Science.gov

Sample records for chinese spoken language

  1. Sign Language Versus Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1978-01-01

    In the debate over continuities versus discontinuities in the emergence of language, sign language is not taken to be the antithesis, but is presented as the antecedent of spoken languages. (Author/HP)

  2. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  3. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  4. Teaching the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gillian

    1981-01-01

    Issues involved in teaching and assessing communicative competence are identified and applied to adolescent native English speakers with low levels of academic achievement. A distinction is drawn between transactional versus interactional speech, short versus long speaking turns, and spoken language influenced or not influenced by written…

  5. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  6. Recent Changes in the Spoken Polish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmayer, Sigmund S.

    Both spoken and written Polish have undergone profound changes during the past twenty-eight years. The increasing urbanization of Polish culture and the forced change in Polish society are the main factors influencing the change in the language. Indirect evidence of changes which have occurred in the vocabulary and idioms of spoken Polish in the…

  7. Professionals' Guidance about Spoken Language Multilingualism and Spoken Language Choice for Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…

  8. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  9. Development of a Spoken Language System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    military logistical transportation planning domain. " Created a videotape to illustrate these capabilities and some potential applications of spoken...34 Participated in all evaluation tests. 5 We now give a brief description of these highlights. I During this project we modified our natural language system...processor. (For this part of our system, we have found a value of N=5 to give best understanding results.) The natural language system processes these

  10. Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems Alejandro Acero and Richard M. Stern Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...applications of spectral subtraction and spectral equaliza- tion for speech recognition systems include the work of Van Compemolle [5] and Stem and Acero [12... Acero and Stem [1] proposed an approach to environment normalization in the cepstral domain, going beyond the noise stripping problem. In this paper we

  11. Predictors of Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…

  12. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  13. Speech-Language Pathologists: Vital Listening and Spoken Language Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Perigoe, Christina B.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the most effective methods and techniques to facilitate the spoken language development of individuals with hearing loss has been a focus of practitioners for centuries. Due to modern advances in hearing technology, earlier identification of hearing loss, and immediate enrollment in early intervention, children with hearing loss are…

  14. Deep bottleneck features for spoken language identification.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bing; Song, Yan; Wei, Si; Liu, Jun-Hua; McLoughlin, Ian Vince; Dai, Li-Rong

    2014-01-01

    A key problem in spoken language identification (LID) is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF) for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV), using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09) show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.

  15. Spoken Language Processing Model: Bridging Auditory and Language Processing to Guide Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwetsky, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the author's conceptualization of the key mechanisms that are engaged in the processing of spoken language, referred to as the spoken language processing model. The act of processing what is heard is very complex and involves the successful intertwining of auditory, cognitive, and language mechanisms. Spoken language…

  16. Hierarchical processing in spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2003-04-15

    Understanding spoken language requires a complex series of processing stages to translate speech sounds into meaning. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the brain regions that are involved in spoken language comprehension, fractionating this system into sound-based and more abstract higher-level processes. We distorted English sentences in three acoustically different ways, applying each distortion to varying degrees to produce a range of intelligibility (quantified as the number of words that could be reported) and collected whole-brain echo-planar imaging data from 12 listeners using sparse imaging. The blood oxygenation level-dependent signal correlated with intelligibility along the superior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere and in a less-extensive homologous area on the right, the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), and the left hippocampus. Regions surrounding auditory cortex, bilaterally, were sensitive to intelligibility but also showed a differential response to the three forms of distortion, consistent with sound-form-based processes. More distant intelligibility-sensitive regions within the superior and middle temporal gyri, hippocampus, and LIFG were insensitive to the acoustic form of sentences, suggesting more abstract nonacoustic processes. The hierarchical organization suggested by these results is consistent with cognitive models and auditory processing in nonhuman primates. Areas that were particularly active for distorted speech conditions and, thus, might be involved in compensating for distortion, were found exclusively in the left hemisphere and partially overlapped with areas sensitive to intelligibility, perhaps reflecting attentional modulation of auditory and linguistic processes.

  17. Spoken Language Research and ELT: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmis, Ivor

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between spoken language research and ELT practice over the last 20 years. The first part is retrospective. It seeks first to capture the general tenor of recent spoken research findings through illustrative examples. The article then considers the sociocultural issues that arose when the relevance of these…

  18. Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on languages spoken by English learners (ELs) are: (1) Twenty most common EL languages, as reported in states' top five lists: SY 2013-14; (2) States,…

  19. Orthographic Facilitation Effects on Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the time course of orthographic facilitation on picture naming in Chinese. We used a picture-word paradigm to investigate orthographic and phonological facilitation on monosyllabic spoken word production in native Mandarin speakers. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word…

  20. Sharing Spoken Language: Sounds, Conversations, and Told Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Jennifer; Kennedy, Anne; Stonehouse, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Infants and toddlers encounter numerous spoken story experiences early in their lives: conversations, oral stories, and language games such as songs and rhymes. Many adults are even surprised to learn that children this young need these kinds of natural language experiences at all. Adults help very young children take a step along the path toward…

  1. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition.

  2. Inferring Speaker Affect in Spoken Natural Language Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon-Barry, Heather Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The field of spoken language processing is concerned with creating computer programs that can understand human speech and produce human-like speech. Regarding the problem of understanding human speech, there is currently growing interest in moving beyond speech recognition (the task of transcribing the words in an audio stream) and towards…

  3. Properties of Spoken and Written Language. Technical Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafe, Wallace; Danielwicz, Jane

    To find differences and similarities between spoken and written English, analyses were made of four specific kinds of language. Twenty adults, either graduate students or university professors, provided a sample of each of the following: conversations, lectures, informal letters, and academic papers. Conversations and lecture samples came from…

  4. Riverside English: The Spoken Language of a Southern California Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Allan A.; And Others

    This booklet points out some of the characteristics of the varieties of English spoken in Riverside and in the rest of California. The first chapter provides a general discussion of language variation and change on the levels of vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. The second chapter discusses California English and pronunciation and vocabulary…

  5. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  6. Planum temporale: where spoken and written language meet.

    PubMed

    Nakada, T; Fujii, Y; Yoneoka, Y; Kwee, I L

    2001-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies on spoken versus written language processing were performed in 20 right-handed normal volunteers on a high-field (3.0-tesla) system. The areas activated in common by both auditory (listening) and visual (reading) language comprehension paradigms were mapped onto the planum temporale (20/20), primary auditory region (2/20), superior temporal sulcus area (2/20) and planum parietale (3/20). The study indicates that the planum temporale represents a common traffic area for cortical processing which needs to access the system of language comprehension. The destruction of this area can result in comprehension deficits in both spoken and written language, i.e. a classical case of Wernicke's aphasia.

