives the majority of citations. The extent of concentration of the most influential articles is less well known. Methods/Principal Findings The 100 most-cited papers in the last decade in each of 21 scientific fields were analyzed; fields were considered as ecosystems and their “species” (journal) diversity was evaluated. Only 9% of journals in Journal Citation Reports had published at least one such paper. Among this 9%, half of them had published only one such paper. The number of journals that had published a larger number of most-cited papers decreased exponentially according to a Lotka law. Except for three scientific fields, six journals accounted for 53 to 94 of the 100 most-cited papers in their field. With increasing average number of citations per paper (citation density) in a scientific field, concentration of the most-cited papers in a few journals became even more prominent (p<0.001). Concentration was unrelated to the number of papers published or number of journals available in a scientific field. Multidisciplinary journals accounted for 24% of all most-cited papers, with large variability across fields. The concentration of most-cited papers in multidisciplinary journals was most prominent in fields with high citation density (correlation coefficient 0.70, p<0.001). Multidisciplinary journals had published fewer than eight of the 100 most-cited papers in eight scientific fields (none in two fields). Journals concentrating most-cited original articles often differed from those concentrating most-cited reviews. The concentration of the most-influential papers was stronger than the already prominent concentration of papers published and citations received. Conclusions Despite a plethora of available journals, the most influential papers are extremely concentrated in few journals, especially in fields with high citation density. Existing

  8. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  9. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume I. A Textbook of Twenty-One Lessons and Supplementary Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    An intermediate-level textbook intended for those who have had at least 2 1/2 years of Chinese language study is presented. The objective of the text is to assist in developing the reading and conversational skills required for dealing with general topics in the pure and applied sciences. Common terms and concepts from three general fields (Life…

  10. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume I. A Textbook of Twenty-One Lessons and Supplementary Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    An intermediate-level textbook intended for those who have had at least 2 1/2 years of Chinese language study is presented. The objective of the text is to assist in developing the reading and conversational skills required for dealing with general topics in the pure and applied sciences. Common terms and concepts from three general fields (Life…

  11. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Li, Wei; Sun, Le-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yang, Kun; Huang, Yi-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-09-07

    The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010). Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievement gained, it is

  12. An Evaluation of Text Mining Tools as Applied to Selected Scientific and Engineering Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.; Wyllys, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses an approach to the discovery of scientific knowledge through an examination of data mining and text mining techniques. Presents the results of experiments that investigated knowledge acquisition from a selected set of technical documents by domain experts. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/LRW)

  13. An annotated bibliography of scientific literature on research and management activities conducted in Coram Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ilana Abrahamson; Katie Lyon

    2012-01-01

    The Coram Experimental Forest represents western larch-mixed conifer forests of the Northern Rockies. Western larch research was centered at Coram Experimental Forest (CEF) to provide a scientific basis to regenerate and grow this important and valuable species. For example, the long-term silvicultural studies installed at CEF are allowing researchers and managers to...

  14. A Survey on Visual Approaches for Analyzing Scientific Literature and Patents.

    PubMed

    Federico, Paolo; Heimerl, Florian; Koch, Steffen; Miksch, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The increasingly large number of available writings describing technical and scientific progress, calls for advanced analytic tools for their efficient analysis. This is true for many application scenarios in science and industry and for different types of writings, comprising patents and scientific articles. Despite important differences between patents and scientific articles, both have a variety of common characteristics that lead to similar search and analysis tasks. However, the analysis and visualization of these documents is not a trivial task due to the complexity of the documents as well as the large number of possible relations between their multivariate attributes. In this survey, we review interactive analysis and visualization approaches of patents and scientific articles, ranging from exploration tools to sophisticated mining methods. In a bottom-up approach, we categorize them according to two aspects: (a) data type (text, citations, authors, metadata, and combinations thereof), and (b) task (finding and comparing single entities, seeking elementary relations, finding complex patterns, and in particular temporal patterns, and investigating connections between multiple behaviours). Finally, we identify challenges and research directions in this area that ask for future investigations.

  15. A Review of Literature Regarding Scientific Controversies Surrounding the Psychometric Properties of the Rorschach Inkblot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kevin Neil

    2009-01-01

    The Rorschach Inkblot Test has been the focus of intense controversy, significantly impacting clinicians who currently rely on Exner's Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) in clinical and forensic settings. This paper evaluates recent empirical CS research to determine whether or not it reveals lack of scientific merit as some skeptics have…

  16. Enhancing Students' Scientific Literacy Using Interactive Simulations: A Critical Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xinxin; Geelan, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary school science teachers have a wide variety of teaching approaches available to them as they support the development of their students' scientific literacy and knowledge of, and about, science. Information technologies, on computers and other devices, offer potentially valuable ways to supplement this "toolkit" of teaching approaches.…

  17. Developing Deaf Children's Conceptual Understanding and Scientific Argumentation Skills: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research available in the area of science education for deaf children. In the twenty-first century, the importance of science and specifically scientific argumentation cannot be overlooked as a vital aspect of the curriculum. Current science teaching presents a range of difficulties for deaf students particularly when abstract…

  18. Unitized Data System: A New Formalism for Encoding and Presenting Data from the Scientific Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, David P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unitized data system for a scientific database that stores descriptions of individual experimental steps as separate text-based subunits together with appropriate linking signals. Conversion of graphics into searchable text, use of natural language, and cost effectiveness are discussed. An example using a biology research paper is…

  19. [Bibliometric and thematic analysis of the scientific literature about omega-3 fatty acids indexed in international databases on health sciences].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Valero, J; Gil, Á; Wanden-Berghe, C; Martínez de Victoria, E

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate by bibliometric and thematic analysis the scientific literature on omega-3 fatty acids indexed in international databases on health sciences and to establish a comparative base for future analysis. Searches were conducted with the descriptor (MeSH, as Major Topic) "Fatty Acids, Omega-3" from the first date available until December 31, 2010. Databases consulted: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL and LILACS. The most common type of document was originals articles. Obsolescence was set at 5 years. The geographical distribution of authors who appear as first author was EEUU and the articles were written predominantly in English. The study population was 90.98% (95% CI 89.25 to 92.71) adult humans. The documents were classified into 59 subject areas and the most studied topic 16.24% (95% CI 14.4 to 18.04) associated with omega-3, was cardiovascular disease. This study indicates that the scientific literature on omega-3 fatty acids is a full force area of knowledge. The Anglo-Saxon institutions dominate the scientific production and it is mainly oriented to the study of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Using HeLa cell stress response to introduce first year students to the scientific method, laboratory techniques, primary literature, and scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Resendes, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qian-fen; Tu, Ling; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Hong

    2015-12-18

    Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers' HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  2. Public health nutrition concerns on consumption of red palm-oil (RPO): the scientific facts from literature.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, O E; Amosu, A M

    2010-12-01

    There appears to be a state of uncertainty as far as the health benefits of consumption of Red Palm Oil (RPO) is concerned from public health point of view globally. Literatures are replete with conflicting information on saturated fatty acid content of palm-oil, with caution on the possibility of increasing low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood. The implication of this may be subsequent elevation of serum cholesterol when the oil is consumed. This review paper is aimed at providing scientific facts from well referenced journal articles on public health nutrition benefits of RPO. It considers findings from animal and human experiments, to arrive at conclusion based on scientific evidence on the potential health benefits associated with consumption of RPO. Although, the level of saturated fatty acids content may suggest health risk, the presence of carotenoids and other powerful anti-oxidants in RPO makes it one of the best cooking vegetable oils with health promoting properties.

  3. Lost in translation: the impact of publication language on citation frequency in the scientific dental literature.

    PubMed

    Poomkottayil, Deepak; Bornstein, Michael M; Sendi, Pedram

    2011-01-28

    Citation metrics are commonly used as a proxy for scientific merit and relevance. Papers published in English, however, may exhibit a higher citation frequency than research articles published in other languages, though this issue has not yet been investigated from a Swiss perspective where English is not the native language. To assess the impact of publication language on citation frequency we focused on oral surgery papers indexed in PubMed MEDLINE that were published by Swiss Dental Schools between 2002 and 2007. Citation frequency of research papers was extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and Google Scholar database. A univariate and multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the impact of publication language (English versus German/French) on citation frequency, adjusted for journal impact factor, number of authors and research topic. Papers published in English showed a 6 (ISI database) and 7 (Google Scholar) times higher odds for being cited than research articles published in German or French. Our results suggest that publication language substantially influences the citation frequency of a research paper. Researchers should publish their work in English to render them accessible to the international scientific community.

  4. The role of the Chinese police in methadone maintenance therapy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinmei; Burris, Scott

    2013-11-01

    The behavior of police is an important factor in drug users' access to preventive and therapeutic health services. In China, opiate users must be registered and approved by police before accessing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We conducted a literature review to identify studies reporting original data about the influence of Chinese drug policing activities on MMT access and outcomes. Searches were conducted in PubMed, the Law Journal Library of HeinOnline, the Social Science Citation Index and China Academic Journals of CNKI for empirical studies conducted in China and published in academic journals between 2005 and April 2012. The initial literature search retrieved 276 records, of which 85 were included in the review and 191 were excluded. The majority of the included papers were single-clinic observational studies. These studies reported that: (1) fear of incarceration deterred users from initiating and continuing MMT; (2) the rates of MMT referral by police were considerably lower than those by drug user peers and by community and the media; (3) police sending users to compulsory detoxification (DETOX) and reeducation through labor (RTL) centers contributed to higher rates of MMT patient dropout; (4) arrests in and around MMT clinics were not uncommon; (5) cooperation between local police and public health agencies was difficult to achieve; and (6) a limited number of trial programs were conducted to refer detainees in DETOX to MMT clinics after release, but the outcomes were not promising. Reviewed studies report drug policing practices that appear to be impeding MMT access and reducing successful treatment outcomes. Research focusing on the nature, prevalence and severity of these effects is urgently needed. Health and public security officials in China should review and reform policies and practices of registering, monitoring, and incarcerating drug users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A summary of the scientific literature on the effects of fire on the concentration of nutrients in surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the chemical changes that occur in soil during a fire, the pathways by which nutrients are transferred from soil to surface-water bodies following a fire, and the temporal and spatial effects of fires on the concentration of nutrients in surface-water bodies during and following a fire that have been reported in the scientific literature. Thirty-nine papers from the scientific literature that represent studies that (1) were done in a variety of environments (savannas, grasslands, temperate forests, alpine forests, and so forth); (2) had a range of sampling frequency and duration, such as during and immediately following a fire (from the start of fire to 1 year later), short-term sampling (from end of fire to 3 years later), and long term-sampling (sampling for greater than 3 years following a fire); and (3) incorporated watersheds with various burn intensities, severities, and histories were reviewed and summarized. The review of the scientific literature has revealed that measurable effects of fires on streamwater quality are most likely to occur if the fire was severe enough to burn large amounts of organic matter, if windy conditions were present during the fire, if heavy rain occurred following the fire, and if the fire occurred in a watershed with steep slopes and soils with little cation-exchange capacity. Measurable effects of fires on lake- and reservoir-water quality are most likely to occur if, in addition to the factors listed for streams, the lake or reservoir is oligotrophic or mesotrophic and the residence time of water in the lake or reservoir is short relative to the length of time elevated concentrations of nutrients occur in runoff. Knowledge of whether a lake or reservoir is nitrogen or phosphorus limited is important because eutrophication of nitrogen-limited lakes may occur following a fire due to increasing nitrogen:phosphorus ratios caused by prolonged increases of nitrogen concentrations, especially

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine Zheng in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: A Literature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Chi; Zheng, Guang; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Yang, Jing; Lu, Cheng; Jia, Wei; Lu, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Zheng, which is also called a syndrome or pattern, is the basic unit and a key concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory. Zheng can be considered a further stratification of patients when it is integrated with biomedical diagnoses in clinical practice to achieve higher efficacies. In an era of evidence-based medicine, confronted with the vast and increasing volume of TCM data, there is an urgent need to explore these resources effectively using techniques of knowledge discovery in databases. The application of effective data mining in the analysis of multiple extensively integrated databases can supply new information about TCM Zheng research. In this paper, we screened the published literature on TCM Zheng-related studies in the SinoMed and PubMed databases with a novel data mining approach to obtain an overview of the Zheng research landscape in the hope of contributing to a better understanding of TCM Zheng in the era of evidence-based medicine. In our results, contrast was found in Zheng in different studies, and several determinants of Zheng were identified. The data described in this paper can be used to assess Zheng research studies based on the title and certain characteristics of the abstract. These findings will benefit modern TCM Zheng-related studies and guide future Zheng study efforts. PMID:22719784

  7. A Review of the Recent Scientific Literature on Irrigation Induced and Enhanced Wetlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    part of this literature review. Agricultural Water Management Ambio American Journal of Agricultural Economics American Midland Naturalist...Washington Department of Ecology. Much of the deep- soil native habitats in eastern Washington have been converted to agriculture . A large portion of... agricultural landscape MS thesis, Colorado State University. Irrigation has increased the agricultural productivity of the arid American West, but

  8. The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Amy; Bessette, Randi S.

    The purpose of this study is to consider the literature that looks at the implications of information technology for scholarly journals which have historically been a linchpin of communication among scholars in which research results are released, discussed, vetted, and disseminated among faculty, students, and scholars. With the expansion of the…

  9. What Causes Asthma? Using the Primary Scientific Literature in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature is the single most important forum in which research findings are presented for critical review. College biology students can benefit a great deal from early exposure to this resource, but insufficient background information, technical jargon, and complex statistical analyses often present considerable obstacles to…

  10. A Comparative Study of the Literature on the Dissemination and Utilization of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Ronald G.; And Others

    This report provides a framework for understanding the processes of innovation, dissemination, and knowledge utilization (D&U) and it reviews the relevant literature in education and other fields of practice within this framework. D&U is viewed as a transfer of messages by various media between resource systems and users. Major sections analyze…

  11. The Science-Technology-Society Framework for Achieving Scientific Literacy: An Overview of the Existing Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autieri, Steven M.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    This literature review intends to highlight some of the critical research that has been synthesized on the perspectives of both teachers and students and their attitudes to teaching and learning in an STS-themed learning environment. The first portion draws on the perspectives of elementary and secondary school teachers both locally and abroad.…

  12. Hepatotoxicity associated with chinese skullcap contained in Move Free Advanced dietary supplement: two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Linnebur, Sunny A; Rapacchietta, Olivia C; Vejar, Maria

    2010-07-01

    Move Free Advanced is a widely available dietary supplement in the United States, marketed to comfort sore joints and improve flexibility and mobility. This product contains glucosamine, chondroitin, hyaluronic acid, and Uniflex proprietary extract, which is a combination of Chinese skullcap and black catechu. We describe two patients who developed hepatotoxicity after ingesting a Move Free Advanced product. In both patients, the hepatotoxicity resolved after discontinuation of the supplement. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6 for both patients) between the patients' development of hepatotoxicity and the Move Free Advanced supplement. Based on a review of the literature, the herbal extract Chinese skullcap is the most likely cause of the hepatotoxicity. To our knowledge, these two cases are the first to be published regarding possible hepatotoxicity associated with Move Free Advanced. Patients seeking dietary supplements for osteoarthritis may want to avoid glucosaminechondroitin products such as Move Free Advanced that also contain Chinese skullcap.

  13. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Methods: Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Results: Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996–2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition

  14. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996-2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) Edition could change the publication trends in the

  15. Scientific evidence for therapeutic effects of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu from pre-clinical animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Takako; Park, Chan Hum; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2017-01-26

    Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu, comprised of six crude drugs, has received much attention due to its numerous biological activities. The present study reports therapeutic evidence for Kangen-karyu from pre-clinical animal experiments related to human diseases. Kangen-karyu showed beneficial effects on type 1 diabetes and related complications through the suppression of protein expression related to advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress. Kangen-karyu reduced oxidative stress via the regulation of dyslipidemia, and also exerted a renoprotective effect mainly through its antioxidant properties during the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. In addition, Kangen-karyu showed neuroprotective effects by attenuating the spatial memory impairment and neuronal death induced by diabetes. Kangen-karyu counteracted oxidative stress and ameliorated tissue damage possibly associated with aging. These findings provide scientific evidence to explain the efficacy of Kangen-karyu based on its underlying therapeutic effects.

  16. [Application of regular expression in extracting key information from Chinese medicine literatures about re-evaluation of post-marketing surveillance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    Computerizing extracting information from Chinese medicine literature seems more convenient than hand searching, which could simplify searching process and improve the accuracy. However, many computerized auto-extracting methods are increasingly used, regular expression is so special that could be efficient for extracting useful information in research. This article focused on regular expression applying in extracting information from Chinese medicine literature. Two practical examples were reported in this article about regular expression to extract "case number (non-terminology)" and "efficacy rate (subgroups for related information identification)", which explored how to extract information in Chinese medicine literature by means of some special research method.

  17. Benefits associated with nutrigenomics research and their reporting in the scientific literature: researchers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, B

    2013-01-01

    Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics (NGx) are fields of research that have raised significant expectations about their potential benefits. This article presents empirical data from an online survey seeking the opinions of NGx researchers (n=126) regarding the achievability of the potential benefits of NGx, the time envisioned for their realization, the motives that may lead to their explicit mention in scientific peer-reviewed articles and the audience(s) targeted by NGx researchers when reporting their results in such articles. Results show that caution should be taken to avoid the risks associated with biohype and the premature dissemination of the potential benefits of NGx among various audiences.

  18. Wind turbines and health: a critical review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Mundt, Kenneth A; Colby, W David; Dobie, Robert; Kaliski, Kenneth; Blais, Mark

    2014-11-01

    This review examines the literature related to health effects of wind turbines. We reviewed literature related to sound measurements near turbines, epidemiological and experimental studies, and factors associated with annoyance. (1) Infrasound sound near wind turbines does not exceed audibility thresholds. (2) Epidemiological studies have shown associations between living near wind turbines and annoyance. (3) Infrasound and low-frequency sound do not present unique health risks. (4) Annoyance seems more strongly related to individual characteristics than noise from turbines. Further areas of inquiry include enhanced noise characterization, analysis of predicted noise values contrasted with measured levels postinstallation, longitudinal assessments of health pre- and postinstallation, experimental studies in which subjects are "blinded" to the presence or absence of infrasound, and enhanced measurement techniques to evaluate annoyance.

  19. Polynesia and polygenism: the scientific use of travel literature in the early 19th century.

    PubMed

    Carhart, Michael C

    2009-04-01

    Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was one of 18th-century Europe's most important readers of global travel literature, and he has been credited as a founder of the disciplines of ethnology and anthropology. This article examines a part of his final work, "Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen" [Inquiries on the differences of human natures], published posthumously in the 1810s. Here Meiners developed an elaborate argument, based on empirical evidence, that the different races of men emerged indigenously at different times and in different places in natural history. Specifically this article shows how a sedentary scholar who never left Europe constructed a narrative of human origins and migrations on the basis of (1) French theory from the 1750s (Charles de Brosses and Simon Pelloutier) and (2) data gathered by explorers as reported in travel literature (J.R. Forster, Pérouse, Cook, Marsden).

  20. pGenN, a Gene Normalization Tool for Plant Genes and Proteins in Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ruoyao; Arighi, Cecilia N.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Wu, Cathy H.; Vijay-Shanker, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Automatically detecting gene/protein names in the literature and connecting them to databases records, also known as gene normalization, provides a means to structure the information buried in free-text literature. Gene normalization is critical for improving the coverage of annotation in the databases, and is an essential component of many text mining systems and database curation pipelines. Methods In this manuscript, we describe a gene normalization system specifically tailored for plant species, called pGenN (pivot-based Gene Normalization). The system consists of three steps: dictionary-based gene mention detection, species assignment, and intra species normalization. We have developed new heuristics to improve each of these phases. Results We evaluated the performance of pGenN on an in-house expertly annotated corpus consisting of 104 plant relevant abstracts. Our system achieved an F-value of 88.9% (Precision 90.9% and Recall 87.2%) on this corpus, outperforming state-of-art systems presented in BioCreative III. We have processed over 440,000 plant-related Medline abstracts using pGenN. The gene normalization results are stored in a local database for direct query from the pGenN web interface (proteininformationresource.org/pgenn/). The annotated literature corpus is also publicly available through the PIR text mining portal (proteininformationresource.org/iprolink/). PMID:26258475

  1. [Preliminary study on general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines based on adverse reaction/event literature analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-guang; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jin, Rui; Li, Hong-yan; Kong, Xiang-wen; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-03-01

    Chinese patent orthopedic medicines feature complex components, mainly including desperate and toxic herbal pieces, narrow safety window, more clinical contraindications and frequent adverse drug reaction/events (ADR/ADE). To study the general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines, define key points in the medication education and ensure rational clinical medication, the authors took 80 types of commonly used Chinese patent orthopedic medicines as the study objects, collect 237 cases from 164 ADR/ADE documents through a system retrieval strategy, make a multidimensional literature analysis to determine the common risk factors for safe and rational medication of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines and establish an ADR/ADE prevention regularity. First, in the aspect of clinical symptoms, skin allergy is the most common ADR/ADE and closely related to the toxic ingredients, particularly accumulated liver or kidney damage caused by some drugs. Second, there are three time nodes in the ADR/ADE occurrence; The ADR/ADE occurred in 30 minutes is closely related to the idiosyncrasy; the ADR/ADE occurred between several months and half a year is related to the drug-induced liver and kidney damages; The most common ADR/ADE was observed within 7 days and predictable according to the pharmacological actions; Third, toxicity is an important factor in the occurrence of ADR/ADE of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines. Fourth, emphasis shall be given to the special medication factors, such as the combination with western medicines and Chinese herbal decoctions, overdose and long-course medication and self-medical therapy. In conclusion, the general ADR/ADE prevention regularity for Chinese patent orthopedic medicines was summarized to provide supports for clinicians in safe and rational medication and give the guidance for pharmacist in medication education.

  2. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; van Wijk, Roeland; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-04-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal models published from 1979 through 1998. The research fields can be categorized as follows: (1) human physiological states measured using UPE; (2) characteristics of human UPE in relation to various pathological states; and (3) the relationship between diagnosis (e.g., Chinese syndromes) and the dynamics of UPE in animal models. We conclude that UPE has clear potential in terms of understanding the systems view on health and disease as described using Chinese medicine-based diagnostics, particularly from a biochemistry-based regulatory perspective. Linking UPE with metabolomics can further bridge biochemistry-based Western diagnostics with the phenomenology-based Chinese diagnostics, thus opening new avenues for studying systems diagnostics in the early stage of disease, for prevention-based strategies, as well as for systems-based intervention in chronic disease.

  3. The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ann L; Vitale, Anne; Brownell, Elise; Scicinski, Jan; Kearns, Mary; Rand, William

    2010-01-01

    Reiki is used by a growing number of people but little is known about the scientific basis for its use. The Touchstone Process was developed as an ongoing process to systematically analyze published, peer-reviewed studies of Reiki, the results being made accessible to the public online. Thirteen scientifically qualified experts in the field of Reiki were assembled into 3 teams to retrieve, evaluate, and summarize articles using standardized, piloted evaluation forms. Summaries of 26 Reiki articles, including strengths and weaknesses, were posted on a newly developed Web site (www.centerforreikiresearch.org), together with an overall summary of the status of Reiki research and guidelines for future research: The Touchstone Process determined that only 12 articles were based on a robust experimental design and utilized well-established outcome parameters. Of these articles, 2 provided no support, 5 provided some support, and 5 demonstrated strong evidence for the use of Reiki as a healing modality. There is a need for further high-quality studies in this area.

  4. Trends in Scientific Literature on Atypical Antipsychotics in South Korea: A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Winston W.; Pae, Chi-Un; Moreno, Raquel; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D.; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel A.; Huelves, Lorena; Álamo, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have carried out a bibliometric study on the scientific publications in relation to atypical or second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in South Korea. Methods With the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, we selected those publications made in South Korea whose title included the descriptors atypic* (atypical*) antipsychotic*, second-generation antipsychotic*, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, sertindole, aripiprazole, paliperidone, amisulpride, zotepine, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, perospirone and blonanserin. We applied some bibliometric indicators of paper production and dispersion with Price's law and Bradford's law, respectively. We also calculated the participation index (PI) of the different countries, and correlated the bibliometric data with some social and health data from Korea (such as total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development). Results We collected 326 original papers published between 1993 and 2011. Our results state fulfilment of fulfilled Price's law, with scientific production on SGAs showing exponential growth (correlation coefficient r=0.8978, as against an r=0.8149 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were risperidone (91 papers), aripiprazole (77), olanzapine (53), and clozapine (43). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (36 articles). A total of 86 different journals were published, with 4 of the first 10 used journals having an impact factor being greater than 4. Conclusion The publications on SGAs in South Korea have undergone exponential growth over the studied period, without evidence of reaching a saturation point. PMID:23482954

  5. [Abortion and stigma: an analysis of the scientific literature on the theme].

    PubMed

    Adesse, Leila; Jannotti, Claudia Bonan; Silva, Katia Silveira da; Fonseca, Vania Matos

    2016-12-01

    This article analyzes the scientific output on abortion and social stigma and the potential of the stigma category for abortion care in Brazil. An integrative review of publications on scientific databases without a time limit was conducted. Sixty-five publications with the social representations of women who had an abortion and the professionals who attended them were analyzed. The obstacles to the implementation of abortion laws and the protocols and norms that facilitate access to quality services care was explored. The conceptual relevance of Erving Goffman was a key element for the understanding of the gender transgression stereotypes, the imperative of motherhood, sexual purity, which tarnishes women who have abortions as inferior, damaged, promiscuous, sinful and murderous. Groups most affected by stigmatization were identified, namely women having an abortion and health professionals. Female conflicts due to the duality of concealing/revealing their abortions, the professional's conscientious objection and the obstacles facing the implementation of public policies emerged from the study. Reflecting on the role of stigma may interfere in the cycle of clandestine abortion and contribute to the (re)design of interventions that help to reduce damage to the sexual and reproductive health of women.

  6. Disasters related to droughts and public health - a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Alpino, Tais Ariza; de Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, the history of droughts has been marked by constant social and health tragedies, with estimates of up to 3 million deaths from the early 19th century until the late 20th century. There is a record of nearly 32,000 events related to the above and more than 96 million people were affected between 1991 and 2010. Although droughts have historically brought disasters to Brazil, which was noted in the scientific expeditions of Arthur Neiva and Belisario Penna that documented these droughts, there have not been many studies on them. The objective of this paper is to present a revision of the scientific articles related to droughts and public health. The following databases were used: PubMed, the Preparation and Response to Disasters Portal from BVS and the Capes Periodical Portal. The descriptors drought and health were used to search titles and summaries of articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Among the repercussions related to health that were discovered: malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, mental health problems, issues relating to water and air quality and commitments made concerning access to health services. As there is a trend for more intense droughts and a scarcity of water until 2030, there is an urgent need for more research and studies in these areas.

  7. Deja vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C; George, Angela C; Garner, Harold R

    2009-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text similarity search engine eTBLAST. Following manual verification, highly similar citation pairs are classified into various categories ranging from duplicates with different authors to sanctioned duplicates. Déjà vu records also contain user-provided commentary and supporting information to substantiate each document's categorization. Déjà vu and eTBLAST are available to authors, editors, reviewers, ethicists and sociologists to study, intercept, annotate and deter questionable publication practices. These tools are part of a sustained effort to enhance the quality of Medline as 'the' biomedical corpus. The Déjà vu database is freely accessible at http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu. The tool eTBLAST is also freely available at http://etblast.org.

  8. Déjà vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C.; George, Angela C.; Garner, Harold R.

    2009-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text similarity search engine eTBLAST. Following manual verification, highly similar citation pairs are classified into various categories ranging from duplicates with different authors to sanctioned duplicates. Déjà vu records also contain user-provided commentary and supporting information to substantiate each document's categorization. Déjà vu and eTBLAST are available to authors, editors, reviewers, ethicists and sociologists to study, intercept, annotate and deter questionable publication practices. These tools are part of a sustained effort to enhance the quality of Medline as ‘the’ biomedical corpus. The Déjà vu database is freely accessible at http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu. The tool eTBLAST is also freely available at http://etblast.org. PMID:18757888

  9. [Approach to the road of vigorously developing Chinese medicine by scientific location of channels and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Li, Ding-zhong; Fu, Song-tao; Mi, He-yin; Li, Xiu-zhang; Zhang, Chang-lin; Zhang, Wei-bo

    2008-12-01

    Through researches of channels and collaterals and clinical practice of many years, the authors understand that Chinese medicine, which considers the human body as an interrelated, mutual constraints, whole, dynamic living system, has gradually become an important part of modern medicine. Channels and collaterals are a closed loop system which is communicated and linked by energy and information in the form of electromagnetic oscillation, reflecting many characteristics similar to quantum. Channels and collaterals are not a fixed organizational structure. Studies on channel and collaterals find that the track of the propagated sensation along channels (PSC) have the phenomenon drifting about. This exactly reflects the law of channels dynamically running. By information triggering and living resonance, channels and collaterals bring into play entirely regulative action. The innovative treatment of channels and collaterals followed by characteristics and laws of quantum can get a better curative effect. Theory of channels in the position of quantum information medical science provides an important breach for modernization of Chinese medicine.

  10. Needle-like instruments for steering through solid organs: A review of the scientific and patent literature.

    PubMed

    Scali, Marta; Pusch, Tim P; Breedveld, Paul; Dodou, Dimitra

    2017-03-01

    High accuracy and precision in reaching target locations inside the human body is necessary for the success of percutaneous procedures, such as tissue sample removal (biopsy), brachytherapy, and localized drug delivery. Flexible steerable needles may allow the surgeon to reach targets deep inside solid organs while avoiding sensitive structures (e.g. blood vessels). This article provides a systematic classification of possible mechanical solutions for three-dimensional steering through solid organs. A scientific and patent literature search of steerable instrument designs was conducted using Scopus and Web of Science Derwent Innovations Index patent database, respectively. First, we distinguished between mechanisms in which deflection is induced by the pre-defined shape of the instrument versus mechanisms in which an actuator changes the deflection angle of the instrument on demand. Second, we distinguished between mechanisms deflecting in one versus two planes. The combination of deflection method and number of deflection planes led to eight logically derived mechanical solutions for three-dimensional steering, of which one was dismissed because it was considered meaningless. Next, we classified the instrument designs retrieved from the scientific and patent literature into the identified solutions. We found papers and patents describing instrument designs for six of the seven solutions. We did not find papers or patents describing instruments that steer in one-plane on-demand via an actuator and in a perpendicular plane with a pre-defined deflection angle via a bevel tip or a pre-curved configuration.

  11. Construction of antimicrobial peptide-drug combination networks from scientific literature based on a semi-automated curation workflow.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Paula; Pérez-Pérez, Martín; Pérez Rodríguez, Gael; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research efforts are being invested in the development of novel antimicrobial therapies effective against the growing number of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Notably, the combination of different agents is increasingly explored as means to exploit and improve individual agent actions while minimizing microorganism resistance. Although there are several databases on antimicrobial agents, scientific literature is the primary source of information on experimental antimicrobial combination testing. This work presents a semi-automated database curation workflow that supports the mining of scientific literature and enables the reconstruction of recently documented antimicrobial combinations. Currently, the database contains data on antimicrobial combinations that have been experimentally tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans, which are prominent pathogenic organisms and are well-known for their wide and growing resistance to conventional antimicrobials. Researchers are able to explore the experimental results for a single organism or across organisms. Likewise, researchers may look into indirect network associations and identify new potential combinations to be tested. The database is available without charges.Database URL: http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/antimicrobialCombination/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Construction of antimicrobial peptide-drug combination networks from scientific literature based on a semi-automated curation workflow

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Paula; Pérez-Pérez, Martín; Pérez Rodríguez, Gael; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research efforts are being invested in the development of novel antimicrobial therapies effective against the growing number of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Notably, the combination of different agents is increasingly explored as means to exploit and improve individual agent actions while minimizing microorganism resistance. Although there are several databases on antimicrobial agents, scientific literature is the primary source of information on experimental antimicrobial combination testing. This work presents a semi-automated database curation workflow that supports the mining of scientific literature and enables the reconstruction of recently documented antimicrobial combinations. Currently, the database contains data on antimicrobial combinations that have been experimentally tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans, which are prominent pathogenic organisms and are well-known for their wide and growing resistance to conventional antimicrobials. Researchers are able to explore the experimental results for a single organism or across organisms. Likewise, researchers may look into indirect network associations and identify new potential combinations to be tested. The database is available without charges. Database URL: http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/antimicrobialCombination/ PMID:28025336

  13. The "Mendel syndrome" in science: durability of scientific literature and its effects on bibliometric analysis of individual scientists.

    PubMed

    Costas, Rodrigo; van Leeuwen, Thed N; van Raan, Anthony F J

    2011-10-01

    The obsolescence and "durability" of scientific literature have been important elements of debate during many years, especially regarding the proper calculation of bibliometric indicators. The effects of "delayed recognition" on impact indicators have importance and are of interest not only to bibliometricians but also among research managers and scientists themselves. It has been suggested that the "Mendel syndrome" is a potential drawback when assessing individual researchers through impact measures. If publications from particular researchers need more time than "normal" to be properly acknowledged by their colleagues, the impact of these researchers may be underestimated with common citation windows. In this paper, we answer the question whether the bibliometric indicators for scientists can be significantly affected by the Mendel syndrome. Applying a methodology developed previously for the classification of papers according to their durability (Costas et al., J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 61(8):1564-1581, 2010a; J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 61(2):329-339, 2010b), the scientific production of 1,064 researchers working at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) in three different research areas has been analyzed. Cases of potential "Mendel syndrome" are rarely found among researchers and these cases do not significantly outperform the impact of researchers with a standard pattern of reception in their citations. The analysis of durability could be included as a parameter for the consideration of the citation windows used in the bibliometric analysis of individuals.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the scientific literature on acetaminophen in medicine and biology: a 2003-2005 study.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Saenz-Feijoo, Rosa; Gaudy, Jean-François; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

    2009-04-01

    This study quantifies the utilization of acetaminophen in life sciences and clinical medicine using bibliometric indicators. A total of 1626 documents involving acetaminophen published by 74 countries during 2003-2005 in the Thompson-Scientific Life sciences and Clinical Medicine collections were identified and analyzed. The USA leads in the number of publications followed by the UK, and industrialized countries, including France, Japan and Germany; the presence of countries such as China, India and Turkey among the top 15 countries deserves to be noticed. The European Union stands as a comparable contributor to the USA, both in terms of number of publications and in terms of profile of papers distributed among subcategories of Life Sciences and Clinical Medicine disciplines. All documents were published in 539 different journals. The most prolific journals were related to pharmacology and/or pharmaceutics. All aspects of acetaminophen (chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, etc.) were studied with primary interest for therapeutic use (42%) and adverse effects (28%) comprising a large part of publications focusing on acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. This quantitative overview provides as to the interest of the scientific community in this analgesic and completes the various review documents that regularly appear in the scientific literature.

  15. Dreaming scientists and scientific dreamers: Freud as a reader of French dream literature.

    PubMed

    Carroy, Jacqueline

    2006-03-01

    The argument of this paper is to situate The Interpretation of Dreams within an historical context. It is, therefore, impossible to believe Freud entirely when he staged himself in his letters to Fliess as a mere discoverer. In reality Freud also felt he belonged to a learned community of dream specialists, whom I call "dreaming scientists" and "scientific dreamers." Instead of speaking, as Ellenberger does, in terms of influence, I will be offering as an example a portrait of Freud as a reader of two French authors, Maury, and indirectly, Hervey de Saint-Denys. I will analyze how Freud staged himself as replacing Maury and dreaming sometimes like Hervey de Saint-Denys. My premise in this work is that we must forget Freud, in order to adventure into a learned dream culture peculiar to the nineteenth century. Only afterwards can we come back to Freud and place him in this context as a creative heir.

  16. Data on the number and frequency of scientific literature citations for established medulloblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D P; Walker, D A; Coyle, B; Grabowska, A M

    2016-12-01

    This article collates information about the number of scientific articles mentioning each of the established medulloblastoma cell lines, derived through a systematic search of Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar in 2016. The data for each cell line have been presented as raw number of citations, percentage share of the total citations for each search engine and as an average percentage between the three search engines. In order to correct for the time since each cell line has been in use, the raw citation data have also been divided by the number of years since the derivation of each cell line. This is a supporting article for a review of in vitro models of medulloblastoma published in "in vitro models of medulloblastoma: choosing the right tool for the job" (D.P. Ivanov, D.A. Walker, B. Coyle, A.M. Grabowska, 2016) [1].

  17. Foot and ankle fractures during childhood: review of the literature and scientific evidence for appropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Rammelt, Stefan; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre Leme; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Fitze, Guido; Zwipp, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Foot and ankle fractures represent 12% of all pediatric fractures. Malleolar fractures are the most frequent injuries of the lower limbs. Hindfoot and midfoot fractures are rare, but inadequate treatment for these fractures may results in compartment syndrome, three-dimensional deformities, avascular necrosis and early post-traumatic arthritis, which have a significant impact on overall foot and ankle function. Therefore, the challenges in treating these injuries in children are to achieve adequate diagnosis and precise treatment, while avoiding complications. The objective of the treatment is to restore normal anatomy and the correct articular relationship between the bones in this region. Moreover, the treatment needs to be planned according to articular involvement, lower-limb alignment, ligament stability and age. This article provides a review on this topic and presents the scientific evidence for appropriate treatment of these lesions.

  18. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences.

  19. Identifying scientific artefacts in biomedical literature: the Evidence Based Medicine use case.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Groza, Tudor; Hunter, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) provides a framework that makes use of the current best evidence in the domain to support clinicians in the decision making process. In most cases, the underlying foundational knowledge is captured in scientific publications that detail specific clinical studies or randomised controlled trials. Over the course of the last two decades, research has been performed on modelling key aspects described within publications (e.g., aims, methods, results), to enable the successful realisation of the goals of EBM. A significant outcome of this research has been the PICO (Population/Problem-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome) structure, and its refined version PIBOSO (Population-Intervention-Background-Outcome-Study Design-Other), both of which provide a formalisation of these scientific artefacts. Subsequently, using these schemes, diverse automatic extraction techniques have been proposed to streamline the knowledge discovery and exploration process in EBM. In this paper, we present a Machine Learning approach that aims to classify sentences according to the PIBOSO scheme. We use a discriminative set of features that do not rely on any external resources to achieve results comparable to the state of the art. A corpus of 1000 structured and unstructured abstracts - i.e., the NICTA-PIBOSO corpus - is used for training and testing. Our best CRF classifier achieves a micro-average F-score of 90.74% and 87.21%, respectively, over structured and unstructured abstracts, which represents an increase of 25.48 percentage points and 26.6 percentage points in F-score when compared to the best existing approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How does the cellular phone help in epidemiological surveillance? A review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Boukary; Gaudart, Jean; Dufour, Jean-Charles

    2017-08-22

    In the field of epidemiological surveillance, no systematic literature review appears to exist of implemented projects using cellular phone technology. We performed a systematic literature review using the Pubmed and Scopus databases to retrieve articles published up to December 2015. We analyzed information reported in these publications according to the mobile health (mHealth) evidence reporting and assessment (mERA) checklist, and complemented this work with specific items related to epidemiology, in order to clarify the types of results reported and summarized in this context. Thirty-three articles were selected and reviewed. Each article was related to a different project. Two mERA items were systematically and fully reported, while two others were never reported. Three projects were deployed in very specific zones. Most of the projects were implemented in Africa. Infectious diseases were the elements most monitored. Most projects were based on daily data collection and SMS transmission. Economic assessment was limited to SMS, mobile phone, and implementation costs. Although suitable for epidemiologic surveillance, the mERA checklist needs further interpretation. The technical and transmission modes of cellular phone use varied greatly from one study to another. No evaluation of the interoperability capabilities of cellular phones with other applications or sub-systems was possible.

  1. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  2. The GCRP Climate Health Assessment: From Scientific Literature to Climate Health Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, A. R.; Balbus, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    As noted by the new report from the US GCRP, the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment, climate change is a significant threat to the health of the American people. Despite a growing awareness of the significance of climate change in general among Americans, however, recognition of the health significance of climate change is lacking. Not only are the general public and many climate scientists relatively uninformed about the myriad health implications of climate change; health professionals, including physicians and nurses, are in need of enhanced climate literacy. This presentation will provide an overview of the new GCRP Climate Health Assessment, introducing the audience to the systems thinking that underlies the assessment of health impacts, and reviewing frameworks that tie climate and earth systems phenomena to human vulnerability and health. The impacts on health through changes in temperature, precipitation, severity of weather extremes and climate variability, and alteration of ecosystems and phenology will be explored. The process of developing the assessment report will be discussed in the context of raising climate and health literacy within the federal government.

  3. Did the APA misrepresent the scientific literature to courts in support of homosexual custody?

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K

    1997-05-01

    In 1994, American Psychological Association amicus briefs informed two state Supreme Courts that (a) homosexual parents are not more apt to have homosexual children; (b) lesbians "score significantly higher than heterosexual parents" on a measure of parental effectiveness; and (c) no differences between the children raised by homosexuals and nonhomosexuals had been found "regardless of the geographic region within the United States where the children were raised." In fact, the evidence from these briefs shows to the contrary that (a) homosexual parents are more apt to have homosexual children; (b) the findings on parental effectiveness consisted of 15 fathers being less verbal than 45 mothers; and (c) the finding of no differences between homosexually and heterosexually raised children consisted of investigators visiting 11 states to test 89 offspring of 83 lesbian vs. 81 children of 69 nonlesbian volunteers. The APA's support for gay rights in these briefs may have violated its own ethical principles that "psychologists base their statements on scientifically acceptable psychological findings and techniques with full recognition of the limits and uncertainties of such evidence" and that psychologists must "provide thorough discussion of the limitations of their data, especially where their work touches on social policy" (APA, 1981).