  7. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  8. Spoken language outcomes after hemispherectomy: factoring in etiology.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, S; de Bode, S; Mathern, G W

    2001-12-01

    We analyzed postsurgery linguistic outcomes of 43 hemispherectomy patients operated on at UCLA. We rated spoken language (Spoken Language Rank, SLR) on a scale from 0 (no language) to 6 (mature grammar) and examined the effects of side of resection/damage, age at surgery/seizure onset, seizure control postsurgery, and etiology on language development. Etiology was defined as developmental (cortical dysplasia and prenatal stroke) and acquired pathology (Rasmussen's encephalitis and postnatal stroke). We found that clinical variables were predictive of language outcomes only when they were considered within distinct etiology groups. Specifically, children with developmental etiologies had lower SLRs than those with acquired pathologies (p =.0006); age factors correlated positively with higher SLRs only for children with acquired etiologies (p =.0006); right-sided resections led to higher SLRs only for the acquired group (p =.0008); and postsurgery seizure control correlated positively with SLR only for those with developmental etiologies (p =.0047). We argue that the variables considered are not independent predictors of spoken language outcome posthemispherectomy but should be viewed instead as characteristics of etiology.

  9. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  10. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.

  11. The Child's Path to Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    A major synthesis of the latest research on early language acquisition, this book explores what gives infants the remarkable capacity to progress from babbling to meaningful sentences, and what inclines a child to speak. The book examines the neurological, perceptual, social, and linguistic aspects of language acquisition in young children, from…

  12. Korean: A Guide to the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This language guide, written for United States Armed Forces personnel, serves as an introduction to the Korean language and presents important words and phrases for use in normal conversation. Linguistic expressions are classified under the following categories: (1) greetings and general phrases, (2) location, (3) directions, (4) numbers, (5)…

  13. Prosodic Parallelism—Comparing Spoken and Written Language

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015), this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed. PMID:27807425

  14. Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Spoken Language Production in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…

  15. How long-term memory and accentuation interact during spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yufang

    2013-04-01

    Spoken language comprehension requires immediate integration of different information types, such as semantics, syntax, and prosody. Meanwhile, both the information derived from speech signals and the information retrieved from long-term memory exert their influence on language comprehension immediately. Using EEG (electroencephalogram), the present study investigated how the information retrieved from long-term memory interacts with accentuation during spoken language comprehension. Mini Chinese discourses were used as stimuli, with an interrogative or assertive context sentence preceding the target sentence. The target sentence included one critical word conveying new information. The critical word was either highly expected or lowly expected given the information retrieved from long-term memory. Moreover, the critical word was either consistently accented or inconsistently de-accented. The results revealed that for lowly expected new information, inconsistently de-accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger theta power increases (4-6 Hz) than consistently accented words. In contrast, for the highly expected new information, consistently accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger alpha power decreases (8-14 Hz) than inconsistently de-accented words. The results suggest that, during spoken language comprehension, the effect of accentuation interacted with the information retrieved from long-term memory immediately. Moreover, our results also have important consequences for our understanding of the processing nature of the N400. The N400 amplitude is not only enhanced for incorrect information (new and de-accented word) but also enhanced for correct information (new and accented words).

  16. Spanish. A Guide to the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    This pocket-sized guide is designed to enable the learner to carry on simple conversations in Spanish. It is not intended to give a complete command of the Spanish language. The first section, "Useful Words and Phrases," includes these topics: Greetings and General Phrases, Location (e.g. Where is the restaurant?), Directions (e.g. to the right),…

  17. Le Francais parle. Etudes sociolinguistiques (Spoken French. Sociolinguistic Studies). Current Inquiry into Languages and Linguistics 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette

    This volume contains twelve articles dealing with the French language as spoken in Quebec. The following topics are addressed: (1) language change and variation; (2) coordinating expressions in the French spoken in Montreal; (3) expressive language as source of language change; (4) the role of correction in conversation; (5) social change and…

  18. Spoken Spanish Language Development at the High School Level: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…

  19. The Unified Phonetic Transcription for Teaching and Learning Chinese Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Jiann-Cherng

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve distinctive cultures, people anxiously figure out writing systems of their languages as recording tools. Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka languages are three major and the most popular dialects of Han languages spoken in Chinese society. Their writing systems are all in Han characters. Various and independent phonetic…

  20. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  1. The Cortical Organization of Lexical Knowledge: A Dual Lexicon Model of Spoken Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, David W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Current accounts of spoken language assume the existence of a lexicon where wordforms are stored and interact during spoken language perception, understanding and production. Despite the theoretical importance of the wordform lexicon, the exact localization and function of the lexicon in the broader context of language use is not well understood.…

  2. The Impact of Biculturalism on Language and Literacy Development: Teaching Chinese English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Chen, Chia-I; Chang, Sara; Leclere, Judith T.

    2006-01-01

    According to the 2000 United States Census, Americans age five and older who speak a language other than English at home grew 47 percent over the preceding decade. This group accounts for slightly less than one in five Americans (17.9%). Among the minority languages spoken in the United States, Asian-language speakers, including Chinese and other…

  3. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine

    2013-01-01

    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  4. Spoken English Language Development Among Native Signing Children With Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism is common throughout the world, and bilingual children regularly develop into fluently bilingual adults. In contrast, children with cochlear implants (CIs) are frequently encouraged to focus on a spoken language to the exclusion of sign language. Here, we investigate the spoken English language skills of 5 children with CIs who also have deaf signing parents, and so receive exposure to a full natural sign language (American Sign Language, ASL) from birth, in addition to spoken English after implantation. We compare their language skills with hearing ASL/English bilingual children of deaf parents. Our results show comparable English scores for the CI and hearing groups on a variety of standardized language measures, exceeding previously reported scores for children with CIs with the same age of implantation and years of CI use. We conclude that natural sign language input does no harm and may mitigate negative effects of early auditory deprivation for spoken language development. PMID:24150489

  5. Foreign Language Tutoring in Oral Conversations Using Spoken Dialog Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.

  6. Encoding lexical tones in jTRACE: a simulation of monosyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Lan; Malins, Jeffrey G

    2017-02-01

    Despite its prevalence as one of the most highly influential models of spoken word recognition, the TRACE model has yet to be extended to consider tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. A key reason for this is that the model in its current state does not encode lexical tone. In this report, we present a modified version of the jTRACE model in which we borrowed on its existing architecture to code for Mandarin phonemes and tones. Units are coded in a way that is meant to capture the similarity in timing of access to vowel and tone information that has been observed in previous studies of Mandarin spoken word recognition. We validated the model by first simulating a recent experiment that had used the visual world paradigm to investigate how native Mandarin speakers process monosyllabic Mandarin words (Malins & Joanisse, 2010). We then subsequently simulated two psycholinguistic phenomena: (1) differences in the timing of resolution of tonal contrast pairs, and (2) the interaction between syllable frequency and tonal probability. In all cases, the model gave rise to results comparable to those of published data with human subjects, suggesting that it is a viable working model of spoken word recognition in Mandarin. It is our hope that this tool will be of use to practitioners studying the psycholinguistics of Mandarin Chinese and will help inspire similar models for other tonal languages, such as Cantonese and Thai.