  4. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  5. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count. PMID:26989631

  6. Resource Disambiguator for the Web: Extracting Biomedical Resources and Their Citations from the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Ibrahim Burak; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Martone, Maryann E; Bandrowski, Anita E

    2016-01-01

    The NIF Registry developed and maintained by the Neuroscience Information Framework is a cooperative project aimed at cataloging research resources, e.g., software tools, databases and tissue banks, funded largely by governments and available as tools to research scientists. Although originally conceived for neuroscience, the NIF Registry has over the years broadened in the scope to include research resources of general relevance to biomedical research. The current number of research resources listed by the Registry numbers over 13K. The broadening in scope to biomedical science led us to re-christen the NIF Registry platform as SciCrunch. The NIF/SciCrunch Registry has been cataloging the resource landscape since 2006; as such, it serves as a valuable dataset for tracking the breadth, fate and utilization of these resources. Our experience shows research resources like databases are dynamic objects, that can change location and scope over time. Although each record is entered manually and human-curated, the current size of the registry requires tools that can aid in curation efforts to keep content up to date, including when and where such resources are used. To address this challenge, we have developed an open source tool suite, collectively termed RDW: Resource Disambiguator for the (Web). RDW is designed to help in the upkeep and curation of the registry as well as in enhancing the content of the registry by automated extraction of resource candidates from the literature. The RDW toolkit includes a URL extractor from papers, resource candidate screen, resource URL change tracker, resource content change tracker. Curators access these tools via a web based user interface. Several strategies are used to optimize these tools, including supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms as well as statistical text analysis. The complete tool suite is used to enhance and maintain the resource registry as well as track the usage of individual resources through an

  7. Resource Disambiguator for the Web: Extracting Biomedical Resources and Their Citations from the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, Ibrahim Burak; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Martone, Maryann E.; Bandrowski, Anita E.

    2016-01-01

    The NIF Registry developed and maintained by the Neuroscience Information Framework is a cooperative project aimed at cataloging research resources, e.g., software tools, databases and tissue banks, funded largely by governments and available as tools to research scientists. Although originally conceived for neuroscience, the NIF Registry has over the years broadened in the scope to include research resources of general relevance to biomedical research. The current number of research resources listed by the Registry numbers over 13K. The broadening in scope to biomedical science led us to re-christen the NIF Registry platform as SciCrunch. The NIF/SciCrunch Registry has been cataloging the resource landscape since 2006; as such, it serves as a valuable dataset for tracking the breadth, fate and utilization of these resources. Our experience shows research resources like databases are dynamic objects, that can change location and scope over time. Although each record is entered manually and human-curated, the current size of the registry requires tools that can aid in curation efforts to keep content up to date, including when and where such resources are used. To address this challenge, we have developed an open source tool suite, collectively termed RDW: Resource Disambiguator for the (Web). RDW is designed to help in the upkeep and curation of the registry as well as in enhancing the content of the registry by automated extraction of resource candidates from the literature. The RDW toolkit includes a URL extractor from papers, resource candidate screen, resource URL change tracker, resource content change tracker. Curators access these tools via a web based user interface. Several strategies are used to optimize these tools, including supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms as well as statistical text analysis. The complete tool suite is used to enhance and maintain the resource registry as well as track the usage of individual resources through an

  8. Novel citation-based search method for scientific literature: application to meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Janssens, A Cecile J W; Gwinn, M

    2015-10-13

    Finding eligible studies for meta-analysis and systematic reviews relies on keyword-based searching as the gold standard, despite its inefficiency. Searching based on direct citations is not sufficiently comprehensive. We propose a novel strategy that ranks articles on their degree of co-citation with one or more "known" articles before reviewing their eligibility. In two independent studies, we aimed to reproduce the results of literature searches for sets of published meta-analyses (n = 10 and n = 42). For each meta-analysis, we extracted co-citations for the randomly selected 'known' articles from the Web of Science database, counted their frequencies and screened all articles with a score above a selection threshold. In the second study, we extended the method by retrieving direct citations for all selected articles. In the first study, we retrieved 82% of the studies included in the meta-analyses while screening only 11% as many articles as were screened for the original publications. Articles that we missed were published in non-English languages, published before 1975, published very recently, or available only as conference abstracts. In the second study, we retrieved 79% of included studies while screening half the original number of articles. Citation searching appears to be an efficient and reasonably accurate method for finding articles similar to one or more articles of interest for meta-analysis and reviews.

  9. A bibliometric study of scientific literature in Scopus on botanicals for treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Peroni, Gabriella; Guido, Davide

    2016-06-01

    In androgenetic alopecia, a number of botanicals are available that can effectively slow or reduce hair loss and inflammation or stimulate partial hair regrowth. The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on botanicals used for androgenetic alopecia and to perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. We searched for "alopecia" OR "androgenetic alopecia" OR "hair loss" AND "Camelia sinensis" OR (and other 15 botanicals) in ARTICLE (Title/Abstract/Keyword) in Scopus database. A total of 29 references, that is, research articles, were retrieved by SCOPUS search, and 93.1% had been published since 2000. The majority (48.3%) describe applications of hair grow stimulants, followed by inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase applications (27.6%), and studies concerning inhibitors of inflammation (24.1%). The citation analysis revealed a growing interest for this topic and the papers on hair grow stimulants are most cited. Citation trend of inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase articles is growing in the last years. This study has highlighted three important aspects: (1) growing interest for this topic; (2) evidences mainly in hair grow stimulants and recently in the inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase, as demonstrated by article and citation counts across years; (3) in addition, all major studies have been focused on green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Serenoa repens, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuscuta reflexa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craievich, Aldo F.; Fischer, Hannes

    2010-10-01

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  11. The First Decade with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register - A Systematic Review of the Output in the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Wallerstedt, Susanna M; Wettermark, Björn; Hoffmann, Mikael

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize the scientific output from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) the first decade after its establishment. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, EMBASE and PubMed (2005-2014). Additional publications were identified by personal knowledge, reference lists, contact with active authors and a citation search in Web of Sciences. Publications using SPDR data were included in the analysis and characterized regarding study type, presence of patient-level record linkage, target population and topic. A total of 719 publications were identified in the literature search and an additional 148 by other strategies. Three hundred and thirty-eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority were analytic (n = 166; 49.1%) or descriptive (n = 100; 29.5%). The remaining studies focused on validation (n = 20; 5.9%), health economics (n = 16; 4.7%) or miscellaneous (n = 36; 10.7%). The analytic studies investigating effects of drug exposure focused mainly on safety (n = 46) and/or effectiveness (n = 24). The first publications appeared in 2007 (n = 6), and in 2014, 90 articles using SPDR were published. Over the years, linkage with other registers using the personal identity number increased (0-88.9% of the publications). The population was often selected by age (49.7%), condition (45.0%) and/or drug (22.8%) and concerned predominantly psychiatric (29.0%) and cardiovascular (20.4%) diseases. In conclusion, this study illustrates that the establishment of a nationwide individual-based register on dispensed prescription drugs facilitates an encouraging development of pharmacoepidemiological research, both regarding the number of publications and the scientific level of the analyses.

  12. Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Food and Human Dietary Intake: A Review of the Recent Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2017-01-25

    Because of the important environmental presence and the potential human toxicity of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), in recent years the social and scientific interest in these compounds has notably increased. Special attention has been paid to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFASs. Although human exposure to PFASs may occur through different pathways, dietary intake seems to be the main route of exposure to these compounds. In 2012, we published a wide revision on the state of the science regarding the concentrations of PFASs in foodstuffs, the human dietary exposure to these compounds, and their health risks. In the present review, we have updated the information recently (2011-2016) published in the scientific literature. As in our previous review, we have also observed considerable differences in the PFASs detected-and their concentrations-in the food items analyzed in samples from a number of regions and countries. However, fish and other seafood seem to be the food group in which more PFASs are detected and where the concentrations of these compounds are higher. On the basis of the recommendations of the EFSA on the maximum dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA, human health risks would not be of concern for nonoccupationally exposed populations, at least in the very limited countries for which recent data are available.

  13. Hazardous waste and health impact: a systematic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Fazzo, L; Minichilli, F; Santoro, M; Ceccarini, A; Della Seta, M; Bianchi, F; Comba, P; Martuzzi, M

    2017-10-11

    Waste is part of the agenda of the European Environment and Health Process and included among the topics of the Sixth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health. Disposal and management of hazardous waste are worldwide challenges. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the health impact of hazardous waste exposure, applying transparent and a priori defined methods. The following five steps, based on pre-defined systematic criteria, were applied. 1. Specify the research question, in terms of "Population-Exposure-Comparators-Outcomes" (PECO). people living near hazardous waste sites; Exposure: exposure to hazardous waste; Comparators: all comparators; Outcomes: all diseases/health disorders. 2. Carry out the literature search, in Medline and EMBASE. 3. Select studies for inclusion: original epidemiological studies, published between 1999 and 2015, on populations residentially exposed to hazardous waste. 4. Assess the quality of selected studies, taking into account study design, exposure and outcome assessment, confounding control. 5. Rate the confidence in the body of evidence for each outcome taking into account the reliability of each study, the strength of the association and concordance of results.Fifty-seven papers of epidemiological investigations on the health status of populations living near hazardous waste sites were selected for the evidence evaluation. The association between 95 health outcomes (diseases and disorders) and residential exposure to hazardous waste sites was evaluated. Health effects of residential hazardous waste exposure, previously partially unrecognized, were highlighted. Sufficient evidence was found of association between exposure to oil industry waste that releases high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide and acute symptoms. The evidence of causal relationship with hazardous waste was defined as limited for: liver, bladder, breast and testis cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, asthma, congenital anomalies

  14. Communication of professional literature amongst European Acupuncturists affiliated to the ETCMA (European Traditional Chinese Medicine Association): explorative survey amongst Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Biemans, Johanna M A E; Birch, Stephen; Bruentrup, Ines M

    2015-04-01

    The primary aim of the survey was to explore the information needs and information seeking behavior amongst the ETCMA members concerning professional literature (scientific as well as practical background knowledge). A web-based survey comprising of 18 questions with a total of 25 items was carried out in 15 affiliated associations in 14 countries in June 2012. The survey consisted out of 4 parts: (1) Demographics, (2) Level of interest in and availability of professional literature, (3) Insight, needs and opinions on EBM (Evidence Based Medicine), and (4) Awareness of the science workshop at the TCM Rothenburg Congress. 2590 (25%) from 10,428 members completed the questionnaire, of which 58.8% was female. More than 50% of the respondents from eleven out of fourteen countries indicate an interest in more education on reading scientific literature. Case studies (range 3.19/4-3.86/4) are preferred compared to scientific (range 2.78/4-3.59/4) or philosophical knowledge (range 3.0/4-3.56/4). Exchange with colleagues (range 2.95/4-3.64/4) is preferred compared to deepening knowledge (range 2.57/4-3.05/4) in the theoretical spectrum. 61% has no knowledge of the EBM model and base clinical decisions on personal experience (range 3.47-3.82) and practical skills (range 3.47-3.74) compared to clinical practice guidelines (range 2.6-3.27). Due to heterogeneity in structure and size of the affiliated associations no strict conclusions can be made. We can conclude though that TCM practitioners rely mostly on practical knowledge and have less tendency toward more scientifically oriented models like the EBM model. We find this reflected in information needs as well as information seeking behavior patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active learning-based information structure analysis of full scientific articles and two applications for biomedical literature review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Techniques that are capable of automatically analyzing the information structure of scientific articles could be highly useful for improving information access to biomedical literature. However, most existing approaches rely on supervised machine learning (ML) and substantial labeled data that are expensive to develop and apply to different sub-fields of biomedicine. Recent research shows that minimal supervision is sufficient for fairly accurate information structure analysis of biomedical abstracts. However, is it realistic for full articles given their high linguistic and informational complexity? We introduce and release a novel corpus of 50 biomedical articles annotated according to the Argumentative Zoning (AZ) scheme, and investigate active learning with one of the most widely used ML models-Support Vector Machines (SVM)-on this corpus. Additionally, we introduce two novel applications that use AZ to support real-life literature review in biomedicine via question answering and summarization. We show that active learning with SVM trained on 500 labeled sentences (6% of the corpus) performs surprisingly well with the accuracy of 82%, just 2% lower than fully supervised learning. In our question answering task, biomedical researchers find relevant information significantly faster from AZ-annotated than unannotated articles. In the summarization task, sentences extracted from particular zones are significantly more similar to gold standard summaries than those extracted from particular sections of full articles. These results demonstrate that active learning of full articles' information structure is indeed realistic and the accuracy is high enough to support real-life literature review in biomedicine. The annotated corpus, our AZ classifier and the two novel applications are available at http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/yg244/12bioinfo.html

  16. [Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Katherine; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Literature. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide starts with an overview of literature topics for grades 4-12, followed by suggested activities, a list of supplementary books for elementary grades, and a table listing specific skills. The remainder of the guide deals with ten cardinal concerns and…

  17. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as…

  18. Chinese Proprietary Herbal Medicine Listed in ‘China National Essential Drug List’ for Common Cold: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Lewith, George; Wang, Li-qiong; Ren, Jun; Xiong, Wen-jing; Lu, Fang; Liu, Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chinese proprietary herbal medicines (CPHMs) have long history in China for the treatment of common cold, and lots of them have been listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ by the Chinese Ministry of Health. The aim of this review is to provide a well-round clinical evidence assessment on the potential benefits and harms of CPHMs for common cold based on a systematic literature search to justify their clinical use and recommendation. Methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites from their inception to 31 March 2013 for clinical studies of CPHMs listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ for common cold. There was no restriction on study design. Results A total of 33 CPHMs were listed in ‘China national essential drug list 2012’ for the treatment of common cold but only 7 had supportive clinical evidences. A total of 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series (CSs) were included; no other study design was identified. All studies were conducted in China and published in Chinese between 1995 and 2012. All included studies had poor study design and methodological quality, and were graded as very low quality. Conclusions The use of CPHMs for common cold is not supported by robust evidence. Further rigorous well designed placebo-controlled, randomized trials are needed to substantiate the clinical claims made for CPHMs. PMID:25329481

  19. Chinese proprietary herbal medicine listed in 'China national essential drug list' for common cold: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Lewith, George; Wang, Li-qiong; Ren, Jun; Xiong, Wen-jing; Lu, Fang; Liu, Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese proprietary herbal medicines (CPHMs) have long history in China for the treatment of common cold, and lots of them have been listed in the 'China national essential drug list' by the Chinese Ministry of Health. The aim of this review is to provide a well-round clinical evidence assessment on the potential benefits and harms of CPHMs for common cold based on a systematic literature search to justify their clinical use and recommendation. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites from their inception to 31 March 2013 for clinical studies of CPHMs listed in the 'China national essential drug list' for common cold. There was no restriction on study design. A total of 33 CPHMs were listed in 'China national essential drug list 2012' for the treatment of common cold but only 7 had supportive clinical evidences. A total of 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series (CSs) were included; no other study design was identified. All studies were conducted in China and published in Chinese between 1995 and 2012. All included studies had poor study design and methodological quality, and were graded as very low quality. The use of CPHMs for common cold is not supported by robust evidence. Further rigorous well designed placebo-controlled, randomized trials are needed to substantiate the clinical claims made for CPHMs.

  20. Research trends and perspectives of male infertility: a bibliometric analysis of 20 years of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Xiao, F; Lu, S; Song, J; Zhang, C; Li, J; Gu, K; Lan, A; Lv, B; Zhang, R; Mo, F; Jiang, G; Zhang, X; Yang, X

    2016-11-01

    To carry out an in-depth analysis of the scientific research on male infertility, we performed the first bibliometric analysis focusing on studies involving male infertility worldwide during the period 1995-2014. Analysis of 6357 articles in the field of male infertility showed a significant increasing trend in the number of publications over the period 1995-2014. Obstetrics and Gynecology was an important subject category and Multidisciplinary Sciences was the newest interest. Authors were mainly from Europe and USA, with researchers from Cleveland Clinic producing the most articles, and those from the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the University of Utah having the highest-quality articles. The USA contributed the most independent and international collaborative articles. The Cleveland Clinic and the University of Munster were the most productive institutions. The Cleveland Clinic and the University of Giessen had the most international collaboration publications. Harvard University had the most collaborators. The most common interests were pathogenesis and therapy, and new interests were hypogonadism, obesity, and cryopreservation. In conclusion, rapid development of the male infertility field was observed. Overall, collaborative and multidisciplinary science research has become more popular. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role, followed by European countries. Thanks to the common research focus worldwide, more insight into male fertility has been gained in the scientific literature over the past 20 years. [Correction added on September 21, 2016, after online publication: the term "institute" has been replaced by the term "institution" throughout the text.]. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. A critical review of the scientific literature on potential endocrine-mediated effects in fish and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P; Greer, R D; Mihaich, E M; Guiney, P D

    2001-05-01

    A rigorous approach to evaluating the reliability and relevance of experimental methods and results is critical for making appropriate, scientifically sound decisions. A literature evaluation framework was modified and adapted based on criteria described by Klimisch et al. (H. J. Klimisch, M. Andrae, and U. Tillman, 1997, Reg. Tox. Pharm. 25, 1-5) and requirements of the USEPA High Product Volume Challenge Program. This simple framework was used to evaluate an appropriate selection of peer-reviewed references to assign a Study Reliability "score" to the study design, endpoints, and conclusions compared to established data quality guidelines. Subsequently, the interpretation of the data was evaluated and assigned a Relevance Index based on the overall strength of evidence of endocrine modulation potential, which was evaluated based on the Weybridge (European Commission (1996). European workshop on the impact of endocrine disrupters on human health and wildlife. Report of proceedings from a workshop held in Weybridge, UK, 2-4 December 1996. Report reference EUR 17549, European Commission, DGXII, Brussels, Belgium.) definition. This report describes the evaluation of 50 peer-reviewed primary publications. The vast majority of studies reviewed were published in the period from 1996 to the present and most examined in vivo responses of fish to natural hormones, organochlorines, or alkylphenolic compounds. Of the studies reviewed, approximately 40% received a score of "2-Reliable with Restrictions," while approximately 60% received a score of "3-Not Reliable," where reliability was interpreted to include scientific integrity, technical credibility, endpoint relevance, and regulatory compliance. The most common deficiencies were inadequate methods, lack of suitable controls, exceeding aqueous solubility, inappropriate statistics, and unsupported conclusions. Based on the Relevance Index, few of the studies examined attained the level of quality necessary to identify the

  2. Current status of pediatric kidney transplantation in China: data analysis of Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longshan; Zhang, Huanxi; Fu, Qian; Chen, Liping; Sun, Chuanhou; Xiong, Yunyi; Shi, Bingyi; Wang, Changxi

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplantation (KTx) is the primary therapy for children with renal failure. Unlike KTx in adult patients, it is commonly agreed that pediatric KTx in China is far behind that of America. There has been no systematic analysis of Chinese pediatric KTx reported. This study aimed to demonstrate the current status of pediatric KTx in China. Registry data of pediatric KTx (1983-2012) from Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation (CSRKT) were retrospectively analyzed. There were 851 pediatric KTx from 102 transplant units. The recipients were (15.4±2.5) years of age, 93.9% of who were over 10 years old. Chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis accounted for 75.6% of recognized primary diseases. Allografts were from deceased donors (72.2%) or living donation (27.7%). The patient survival for 1, 3, 5, and 10 years was 96.9%, 94.2%, 92.3%, and 92.3% and the graft survival was 94.6%, 91.4%, 86.3%, and 79.2%, respectively. The majority of post-transplant complications were acute rejection and infections. Annual transplant reached the peak in 2008 (n = 114), and decreased sharply in 2006 (n = 41) and 2010 (n = 57). The percentage of pediatric KTx in total KTx was highest in 2007 (1.95%) and decreased to trough level in 2010 (1.0%). Living donation increased by 32.5-folds from 2004 to 2008 and then decreased by 86.6% till 2010. The percentage of living donation in pediatric or total KTx dynamically changed in a similar manner, while living donation ratio in pediatric KTx was much higher. Kidney transplant can provide long-term benefits to pediatric recipients. Rejection and infections are worthy of concern during follow-up. Pediatric kidney transplant in China is very much lagging behind that in developed countries. Living donation played an important role in its development in the past decades. New strategies for implementation are encouraged to increase the priority of uremic children in organ allocation so as to promote its progress in China.

  3. Todai Scientific Information Retrieval (TSIR-1) System. II. Generation of a Scientific Literature Data Base in a Center-Oriented Format by a Tape-to-Tape Conversion of CAS SDF Data Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Yammoto, Takeo

    1972-01-01

    Conversion of the Chemical Abstract Service scientific literature data base from Standard Distribution Format to a center-oriented file format, STF, is described. A tape file format is described in which variable length logical records, possibly longer than the blocksize, may be stored safely. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  4. Todai Scientific Information Retrieval (TSIR-1) System. II. Generation of a Scientific Literature Data Base in a Center-Oriented Format by a Tape-to-Tape Conversion of CAS SDF Data Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Yammoto, Takeo

    1972-01-01

    Conversion of the Chemical Abstract Service scientific literature data base from Standard Distribution Format to a center-oriented file format, STF, is described. A tape file format is described in which variable length logical records, possibly longer than the blocksize, may be stored safely. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  5. A review of the literature on the pain experience of Chinese patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Edrington, Janet; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Wong, Candice; Padilla, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    Over 2 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually in China. In addition, cancer is the leading cause of death in China. Because cancer is often diagnosed in more advanced stages in China, a higher percentage of patients will experience pain related to their disease or treatment. This article presents a review and critique of the studies that examined the experience of pain in Chinese cancer patients. Because pain is a subjective experience with multiple dimensions, this review used the multiple dimensions of cancer pain to describe the pain experience in adult Chinese patients with cancer. The results from 24 studies of cancer pain in Chinese patients are summarized. Most of these descriptive correlational studies evaluated the physiologic and sensory dimensions of the pain experience. Most of the patients reported moderate to severe pain and that pain interfered with their normal activities and mood. In contrast, little information is available about the impact of cancer pain on the cognitive and sociocultural dimensions of the pain experience for Chinese patients.