  7. User-Centred Design for Chinese-Oriented Spoken English Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Ping; Pan, Yingxin; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zengxiu; Shi, Qin; Chu, Wenpei; Liu, Mingzhuo; Zhu, Zhiting

    2016-01-01

    Oral production is an important part in English learning. Lack of a language environment with efficient instruction and feedback is a big issue for non-native speakers' English spoken skill improvement. A computer-assisted language learning system can provide many potential benefits to language learners. It allows adequate instructions and instant…

  8. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success.

  9. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  10. Phonotactics Constraints and the Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…

  11. The employment of a spoken language computer applied to an air traffic control task.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laveson, J. I.; Silver, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Assessment of the merits of a limited spoken language (56 words) computer in a simulated air traffic control (ATC) task. An airport zone approximately 60 miles in diameter with a traffic flow simulation ranging from single-engine to commercial jet aircraft provided the workload for the controllers. This research determined that, under the circumstances of the experiments carried out, the use of a spoken-language computer would not improve the controller performance.

  12. Attentional Capture of Objects Referred to by Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants saw a small number of objects in a visual display and performed a visual detection or visual-discrimination task in the context of task-irrelevant spoken distractors. In each experiment, a visual cue was presented 400 ms after the onset of a spoken word. In experiments 1 and 2, the cue was an isoluminant color change and participants…

  13. Iconicity as a General Property of Language: Evidence from Spoken and Signed Languages

    PubMed Central

    Perniss, Pamela; Thompson, Robin L.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Current views about language are dominated by the idea of arbitrary connections between linguistic form and meaning. However, if we look beyond the more familiar Indo-European languages and also include both spoken and signed language modalities, we find that motivated, iconic form-meaning mappings are, in fact, pervasive in language. In this paper, we review the different types of iconic mappings that characterize languages in both modalities, including the predominantly visually iconic mappings found in signed languages. Having shown that iconic mapping are present across languages, we then proceed to review evidence showing that language users (signers and speakers) exploit iconicity in language processing and language acquisition. While not discounting the presence and importance of arbitrariness in language, we put forward the idea that iconicity need also be recognized as a general property of language, which may serve the function of reducing the gap between linguistic form and conceptual representation to allow the language system to “hook up” to motor, perceptual, and affective experience. PMID:21833282

  14. Comprehension of Spoken, Written and Signed Sentences in Childhood Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.

    1982-01-01

    Nine children suffering from Landau-Kleffner (L-K) syndrome and 25 children with developmental expressive disorders were tested for comprehension of English grammatical structures in spoken, written, and signed language modalities. L-K children demonstrated comprehension problems in all three language modalities and tended to treat language as…

  15. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  16. Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.

  17. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  18. Parent Telegraphic Speech Use and Spoken Language in Preschoolers with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Meyer, Allison; Sindberg, Heidi; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is considerable controversy regarding whether to use telegraphic or grammatical input when speaking to young children with language delays, including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined telegraphic speech use in parents of preschoolers with ASD and associations with children's spoken language 1 year…

  19. Tonal Language Background and Detecting Pitch Contour in Spoken and Musical Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effect of tonal language background on discrimination of pitch contour in short spoken and musical items. It was hypothesized that extensive exposure to a tonal language attunes perception of pitch contour. Accuracy and reaction times of adult participants from tonal (Thai) and non-tonal (Australian English) language…

  20. Gesture in Multiparty Interaction: A Study of Embodied Discourse in Spoken English and American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of gesture in two game nights: one in spoken English between four hearing friends and another in American Sign Language between four Deaf friends. Analyses of gesture have shown there exists a complex integration of manual gestures with speech. Analyses of sign language have implicated the body as a medium…

  1. The Spoken Language of Teachers and Pupils in the Education of Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Alan; Watton, Faval

    1986-01-01

    Spoken language of 24 teachers and 131 hearing impaired students (6, 10, and 14-year levels) were analyzed for sentence length and complexity. Results revealed that the oral-alone (OA) teachers in OA institutions created richer language environments and helped children display relatively enhanced oral linguistic growth compared to laissez faire…

  2. A Spoken Access Approach for Chinese Text and Speech Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Lee-Feng; Wang, Hsin-Min; Bai, Bo-Ren; Lin, Sun-Chein

    2000-01-01

    Presents an efficient spoken-access approach for both Chinese text and Mandarin speech information retrieval. Highlights include human-computer interaction via voice input, speech query recognition at the syllable level, automatic term suggestion, relevance feedback techniques, and experiments that show an improvement in the effectiveness of…

  3. Horizontal Flow of Semantic and Phonological Information in Chinese Spoken Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Yang, Yu-Fang

    2008-01-01

    A variant of the picture--word interference paradigm was used in three experiments to investigate the horizontal information flow of semantic and phonological information between nouns in spoken Mandarin Chinese sentences. Experiment 1 demonstrated that there is a semantic interference effect when the word in the second phrase (N3) and the first…

  4. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing.

  5. Intervention Effects on Spoken-Language Outcomes for Children with Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, L. H.; Kaiser, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although spoken-language deficits are not core to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, many children with ASD do present with delays in this area. Previous meta-analyses have assessed the effects of intervention on reducing autism symptomatology, but have not determined if intervention improves spoken language. This analysis…

  6. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    PubMed

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words.

  7. L'Enonce Toura-Cote d'Ivoire (The Spoken Language of Toura-Ivory Coast).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearth, Thomas

    The spoken language of Toura, a language spoken by nearly 20,000 inhabitants of a mountainous region situated in the north of Man, the administrative center of the West Ivory Coast, is systematically analyzed in this linguistic study. Sixteen major chapters include: (1) grammatical generalizations, (2) phonemic unities, (3) classification of…

  8. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar.

  9. The development of spoken language in deaf children: explaining the unexplained variance.

    PubMed

    Musselman, C; Kircaali-Iftar, G

    1996-01-01

    Using a large existing data base on children with severe and profound deafness, 10 children were identified whose level of spoken laguage was most above and 10 whose level was most below that expected on the basis of their hearing loss, age, and intelligence. A study of their personal characteristics, family background, and educational history identified factors associated with unusually high performance; these includes earlier use of binaural ear-level aids, more highly educated mothers, auditory/verbal or auditory/oral instruction, reliance on spoken language as a method of communication, individualized instruction, integration, and structured teaching by parents. Parents of high performers also reported being highly commited to and focusing family resouces on developing their child's spoken language.

  10. Expository Writing in Chinese. International Studies, East Asian Language Texts, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Keith; And Others

    This text is intended for use by advanced students of the Chinese language to learn to write at the college level in modern Chinese. The first ten lessons teach how to progress from the spoken structures to their contemporary written forms. Each lesson contains a text with a familiar form, notes on grammatical structures, and exercises. The text…

  11. Bimodal Bilinguals Co-Activate Both Languages during Spoken Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to activate their two languages in parallel, and this process can often be attributed to overlap in input between the two languages. The present study examines whether two languages that do not overlap in input structure, and that have distinct phonological systems, such as American Sign Language (ASL) and English, are…

  12. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sekerina, Irina A; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals.

  13. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals. PMID:27378974

  14. Cross-Language Perception of Cantonese Vowels Spoken by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…

  15. The Representation of Spoken Language in Early Reading Books: Problems for L2 Learner Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Catherine

    Some of the difficulties faced by second language learners who are continuing to acquire English at the same time as they start to read simple extended English texts are illustrated. Specific focus is on the question of how writers of early reading material can best help such learners to understand the relationship between spoken and written…

  16. Developing and Testing EVALOE: A Tool for Assessing Spoken Language Teaching and Learning in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gràcia, Marta; Vega, Fàtima; Galván-Bovaira, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Broadly speaking, the teaching of spoken language in Spanish schools has not been approached in a systematic way. Changes in school practices are needed in order to allow all children to become competent speakers and to understand and construct oral texts that are appropriate in different contexts and for different audiences both inside and…

  17. Parental Reports of Spoken Language Skills in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten; Johansson, Irene

    2001-01-01

    Spoken language in 330 children with Down syndrome (ages 1-5) and 336 normally developing children (ages 1,2) was compared. Growth trends, individual variation, sex differences, and performance on vocabulary, pragmatic, and grammar scales as well as maximum length of utterance were explored. Three- and four-year-old Down syndrome children…

  18. Using Unscripted Spoken Texts in the Teaching of Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    Most spoken texts that are used in second language (L2) listening classroom activities are scripted texts, where the text is written, revised, polished, and then read aloud with artificially clear enunciation and slow rate of speech. This article explores the field's overreliance on these scripted texts, at the expense of including unscripted…

  19. Research on Spoken Language Processing. Progress Report No. 21 (1996-1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.

    This 21st annual progress report summarizes research activities on speech perception and spoken language processing carried out in the Speech Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Indiana University in Bloomington. As with previous reports, the goal is to summarize accomplishments during 1996 and 1997 and make them readily available. Some…

  20. Effects of Tasks on Spoken Interaction and Motivation in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrero Pérez, Nubia Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Task based learning (TBL) or Task based learning and teaching (TBLT) is a communicative approach widely applied in settings where English has been taught as a foreign language (EFL). It has been documented as greatly useful to improve learners' communication skills. This research intended to find the effect of tasks on students' spoken interaction…

  1. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  2. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…

  3. Bidialectal African American Adolescents' Beliefs about Spoken Language Expectations in English Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…

  4. Comparing Spoken Language Treatments for Minimally Verbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Campbell, Daniel; Gilbert, Kimberly; Tsiouri, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers with severe autism and minimal speech were assigned either a discrete trial or a naturalistic language treatment, and parents of all participants also received parent responsiveness training. After 12 weeks, both groups showed comparable improvement in number of spoken words produced, on average. Approximately half the children in…

  5. Professional Training in Listening and Spoken Language--A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Several factors undoubtedly influenced the development of listening and spoken language options for children with hearing loss in Canada. The concept of providing auditory-based rehabilitation was popularized in Canada in the 1960s through the work of Drs. Daniel Ling and Agnes Ling in Montreal. The Lings founded the McGill University Project for…

  6. Contribution of the basal ganglia to spoken language: is speech production like the other motor skills?

    PubMed

    Zenon, Alexandre; Olivier, Etienne

    2014-12-01

    Two of the roles assigned to the basal ganglia in spoken language parallel very well their contribution to motor behaviour: (1) their role in sequence processing, resulting in syntax deficits, and (2) their role in movement "vigor," leading to "hypokinetic dysarthria" or "hypophonia." This is an additional example of how the motor system has served the emergence of high-level cognitive functions, such as language.

  7. Word Detection in Sung and Spoken Sentences in Children With Typical Language Development or With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. Method: In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7–10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7–12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. Results: In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Conclusions: Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection. PMID:26767070

  8. Parent Telegraphic Speech Use and Spoken Language in Preschoolers With ASD

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Meyer, Allison; Sindberg, Heidi; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is considerable controversy regarding whether to use telegraphic or grammatical input when speaking to young children with language delays, including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined telegraphic speech use in parents of preschoolers with ASD and associations with children's spoken language 1 year later. Method Parent–child dyads (n = 55) participated when children were, on average, 3 (Time 1) and 4 years old (Time 2). The rate at which parents omitted obligatory determiners was derived from transcripts of parent–child play sessions; measures of children's spoken language were obtained from these same transcripts. Results Telegraphic speech use varied substantially across parents. Higher rates of parent determiner omissions at Time 1 were significantly associated with lower lexical diversity in children's spoken language at Time 2, even when controlling for children's baseline lexical diversity and nonverbal IQ. Findings from path analyses supported the directionality of effects assumed in our regression analyses, although these results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited sample size. Conclusions Telegraphic input may have a negative impact on language development in young children with ASD. Future experimental research is needed to directly investigate how telegraphic input affects children's language learning and processing. PMID:26381592

  9. Retinoic Acid Signaling: A New Piece in the Spoken Language Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    van Rhijn, Jon-Ruben; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2015-01-01

    Speech requires precise motor control and rapid sequencing of highly complex vocal musculature. Despite its complexity, most people produce spoken language effortlessly. This is due to activity in distributed neuronal circuitry including cortico-striato-thalamic loops that control speech–motor output. Understanding the neuro-genetic mechanisms involved in the correct development and function of these pathways will shed light on how humans can effortlessly and innately use spoken language and help to elucidate what goes wrong in speech-language disorders. FOXP2 was the first single gene identified to cause speech and language disorder. Individuals with FOXP2 mutations display a severe speech deficit that includes receptive and expressive language impairments. The neuro-molecular mechanisms controlled by FOXP2 will give insight into our capacity for speech–motor control, but are only beginning to be unraveled. Recently FOXP2 was found to regulate genes involved in retinoic acid (RA) signaling and to modify the cellular response to RA, a key regulator of brain development. Here we explore evidence that FOXP2 and RA function in overlapping pathways. We summate evidence at molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels that suggest an interplay between FOXP2 and RA that may be important for fine motor control and speech–motor output. We propose RA signaling is an exciting new angle from which to investigate how neuro-genetic mechanisms can contribute to the (spoken) language ready brain. PMID:26635706

  10. Overlapping networks engaged during spoken language production and its cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Wise, Richard J S; Mehta, Amrish; Leech, Robert