  6. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  7. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  8. How can the English-language scientific literature be made more accessible to non-native speakers? Journals should allow greater use of referenced direct quotations in 'component-oriented' scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    In scientific writing, although clarity and precision of language are vital to effective communication, it seems undeniable that content is more important than form. Potentially valuable knowledge should not be excluded from the scientific literature merely because the researchers lack advanced language skills. Given that global scientific literature is overwhelmingly in the English-language, this presents a problem for non-native speakers. My proposal is that scientists should be permitted to construct papers using a substantial number of direct quotations from the already-published scientific literature. Quotations would need to be explicitly referenced so that the original author and publication should be given full credit for creating such a useful and valid description. At the extreme, this might result in a paper consisting mainly of a 'mosaic' of quotations from the already existing scientific literature, which are linked and extended by relatively few sentences comprising new data or ideas. This model bears some conceptual relationship to the recent trend in computing science for component-based or component-oriented software engineering - in which new programs are constructed by reusing programme components, which may be available in libraries. A new functionality is constructed by linking-together many pre-existing chunks of software. I suggest that journal editors should, in their instructions to authors, explicitly allow this 'component-oriented' method of constructing scientific articles; and carefully describe how it can be accomplished in such a way that proper referencing is enforced, and full credit is allocated to the authors of the reused linguistic components.

  9. Quality of pharmaceutical advertising and gender bias in medical journals (1998-2008): a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Cambronero Saiz, Belén; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Papí Gálvez, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    To review the scientific literature on pharmaceutical advertising aimed at health professionals in order to determine whether gender bias has decreased and the quality of information in pharmaceutical advertising has improved over time. We performed a content analysis of original articles dealing with medical drug promotion (1998-2008), according to quality criteria such as (a) the number, validity and accessibility of bibliographic references provided in pharmaceutical advertising and (b) the extent to which gender representations were consistent with the prevalence of the diseases. Databases: PUBMED, Medline, Scopus, Sociological Abstract, Eric and LILACS. We reviewed 31 articles that analyzed advertising in medical journals from 1975-2005 and were published between 1998 and 2008. We found that the number of references used to support pharmaceutical advertising claims increased from 1975 but that 50% of these references were not valid. There was a tendency to depict men in paid productive roles, while women appeared inside the home or in non-occupational social contexts. Advertisements for psychotropic and cardiovascular drugs overrepresented women and men respectively. The use of bibliographic references increased between 1998 and 2008. However, representation of traditional male-female roles was similar in 1975 and 2005. Pharmaceutical advertisements may contribute to reinforcing the perception that certain diseases are associated with the most frequently portrayed sex. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  11. Detection of drug-drug interactions through data mining studies using clinical sources, scientific literature and social media.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Santiago; Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George

    2017-02-17

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) constitute an important concern in drug development and postmarketing pharmacovigilance. They are considered the cause of many adverse drug effects exposing patients to higher risks and increasing public health system costs. Methods to follow-up and discover possible DDIs causing harm to the population are a primary aim of drug safety researchers. Here, we review different methodologies and recent advances using data mining to detect DDIs with impact on patients. We focus on data mining of different pharmacovigilance sources, such as the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and electronic health records from medical institutions, as well as on the diverse data mining studies that use narrative text available in the scientific biomedical literature and social media. We pay attention to the strengths but also further explain challenges related to these methods. Data mining has important applications in the analysis of DDIs showing the impact of the interactions as a cause of adverse effects, extracting interactions to create knowledge data sets and gold standards and in the discovery of novel and dangerous DDIs.

  12. The curation paradigm and application tool used for manual curation of the scientific literature at the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C.; Murphy, Cynthia G.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a public resource that promotes understanding about the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD biocurators read the scientific literature and convert free-text information into a structured format using official nomenclature, integrating third party controlled vocabularies for chemicals, genes, diseases and organisms, and a novel controlled vocabulary for molecular interactions. Manual curation produces a robust, richly annotated dataset of highly accurate and detailed information. Currently, CTD describes over 349 000 molecular interactions between 6800 chemicals, 20 900 genes (for 330 organisms) and 4300 diseases that have been manually curated from over 25 400 peer-reviewed articles. This manually curated data are further integrated with other third party data (e.g. Gene Ontology, KEGG and Reactome annotations) to generate a wealth of toxicogenomic relationships. Here, we describe our approach to manual curation that uses a powerful and efficient paradigm involving mnemonic codes. This strategy allows biocurators to quickly capture detailed information from articles by generating simple statements using codes to represent the relationships between data types. The paradigm is versatile, expandable, and able to accommodate new data challenges that arise. We have incorporated this strategy into a web-based curation tool to further increase efficiency and productivity, implement quality control in real-time and accommodate biocurators working remotely. Database URL: http://ctd.mdibl.org PMID:21933848

  13. [Scientific-professional production on the ICF disability model in Spain. A literature review (2001-2010)].

    PubMed

    Comín Comín, Magdalena; Ruiz Garrós, Cristina; Franco, Esther; Damian, Javier; Ruiz Tovar, Maria; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2011-12-01

    To quantify the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Spain on the basis of published reports, and to compare this use with that in other European countries. We reviewed the scientific literature published by, or with the participation of, authors having Spanish institutional affiliations in Spanish or international journals between May 2001 and June 2010. A total of 47 papers were identified, with a recent annual increase in those published in English. There was a predominance of theoretical journals (53.1%) and those specializing in mental health, rehabilitation and disability, with a medium or low impact factor. The World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-II) was used in 27.6% of publications. Most studies addressed adult populations with mental illness. Spain ranked midway in the table of European countries (fifth by Medline references). This review suggests that the effective application of the ICF in Spain is limited but is increasing and is internationally co-ordinated. The main fields of application are theoretical and diagnostic, in various clinical, rehabilitation and population-based contexts and, to a much lesser extent, in health services. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigations of Protein Structure and Function Using the Scientific Literature: An Assignment for an Undergraduate Cell Physiology Course

    PubMed Central

    Mulnix, Amy B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate biology curricula are being modified to model and teach the activities of scientists better. The assignment described here, one that investigates protein structure and function, was designed for use in a sophomore-level cell physiology course at Earlham College. Students work in small groups to read and present in poster format on the content of a single research article reporting on the structure and/or function of a protein. Goals of the assignment include highlighting the interdependence of protein structure and function; asking students to review, integrate, and apply previously acquired knowledge; and helping students see protein structure/function in a context larger than cell physiology. The assignment also is designed to build skills in reading scientific literature, oral and written communication, and collaboration among peers. Assessment of student perceptions of the assignment in two separate offerings indicates that the project successfully achieves these goals. Data specifically show that students relied heavily on their peers to understand their article. The assignment was also shown to require students to read articles more carefully than previously. In addition, the data suggest that the assignment could be modified and used successfully in other courses and at other institutions. PMID:14673490

  15. Microbial diversity in ultra-high-pressure rocks and fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-06-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of approximately 0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 x 10(3) to 2.4 x 10(4) cells/g and 3.5 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids.

  16. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-01-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ∼0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

  17. Evaluation in Moves: An Integrated Analysis of Chinese MA Thesis Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate communicative purpose of literature reviews is to convince the reader of the worthiness of the writer's research, which is realized stage by stage and evaluation plays an important role in achieving this end. However, concerns about evaluation demonstration in novice academic writers' literature reviews have been repeatedly voiced in…

  18. [Alienation and adaptation in English translation of traditional Chinese medicinal literature].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-xiong; Wang, Guan-jun

    2006-10-01

    Alienation and adaptation are two of the principles and methods in translation, each possessing their own values. Alienation should be applied in translating linguistic content in order to transfer the imbedded cultural messages trustfully; while the principle of adaptation should be followed in linguistic structure translation due to the different thinking patterns between Chinese and English which results in a great linguistic structure difference. Therefore, the translator must express the original meaning trustfully, on the other hand, to make the Chinese version more smooth, linguistic structure should be transformed to conform to the thinking habit of the readers. In brief,alienation and adaptation should complement each other in translation to make it a bridge connecting the different cultures.

  19. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  20. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  1. Similarities and Dissimilarities in Coauthorship Networks: Gestalt Theory as Explanation for Well-Ordered Collaboration Structures and Production of Scientific Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Hildrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on Gestalt theory, the author assumes the existence of a field-force equilibrium to explain how, according to the conciseness principle, mathematically precise gestalts could exist in coauthorship networks. Develops a mathematical function to describe these gestalts in scientific literature and discusses structural characteristics of…

  2. Similarities and Dissimilarities in Coauthorship Networks: Gestalt Theory as Explanation for Well-Ordered Collaboration Structures and Production of Scientific Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Hildrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on Gestalt theory, the author assumes the existence of a field-force equilibrium to explain how, according to the conciseness principle, mathematically precise gestalts could exist in coauthorship networks. Develops a mathematical function to describe these gestalts in scientific literature and discusses structural characteristics of…

  3. Using HeLa Cell Stress Response to Introduce First Year Students to the Scientific Method, Laboratory Techniques, Primary Literature, and Scientific Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…

  4. Using HeLa Cell Stress Response to Introduce First Year Students to the Scientific Method, Laboratory Techniques, Primary Literature, and Scientific Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…

  5. Distribution of Citations Received by Scientific Papers Published in the Imaging Literature From 2001 to 2010: Decreasing Inequality and Polarization.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young; Lee, Hyung Jin; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the distribution of citations received by scientific papers published in the imaging literature between 2001 and 2010. We extracted the number of citations of all articles and reviews for 5 years after publication using the Scopus (Elsevier) citation database of imaging journals between 2001 and 2010. We quantitatively analyzed article and review citations from each journal and each year, including the number, proportion, and annual number of citations of the most- (≥ 20 citations) and least-cited (three or fewer citations) papers; ratio of most-cited to least-cited papers; 75/25 percentile citation ratio; 90/10 percentile citation ratio; Gini coefficient; and Kolkata index. Our analysis of 124,331 articles and 13,575 reviews from 121 journals showed that the proportion of most-cited articles (from 19.6% to 27.1%) and reviews (from 19.1% to 37.2%) increased from 2001 to 2010, whereas the proportion of least-cited articles (from 32.3% to 23.0%) and reviews (from 31.9% to 15.8%) declined over the same period. The annual numbers of citations of most-cited articles and reviews both reached a peak in the fourth year after publication, whereas those of least-cited articles and reviews reached a peak in the second and fist years, respectively, after publication and thereafter decreased. The 75/25 percentile ratio for articles declined from 41.1 to 27.5 between 2001 and 2010. Over the same time, the 75/25 percentile ratio for reviews declined from 47.4 to 22.9. The 90/10 percentile ratio for articles declined from 1730.8 to 188.7; for reviews, the 90/10 percentile ratio declined from 5788.0 to 100.7. The Gini coefficient of articles and reviews also declined from 0.6116 to 0.5721 for articles and from 0.6507 to 0.5649 for reviews; the k index, from 0.7260 to 0.7088 for articles from 0.7409 to 0.7072 for reviews. Inequality and polarization of citations consistently decreased in the imaging literature from 2001 to 2010.

  6. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  7. Microbial biodiversity: approaches to experimental design and hypothesis testing in primary scientific literature from 1975 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cindy E; Bardin, Marc; Berge, Odile; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Fromin, Nathalie; Girardin, Hélène; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Lebaron, Philippe; Thiéry, Jean M; Troussellier, Marc

    2002-12-01

    Research interest in microbial biodiversity over the past 25 years has increased markedly as microbiologists have become interested in the significance of biodiversity for ecological processes and as the industrial, medical, and agricultural applications of this diversity have evolved. One major challenge for studies of microbial habitats is how to account for the diversity of extremely large and heterogeneous populations with samples that represent only a very small fraction of these populations. This review presents an analysis of the way in which the field of microbial biodiversity has exploited sampling, experimental design, and the process of hypothesis testing to meet this challenge. This review is based on a systematic analysis of 753 publications randomly sampled from the primary scientific literature from 1975 to 1999 concerning the microbial biodiversity of eight habitats related to water, soil, plants, and food. These publications illustrate a dominant and growing interest in questions concerning the effect of specific environmental factors on microbial biodiversity, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of this biodiversity, and quantitative measures of population structure for most of the habitats covered here. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals that descriptions of sampling strategies or other information concerning the representativeness of the sample are often missing from publications, that there is very limited use of statistical tests of hypotheses, and that only a very few publications report the results of multiple independent tests of hypotheses. Examples are cited of different approaches and constraints to experimental design and hypothesis testing in studies of microbial biodiversity. To prompt a more rigorous approach to unambiguous evaluation of the impact of microbial biodiversity on ecological processes, we present guidelines for reporting information about experimental design, sampling strategies, and analyses of results in

  8. Microbial Biodiversity: Approaches to Experimental Design and Hypothesis Testing in Primary Scientific Literature from 1975 to 1999

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Cindy E.; Bardin, Marc; Berge, Odile; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Fromin, Nathalie; Girardin, Hélène; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Lebaron, Philippe; Thiéry, Jean M.; Troussellier, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Research interest in microbial biodiversity over the past 25 years has increased markedly as microbiologists have become interested in the significance of biodiversity for ecological processes and as the industrial, medical, and agricultural applications of this diversity have evolved. One major challenge for studies of microbial habitats is how to account for the diversity of extremely large and heterogeneous populations with samples that represent only a very small fraction of these populations. This review presents an analysis of the way in which the field of microbial biodiversity has exploited sampling, experimental design, and the process of hypothesis testing to meet this challenge. This review is based on a systematic analysis of 753 publications randomly sampled from the primary scientific literature from 1975 to 1999 concerning the microbial biodiversity of eight habitats related to water, soil, plants, and food. These publications illustrate a dominant and growing interest in questions concerning the effect of specific environmental factors on microbial biodiversity, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of this biodiversity, and quantitative measures of population structure for most of the habitats covered here. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals that descriptions of sampling strategies or other information concerning the representativeness of the sample are often missing from publications, that there is very limited use of statistical tests of hypotheses, and that only a very few publications report the results of multiple independent tests of hypotheses. Examples are cited of different approaches and constraints to experimental design and hypothesis testing in studies of microbial biodiversity. To prompt a more rigorous approach to unambiguous evaluation of the impact of microbial biodiversity on ecological processes, we present guidelines for reporting information about experimental design, sampling strategies, and analyses of results in

  9. Terminology and Reporting Criteria for Radiofrequency Ablation of Tumors in the Scientific Literature: Systematic Review of Compliance with Reporting Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Materials and Methods Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Results Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. Conclusion The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for RF tumor ablation has been gaining support according to the recently published scientific

  10. Comparative literature study between investigations in foreign Science Citation Index journals and Chinese core domestic journals in the treatment of low back pain with acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiangjun; Li, Rui

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the quality and methods of clinical research literature published in foreign Science Citation Index (SCI) journals studying the treatment of low back pain with acupuncture. To conduct a comparative study with clinical research literature published in Chinese core domestic journals, and to understand the prospects of current research trends of acupuncture clinical studies in Western countries and China. Studies on clinical acupuncture treatment of low back pain in English SCI journals and four Chinese core domestic journals dated from 2002 to 2012 were sourced and summarized for this study. Objective analysis and evaluation on the differences in subject and scope of study on low back pain by foreign and Chinese researchers were conducted. Forty-seven English studies and 115 Chinese studies met our inclusion criteria. A keyword search revealed different kinds of low back pain related conditions in English and Chinese studies. The English studies were broad in scope, while the Chinese studies were more focused. There were also differences in the understanding and definition of concepts and study orientation. More study should be undertaken to understand the contradictions that acupuncture faces in view of modern research to further advance the field.

  11. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B. C.

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009–2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions. PMID:27096432

  12. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009-2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions.

  13. Scientific information and the Tongass land management plan: key findings derived from the scientific literature, species assessments, resource analyses, workshops, and risk assessment panels.

    Treesearch

    Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest

    1996-01-01

    This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...

  14. Seeking Accurate Cultural Representation: Mahjong, World War II, and Ethnic Chinese in Multicultural Youth Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…

  15. The Relationships between Chinese Higher Education Students' Epistemic Beliefs and Their Judgmental Standards of Searching for Literature Online: Undergraduate versus Graduate Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yan; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Yu, Yue-Yue; Wu, Jui-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Chinese higher education students' epistemic beliefs and their judgmental standards of searching for literature online. Data were collected from 449 higher education students (152 college students and 297 graduate students) in Beijing via two self-reported questionnaires: one…

  16. Scientific publications from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in integrative and complementary medicine journals: a ten-year literature survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers from China, the largest user of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), have been publishing an increasing number of scientific articles in world-famous CAM journals in recent years. However, the status of CAM research in the three major regions of China, the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong has, until now, not been reported. In this study, we compared articles from these three regions published in international CAM journals from 2000 to 2009 using PubMed database and the Journal Citation Reports. The study results showed that the number of published articles from Mainland China increased significantly from 2000 to 2009, particularly since 2005. Meanwhile, the number of published articles from Taiwan also increased, whereas those from Hong Kong remained steady. Clinical trials and randomized controlled trials from Chinese authors both took a small percentage of the total. The impact factors of the journals in which these articles were published suggested similar academic levels whereas the average number of citation of articles from the Mainland was less than those from the other two regions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine and Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine were the most popular journals for Chinese authors.

  17. A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Sara E; Price, Jordan V; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of primary literature, writing assignments directed toward a layperson and scientist audience, and in-class discussions, we aimed to improve the ability of students to 1) comprehend primary scientific papers, 2) communicate science to a scientific audience, and 3) communicate science to a layperson audience. We offered the course for three consecutive years and evaluated its impact on student perception and confidence using a combination of pre- and postcourse survey questions and coded open-ended responses. Students showed gains in both the perception of their understanding of primary scientific papers and of their abilities to communicate science to scientific and layperson audiences. These results indicate that this unique format can teach both communication skills and basic science to undergraduate biology students. We urge others to adopt a similar format for undergraduate biology courses to teach process skills in addition to content, thus broadening and strengthening the impact of undergraduate courses.

  18. [Medication rule for treatment of functional dyspepsia: an analysis of traditional Chinese medicine literature based on China National Knowledge Internet].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong-ling; Wu, Yuan-jie; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yi-fang; Fang, Zheng-qing

    2015-10-01

    By retrieving the clinical research literature of treatment functional dyspepsia by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from January 2004 to December 2014 based on China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), we would establish a TCM decoction database for treating functional dyspepsia in this study. One hundred and sixty-four literature were included, involving 159 prescriptions, 377 medicines, in a total of 1 990 herbs. These herbs can be divided into 18 categories according to the effectiveness; and qi-regulating herbs, blood circulation herbs, and antipyretic herbs ranked top three ones according to the frequency of usage of the herbs, whose medicine usage frequency accounted for 51.81%. Usage frequency of 16 herbs was over 30, and Atractylodes, Radix, Poriaranked top three according to the usage frequency. Medicinal properties were divided into 9 kinds according to the frequency statistics, and the top three were warm, flat, and cold. Taste frequency statistics were classifiedinto 9 kinds, and the top three were acrid, sweet, and bitter. In frequency statistics of the meridian tropism of herbs, it was classifiedinto 11 kinds, and the top three were spleen, stomach, lung. The analysis can provide a reference for treatment and study of TCM of functional dyspepsia.

  19. Preservation of Chinese Print Astronomical Literature in the Digital and Network Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Shi, W.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, more and more journals and books have been published in both electronic and print formats. Some journals have been digitized retrospectively going back to the first volume of more than a hundred years ago, which benefits researchers and librarians tremendously. As a result, many librarians subscribe to books and journals in both electronic and print versions when possible. In many cases, because of budget shortfalls and the low usage of print materials, many libraries have started to order electronic only. This trend heralds a potential demise of print literature as major library resources and has implications for the library services associated with them. This paper proposes some opinions on this issue. We believe that the librarians should pay attention to and conserve the published astronomical literature, a precious historical and cultural heritage, so that we could hand it down to future generations, just like our predecessors did for us.