    2014-06-25

    Spoken language production is a complex brain function that relies on large-scale networks. These include domain-specific networks that mediate language-specific processes, as well as domain-general networks mediating top-down and bottom-up attentional control. Language control is thought to involve a left-lateralized fronto-temporal-parietal (FTP) system. However, these regions do not always activate for language tasks and similar regions have been implicated in nonlinguistic cognitive processes. These inconsistent findings suggest that either the left FTP is involved in multidomain cognitive control or that there are multiple spatially overlapping FTP systems. We present evidence from an fMRI study using multivariate analysis to identify spatiotemporal networks involved in spoken language production in humans. We compared spoken language production (Speech) with multiple baselines, counting (Count), nonverbal decision (Decision), and "rest," to pull apart the multiple partially overlapping networks that are involved in speech production. A left-lateralized FTP network was activated during Speech and deactivated during Count and nonverbal Decision trials, implicating it in cognitive control specific to sentential spoken language production. A mirror right-lateralized FTP network was activated in the Count and Decision trials, but not Speech. Importantly, a second overlapping left FTP network showed relative deactivation in Speech. These three networks, with distinct time courses, overlapped in the left parietal lobe. Contrary to the standard model of the left FTP as being dominant for speech, we revealed a more complex pattern within the left FTP, including at least two left FTP networks with competing functional roles, only one of which was activated in speech production.

  11. Spoken Language Processing in the Clarissa Procedure Browser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayner, M.; Hockey, B. A.; Renders, J.-M.; Chatzichrisafis, N.; Farrell, K.

    2005-01-01

    Clarissa, an experimental voice enabled procedure browser that has recently been deployed on the International Space Station, is as far as we know the first spoken dialog system in space. We describe the objectives of the Clarissa project and the system's architecture. In particular, we focus on three key problems: grammar-based speech recognition using the Regulus toolkit; methods for open mic speech recognition; and robust side-effect free dialogue management for handling undos, corrections and confirmations. We first describe the grammar-based recogniser we have build using Regulus, and report experiments where we compare it against a class N-gram recogniser trained off the same 3297 utterance dataset. We obtained a 15% relative improvement in WER and a 37% improvement in semantic error rate. The grammar-based recogniser moreover outperforms the class N-gram version for utterances of all lengths from 1 to 9 words inclusive. The central problem in building an open-mic speech recognition system is being able to distinguish between commands directed at the system, and other material (cross-talk), which should be rejected. Most spoken dialogue systems make the accept/reject decision by applying a threshold to the recognition confidence score. NASA shows how a simple and general method, based on standard approaches to document classification using Support Vector Machines, can give substantially better performance, and report experiments showing a relative reduction in the task-level error rate by about 25% compared to the baseline confidence threshold method. Finally, we describe a general side-effect free dialogue management architecture that we have implemented in Clarissa, which extends the "update semantics'' framework by including task as well as dialogue information in the information state. We show that this enables elegant treatments of several dialogue management problems, including corrections, confirmations, querying of the environment, and regression

  12. Differences between young and older adults' spoken language production in descriptions of negative versus neutral pictures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nichol; James, Lori E

    2014-01-01

    Young and older participants produced oral picture descriptions that were analyzed to determine the impact of negative emotional content on spoken language production. An interaction was found for speech disfluencies: young adults' disfluencies did not vary, whereas older adults' disfluencies increased, for negative compared to neutral pictures. Young adults adopted a faster speech rate while describing negative compared to neutral pictures, but older adults did not. Reference errors were uncommon for both age groups, but occurred more during descriptions of negative than neutral pictures. Our findings indicate that negative content can be differentially disruptive to older adults' spoken language production, and add to the literature on aging, emotion, and cognition by exploring effects within the domain of language production.

  13. The genetic bases of speech sound disorders: evidence from spoken and written language.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Barbara A; Shriberg, Lawrence D; Freebairn, Lisa A; Hansen, Amy J; Stein, Catherine M; Taylor, H Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent findings suggesting a genetic susceptibility for speech sound disorders (SSD), the most prevalent communication disorder in early childhood. The importance of genetic studies of SSD and the hypothetical underpinnings of these genetic findings are reviewed, as well as genetic associations of SSD with other language and reading disabilities. The authors propose that many genes contribute to SSD. They further hypothesize that some genes contribute to SSD disorders alone, whereas other genes influence both SSD and other written and spoken language disorders. The authors postulate that underlying common cognitive traits, or endophenotypes, are responsible for shared genetic influences of spoken and written language. They review findings from their genetic linkage study and from the literature to illustrate recent developments in this area. Finally, they discuss challenges for identifying genetic influence on SSD and propose a conceptual framework for study of the genetic basis of SSD.

  14. The cortical organization of lexical knowledge: A dual lexicon model of spoken language processing

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current accounts of spoken language assume the existence of a lexicon where wordforms are stored and interact during spoken language perception, understanding and production. Despite the theoretical importance of the wordform lexicon, the exact localization and function of the lexicon in the broader context of language use is not well understood. This review draws on evidence from aphasia, functional imaging, neuroanatomy, laboratory phonology and behavioral results to argue for the existence of parallel lexica that facilitate different processes in the dorsal and ventral speech pathways. The dorsal lexicon, localized in the inferior parietal region including the supramarginal gyrus, serves as an interface between phonetic and articulatory representations. The ventral lexicon, localized in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus, serves as an interface between phonetic and semantic representations. In addition to their interface roles, the two lexica contribute to the robustness of speech processing. PMID:22498237

  15. Are Young Children with Cochlear Implants Sensitive to the Statistics of Words in the Ambient Spoken Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; McGregor, Karla K.; Spencer, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with cochlear implants (CIs) are sensitive to statistical characteristics of words in the ambient spoken language, whether that sensitivity changes in expected ways as their spoken lexicon grows, and whether that sensitivity varies with unilateral or bilateral implantation.…

  16. Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English learners include: (1) Top 20 EL languages, as reported in states' top five lists: SY 2011-12; (2) States, including DC, with 80 percent or…

  17. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language

  18. Spoken word recognition by Latino children learning Spanish as their first language*

    PubMed Central

    HURTADO, NEREYDA; MARCHMAN, VIRGINIA A.; FERNALD, ANNE

    2010-01-01

    Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech processing. Older children and children with larger vocabularies were more efficient at processing spoken language as it unfolds in real time, as previously documented with English learners. Children whose mothers had less education tended to be slower and less accurate than children of comparable age and vocabulary size whose mothers had more schooling, consistent with previous findings of slower rates of language learning in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These results add to the cross-linguistic literature on the development of spoken word recognition and to the study of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) factors on early language development. PMID:17542157

  19. Is There a Correlation between Languages Spoken and Intricate Movements of Tongue? A Comparative Study of Various Movements of Tongue among the Three Ethnic Races of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Awal, Mahfuzah Binti; Han, Chang Wei; Sivaram, Ganeshram; Vigneswaran, Thimesha; Choon, Tee Lian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tongue is mainly used for taste, chewing and in speech. In the present study, we focused on the secondary function of the tongue as to how it is used in phonetic pronunciation and linguistics and how these factors affect tongue movements. Objective To compare all possible movements of tongue among Malaysians belonging to three ethnic races and to find out if there is any link between languages spoken and ability to perform various tongue movements. Materials and Methods A total of 450 undergraduate medical students participated in the study. The students were chosen from three different races i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians (Malaysian Indians). Data was collected from the students through a semi-structured interview following which each student was asked to demonstrate various tongue movements like protrusion, retraction, flattening, rolling, twisting, folding or any other special movements. The data obtained was first segregated and analysed according to gender, race and types and dialects of languages spoken. Results We found that most of the Malaysians were able to perform the basic movements of tongue like protrusion, flattening movements and very few were able to perform twisting and folding of the tongue. The ability to perform normal tongue movements and special movements like folding, twisting, rolling and others was higher among Indians when compared to Malay and Chinese. Conclusion Languages spoken by Indians involve detailed tongue rolling and folding in pronouncing certain words and may be the reason as to why Indians are more versatile with tongue movements as compared to the other two races amongst Malaysians. It may be a possibility that languages spoken by a person serves as a variable that increases their ability to perform special tongue movements besides influenced by the genetic makeup of a person. PMID:26894051

  20. La mort d'une langue: le judeo-espagnol (The Death of a Language: The Spanish Spoken by Jews)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Raymond

    1971-01-01

    Describes the Sephardic culture which flourished in the Balkans, Ottoman Empire, and North Africa during the Middle Ages. Suggests the use of Ladino", the language of medieval Spain spoken by the expelled Jews. (DS)

  1. Three-dimensional grammar in the brain: Dissociating the neural correlates of natural sign language and manually coded spoken language.

    PubMed

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language.

  2. Understanding the Relationship between Latino Students' Preferred Learning Styles and Their Language Spoken at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…

  3. Apples and Oranges: Developmental Discontinuities in Spoken-Language Processing?

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Sarah C.; Quam, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Much research focuses on speech processing in infancy, sometimes generating the impression that speech-sound categories do not develop further. Yet other studies suggest substantial plasticity throughout mid-childhood. Differences between infant versus child and adult experimental methods currently obscure how language processing changes across childhood, calling for approaches that span development. PMID:26456261

  4. Enriching English Language Spoken Outputs of Kindergartners in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong

    2012-01-01

    This year is designated as Thailand's "English Speaking Year" with the aim of improving the communicative competence of Thais for the upcoming integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2015. The consistent low-level proficiency of the Thais in the English language has led to numerous curriculum revisions and…

  5. Give and Take: Syntactic Priming during Spoken Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven…

  6. The Assessment of Spoken Language under Varying Interactional Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Vivien

    Two studies of individuals' oral second language performance in interaction with extraverts and introverts are reported here. The first, described briefly, investigated the effects of homogeneous (extravert/extravert or introvert/introvert) vs. heterogeneous pairings on oral performance in interviews. Subjects were 36 women students in a Japanese…

  7. Access to Meaning/Spoken and Written Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnell, Gay Su, Ed.; King, Martha L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Designed to explore the ways language functions to help children gain access to meaning as they progress through the educational system, this journal issue views communication as a social, interactive process in which speakers and writers attempt to link into what listeners and readers know, want to know, or need to know. The 12 articles in the…

  8. Teaching Chinese as Tomorrow's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Relatively few public school students are currently learning the Chinese language, but experts predict the number of K-12 schools offering such instruction will soon soar. With China poised to become the next global economic superpower, policymakers say it is essential that American schools expand their Chinese studies. Here, the author discusses…

  9. Medical practices display power law behaviors similar to spoken languages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical care commonly involves the apprehension of complex patterns of patient derangements to which the practitioner responds with patterns of interventions, as opposed to single therapeutic maneuvers. This complexity renders the objective assessment of practice patterns using conventional statistical approaches difficult. Methods Combinatorial approaches drawn from symbolic dynamics are used to encode the observed patterns of patient derangement and associated practitioner response patterns as sequences of symbols. Concatenating each patient derangement symbol with the contemporaneous practitioner response symbol creates “words” encoding the simultaneous patient derangement and provider response patterns and yields an observed vocabulary with quantifiable statistical characteristics. Results A fundamental observation in many natural languages is the existence of a power law relationship between the rank order of word usage and the absolute frequency with which particular words are uttered. We show that population level patterns of patient derangement: practitioner intervention word usage in two entirely unrelated domains of medical care display power law relationships similar to those of natural languages, and that–in one of these domains–power law behavior at the population level reflects power law behavior at the level of individual practitioners. Conclusions Our results suggest that patterns of medical care can be approached using quantitative linguistic techniques, a finding that has implications for the assessment of expertise, machine learning identification of optimal practices, and construction of bedside decision support tools. PMID:24007376

  10. The Specificity of Sound Symbolic Correspondences in Spoken Language.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Christina Y; Nygaard, Lynne C; Namy, Laura L

    2016-12-29

    Although language has long been regarded as a primarily arbitrary system, sound symbolism, or non-arbitrary correspondences between the sound of a word and its meaning, also exists in natural language. Previous research suggests that listeners are sensitive to sound symbolism. However, little is known about the specificity of these mappings. This study investigated whether sound symbolic properties correspond to specific meanings, or whether these properties generalize across semantic dimensions. In three experiments, native English-speaking adults heard sound symbolic foreign words for dimensional adjective pairs (big/small, round/pointy, fast/slow, moving/still) and for each foreign word, selected a translation among English antonyms that either matched or mismatched with the correct meaning dimension. Listeners agreed more reliably on the English translation for matched relative to mismatched dimensions, though reliable cross-dimensional mappings did occur. These findings suggest that although sound symbolic properties generalize to meanings that may share overlapping semantic features, sound symbolic mappings offer semantic specificity.

  11. The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language.

    PubMed

    Moats, L C

    1994-01-01

    Reading research supports the necessity for directly teaching concepts about linguistic structure to beginning readers and to students with reading and spelling difficulties. In this study, experienced teachers of reading, language arts, and special education were tested to determine if they have the requisite awareness of language elements (e.g., phonemes, morphemes) and of how these elements are represented in writing (e.g., knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences). The results were surprisingly poor, indicating that even motivated and experienced teachers typically understand too little about spoken and written language structure to be able to provide sufficient instruction in these areas. The utility of language structure knowledge for instructional planning, for assessment of student progress, and for remediation of literacy problems is discussed.The teachers participating in the study subsequently took a course focusing on phonemic awareness training, spoken-written language relationships, and careful analysis of spelling and reading behavior in children. At the end of the course, the teachers judged this information to be essential for teaching and advised that it become a prerequisite for certification. Recommendations for requirements and content of teacher education programs are presented.