  20. [Ocular Metastasis in Lung Cancer: a Retrospective Analysis in a Single Chinese Hospital and Literature Review].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Sun, Yiduo; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Minjiang; Jiangde, Lina; Li, Longyun; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Mengzhao

    2017-05-20

    Eye is a rare site of lung cancer metastasis, and ocular metastasis is one of the largest challenges to cancer patients' quality of life (QOL). Here we present our experience on ocular metastasis of lung cancer and review relevant literature in an attempt to investigate the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of these tumors. The records of 9 patients with ocular metastasis of lung cancer treated at our hospital were analyzed. A literature review identified 42 cases reported in the last 10 years and their medical records were retrospectively estimated. The median age of our patients was 51 years (range 41-61). Diagnosis of lung cancer included non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in 7 patients, in which adenocarcinoma (ADC) were recorded in 6 patients, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) in 1 patient, and unknown in 1 patient. The site of ocular metastasis included choroid (n=8) and iris (n=1). In the literature review, SCLC constituted 21.4% (n=9) and ADC constituted 47.6% (n=20). Choroid presented to be the most common site for eye metastasis (66.7%, n=28). As for disease control rate, systemic chemotherapy for lung cancer patients with ocular metastasis presented to be only 28%. Meanwhile, combination of systemic treatment with ocular treatment could improve patients' eye symptoms effectively. The most common lung cancer that metastasizes to the eye is ADC. The choroid is the most common site for ocular metastasis. Ocular treatment can improve patients' eye symptoms, while the effect of systemic chemotherapy treatment is limited.

  1. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Min; Jiang, Dao-Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Hong-Liang; Shan, Cheng-Xiang; Liu, Sheng; Qiu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can provide the junior surgeons a clear procedural approach, and would benefit laparoscopic surgeons in training. PMID:20480518

  2. Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-10-12

    Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with combined azithromycin and minocycline therapy of 2 weeks duration, despite delayed treatment because the Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded no visible organisms. The diagnosis required 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of the cultured isolate from CSF. Literature review of M. hominis CNS infections yielded 19 cases (13 instances of brain abscess, 3 of meningitis, 1 spinal cord abscess and 1 subdural empyema each). Delay in diagnosis and initial treatment failure was evident in all cases. With appropriate microbiological testing, antibiotic therapy (ranging from 5 days to 12 weeks) and often, multiple surgical interventions, almost all the patients improved immediately. Both our patient findings and the literature review, highlighted the pathogenic potential of M. hominis together with the challenges prompted by rare infectious diseases in particular for developing countries laboratories with limited diagnostic resources.

  3. Scientific Publications in Nephrology and Urology Journals from Chinese Authors in East Asia: A 10-Year Survey of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Hao; Ye, Chao-Yang; Xu, Cheng-Gang; Rong, Shu; Sun, Li-Jun; Wu, Jun; Dai, Bing; Chen, Dong-Ping; Zhu, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Qiang; Zhao, Xue-Zhi; Mei, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Background Diseases of the kidneys and genitourinary tract are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we compared the quantity and quality of nephrological and urological articles published in international journals from the three major regions of China: the mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). Methods Nephrological and urological articles originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published in 61 journals from 1999–2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in the leading general-medicine journals. We used these data to compare the quantity and quality of publication output from the three regions. Results The total number of articles increased significantly from 1999 to 2008 in the three regions. The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from HK since 2004, and surpassed that from TW in 2008. Publications from TW had the highest accumulated IF, total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading general-medicine journals. However, HK publications had the highest average IF. Although ML produced the largest quantity of articles, it exhibited the lowest quality among the three regions. Conclusion The number of nephrological and urological publications originating from the three major regions of China increased significantly from 1999 to 2008. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK was higher than that from ML. PMID:21494662

  4. Scientific publications in nephrology and urology journals from Chinese authors in East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Kong, Mei; Hu, Liang-Hao; Ye, Chao-Yang; Xu, Cheng-Gang; Rong, Shu; Sun, Li-Jun; Wu, Jun; Dai, Bing; Chen, Dong-Ping; Zhu, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Qiang; Zhao, Xue-Zhi; Mei, Chang-Lin

    2011-04-08

    Diseases of the kidneys and genitourinary tract are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we compared the quantity and quality of nephrological and urological articles published in international journals from the three major regions of China: the mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). Nephrological and urological articles originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published in 61 journals from 1999-2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in the leading general-medicine journals. We used these data to compare the quantity and quality of publication output from the three regions. The total number of articles increased significantly from 1999 to 2008 in the three regions. The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from HK since 2004, and surpassed that from TW in 2008. Publications from TW had the highest accumulated IF, total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading general-medicine journals. However, HK publications had the highest average IF. Although ML produced the largest quantity of articles, it exhibited the lowest quality among the three regions. The number of nephrological and urological publications originating from the three major regions of China increased significantly from 1999 to 2008. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK was higher than that from ML.

  5. [Analysis on scraping therapy literatures in Chinese national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) from 2002 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Rong-rong, Jiang; Gui-hua, Xu; Hua, Chen; Jie, Li

    2013-04-01

    In order to figure out the current situation and development of scraping therapy, and provide references for further researches. With "scroping therapy" as key word, the inclusive literatures in CNKI from 2002 to 2012 were retrieved and they were analyzed with the bibliometric method. Totaly 420 valid articles were acquined. The article number was increasing yearly and clinical trial was the main researching type. The articles were published in 147 different journals, of which 36.7% were source journals. The articles were mainly from areas with dominating TCM cultural atmosphere, specific folk medicine and prosperous economy. In recent 10 years, although the development of scraping therapy can be seen, the researching depth and width is not enough. In the future, the key point and direction of the research should focus on basic research of action mechanism and standardization of clinical trials in scraping therapy.

  6. Malmquist Index Analysis of the Dynamic Changes in Scientific Research Productivity of Some Chinese Universities before and after Merger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yongmei; Liang, Wenyan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamic changes in research productivity of Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs) before and after merger with Malmquist index, and decomposes the total factor productivity change index into catching-up effect, scale effect and frontier-shift effect. The main finding is that technological improvement and innovation…

  7. Malmquist Index Analysis of the Dynamic Changes in Scientific Research Productivity of Some Chinese Universities before and after Merger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yongmei; Liang, Wenyan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamic changes in research productivity of Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs) before and after merger with Malmquist index, and decomposes the total factor productivity change index into catching-up effect, scale effect and frontier-shift effect. The main finding is that technological improvement and innovation…

  8. Management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis: a case report and review of the Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Da-ren; Feng, Cheng-cheng; Zhou, Chuan-biao; Zhan, Chen-ni; Que, Ri-sheng; Chen, Li

    2014-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a common malignancy. The general treatments are thyroidectomy of the affected lobe along with lymphadenectomy. However, bone metastasis is rare in DTC compared with other malignancies and the management of metastasis foci is still controversial. Here we present a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with the 6th cervical vertebra body metastasis successfully treated by total thyroidectomy, cervical corpectomy, and internal fixation, followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy. Eleven additional patients diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis collected from Chinese literature between January 1996 and December 2013 were also reviewed. The mean age of the 12 patients at presentation was (53.9±9.2) years (rang, 42-72 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. Nine cases received total/near-total thyroidectomy or lobectomy while the other three patients refused for personal reasons. The interventions for bone metastasis were one-stage operation (9/12), I(131) adjuvant therapy (3/12), chemotherapy (1/12), and no intervention (1/12). During the follow-up, two patients died of metastatic carcinoma recurrence, one died of multiple organ metastasis, and one with an unknown reason. We conclude that the management of thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Surgical resection is still the first choice for cure, while the combined one-stage operation on the primary and metastatic sites followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy is an applicable treatment.

  9. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  10. Analysis of SOD1 mutations in a Chinese population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case-control study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, QianQian; Zhou, QingQing; Chen, YongPing; Ou, RuWei; Cao, Bei; Xu, YaQian; Yang, Jing; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Although the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene has been identified in both familial ALS (FALS) and sporadic ALS (SALS), it has rarely been studied in Chinese patients with ALS, and there are few studies with large samples. This study sought to assess the prevalence of SOD1 mutations in Chinese ALS patients. We screened a cohort of 499 ALS patients (487 SALS and 12 FALS) from the Department of Neurology at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University and analyzed all coding exons of SOD1 by Sanger sequencing. In addition, we reviewed the mutation frequencies of common ALS causative genes in Chinese populations. Eight missense mutations in SOD1 were found in 8 ALS individuals: two novel mutations (p.G73D and p.V120F) and six previously reported mutations. The frequencies of SOD1 mutations were 1.03% (5/487) in SALS and 25% (3/12) in FALS from Southwest China. A literature review indicated that the mutation rates of major ALS causative genes were 53.55% in FALS and 6.29% in SALS. In Chinese SALS and FALS, the highest mutation frequency was in the SOD1 gene. Our results suggest that SOD1 mutation is the most common cause of ALS in Chinese populations and that the mutation spectrum of ALS varies among different ethnic populations. PMID:28291249

  11. Prison Education and Offender Behavior: A Review of the Scientific Literature. Prision Education Research Project: Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Jurg; Fritsch, Eric J.

    This paper provides an overview of the literature evaluating the outcomes of adult correctional education programs. The goal was to identify research that assessed the effects of correctional education on inmates. The paper focused on four possible outcomes: (1) Do inmates who participated in education programs while incarcerated have lower…

  12. Mining Learning and Crafting Scientific Experiments: A Literature Review on the Use of Minecraft in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebel, Steve; Schneider, Sascha; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the field of educational videogames or serious games is not limited to games that are specifically designed for educational purposes, videogames such as Minecraft have aroused the attention of teachers and researchers alike. To gain insights into the applicability of Minecraft, we reviewed the literature on use of the game in education and…

  13. Mining Learning and Crafting Scientific Experiments: A Literature Review on the Use of Minecraft in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebel, Steve; Schneider, Sascha; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the field of educational videogames or serious games is not limited to games that are specifically designed for educational purposes, videogames such as Minecraft have aroused the attention of teachers and researchers alike. To gain insights into the applicability of Minecraft, we reviewed the literature on use of the game in education and…

  14. Scientific publications in ophthalmic journals from China and other top-ranking countries: a 12-year review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Jiao; Zhou, Minwen; Chen, Shida; Zhang, Xiulan

    2013-06-26

    Eye diseases with increasing mortality are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we study the publication characteristics in international ophthalmic journals of the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, Japan, and China. Articles published in 53 ophthalmic journals from 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the number of articles published each year, analyzed the publication type, and evaluated the accumulated and average impact factors (IFs), and the distribution of articles in ophthalmic journals in relation to IFs. The characteristics of publication outputs from China and other top-ranking countries were compared. The total number of articles increased significantly during the past 12 years, with an increase of 51.0%. The growth in the annual number of articles from the US, the UK, Australia, and China showed a significantly positive trend. Publications from the US exceeded those from any other country and had the highest IFs, largest number of total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading ophthalmic journals. During the past 12 years, China contributed 3.5% of the total publications, and the number of Chinese articles showed a more than 6-fold increase (from 99 to 605, R2 =0.947, P<0.001). The numbers of IFs and citations of articles originating in China were mostly lower than for other top-ranking counties. Research on ophthalmic journals has maintained an upward growing trend from 2000 to 2011. Chinese ophthalmology research has developed rapidly, but the gap still exists between China and other top-ranking countries for the advanced level of research.

  15. Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation and Its Functional Impact on Protein-Protein Interactions via Text Mining of the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghua; Ross, Karen E; Huang, Hongzhan; Ren, Jia; Li, Gang; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are one of the main contributors to the diversity of proteoforms in the proteomic landscape. In particular, protein phosphorylation represents an essential regulatory mechanism that plays a role in many biological processes. Protein kinases, the enzymes catalyzing this reaction, are key participants in metabolic and signaling pathways. Their activation or inactivation dictate downstream events: what substrates are modified and their subsequent impact (e.g., activation state, localization, protein-protein interactions (PPIs)). The biomedical literature continues to be the main source of evidence for experimental information about protein phosphorylation. Automatic methods to bring together phosphorylation events and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs can help to summarize the current knowledge and to expose hidden connections. In this chapter, we demonstrate two text mining tools, RLIMS-P and eFIP, for the retrieval and extraction of kinase-substrate-site data and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs from the literature. These tools offer several advantages over a literature search in PubMed as their results are specific for phosphorylation. RLIMS-P and eFIP results can be sorted, organized, and viewed in multiple ways to answer relevant biological questions, and the protein mentions are linked to UniProt identifiers.

  16. Assessing the Need of Discourse-Level Analysis in Identifying Evidence of Drug-Disease Relations in Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction typically involves the extraction of relations between two or more entities occurring within a single or multiple sentences. In this study, we investigated the significance of extracting information from multiple sentences specifically in the context of drug-disease relation discovery. We used multiple resources such as Semantic Medline, a literature based resource, and Medline search (for filtering spurious results) and inferred 8,772 potential drug-disease pairs. Our analysis revealed that 6,450 (73.5%) of the 8,772 potential drug-disease relations did not occur in a single sentence. Moreover, only 537 of the drug-disease pairs matched the curated gold standard in Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a trusted resource for drug-disease relations. Among the 537, nearly 75% (407) of the drug-disease pairs occur in multiple sentences. Our analysis revealed that the drug-disease pairs inferred from Semantic Medline or retrieved from CTD could be extracted from multiple sentences in the literature. This highlights the significance of the need of discourse-level analysis in extracting the relations from biomedical literature.

  17. Review on "BBS Are Our Kids Tough Enough: Chinese Schools" Based on History, Literature and Personal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yiran

    2015-01-01

    The aim behind this article is to clear up some misunderstandings about British and Chinese education approaches in the popular BBC documentary "Are our kids tough enough: Chinese Schools". The article evaluates the differences in academic performance, class disciplines and education values of two education practices that have caused…

  18. Toward a scientific understanding of the effectiveness, material basis and prescription compatibility of a Chinese herbal formula Dan-hong injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Panlin; Su, Weiwei; Yun, Sha; Liao, Yiqiu; Liao, Yinyin; Liu, Hong; Li, Peibo; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Wei; Yao, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Since traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a complex mixture of multiple components, the application of methodologies for evaluating single-components Western medicine in TCM studies may have certain limitations. Appropriate strategies that recognize the integrality of TCM and connect to TCM theories remain to be developed. Here we use multiple unique approaches to study the scientific connotation of a TCM formula Dan-hong injection (DHI) without undermining its prescription integrity. The blood circulation improving and healing promoting effects of DHI were assessed by a qi stagnation blood stasis rat model and a mouse model of laser irradiation induced cerebral microvascular thrombosis. By UFLC-PDA-Triple Q-TOF-MS/MS and relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects, 82 chemical constituents and nine core components, whose blood circulation promoting effects were found comparable to that of whole DHI, were successfully identified. What’s more, the rationality of DHI prescription compatibility could be reflected not only in the maximum efficacy of the original ratio, but also in the interactions of compounds from different ingredient herbs, such as complementary activities and facilitating tissues distribution. This study provides scientific evidences in explanation of the clinical benefits of DHI, and also gives a good demonstration for the comprehensive evaluation of other TCM. PMID:28393856

  19. Toward a scientific understanding of the effectiveness, material basis and prescription compatibility of a Chinese herbal formula Dan-hong injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Panlin; Su, Weiwei; Yun, Sha; Liao, Yiqiu; Liao, Yinyin; Liu, Hong; Li, Peibo; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Wei; Yao, Hongliang

    2017-04-10

    Since traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a complex mixture of multiple components, the application of methodologies for evaluating single-components Western medicine in TCM studies may have certain limitations. Appropriate strategies that recognize the integrality of TCM and connect to TCM theories remain to be developed. Here we use multiple unique approaches to study the scientific connotation of a TCM formula Dan-hong injection (DHI) without undermining its prescription integrity. The blood circulation improving and healing promoting effects of DHI were assessed by a qi stagnation blood stasis rat model and a mouse model of laser irradiation induced cerebral microvascular thrombosis. By UFLC-PDA-Triple Q-TOF-MS/MS and relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects, 82 chemical constituents and nine core components, whose blood circulation promoting effects were found comparable to that of whole DHI, were successfully identified. What's more, the rationality of DHI prescription compatibility could be reflected not only in the maximum efficacy of the original ratio, but also in the interactions of compounds from different ingredient herbs, such as complementary activities and facilitating tissues distribution. This study provides scientific evidences in explanation of the clinical benefits of DHI, and also gives a good demonstration for the comprehensive evaluation of other TCM.

  20. A study on literature obsolescence and core journals’ cost-benefit in citations of the ‘Scientific Medical Journal of Ahwaz’

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Mohammadi, Parastoo Parsaei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the methods of identifying core and popular resources is by citation evaluation. Using citation evaluation, the librarians of the Acquisition Department can use quantitative methods to indentify core and popular resources among numerous information resources and make serious savings in the library's budget, by acquiring these core resources and eliminating useless ones. The aim of this study is assessing literature obsolescence and core journals’ cost-benefit in citations of the ‘Scientific Medical Journal of Ahwaz’. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive and cross-sectional survey that uses citation analysis. Sampling is objective sampling from all documents from years 1364 (1985) to 1385 (2006), and the population comprises of 6342 citations of the articles published in ‘Scientific Medical Journal of Ahwaz’. Data collection is done through referring to the original documents and the data is analyzed using the Excel software, and for descriptive and analytical statistics the cost-benefit formula and Bradford law formula are used. Results: Findings showed that the average citation for each document in the ‘Scientific Medical Journal of Ahwaz’ was 15.81. The average citation to international sources was 14.37, and the average citation to national sources was 1.44. The literature obsolescence of Farsi documents in this study was 15 years, while it was equal to 20 years for English documents. The highly cited Farsi journals were (sorted based on citation in descending order): ‘Scientific Medical Journal of Ahwaz’, ‘Daroudarman’, ‘Nabz,’ and ‘Journal of Medical School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences’. The highly cited English journals were (sorted based on citation in descending order): ‘Pediatrics’, ‘The New England Journal of Medicine’, ‘Gastroenterology’ and ‘Medicine’. All of these four journals are part of the ISI database and have good impact factors in the Journal

  1. Scientific publications on primary biliary cirrhosis from 2000 through 2010: an 11-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Qin, Baodong; Liang, Yan; Yang, Zaixing; Zhong, Renqian

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by intrahepatic bile-duct destruction, cholestasis, and fibrosis. It can lead to cirrhosis and eventually liver failure. PBC also shows some regional differences with respect to incidence and prevalence that are becoming more pronounced each year. Recently, researchers have paid more attention to PBC. To evaluate the development of PBC research during the past 11 years, we determined the quantity and quality of articles on this subject. We also compared the contributions of scientists from the US, UK, Japan, Italy, Germany, and China. The English-language papers covering PBC published in journals from 2000 through 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the number of papers published each year, analyzed the publication type, and calculated the accumulated, average impact factors (IFs) and citations from every country. The quantity and quality of articles on PBC were compared by country. We also contrasted the level of PBC research in China and other countries. The total number of articles did not significantly increase during the past 11 years. The number of articles from the US exceeded those from any other country; the publications from the US also had the highest IFs and the most citations. Four other countries showed complex trends with respect to the quantity and quality of articles about PBC. The researchers from the US have contributed the most to the development of PBC research. They currently represent the highest level of research. Some high-level studies, such as RCTs, meta-analyses, and in-depth basic studies should be launched. The gap between China and the advanced level is still enormous. Chinese investigators still have a long way to go.

  2. Aripiprazole in the Maintenance Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A Critical Review of the Evidence and Its Dissemination into the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jureidini, Jon N.; Parry, Peter I.; Spielmans, Glen I.; Healy, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic medication, has been increasingly used in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication in 2005. Given its widespread use, we sought to critically review the evidence supporting the use of aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and examine how that evidence has been disseminated in the scientific literature. Methods and Findings We systematically searched multiple databases to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder while excluding other types of studies, such as open-label, acute, and adjunctive studies. We then used a citation search to identify articles that cited these trials and rated the quality of their citations. Our evidence search protocol identified only two publications, both describing the results of a single trial conducted by Keck et al., which met criteria for inclusion in this review. We describe four issues that limit the interpretation of that trial as supporting the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance: (1) insufficient duration to demonstrate maintenance efficacy; (2) limited generalizability due to its enriched sample; (3) possible conflation of iatrogenic adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation with beneficial effects of treatment; and (4) a low overall completion rate. Our citation search protocol yielded 80 publications that cited the Keck et al. trial in discussing the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance. Of these, only 24 (30%) mentioned adverse events reported and four (5%) mentioned study limitations. Conclusions A single trial by Keck et al. represents the entirety of the literature on the use of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Although careful review identifies four critical limitations to the trial's interpretation and overall utility

  3. Effectiveness of interventions for convicted DUI offenders in reducing recidivism: a systematic review of the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter G; Curtis, Ashlee; Sønderlund, Anders; Day, Andrew; Droste, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Driving under the influence (DUI) is a major cause of death and disability. Although a broad array of programs designed to curb DUI incidents are currently offered to both first-time and recidivist DUI offenders, existing evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs have reported mixed results. To synthesize the results of DUI program evaluations and determine the strength of the available evidence for reducing recidivism for different types of programs. A systematic review of all EBSCO databases, EMBASE, PubMed, ProQuest, Sociological Abstracts and TRIS was conducted to identify evaluations of treatments/interventions to prevent DUI offenses. Additional articles were identified from reference lists of relevant articles. A total of 42 relevant studies were identified by the search strategy. Of these, 33 utilized non-experimental evaluation designs or reported insufficient data to allow effect sizes to be calculated, making meta-analysis unfeasible. Evaluations of several different program types reported evidence of some level of effectiveness. Because of the general lack of high quality evidence assessing the effectiveness of DUI prevention programs, it is not possible to make conclusive statements about the types of programs that are likely to be most effective. Nonetheless, there was some evidence to support the effectiveness of programs that utilize intensive supervision and education. There is a need for future evaluations to adopt more scientifically rigorous research designs to establish the effects of these programs.

  4. The influence of culture on the oral health-related beliefs and behaviours of elderly chinese immigrants: a meta-synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, André; MacEntee, Michael I; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, Ross; Graf, Peter; Hornby, Kathryn; Kobayashi, Karen; Wong, Sabrina T

    2013-03-01

    Neglect of the mouth can lead to impairment, disability, and discomfort; as a result, it can have a negative impact on quality of life in old age. Some minority groups in North America shoulder a disproportionate burden of dental impairment compared to people of European origins, possibly because of different cultural beliefs and a distrust of Western oral healthcare. This paper explores these factors in elderly Chinese immigrants through a meta-synthesis of selected literature that reveals a dynamic interplay of traditional Chinese beliefs about oral health, immigration, and structural factors mediating access to Western dentistry. It also identifies several conceptual issues and gaps in knowledge, offers avenues of research including the cross-cultural application of two recent models of oral health, and discusses various strategies for improving access to dental services for minority populations.

  5. Functional Pathways of Social Support for Mental Health in Work and Family Domains Among Chinese Scientific and Technological Professionals.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yiqun; Gan, Tingting; Chen, Zhiyan; Miao, Miao; Zhang, Kan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the role of social support in the complex pattern of associations among stressors, work-family interferences and depression in the domains of work and family. A questionnaire was administered to a nationwide sample of 11,419 Chinese science and technology professionals. Several structural equation models were specified to determine whether social support functioned as a predictor or a mediator. Using Mplus 5.0, we compared the moderation model, the independence model, the antecedent model and the mediation model. The results revealed that the relationship between work-family interference and social support was domain specific. The independence model fit the data best in the work domain. Both the moderation model and the antecedent model fit the family domain data equally well. The current study was conducted to answer the need for comprehensive investigations of cultural uniqueness in the antecedents of work-family interference. The domain specificity, i.e. the multiple channels of the functions of support in the family domain and not in the work domain, ensures that this study is unique and culturally specific. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Scientific publications on portal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome: a global survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingshun; Jia, Jia; Ren, Weirong; Yang, Man; De Stefano, Valerio; Wang, Juan; Fan, Daiming

    2014-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) are two rare vascular disorders of the liver that can lead to life-threatening complications. We conducted a global survey to systematically analyze the scientific publications in the fields of PVT and BCS. All papers regarding PVT and BCS were identified via the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. The publication year, country, type of paper, study design, and number of citations were summarized. Good quality papers were defined as those in which a high proportion of homogeneous patients with BCS and/or PVT was observed. We identified 6691 and 4325 papers regarding PVT and BCS, respectively. The number of papers gradually increased over time. Researchers from the USA published the greatest number of papers (PVT: n=1418; BCS: n=888). Clinical studies were the most common type of paper (PVT: n=5395; BCS n=3171), but fewer than half of these observed more than 10 patients (PVT: n=2667/5395; BCS: n=1092/3171). Furthermore, fewer than half of the clinical studies with more than 10 patients were of good quality (PVT: 976/2667; BCS: 466/1092). According to the study design, the good quality papers were classified as cohort studies (PVT: n=865; BCS: n=421), case-control studies (PVT: n=98; BCS: n=45), and randomized controlled trials (PVT: n=13; BCS: n=0). The 5 most frequently cited original articles and guidelines/consensuses were also listed. Despite an increase in the number of papers regarding PVT and BCS over time, most of the papers had a small sample size, suggesting the necessity of large cohort studies or randomized controlled trials.

  7. [The attitude among nursing professionals and students when facing death: a review of the scientific literature of the last decade].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Hormanez, Marília

    2013-09-01

    Nursing professionals are integral members of the healthcare team and they maintain the most direct and prolonged contact with patients experiencing a terminal illness. This integrative review of the literature sought to investigate the attitude towards death among nursing professionals and students. Data were collected through searches in Lilacs, Medline, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using the key words "nurses" and "attitude to death" in the period from 2000 to 2011. Of the 1376 articles identified, 262 were selected for data extraction and 35 were downloaded in full, constituting the corpus of research. The results showed a predominance of articles published in Brazilian journals. Studies indicate that the subject of death and dying has been neglected in training institutions, which causes hardship among professionals and nursing students when faced with the issue in practice, in addition to inappropriate conduct when dealing with patients who are experiencing the end of life process. In conclusion, the need for future research that may provide more detailed clarifications on the subject and seek strategies to address the lack of preparation and support of the nursing staff when they cope with death and dying was emphasized.

  8. Research trend analysis of study areas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on the spatial information mining from scientific literatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin

    2011-11-01

    The subject intersection becomes one of the hot research topics recently. It is a new direction to integrate the GIS technologies with Bibliometrics. The literatures concerned with geosciences normally involve some spatial related information. In this paper, the spatial information of the study area and sampling or observing points was extracted. Then these data were analyzed and presented by using the GIS technologies. The results indicate that there are big variations of the spatial distribution. For the whole Qinghai-Tibet plateau, the degree of interest increase as follow: southwest, northwest, southeast, and northeast. For the regions, Qilian Mountains, Qiangtang plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Road and Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Qinghai Lake, and Sichuan-Tibet Road are the hotspot regions. There are differences of the distribution characteristics in the different segments along the latitudinal direction and longitudinal direction. There is transfer tendency from middle Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Most of sampling and observing points are close to the traffic lines. The point numbers decrease quickly along with the increasing distance to the traffic lines.

  9. The unusual stability of TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene): A review of the scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.F.; Simpson, R.L.

    1990-07-04

    This review is intended as an up-to-date review of the scientific literature on TATB since its discovery as a high explosive. In particular, it focuses on clarifying our current understanding of the relationship between the structure of TATB and its unique thermal stability. We review a large number of different publications by many authors. A small portion of the work on TATB'' presented actually consists of experimental studies on TATB formulated as PBX-9502 or as LX-17. Where relevant, this distinction is indicated. However, inasmuch as this review focuses on thermal response and the relationship of chemical reactivity to the molecular and lattice structure of TATB as a pure material, results from these other formulations may not be directly applicable, and in general we have omitted them. 4 refs.

  10. The Chinese drinking problem: a review of the literature and its implication in a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Jen

    2002-11-01

    Alcoholism as a problem has never been widely understood in Chinese society. The rarity of alcoholism in Chinese society may be due to marked sensitivity to alcohol, associated with high levels of acetaldehyde, in this population. In addition, sociocultural reasons such as alcoholic beverages generally being consumed only at parties and during mealtimes, strong social sanctions against drunkards and drunken behavior, and the presence of a strong Confucian moral ethic, have accounted for the drinking behavior of Chinese individuals. However, there is evidence that alcohol consumption and the prevalence of alcoholism have skyrocketed in the past 40 years in Taiwan. Social and cultural changes may be expected to affect the incidence and prevalence of alcoholism and other mental disorders in terms of changes in a traditional culture, and social integration-disintegration. Differences in methodology for case identification, and the fact that Chinese alcoholic patients do not seek psychiatric treatment primarily for drinking problems, are also considered to account for some of the discrepancy between the actual rate and the lower identified rate of alcoholism. It can also be speculated that the low rate of alcoholism in psychiatric settings depends largely on the attitudes of patients, their families, and the general public towards drinking problems. Hence, this paper will review the theories and compare epidemiologic data about drinking problems in Chinese individuals, and then point to areas for future research.

  11. Application of geochemical logging for palaeoenvironmental research in the Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project-SK-2e, Songliao Basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Zou, Changchun; Pan, Li; Niu, Yixiong

    2017-08-01

    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project of the Cretaceous Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) provides an excellent opportunity to understand the response of terrestrial environments to greenhouse climate change in the Cretaceous. We conducted a palaeoenvironmental study of the Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K2qn) based on geochemical log data from the SK-2 east borehole. According to the characteristic of Ti mainly from terrigenous minerals, the content of authigenic elements was calculated. Correlation space was proposed to study the variation of the correlation between two log curves along the depth. Palaeoenvironmental proxies were selected from log data to study the evolution of the climate and lake, productivity of the paleolake, and organic matter deposition. The results demonstrate that the productivity of the paleolake was driven by chemical weathering in K2qn, in which the first section of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) has higher productivity than the second and third sections of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn2+3). The high content of pyrite in several thin layers reveals lake water of high sulfate concentration. This may have been caused by acid rain related to large volcanic activity. In K2qn2+3, several periods of high productivity without the formation of source rocks and high organic matter content were identified. This may show that organic matter deposition was limited by low accommodation space or oxidation environment. Therefore, the preservation condition is suggested as the main controlling factor of organic matter deposition in K2qn.

  12. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  13. Hepatotoxicity by combination treatment of temozolomide, artesunate and Chinese herbs in a glioblastoma multiforme patient: case report review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Schöttler, Ursula; Krishna, Sanjeev; Schmiedek, Peter; Wenz, Frederik; Giordano, Frank A

    2017-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents an aggressive tumor type with poor prognosis. The majority of GBM patients cannot be cured. There is high willingness among patients for the compassionate use of non-approved medications, which might occasionally lead to profound toxicity. A 65-year-old patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been treated with radiochemotherapy including temozolomide (TMZ) after surgery. The treatment outcome was evaluated as stable disease with a tendency to slow tumor progression. In addition to standard medication (ondansetron, valproic acid, levetiracetam, lorazepam, clobazam), the patient took the antimalarial drug artesunate (ART) and a decoction of Chinese herbs (Coptis chinensis, Siegesbeckia orientalis, Artemisia scoparia, Dictamnus dasycarpus). In consequence, the clinical status deteriorated. Elevated liver enzymes were noted with peak values of 238 U/L (GPT/ALAT), 226 U/L (GOT/ASAT), and 347 U/L (γ-GT), respectively. After cessation of ART and Chinese herbs, the values returned back to normal and the patient felt well again. In the literature, hepatotoxicity is well documented for TMZ, but is very rare for ART. Among the Chinese herbs used, Dictamnus dasycarpus has been reported to induce liver injury. Additional medication included valproic acid and levetiracetam, which are also reported to exert hepatotoxicity. While all drugs alone may bear a minor risk for hepatotoxicity, the combination treatment might have caused increased liver enzyme activities. It can be speculated that the combination of these drugs caused liver injury. We conclude that the compassionate use of ART and Chinese herbs is not recommended during standard radiochemotherapy with TMZ for GBM.

  14. [Definition and application of clinical-mimetic research in animal models with syndromes of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-xun; Li, Xin-zhi; Ren, Jian-xun

    2008-07-01

    On the base of reviewing the current literatures concerning the animal models with syndromes of Chinese medicine and investigating thee present state of the syndrome models, the authors have put forward a definition that research of animal models with the syndromes of Chinese medicine should be combined with clinical methods, and commented the potential application. Further it was suggested that clinical methods should be used in the exploration of scientific principles and the progresses on syndromes of Chinese medicine. In addition, intervene and evaluation of Chinese herbal medicine in animal model with integrated diseases and syndromes should be emphasized to establish a platform with special properties of TCM.

  15. One «Both» Sex«es»: Observations, suppositions, and airy speculations on fetal sex anatomy in British scientific literature, 1794-1871.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The hegemony of the two-sex paradigm in the European scientific imagination and wider culture did not automatically equate to the hegemony of two discrete genders. In fact, two sexes facilitated a variety of gender choices: two singular and a number of double or otherwise intersexed (most commonly referred to as "hermaphrodite" or "bisexual" in its anatomical sense). This article explores some key British medical and allied scientific texts, with reference to associated Continental literature, as a means of illustrating the complexity of the two-sex paradigm and the unexpected transformation of gender possibilities that it helped produce through the early and middle decades of the nineteenth century. Discourses surrounding the first direct observations of the earliest development of fetal urinogenital anatomy were pivotal. The prevailing view that the incipient embryo was sexually undifferentiated (a paragon of the one-sex paradigm) was challenged by the Edinburgh anatomist Robert Knox, initially as he sought to bolster his professional reputation at the height of the Burke and Hare "body-snatching" scandal. Knox suggested that every embryo began life in an essentially dual-sexed state, an individual's sex anatomy depending on the greater or lesser development of component female and male structures. Greater clarification on the contested status of the homology-hermaphrodite distinction was achieved with the discovery of the early co-existence of the excretory duct of the Wolffian body (mesonephric duct) and the Müllerian duct (paramesonephric duct), an observation that made anatomical bisexuality difficult to ignore. The nineteenth-century's greatest champion of primordial hermaphroditism was Charles Darwin who was pivotal in phylogenizing the principle and establishing the premise that (in his own words) "Every man & woman is hermaphrodite," a foundation stone of late-nineteenth-century sexology.

  16. Epidemiology of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients: a single-center experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Linlin; Xie, Zelin; Guo, Yuwen; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Zhu, Yichen; Tian, Ye

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the incidence and types of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients and the risk factors associated with malignancy. Data from 3,462 patients who underwent renal transplantation at Beijing Friendship Hospital were combined with data from 26 previous reports describing malignancy rates in 27,170 Chinese renal transplant recipients. Between 1974 and 2014, 179/3,462 (5.17 %) patients who underwent renal transplantation at our center developed malignancy. The most common site of malignancy was the urinary system, and the most common type was urothelial transitional cell carcinoma. Combined data from our center and previous reports showed malignancy in 671 (2.19 %) Chinese renal transplant recipients. The ten most common malignancies were urothelial transitional cell carcinoma (n = 283), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 68), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 63), renal cell carcinoma (n = 42), lymphoma (n = 42), lung cancer (n = 28), breast cancer (n = 19), skin cancer (n = 18), Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 12), and cervical cancer (n = 10). The incidence of post-transplant malignancy in renal transplant recipients was lower in China than the reported rates in other countries, and the most common sites of malignancy were the urinary and digestive system. The relative frequency of malignancy sites differed between northern and southern China. Renal transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppressive therapy should receive careful follow-up, including annual or biannual screening for malignancy in high-risk individuals.

  17. The first step in the development of Text Mining technology for Cancer Risk Assessment: identifying and organizing scientific evidence in risk assessment literature.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna; Silins, Ilona; Sun, Lin; Stenius, Ulla

    2009-09-22

    One of the most neglected areas of biomedical Text Mining (TM) is the development of systems based on carefully assessed user needs. We have recently investigated the user needs of an important task yet to be tackled by TM -- Cancer Risk Assessment (CRA). Here we take the first step towards the development of TM technology for the task: identifying and organizing the scientific evidence required for CRA in a taxonomy which is capable of supporting extensive data gathering from biomedical literature. The taxonomy is based on expert annotation of 1297 abstracts downloaded from relevant PubMed journals. It classifies 1742 unique keywords found in the corpus to 48 classes which specify core evidence required for CRA. We report promising results with inter-annotator agreement tests and automatic classification of PubMed abstracts to taxonomy classes. A simple user test is also reported in a near real-world CRA scenario which demonstrates along with other evaluation that the resources we have built are well-defined, accurate, and applicable in practice. We present our annotation guidelines and a tool which we have designed for expert annotation of PubMed abstracts. A corpus annotated for keywords and document relevance is also presented, along with the taxonomy which organizes the keywords into classes defining core evidence for CRA. As demonstrated by the evaluation, the materials we have constructed provide a good basis for classification of CRA literature along multiple dimensions. They can support current manual CRA as well as facilitate the development of an approach based on TM. We discuss extending the taxonomy further via manual and machine learning approaches and the subsequent steps required to develop TM technology for the needs of CRA.

  18. The first step in the development of text mining technology for cancer risk assessment: identifying and organizing scientific evidence in risk assessment literature

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Anna; Silins, Ilona; Sun, Lin; Stenius, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the most neglected areas of biomedical Text Mining (TM) is the development of systems based on carefully assessed user needs. We have recently investigated the user needs of an important task yet to be tackled by TM -- Cancer Risk Assessment (CRA). Here we take the first step towards the development of TM technology for the task: identifying and organizing the scientific evidence required for CRA in a taxonomy which is capable of supporting extensive data gathering from biomedical literature. Results The taxonomy is based on expert annotation of 1297 abstracts downloaded from relevant PubMed journals. It classifies 1742 unique keywords found in the corpus to 48 classes which specify core evidence required for CRA. We report promising results with inter-annotator agreement tests and automatic classification of PubMed abstracts to taxonomy classes. A simple user test is also reported in a near real-world CRA scenario which demonstrates along with other evaluation that the resources we have built are well-defined, accurate, and applicable in practice. Conclusion We present our annotation guidelines and a tool which we have designed for expert annotation of PubMed abstracts. A corpus annotated for keywords and document relevance is also presented, along with the taxonomy which organizes the keywords into classes defining core evidence for CRA. As demonstrated by the evaluation, the materials we have constructed provide a good basis for classification of CRA literature along multiple dimensions. They can support current manual CRA as well as facilitate the development of an approach based on TM. We discuss extending the taxonomy further via manual and machine learning approaches and the subsequent steps required to develop TM technology for the needs of CRA. PMID:19772619

  19. Systematic Review of Chinese Medicine for Miscarriage during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy. PMID:24648851

  20. Noble gas composition and 40Ar/39Ar age in eclogites from the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Jens; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Hanel, Michael; Altherr, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    We present the first comprehensive noble gas study on eclogites. The four eclogite samples were recovered during the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling and are from two distinct profile depth sections differing in their degree of interaction with meteoric water, based on their δ 18O-values (surface related and of mantle-type). Hence, noble gas analyses offer the potential to further discriminate between shallow (meteoric) and deep (mantle) fluid sources. Noble gas compositions reveal typical crustal fluid compositions, characterized by a variable mixture of atmospheric gases with significant contributions of nucleogenic neon, radiogenic 4He*, radiogenic 40Ar*, fissiogenic 131-136Xe, and presumably bariogenic 131Xe, but no significant addition of mantle gases. This signature can be also considered to represent one endmember component of eclogitic diamonds. Concentrations of non-radiogenic noble gases are rather low, with depletion of light relative to the heavier noble gases. Eclogites from lower depth which experienced a higher degree of interaction with meteoric water also showed higher contributions of atmospheric gas compared with eclogites recovered from greater depth. This is interpreted to result from interaction with high-salinity fluids during ultrahigh pressure (UH P). It demonstrates that the atmospheric noble gas abundance is a proxy for interaction with surface related fluids. 40Ar/39Ar (inverse) isochron ages of two phengite separates (241.2 ± 0.4 Ma and 275.0 ± 1.8 Ma, 1 σ-errors) predate the main phase of UH P metamorphism (ca. 220 Ma). Biotite yields an integrated age of about 1100 Ma. These age values are interpreted to reflect the likely addition of excess 40Ar without any chronological meaning.

  1. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development.

  2. Widespread Use of Misidentified Cell Line KB (HeLa): Incorrect Attribution and Its Impact Revealed through Mining the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Liwen; Glänzel, Wolfgang; Korch, Christopher; Capes-Davis, Amanda

    2017-06-01

    Continuous cell lines are widely used, but can result in invalid, irreproducible research data. Cell line misidentification is a common problem that can be detected by authentication testing; however, misidentified cell lines continue to be used in publications. Here we explore the impact of one misidentified cell line, KB (HeLa), on the scientific literature. We identified 574 articles between 2000 and 2014 that provided an incorrect attribution for KB, in accordance with its false identity as oral epidermoid carcinoma, but only 57 articles that provided a correct attribution for KB, as HeLa or cervical adenocarcinoma. Statistical analysis of 57 correct and 171 incorrect articles showed that the number of citations to these articles increased over time. Content analysis of 200 citing articles showed there was a tendency to describe the cell line in accordance with the description in the cited paper. Analysis of journal impact factor showed no significant difference between correct and incorrect groups. Articles using KB or citing that usage were most frequently published in the subject areas of pharmacology, pharmacy, oncology, and medicinal chemistry. These findings are important for science policy and support the need for journals to require authentication testing as a condition of publication. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2784-8. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  4. A Qualitative Study Examining the Exclusive Use of Primary Literature in a Special Topics Biology Course: Improving Conceptions about the Nature of Science and Boosting Confidence in Approaching Original Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, B. Elijah; Wiles, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of six students enrolled in a special topics biology class that exclusively used primary literature as course material. Nature of science (NOS) conceptions have been linked to students' attitudes toward scientific subjects, but there has been little research specifically exploring the effects of…

  5. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  6. The prevalence of absence of the palmaris longus--a study in a Chinese population and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, S J; Puhaindran, M E; Lim, A Y T; Lim, I J; Bee, W H

    2005-10-01

    Most standard textbooks of hand surgery quote the prevalence of absence of palmaris longus at around 15%. However, this figure varies considerably in reports from different ethnic groups. We studied 329 Chinese men and women and found palmaris longus to be absent unilaterally in 3.3%, and bilaterally in 1.2%, with an overall prevalence of absence of 4.6%. There was no significant difference in its absence with regard to the body side or the sex. Our literature review revealed a low prevalence of absence in Asian, Black and Native American populations and a much higher prevalence of absence in Caucasian populations. It is clear that a standard prevalence of absence of the palmaris longus cannot be applied to all populations.