  12. Reading, Writing, and Spoken Language Assessment Profiles for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing Compared with Students with Language Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nickola Wolf; Crumpton, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Working with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) can raise questions about whether language and literacy delays and difficulties are related directly to late and limited access to spoken language, to co-occurring language learning disabilities (LLD), or to both. A new Test of Integrated Language and Literacy Skills, which incorporates…

  13. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…

  14. Development of Lexical-Semantic Language System: N400 Priming Effect for Spoken Words in 18- and 24-Month Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Pia; Sirri, Louah; Serres, Josette

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether developing language system, as measured by a priming task for spoken words, is organized by semantic categories. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a priming task for spoken words in 18- and 24-month-old monolingual French learning children. Spoken word pairs were either semantically related…

  15. Orthographic effects in spoken language: on-line activation or phonological restructuring?

    PubMed

    Perre, Laetitia; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Montant, Marie; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2009-06-12

    Previous research has shown that literacy (i.e., learning to read and spell) affects spoken language processing. However, there is an on-going debate about the nature of this influence. Some argued that orthography is co-activated on-line whenever we hear a spoken word. Others suggested that orthography is not activated on-line but has changed the nature of the phonological representations. Finally, both effects might occur simultaneously, that is, orthography might be activated on-line in addition to having changed the nature of the phonological representations. Previous studies have not been able to tease apart these hypotheses. The present study started by replicating the finding of an orthographic consistency effect in spoken word recognition using event-related brain potentials (ERPs): words with multiple spellings (i.e., inconsistent words) differed from words with unique spellings (i.e., consistent words) as early as 330 ms after the onset of the target. We then employed standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to determine the possible underlying cortical generators of this effect. The results showed that the orthographic consistency effect was clearly localized in a classic phonological area (left BA40). No evidence was found for activation in the posterior cortical areas coding orthographic information, such as the visual word form area in the left fusiform gyrus (BA37). This finding is consistent with the restructuring hypothesis according to which phonological representations are "contaminated" by orthographic knowledge.

  16. Symbolic gestures and spoken language are processed by a common neural system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R

    2009-12-08

    Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are processed by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a common, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto common, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language processing, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects.

  17. Spoken language development in oral preschool children with permanent childhood deafness.

    PubMed

    Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.

  18. The evolutionary history of genes involved in spoken and written language: beyond FOXP2

    PubMed Central

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mascheretti, Sara; Guerini, Franca R.; Riva, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Humans possess a communication system based on spoken and written language. Other animals can learn vocalization by imitation, but this is not equivalent to human language. Many genes were described to be implicated in language impairment (LI) and developmental dyslexia (DD), but their evolutionary history has not been thoroughly analyzed. Herein we analyzed the evolution of ten genes involved in DD and LI. Results show that the evolutionary history of LI genes for mammals and aves was comparable in vocal-learner species and non-learners. For the human lineage, several sites showing evidence of positive selection were identified in KIAA0319 and were already present in Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting that any phenotypic change they entailed was shared with archaic hominins. Conversely, in FOXP2, ROBO1, ROBO2, and CNTNAP2 non-coding changes rose to high frequency after the separation from archaic hominins. These variants are promising candidates for association studies in LI and DD. PMID:26912479

  19. The evolutionary history of genes involved in spoken and written language: beyond FOXP2.

    PubMed

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mascheretti, Sara; Guerini, Franca R; Riva, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2016-02-25

    Humans possess a communication system based on spoken and written language. Other animals can learn vocalization by imitation, but this is not equivalent to human language. Many genes were described to be implicated in language impairment (LI) and developmental dyslexia (DD), but their evolutionary history has not been thoroughly analyzed. Herein we analyzed the evolution of ten genes involved in DD and LI. Results show that the evolutionary history of LI genes for mammals and aves was comparable in vocal-learner species and non-learners. For the human lineage, several sites showing evidence of positive selection were identified in KIAA0319 and were already present in Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting that any phenotypic change they entailed was shared with archaic hominins. Conversely, in FOXP2, ROBO1, ROBO2, and CNTNAP2 non-coding changes rose to high frequency after the separation from archaic hominins. These variants are promising candidates for association studies in LI and DD.

  20. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  1. Spoken Language Comprehension of Phrases, Simple and Compound-Active Sentences in Non-Speaking Children with Severe Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geytenbeek, Joke J. M.; Heim, Margriet J. M.; Knol, Dirk L.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oostrom, Kim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) (i.e. "non-speaking children with severely limited mobility") are restricted in many domains that are important to the acquisition of language. Aims To investigate comprehension of spoken language on sentence type level in non-speaking children with severe CP. Methods & Procedures…

  2. Positive Emotional Language in the Final Words Spoken Directly Before Execution.

    PubMed

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris

    2015-01-01

    How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one's own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a) positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b) positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality.

  3. Positive Emotional Language in the Final Words Spoken Directly Before Execution

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris

    2016-01-01

    How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one’s own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a) positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b) positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality. PMID:26793135

  4. Brain Basis of Phonological Awareness for Spoken Language in Children and Its Disruption in Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7–13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5–6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia. PMID:21693783

  5. Students who are deaf and hard of hearing and use sign language: considerations and strategies for developing spoken language and literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Debra; Waddy-Smith, Bettie; Doyle, Jane

    2012-11-01

    There is a core body of knowledge, experience, and skills integral to facilitating auditory, speech, and spoken language development when working with the general population of students who are deaf and hard of hearing. There are additional issues, strategies, and challenges inherent in speech habilitation/rehabilitation practices essential to the population of deaf and hard of hearing students who also use sign language. This article will highlight philosophical and practical considerations related to practices used to facilitate spoken language development and associated literacy skills for children and adolescents who sign. It will discuss considerations for planning and implementing practices that acknowledge and utilize a student's abilities in sign language, and address how to link these skills to developing and using spoken language. Included will be considerations for children from early childhood through high school with a broad range of auditory access, language, and communication characteristics.