  7. Consumption of anabolic steroids in sport, physical activity and as a drug of abuse: an analysis of the scientific literature and areas of research.

    PubMed

    Agulló-Calatayud, V; González-Alcaide, G; Valderrama-Zurián, J C; Aleixandre-Benavent, R

    2008-02-01

    The consumption of anabolic steroids (AS) has been growing continuously in recent years. It has gone beyond the sports world; AS are now widely used as drugs of abuse in connection with bodybuilding. This study sets out to assess the state of scientific research in the area. Bibliometrics were employed to evaluate the literature retrieved from the principal relevant bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, SportDiscus, the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index. The core journals were identified along with the leading authors and research groups and their institutional affiliations. Techniques based on social network analysis were applied in order to build up a concept map of research. 1325 documents were retrieved. They were produced by 3131 different researchers giving a Collaboration Index of 3.32. The institutions with the most productive authors were Ball State University (Muncie, IN, USA), the Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Nantes (ENVN), the Institut Municipal dInvestigació Mèdica (IMIM) (Barcelona, Spain), the Institute of Biochemistry of the German Sport University Cologne (DSHS), Iowa State University, Maastricht University and the University of Iowa. It was concluded that there has been an upward trend in the number of research projects. The sources used complemented one another, as 78.04% of the documents retrieved were unique to one source. The productivity ranking was headed by sports medicine journals, followed by journals of chemistry, physiology, endocrinology and substance abuse. Besides sporting activities, the most important research clusters were those connected with bodybuilding and with youth groups.

  8. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Elmberg, Johan; Berg, Charlotte; Lerner, Henrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Hessel, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila, and Borrelia. Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted. PMID:28567210

  9. P, T conditions of the CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites; importance of ferric estimation based on Mössbauer and micro-XANES analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Jahn, B.; Yui, T.; Akasaka, M.; Xu, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Recent UHP experiments in C-O-H fluid-bearing MORB system have revealed that phase change and fluid composition depend on oxygen fugacity (e.g. Molina and Poli, 2000). If oxygen fugacities represented by the equilibrium NNO (Ni-NiO) or FMQ (fayalie-magnetite-quartz) are assumed to be the average condition of UHP metamorphism, then the phase assemblages of UHP rocks are expected to have graphite/diamond only, graphite/diamond +carbonates, or carbonates only depending on the bulk compositions (Poli and Fumagalli, 2004). CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) samples are probably the best for identification of C- species in UHP rocks. We investigated nine eclogites from various depths (170 to 2000 m). Under the microscope, the eclogites contain garnet, clinopyroxene. quartz and rutile with or without phengite, graphite, apatite, zircon, pyrite, talc, and K-feldspar. Graphite is always recognized with pyrite, suggesting oxygen fugacity was low (NNO) at UHP stage. The presence of graphite suggests that the eclogites released H2O-rich (CO2- poor) fluids and melt at UHP stage. The studied eclogites contain CaEs component in clinopyroxene. Therefore, Fe3+ content can not be calculated based on EPMA analysis. We estimated Fe3+/Fe2+ based on Mossbauer and micro-XANES analysis. With ignoring the Fe3+, P-T conditions based on the assemblage of phengite-garnet-cpx- (coesite) can be estimated as P=3-5 GPa, and T = 850-950 oC. However, the Fe3+ estimation from the clinopyroxenes based on Mössbauer and micro-XANES analysis corrects the P, T condition as 3-4 GPa, and 650 -780 oC. The geothermobarometry based on the kyanite-garnet-cpx- phengite-coesite assemblage (Ravna and Terry, 2004) is reliable because temperature estimation is independent from Fe3+ content in clinopyroxene. The estimation from one eclogite gives P=3.4 GPa, and T=750oC, quite consistent with the above estimation. The thermometry based on Zr concentration from rutile also gives estimated as 600 to 730 o

  10. Limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome in a Chinese family with novel mutations in MUSK gene and literature review.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xinghua; Tian, Wotu; Cao, Li

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical and genetic features of a Chinese congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) patient with two novel missense mutations in muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MUSK) gene and review 15 MUSK-related CMS patients from 8 countries. The patient was a 30-year-old man with chronic progressively proximal limb weakness for 22 years and diagnosed as muscular dystrophy before. Serum creatine kinase (CK) was normal. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test showed decrements at low rate stimulation. Weakness became worse after conventional doses of pyridostigmine. Mild multiple atrophy of thigh and leg muscle was observed in MRI. Open muscle biopsy and genetic analysis were performed. One hundred healthy individuals were set for control. Muscle biopsy showed mild variation in fiber size. Two missense mutations in MUSK gene (p.P650T and p.I795S) were identified in the patient. The mutation of p.I795S was identified in his father and p.P650T in his mother. Both of them were not detected among the healthy controls and predicted to be damaging or disease causing by prediction tools. In this study, we identified a limb-girdle CMS (LG-CMS) patient carrying two novel heterozygous missense mutations in MUSK gene. CMS related genes should be analyzed in patients with limb-girdle weakness, normal CK, decrement of CMAP at RNS and mild change in muscle biopsy or MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Writing-Intensive Course Improves Biology Undergraduates' Perception and Confidence of Their Abilities to Read Scientific Literature and Communicate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Sara E.; Price, Jordan V.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of…

  12. A Writing-Intensive Course Improves Biology Undergraduates' Perception and Confidence of Their Abilities to Read Scientific Literature and Communicate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Sara E.; Price, Jordan V.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of…

  13. The optical imaging of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy in a Chinese young man and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Hu, Yuedong

    2017-09-01

    We report a case of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy with typical optical imaging and clinical features. A 26-year-old Chinese policeman presented with a 20-day history of paracentral scotoma in the left eye after early wake-up and long-time working in front of computer the day before. He experienced sudden-onset strong flash in his left eye. Paracentral scotoma appeared in his left eye after 6hours of rest. The general history was negative. His best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 OU. Anterior segment, dilated fundus examination, papillary evaluation and intraocular pressure were normal. Fuorescein angiography and blue light fundus autofluorescence showed no significant abnormality. In multicolor photography, the lesion was visible on the monochromic infrared/blue reflectance images and not clear in green reflectance. The 10 degree visual field examination revealed superior paracentral relative scotoma. Multifocal electroretinogram revealed reduced response in central area in the left eye. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed that hyperreflective plaque was present at the IPL/INL/OPL level with hyperreflective point at the GCL. The plaque became thinner 3 months later and diminished 6 months later with obviously atrophied INL. In the 3 months follow-up, transverse scan revealed that there was a well-demarcated hypo-refractive lesion in IPL and hyper-refractive lesion in INL. OCTA revealed the deceased flow signal intensity of focal deep capillaries. En face OCT imaging of the left eye revealed a relative well-defined, hypo-refractive lesion and non-flow area localized at the level of the deep capillary plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pythium Insidiosum Corneal Ulcer in a Chinese Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    He, Hong; Liu, Hongshan; Chen, Xiaolian; Wu, Jiaochan; He, Miao; Zhong, Xingwu

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 7 Final Diagnosis: Pythium insidiosum Symptoms: Painful vision loss • red eye Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Application of multiple antifungal medicines followed by the penetrating keratoplasty Specialty: Ophthalmology Objective: Rare disease Background: Pythium insidiosum keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening disease with a high morbidity rate. It can be mis-diagnosed as fungal keratitis in clinic settings. We report a case of severe Pythium insidiosum keratitis in a Chinese child, treated with combined approaches. Case Report: A 7-year-old boy from Hainan province in the south of China developed a suppurative corneal ulcer after being in a forest. A mass of hyphae was detected by confocal imaging in vivo, fungal smear test, and histochemical examination. Treatment with Natamycin, fluconazole, and Voriconazole for 1 month was unsuccessful, and a penetrating keratoplasty with anterior vitrectomy was performed. The infection reappeared 1 day after surgery, immediately after which anterior chamber irrigation with 0.02% Fluconazole and amphotericin B solution was performed. Finally, the globe was saved and there was no further recurrent infection. A cultured mycelial organism, which was hard to identify by biomorphology, was confirmed by PCR to be Pythium insidiosum. The zoospores were observed in water environments. The imaging characteristics of P. insidiosum in confocal microscopy are described herein. Conclusions: This is the first case of Pythium insidiosum keratitis reported in China. It can be misdiagnosed as fungal keratitis in the clinic. Improving the awareness of clinicians, promoting early diagnosis, and a multidisciplinary approach, especially early surgery, improve the prognosis. PMID:28025573

  15. [Chinese literature review of etiology distribution of adult patients with fever of unknown origin from 1979 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xing-yu; He, Quan-ying

    2013-12-01

    To review the etiology of 10 201 adult patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) in China from 1979 to 2012, and to compare the reasons between the South and the North of China, and to illustrate the change in different periods. Literatures containing key word "fever of unknown origin" were selected in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database from 1979 to 2012. Articles were excluded if patient population were less than 100. Diagnostic criteria of FUO were confirmed by the standard of Petersdorf and Beeson in 1961. Totally 43 literatures including 10 201 patients were enrolled in this study. The period of the literatures were divided into the early, middle and later period, and the regions were partitioned into the South and the North. A total of 42 articles (including 9787 patients) provided the gender information with 5063 men and 4724 women. The etiologies of 10 201 FUO patients included infectious diseases (53.5%), rheumatic diseases (20.1%) and tumor (12.0%). The positive diagnostic rate was 91.8%. Tuberculosis (23.8%) was the most common reason in infectious diseases. Adult Still's disease (7.0%) was the most common cause of FUO among rheumatic diseases. Lymphoma (3.4%) was the most common tumor in FUO patients. Besides, drug-induced fever (1.7%) should also be considered. In the recent 30 years, the proportion of FUO caused by infectious diseases had decreased, rheumatic diseases and other reason had increased (P < 0.05). The proportion of tumor in middle period was significantly higher than that in the early and later period (P < 0.05). The negative diagnostic rate had increased (all P < 0.05). The proportion of infectious diseases in North China was significantly lower than that in the South (P < 0.05). The proportion of other reason was significantly higher in the North (P < 0.05). In the recent 30 years, the most common cause of FUO was still infectious diseases, especially tuberculosis.

  16. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  17. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  18. Scientific publications in pharmacology and pharmacy journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Hu, L-H; Liao, Z; Cui, H-C; Li, Z-S

    2010-01-01

    The amount and quality of pharmacology and pharmacy research by authors from China was investigated by comparing published articles from 136 international journals (1998 - 2007) by authors from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The number of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors, number of citations and number of articles published in top general medicine journals were compared. The total number of articles increased significantly between 1998 and 2007 (from 324 to 2536 per year). In total, there were 12 021 articles: 7576 from mainland China, 3267 from Taiwan and 1178 from Hong Kong. The accumulated impact factor of the articles from mainland China (16 688.94) was much higher than for those from Taiwan (8726.92) and Hong Kong (3161.22) but, among the three regions, Hong Kong had the highest mean impact factor and the most articles published in top general medicine journals.

  19. [Linguistic-cultural differences between Chinese and Western medicine and English translation of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Lan, Feng-li

    2007-04-01

    This paper explores the influences of linguistic-cultural differences between Chinese and Western medicine on the English translation of Chinese medicinal terms/literature from such aspects as ideographic, phonetic writings and thinking modes, Chinese and Western medical terms, as well as Classic literature of Chinese medicine and medical English.

  20. Skills Training in Literature Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jie, Zou

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies some problems Chinese universities have when they offer English literature as a compulsory course to advanced level English majors. One constructive approach is discussed, and some suggestions on improving literature teaching are put forward.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  2. Kidney tubular-cell secretion of osteoblast growth factor is increased by kaempferol: a scientific basis for "the kidney controlling the bone" theory of Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Long, Mian; Li, Shun-xiang; Xiao, Jiang-feng; Wang, Jian; Lozanoff, Scott; Zhang, Zhi-guang; Luft, Benjamin J; Johnson, Francis

    2014-09-01

    To study, at the cytological level, the basic concept of Chinese medicine that "the Kidney (Shen) controls the bone". Kaempferol was isolated form Rhizoma Drynariae (Gu Sui Bu, GSB) and at several concentrations was incubated with opossum kidney (OK) cells, osteoblasts (MC3T3 E1) and human fibroblasts (HF) at cell concentrations of 2×10(4)/mL. Opossum kidney cell-conditioned culture media with kaempferol at 70 nmol/L (70kaeOKM) and without kaempferol (0OKM) were used to stimulate MC3T3 E1 and HF proliferation. The bone morphological protein receptors I and II (BMPR I and II) in OK cells were identified by immune-fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Kaempferol was found to increase OK cell growth (P<0.05), but alone did not promote MC3T3 E1 or HF cell proliferation. However, although OKM by itself increased MC3T3 E1 growth by 198% (P<0.01), the 70kaeOKM further increased the growth of these cells by an additional 127% (P<0.01). It indicates that the kidney cell generates a previously unknown osteoblast growth factor (OGF) and kaempferol increases kidney cell secretion of OGF. Neither of these media had any significant effect on HF growth. Kaempferol also was found to increase the level of the BMPR II in OK cells. This lends strong support to the original idea that the Kidney has a significant influence over bone-formation, as suggested by some long-standing Chinese medical beliefs, kaempferol may also serve to stimulate kidney repair and indirectly stimulate bone formation.

  3. The scientific basis for the use of biomechanical foot orthoses in the treatment of lower limb sports injuries--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kilmartin, T E; Wallace, W A

    1994-09-01

    While it is documented that many overuse injuries of the lower limb can be relieved with the use of biomechanical foot orthoses, what remains unclear is how an orthosis can produce this effect. A review of the literature indicates that biomechanical orthoses will reduce rearfoot movement, but the effect on knee function is negligible and the clinical significance of excessive rearfoot movement is yet to be proven. While many athletes may potentially benefit from the use of biomechanical orthoses, further research is necessary to justify and, if indicated, promote the use of biomechanical foot arthoses by athletes suffering from overuse injuries.

  4. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  5. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  6. How Did Erectile Dysfunction Become "Natural"? A Review of the Critical Social Scientific Literature on Medical Treatment for Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Emily

    2017-01-06

    This article reviews the multidisciplinary social science literature assessing the social consequences of medical treatment for male sexual dysfunction. This literature applies medicalization theory and social constructionist approaches to gender to assert that Euro-American cultural ideals of masculinity and sexuality, as well as ageism and ableism, determine which sexual changes and experiences get defined as "dysfunction" and shape the marketing and use of medical treatments for those changes. These medical responses assuage the suffering of men who become unable to meet cultural ideals for sexuality but in the process make reductive norms for male sexuality seem biologically natural. In addition, the critical social science research suggests that an economic logic underlies the process of redefining diversity and change in men's sexual function as medical pathology. However, comparative qualitative data on men's and their sexual partners' experiences of sexuality and aging across world regions suggest that people do not universally accept the narrow ideals of male sexuality embedded in medical discourse regarding men's sexual dysfunction. The diversity in people's sexual desires across the life course and their responses to sexual function change highlight the cultural nature of medical definitions of sexual dysfunction.

  7. Comparison of Journal Self-Citation Rates between Some Chinese and Non-Chinese International Journals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041

  8. Synopsis of Guidelines for the Clinical Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Consensus Recommendations Based on Systematic Literature Review by the Angioma Alliance Scientific Advisory Board Clinical Experts Panel.

    PubMed

    Akers, Amy; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; A Awad, Issam; Dahlem, Kristen; Flemming, Kelly; Hart, Blaine; Kim, Helen; Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lee, Cornelia; Morrison, Leslie; Rigamonti, Daniele; Rebeiz, Tania; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Waggoner, Darrel; Whitehead, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Despite many publications about cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), controversy remains regarding diagnostic and management strategies. To develop guidelines for CCM management. The Angioma Alliance ( www.angioma.org ), the patient support group in the United States advocating on behalf of patients and research in CCM, convened a multidisciplinary writing group comprising expert CCM clinicians to help summarize the existing literature related to the clinical care of CCM, focusing on 5 topics: (1) epidemiology and natural history, (2) genetic testing and counseling, (3) diagnostic criteria and radiology standards, (4) neurosurgical considerations, and (5) neurological considerations. The group reviewed literature, rated evidence, developed recommendations, and established consensus, controversies, and knowledge gaps according to a prespecified protocol. Of 1270 publications published between January 1, 1983 and September 31, 2014, we selected 98 based on methodological criteria, and identified 38 additional recent or relevant publications. Topic authors used these publications to summarize current knowledge and arrive at 23 consensus management recommendations, which we rated by class (size of effect) and level (estimate of certainty) according to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association criteria. No recommendation was level A (because of the absence of randomized controlled trials), 11 (48%) were level B, and 12 (52%) were level C. Recommendations were class I in 8 (35%), class II in 10 (43%), and class III in 5 (22%). Current evidence supports recommendations for the management of CCM, but their generally low levels and classes mandate further research to better inform clinical practice and update these recommendations. The complete recommendations document, including the criteria for selecting reference citations, a more detailed justification of the respective recommendations, and a summary of controversies and knowledge gaps, was

  9. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite.

  10. Non-Hematopoietic Essential Functions of Bone Marrow Cells: A Review of Scientific and Clinical Literature and Rationale for Treating Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Eugenio; Mazzucco, Laura; Gudenus, Rosmarie; Amann, Berthold; Prochazka, Vaclav; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Hendrich, Christian; Jäger, Marcus; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoiesis as the only essential function of bone marrow cells has been challenged for several decades through basic science (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical data. Such work has shed light on two other essential functions of bone marrow cells: osteopoiesis and angio-genesis/vasculogenesis. Clinical utility of autologous concentrated bone marrow aspirate (CBMA) has demonstrated both safety and efficacy in treating bone defects. Moreover, CBMA has been shown to be comparable to the gold standard of iliac crest bone graft (ICBG), or autograft, with regard to being osteogenic and osteoinductive. ICBG is not considered an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP), but CBMA may become regulated as an ATMP. The European Medicines Agency Committee for Advanced Therapies (EMA:CAT) has issued a reflection paper (20 June 2014) in which reversal of the 2013 ruling that CBMA is a non-ATMP has been proposed. We review bone marrow cell involvement in osteopoiesis and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis to examine EMA:CAT 2013 decision to use CBMA for treatment of osteonecrosis (e.g, of the femoral head) should be considered a non-ATMP. This paper is intended to provide discussion on the 20 June 2014 reflection paper by reviewing two non-hematopoietic essential functions of bone marrow cells. Additionally, we provide clinical and scientific rationale for treating osteonecrosis with CBMA. PMID:26793290

  11. Scientific literature on monosialoganglioside in the Science Citation Index-Expanded: A bibliometric analysis of articles from 1942 to 2011 by each decade.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanli; Li, Miaojing; Liu, Zhijun; Liu, Ruichun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-05

    The monosialoganglioside (GM1) is a popular topic of research but the bibliometric analysis of GM1 over the decades in Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) remains poorly understood. To identify the global research and to improve the understanding of research trends in the GM1 field from 1942 to 2011. A bibliometric study. We performed a bibliometric analysis based on the SCI-E published by the Institute of Scientific Information. Articles closely related to GM1 were included. Exclusive criteria: (1) Articles related to gangliosidosis, disialo-ganglioside, trisialo-ganglioside or ganglioside GQIb. (2) Document types such as meeting abstracts, reviews, proceedings papers, notes, and letters. (1) Type of publication output; (2) number of author outputs; (3) distribution of output in subject categories; (4) publication distribution of countries; (5) distribution of output in journals, and (6) distribution of citations in each decade. During 1942 to 2011, there were 10 126 papers on GM1 that were added to the SCI. Articles (8 004) were the most frequently used document type comprising 79.0%, followed by meeting abstracts, reviews and proceedings papers. Research on GM1 could be found in the SCI from 1942, it was developed in the 1970s, greatly increased in the 1980s, and reached a peak in the 1990s, and it was slightly decreased in 2000. The distribution of subject categories showed that GM1 research covered both clinical and basic science research. The USA, Japan, and Germany were the three most productive countries, and the publication numbers in the USA were highest in all decades. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Neurochemistry and Biochemistry were core subject journals in GM1 studies in each decade. This study highlights the topics in GM1 research that are being published around the world.

  12. Chinese Interference in English Writing: Cultural and Linguistic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yi

    This paper discusses one Chinese graduate student's experience with English writing. Through a literature review and personal interviews with other Chinese students, the paper explores the differences between Chinese and English writing. It summarizes the literature on differences between Chinese and English writing conventions in ideological and…

  13. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  14. Scientific publications in public, environmental and occupational health journals by authors from China, Japan and Korea in East Asia: A 10-year literature survey from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    To compare the number and quality of public, environmental and occupational health articles published in international journals from the 3 major non-English speaking countries of East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. Public, environmental and occupational health articles from China, Japan and Korea that were published in 161 journals from 2003 to 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, impact factors (IF), citations, number of articles in top 10 journals, references as well as the article distribution from various regions in China. From 2003 to 2012, China, Japan and Korea published 5713, 3802 and 1967 papers respectively, with accumulated impact factor of 14 934.55, 8758.36 and 6189.25, the average impact factor of 2.61, 2.30 and 3.15 and the average citation numbers per document of 5.08, 6.49 and 5.25. In the top 10 high-impact public, environmental and occupational health journals, China, Japan and Korea accounted for 50.19%, 20.34% and 29.47% of all the papers published in those journals, respectively. Total impact factors of the most popular 10 papers for China, Japan and Korea were: 26.23, 27.08 and 26.91. Distribution of scientific papers among regions was unbalanced in China, for Hong Kong and Taiwan it accounted for 47.31% of the papers from China. From 2003 to 2012, both the quality and number of papers from China published in public, environmental and occupational health journals have greatly improved. China exceeded Japan and Korea in the number, accumulated impact factor, total citation times and the average number of references, while Korea had the highest average impact factor. Japan had the highest journal impact factor among the most popular journals, and the highest average citation number per document. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving scientific knowledge

    Treesearch

    James M. Vose; David L. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature on the effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems has increased significantly over the past decade, providing a foundation for establishing forest-climate relationships and projecting the effects of continued warming on a wide range of forest resources and ecosystem services. In addition, certainty about the nature of some of...

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 28, Number 9,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 27, Number 9,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 28, Number 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 28, Number 6,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  1. EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC NOTES NO. 22-4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to both American and European scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 27, Number 11,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  3. European Scientific Notes, Volume 23, Number 12,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to both American and European scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  4. European Scientific Notes, Volume 28, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  5. European Scientific Notes. Volume 23, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  6. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  7. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  8. The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei-Xi; Sun, Yi-Min; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Luo, Su-Shan; Chen, Chen; An, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

  9. Beyond Keyword Search: Discovering Relevant Scientific Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori arginase inhibits nitric oxide production by eukary- otic cells: A strategy for bacterial survival 2001 98 13844-13849 9429 Reciprocal...between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens 2000 97 8841-8848 4 Helicobacter pylori arginase inhibits nitric oxide production by eukary- otic cells

  10. Riboflavin-responsive multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency in 13 cases, and a literature review in mainland Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Zhu, Xuan; Qi, Xueliang; Weijiang, Ding; Yu, Yajing; Wan, Hui; Hong, Daojun

    2014-05-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation and amino-acid metabolism. Most patients with late-onset MADD are well responsive to treatment with riboflavin, which is also termed as riboflavin-responsive MADD (RR-MADD). In this study, we summarized the clinical profiles and genetic features of 13 Chinese patients with RR-MADD and reanalyzed the existing data on RR-MADD patients in Mainland China. In a cohort comprising 13 patients, all were seen to present with severe muscular symptoms occasionally accompanied with mild involvements of extramuscular organs. A total of 18 mutations (13 reported and 5 novel) of the ETFDH gene were identified in this series of patients. Exon deletion/duplication was not found in all patients. ETF:QO expression from the muscle specimens was significantly decreased in all patients. At the time of this study the total number of RR-MADD cases had reached 148 in Mainland China since 2009. The muscle symptoms in Mainland China were similar to those in other regions. However, the common extramuscular symptoms were fatty liver and recurrent vomiting in mainland Chinese patients rather than encephalopathy found in Caucasian patients. A total of 68 mutations had been identified in 148 patients with RR-MADD. The c.250G>A had a high mutation frequency in Southern China, whereas c.770A>G and c.1227A>C were more geographically widespread hot spot mutations in Mainland China.

  11. A review of the scientific literature related to the adverse impact of physical restraint: gaining a clearer understanding of the physiological factors involved in cases of restraint-related death.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Richard; Stirling, Chris; Pandyan, Anand D

    2012-07-01

    Deaths occurring during and/or in close proximity to physical restraint have been attributed to positional asphyxia, a conclusion primarily based on opinion and reviews of case studies. This review sought to identify the current scientific evidence available in regard to the aetiology of adverse events or death occurring during or in close proximity to physical restraint. A systematic search of electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO) for papers published in English, between 1980 and 2011, using keywords that related to restraint, restraint position and cardiovascular function resulted in 11 experimental papers being found for review. The term positional asphyxia as a mechanism for sudden death is poorly understood. The literature shows that restraint position has the ability to impede life-maintaining physiological functions, but that the imposed impediment is not uniform across all restraint positions/techniques. Further research is required to ascertain the risks posed by struggling during restraint for more prolonged periods of time and in different positions using varied techniques of restraint. This research should seek to and rank known or future risk factors of adverse events occurring during restraint, seeking to understand the interactions and if present the cumulative effect of these risk factors. Finally, future research should focus on populations other than apparently healthy male adults.

  12. Literature and medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, R S

    1991-01-01

    There are various ways in which medicine and literature interact, but this paper concentrates on the contribution which literature can make to 'whole person understanding'. Scientific understanding is concerned with seeing events and actions in terms of patterns or similarities. But 'whole person understanding' is concerned with uniqueness or with what it is for a given person to have an illness. Literature can in various ways develop this kind of understanding. PMID:1870090

  13. Tracking the Current Rise of Chinese Pharmaceutical Bionanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Tim; Herron, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Context and Purpose of the Study Over the last decade China has emerged as a major producer of scientific publications, currently ranking second behind the US. During that time Chinese strategic policy initiatives have placed indigenous innovation at the heart of its economy while focusing internal R&D investments and the attraction of foreign investment in nanotechnology as one of their four top areas. China’s scientific research publication and nanotechnology research publication production has reached a rank of second in the world, behind only the US. Despite these impressive gains, some scholars argue that the quality of Chinese nanotech research is inferior to US research quality due to lower overall times cited rates, suggesting that the US is still the world leader. We combine citation analysis, text mining, mapping, and data visualization to gauge the development and application of nanotechnology in China, particularly in biopharmananotechnology, and to measure the impact of Chinese policy on nanotechnology research production. Results, the main findings Our text mining-based methods provide results that counter existing claims about Chinese nanotechnology research quality. Due in large part to its strategic innovation policy, China’s output of nanotechnology publications is on pace to surpass US production in or around 2012.A closer look at Chinese nanotechnology research literature reveals a large increase in research activity in China’s biopharmananotechnology research since the implementation in January, 2006 of China’s Medium & Long Term Scientific and Technological Development Plan Guidelines for the period 2006-2020 (“MLP”). Since the implementation of the MLP, China has enjoyed a great deal of success producing bionano research findings while attracting a great deal of foreign investment from pharmaceutical corporations setting up advanced drug discovery operations. Given the combination of current scientific

  14. CYP1B1 gene mutations with incomplete penetrance in a Chinese pedigree with primary congenital glaucoma: a case report and review of literatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Huang, Lina; Zeng, Aineng; He, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) mutations in a three-generation Chinese Han family with PCG, the 2 and 3 coding exons of CYP1B1 gene were amplified by PCR, and were directly sequenced using Sanger bidirectional sequencing reactions. The mutation c.517 G>A p.E173K was detected in all the affected individuals (which showed homozygous AA genotype) and not in all the unaffected ones except one individual. The mutation c.517 G>A p.E173K is associated with disease causing in this pedigree. And the possible genetic model is recessive inheritance. One apparently unaffected individual had mutations and haplotypes identical to her affected sibs suggested incomplete penetrance in this pedigree. PMID:26550445

  15. Confirmation of genetic homogeneity of syndactyly type IV and triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome in a Chinese family and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dai, Limeng; Guo, Hong; Meng, Hui; Zhang, Kun; Hu, Hua; Yao, Hong; Bai, Yun

    2013-11-01

    Syndactyly type IV (SD4) is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by complete cutaneous syndactyly of all fingers accompanied with polydactyly. Triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS) consists of a triphalangeal thumb, polydactyly, and syndactyly and is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner with variable expression. Genomic duplications of the long-range limb-specific cis-regulator (ZRS) cause SD4 and TPTPS. Here, we report two individuals from a Chinese family with syndactyly. One individual had overlapping clinical symptoms of TPTPS and SD4, while the other had a typical SD4 with postaxial polydactyly of the toe. Results of quantitative PCR suggested that the duplication of ZRS involved all affected individuals, and array comparative genomic hybridization detected its size as 115.3 kb. This work confirms the genetic homogeneity of SD4 and TPTPS. Our result expands the spectrum of ZRS duplications. TPTPS and SD4 should be considered as a continuum of phenotypes.

  16. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency caused by R457H mutation in POR gene in Chinese: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-03-14

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare disease exhibiting a variety of clinical manifestations. It can be difficult to differentiate with other diseases such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). Nearly 100 cases of PORD have been reported worldwide. However, the genetic characters and clinical management are still unclear, especially in China. In this study, we report a 27-year-old female Chinese patient who first presented with amenorrhea and recurrence of large ovary cyst. She was misdiagnosed with PCOS and non-classical 21-OHD due to ovary cysts and elevated 17-hydroxy-progesterone. The patient's complaining of a mild difficulty of bending the metacarpophalangeal joints reminded us to consider PORD, which usually presents with skeletal deformities and sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of PORD was confirmed by genetic analyses, which showed the patient harboring a homozygous missense mutation in the POR gene (R457H) and her parents carrying the heterozygous mutation. The patient was treated with low-dose corticosteroids and estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy, and her ovarian cyst gradually reduced with regular menstruation in the follow-up. Moreover, the clinical and genetic characteristics of 104 previously reported PORD cases were also summarized and analyzed. PORD is a very rare disease which can be easily misdiagnosed in mild cases. Clinicians should keep in mind of this disease in patients with sexual dysfunction, especially combined with special skeletal deformities. Our data could provide a consciously understanding of this disease for clinic practicers. Low-dose corticosteroids combined with estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy will be effective in PORD patients with recurrence of large ovary cyst. The fact that the reported PORD patients in China carrying an identical variant R457H in POR gene also give us a viewpoint that R457H mutation in POR gene maybe

  17. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  18. Management and Organizational Technologies of Chinese Rural Youth Programs. A Scientific Exchange of Rural Youth Programs between the U.S.A. and the People's Republic of China (April 8-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    An official delegation of Americans representing the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant colleges visited the People's Republic of China (PRC) to study the management and organization of the Chinese agricultural extension systems and to identify areas for the Chinese authorities to…

  19. Scientific Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    1919 paper (ref. 9), in which he suggested a Moon rocket. Rock- etry was on a par with extrasensory perception in those days. 38 SCIENTIFIC SA&TLLITES...this way, images of sky can be taken at different wavelengths. The perceptive reader will note that the two zodiacal-light ex- periments described

  20. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  1. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 25, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 28, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 28, Number 12,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents articles about recent developments in European scientific research. Although this information is not a contribution to the scientific literature, it is intended to aid American scientists by reporting events and results well in advance of most of the scientific publications and the trade journals.

  5. European Scientific Notes, Volume 24, Number 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to both American and European scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 31, Number 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-31

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  7. European Scientific Notes. Volume 31, Number 9,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advanced of the usual scientific publications .

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 29, Number 6,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  9. European Scientific Notes, Volume 25, Number 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  10. European Scientific Notes. Volume 25, Number 7,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  11. European Scientific Notes. Volume 28, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  12. European Scientific Notes, Volume 24 No. 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  13. European Scientific Notes. Volume 31, Number 6,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  14. European Scientific Notes. Volume 23, Number 9,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 24, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The document is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. The articles do not constitute part of the scientific literature but may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 29, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent development in European Scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 29, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 26, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-31

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 26, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  1. European Scientific Notes. Volume 26, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 25, Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not consititute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  3. European Scientific. Volume 31, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-31

    This a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 25, Number 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. These articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  5. European Scientific Notes Number 32-2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-28

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-31

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  7. European Scientific Notes. Volume 29, Number 9.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles which do not constitute part of the scientific literature may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 11,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  9. European Scientific Notes, Volume 28, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  10. European Scientific Notes. Volume 29, Number 11,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  11. European Scientific Notes. Volume 31, Number 7,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-31

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  12. European Scientific Notes. Volume 24, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  13. European Scientific Notes. Volume 27, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Modified author abstract)

  14. European Scientific Notes. Volume 31, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 9,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 12,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-31

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 28, Number 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 25, Number 6,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  1. European Scientific Notes. Volume 26, Number 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by disclosing interesting information in advance of the usual scientific publications .

  2. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  3. [Survey scheme of the main Chinese medicines resources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-lin; Zhang, Ben-gang; Yang, Zhi; Su, Gang-qiang; Zhao, Run-huai; Huang, Lin-fang; Ma, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jin-sheng; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2005-08-01

    The survey of Chinese medicines resources concerns the development of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. It also directly influences the modernization process of traditional Chinese medicines. Owing to lacking of the scientific data on the Chinese medicines resources, it is a extremely urgent work to carry out survey of main Chinese medicine resources in nationwide. This paper explains the meaning and necessity. And it also investigated the survey object, contents, new technologies and methods.

  4. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  5. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  6. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica.

  7. Scientific Misconduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  8. [The Yin and Yang movement in the cosmology of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Bernardo Diniz; Dulcetti, Pérola Goretti Sichero

    2015-01-01

    After being developed in the East, based on Taoist cosmology, Chinese medicine has been practiced in the West based on scientific foundations and biomedical paradigms. Some traditional elements of this philosophy were abandoned, such as the theory of Yin and Yang, knowledge that is essential for understanding the health-disease process resulting from the circulation of the body's energy flow. This article studies the movement of the dual elements of Yin and Yang in Chinese medical teaching, seeking to understand how this line of thought developed and how it has contributed towards establishing a system of diagnosis and therapy. The methodology employed was to analyze literature on the subject, based on theoretical references to Taoist thought and traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. GCDFP-15, AR, and Her-2 as biomarkers for primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland: a Chinese case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Miao-Miao; Cui, Hong-Guang; Teng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Primary ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) of the lacrimal gland is a rare malignant epithelial tumor, and its clinicopathological characteristics are still unclear. This study aimed to report a novel case of PDA of the lacrimal gland in the People’s Republic of China, as well as to determine its histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics to support early diagnosis and direct further therapy. Patient and methods Clinical data (including ocular examination, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, mammography, and serum tumor marker examination) and treatment of a 49-year-old woman with a left lacrimal gland mass, which was diagnosed as PDA of the lacrimal gland, were reported. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were performed. Eleven papers regarding this uncommon neoplasm were reviewed. Results Histopathologically, most of the tumor cells featured abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, while few of them had a frothy appearance. The mass showed breast ductal carcinoma-like structural features, which most commonly demonstrated central necrosis, while less of these features showed cord-like infiltration. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for GCDFP-15, CK 18 (++), AR (90%), Her-2 (+++), P53 (100%), and Ki-67 (with a proliferation index approximately 60%), while they were negative for ER, PR, P63, calponin, and CD 117. Conclusion This was the first Chinese case of PDA of the lacrimal gland that had been reported. We suggested that GCDFP-15, AR, and Her-2 should be tested as biomarkers for ductal adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland to confirm diagnosis, guide therapy, and further predict prognosis. PMID:25999735

  10. "Hsiao-Hsiao" and "Girl from Hunan": Teaching Chinese Narrative, Not Just Chinese Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, Stephanie

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that the study of Chinese films should be more than just merely an adjunct to Chinese literature studies but an analysis of Chinese literary adaptation in terms of the aesthetic, narrative, intellectual, and political concerns of the period in which the film adaptation was made. (six references) (CB)

  11. Scientific Eschatology

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H

    2005-03-18

    The future evolution of the universe suggested by the cosmological model proposed earlier at this meeting by the authors is explored. The fundamental role played by the positive ''cosmological constant'' is emphasized. Dyson's 1979 paper entitled ''Time Without End'' is briefly reviewed. His most optimistic scenario requires that the universe be geometrically open and that biology is structural in the sense that the current complexity of human society can be reproduced by scaling up its (quantum mechanical) structure to arbitrary size. If the recently measured ''cosmological constant'' is indeed a fundamental constant of nature, then Dyson's scenario is, for various reasons, ruled out by the finite (De Sitter) horizon due to exponential expansion of the resulting space. However, the finite temperature of that horizon does open other interesting options. If, as is suggested by the cosmology under consideration, the current exponential expansion of the universe is due to a phase transition which fixes a physical boundary condition during the early radiation dominated era, the behavior of the universe after the relevant scale factor crosses the De Sitter radius opens up still other possibilities. The relevance of Martin Rees' apocalyptic eschatology recently presented in his book ''Our Final Hour'' is mentioned. It is concluded that even for the far future, whether or not cultural and scientific descendants of the current epoch will play a role in it, an understanding (sadly, currently lacking) of community and political evolution and control is essential for a preliminary treatment of what could be even vaguely called scientific eschatology.

  12. The Chinese Remainder Problem and Polynomial Interpolation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    27709 86a 10 7 16 UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON MATEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER THE CHINESE REMAINDER PROBLEM AND POLYNOMIAL INTERPOLATION Isaac J...Classifications: lOA10, 41A10 Key Words: Chinese Remainder Theorem, Polynomial Interpolation Work Unit Number 3 (Numerical Analysis and Scientific...Street Wisconsin Numerical Analysis and Madison, Wisconsin 53705 Scientific Computing " 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE U. S

  13. Eyewitness report on Chinese satellite work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B.; Haas, S.; Harford, J.; Jaffe, L.; Nansen, R.; Schnapf, A.; Yarymovych, M.

    1980-01-01

    The article describes the current status of satellite and related technology in the People's Republic of China. Attention is given to areas of potential cooperation and scientific and technical 'exchanges'. It is reported that the Chinese technology is 'advanced, but simple' and that the Chinese showed great interest in receiving U.S. technical know-how.

  14. Chinese Students' Satisfaction of the Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qinggang; Taplin, Ross; Brown, Alistair M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Building upon McLeod and Wainwright's paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, this paper aims to use social learning theory to assess mainland Chinese students' satisfaction of the Chinese Curtin Student Accounting Academic Programme. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of mainland Chinese students enrolled…

  15. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  17. Language & Literature. Curriculum Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livonia Public Schools, MI.

    The global education curriculum presented in this booklet is offered as a model, of integrated, interdisciplinary English studies, that involves participants in cultural, scientific, ecological, and economic issues while promoting student awareness of the nature and development of world literature, languages, the arts, and their…

  18. Insect control in socialist China and the corporate United States: the act of comparison, the tendency to forget, and the construction of difference in 1970s U.S.-Chinese scientific exchange.

    PubMed

    Schmalzer, Sigrid

    2013-06-01

    In 1975, a delegation of U.S. entomologists traveled to socialist China to observe Chinese insect control science. Their overwhelmingly positive reports highlighted in relief the pernicious effects of pesticide corporations on U.S. agriculture; some entomologists hoped this would goad the United States to catch up to China in environmentally sensible insect control practices. Of course, insect control in socialist China carried its own political baggage, some of which-for example, mass mobilization and self-reliance--the state made highly visible to visitors, and some of which--for example, harsh treatment of scientists--it sought to obscure. For both the U.S. and the Chinese participants, the act of comparison itself was of primary significance in the exchange, allowing them to construct socialist Chinese science as refreshingly different from U.S. science. At the same time, however, this construction of difference meant forgetting the much longer transnational history in which U.S. and Chinese entomology had been intertwined.

  19. Fairness in scientific publishing

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Philippa C.

    2017-01-01

    Major changes are afoot in the world of academic publishing, exemplified by innovations in publishing platforms, new approaches to metrics, improvements in our approach to peer review, and a focus on developing and encouraging open access to scientific literature and data. The FAIR acronym recommends that authors and publishers should aim to make their output Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. In this opinion article, I explore the parallel view that we should take a collective stance on making the dissemination of scientific data fair in the conventional sense, by being mindful of equity and justice for patients, clinicians, academics, publishers, funders and academic institutions. The views I represent are founded on oral and written dialogue with clinicians, academics and the publishing industry. Further progress is needed to improve collaboration and dialogue between these groups, to reduce misinterpretation of metrics, to minimise inequity that arises as a consequence of geographic setting, to improve economic sustainability, and to broaden the spectrum, scope, and diversity of scientific publication. PMID:28163900

  20. [Plagiarism in scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    Similar to what occurs in literature, art and other human endeavours, every scientific report is based in previous work done by others. The new paper should add something original but a basic law of scientific honesty demands that any mention ideas, observations or thinking that has been previously proposed or published by others, should be acknowledged properly in the text and in the references. Plagiarism is identified when the authors of a scientific report use ideas or text that belong to others and present them as original, the previous source is concealed or it is referred to in a different context. The authors of a paper that contains plagiarism have the intention to mislead the readers, pretending to be the original authors of an idea that was expressed previously by others, or to be the owners of results shown by them. Plagiarism is a dishonest behaviour and, when discovered, may have dangerous consequences because the editors of the journal may publish a notice of retraction that will be inserted by Medline in both papers: the plagiarized and the plagiarizer, to be noticed by everyone who accesses to either of them in the Internet.