  6. Setting the Tone: An ERP Investigation of the Influences of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Recognition in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin ("N" = 19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following…

  7. International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Andrew; Wilson, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education (ICCLE) represents a significant initiative by the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) to organise and describe objectives and content for a standardised Chinese language curriculum around the world. It aims to provide a reference curriculum for planning, a framework…

  8. Task modulation of disyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150–250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300–500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500–700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements. PMID:27180951

  9. Immediate integration of different types of prosodic information during on-line spoken language comprehension: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yiya; Yang, Yufang

    2011-04-22

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate the role of prosodic prominence and prosodic boundary as well as their interaction in spoken discourse comprehension. Chinese question-answer dialogues were used as stimuli. The answer sentence is a syntactically ambiguous phrase, with a prosodic phrase boundary at the immediate left side of the critical word in the carrier sentence. Meanwhile, the critical word was accented. We manipulated the question context while keeping the speech signal of the answer sentence constant, which gives rise to congruent and in-congruent question-answer pairs with violations of prosodic prominence, prosodic boundary, or both. Results showed that prosodic prominence violation evoked a frontal-central negative effect (270-510ms), while prosodic boundary violation elicited a broadly distributed negative effect (270-510ms and 510-660ms). The effect of combined prominence-boundary violation was similar to that of the single prosodic prominence violation. Furthermore, there was an interaction between the effect of prosodic prominence violation and the effect of prosodic boundary violation in the window latency of 270-510ms, which suggests an immediate interaction between the semantic processing of prosodic prominence and the syntactic processing of prosodic boundary during spoken language comprehension. In addition, a detailed analysis of the obtained negativity effects showed that the size of the negative effect to the prosodic boundary violation was increased by an additional prosodic prominence violation, but the size of the negative effect to the prosodic prominence violation was not affected by an additional prosodic boundary violation, which suggests an asymmetry between the effects of prosodic prominence and prosodic boundary.

  10. Follow-up study investigating the benefits of phonological awareness intervention for children with spoken language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gillon, Gail T

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of phonological awareness intervention for children at risk for reading disorder has received increasing attention in the literature. This paper reports the follow-up data for participants in the Gillon (2000a) intervention study. The performance of twenty, 5-7-year-old New Zealand children with spoken language impairment, who received phonological awareness intervention, was compared with the progress made by 20 children from a control group and 20 children with typical language development approximately 11 months post-intervention. The children with spoken language impairment all had expressive phonological difficulties and demonstrated delay in early reading development. Treatment effects on strengthening phoneme-grapheme connections in spelling development were also investigated. The results suggested that structured phonological awareness intervention led to sustained growth in phoneme awareness and word-recognition performance. At the follow-up assessment, the majority of the children who received intervention were reading at, or above, the level expected for their age on a measure of word recognition. The phonological awareness intervention also significantly strengthened phoneme-grapheme connections in spelling as evidenced by improved non-word spelling ability. In contrast, the control group of children with spoken language impairment who did not receive phonological awareness intervention showed remarkably little improvement in phoneme awareness over time and the majority remained poor readers. The results highlight the important role speech-language therapists can play in enhancing the early reading and spelling development of children with spoken language impairment.

  11. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys With Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived language-support strategies. All sessions were implemented through distance videoteleconferencing. Parent education sessions were followed by 12 weekly clinician coaching and feedback sessions. Data were collected weekly during independent homework and clinician observation sessions. Relative to baseline, mothers increased their use of targeted strategies, and dyads increased the frequency and duration of story-related talking. Generalized effects of the intervention on lexical diversity and grammatical complexity were observed. Implications for practice are discussed.

  12. The sound of motion in spoken language: visual information conveyed by acoustic properties of speech.

    PubMed

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2007-12-01

    Language is generally viewed as conveying information through symbols whose form is arbitrarily related to their meaning. This arbitrary relation is often assumed to also characterize the mental representations underlying language comprehension. We explore the idea that visuo-spatial information can be analogically conveyed through acoustic properties of speech and that such information is integrated into an analog perceptual representation as a natural part of comprehension. Listeners heard sentences describing objects, spoken at varying speaking rates. After each sentence, participants saw a picture of an object and judged whether it had been mentioned in the sentence. Participants were faster to recognize the object when motion implied by speaking rate matched the motion implied by the picture. Results suggest that visuo-spatial referential information can be analogically conveyed and represented.

  13. Spoken Lebanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feghali, Maksoud N.

    This book teaches the Arabic Lebanese dialect through topics such as food, clothing, transportation, and leisure activities. It also provides background material on the Arab World in general and the region where Lebanese Arabic is spoken or understood--Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine--in particular. This language guide is based on the phonetic…

  14. Spoken language and the decision to move the eyes: to what extent are language-mediated eye movements automatic?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ramesh K; Olivers, Christian N L; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    Recent eye-tracking research has revealed that spoken language can guide eye gaze very rapidly (and closely time-locked to the unfolding speech) toward referents in the visual world. We discuss whether, and to what extent, such language-mediated eye movements are automatic rather than subject to conscious and controlled decision-making. We consider whether language-mediated eye movements adhere to four main criteria of automatic behavior, namely, whether they are fast and efficient, unintentional, unconscious, and overlearned (i.e., arrived at through extensive practice). Current evidence indicates that language-driven oculomotor behavior is fast but not necessarily always efficient. It seems largely unintentional though there is also some evidence that participants can actively use the information in working memory to avoid distraction in search. Language-mediated eye movements appear to be for the most part unconscious and have all the hallmarks of an overlearned behavior. These data are suggestive of automatic mechanisms linking language to potentially referred-to visual objects, but more comprehensive and rigorous testing of this hypothesis is needed.

  15. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  16. Semantic Richness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss Who Are Developing Spoken Language: A Single Case Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…

  17. Differential Error Types in Second-Language Students' Written and Spoken Texts: Implications for Instruction in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makalela, Leketi

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study undertaken at the University of the North, South Africa, to test personal classroom observation and anecdotal evidence about the persistent gap between writing and spoken proficiencies among learners of English as a second language. A comparative and contrastive analysis of speech samples in the study…

  18. Building Language Blocks in L2 Japanese: Chunk Learning and the Development of Complexity and Fluency in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the development of complexity and fluency of second language (L2) spoken production among L2 learners who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks as constituent units of discourse. Twenty-two students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course at a U.S. university received classroom instruction on 40 grammatical…

  19. A critique of Mark D. Allen's "the preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit".

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-07-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit. Brain and Language, 95, 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic properties. Allen claims that these findings challenge linguistic theories which assume that much of the syntactic behavior of verbs can be predicted from their meanings. I argue, however, that this conclusion is not supported by the data for two reasons: first, Allen focuses on aspects of verb syntax that are not claimed to be influenced by verb semantics; and second, he ignores aspects of verb syntax that are claimed to be influenced by verb semantics.

  20. Cross-language perception of Cantonese vowels spoken by native and non-native speakers.

    PubMed

    So, Connie K; Attina, Virginie

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results indicated that visual cues did not facilitate perception, and performance was better in clear than in noisy conditions. More importantly, the Cantonese talker's vowels were the easiest to discriminate, and the Mandarin talker's vowels were as intelligible as the native talkers' speech. These results supported the interlanguage speech native intelligibility benefit patterns proposed by Hayes-Harb et al. (J Phonetics 36:664-679, 2008). The Mandarin and English listeners' identification patterns were similar to those of the Cantonese listeners, suggesting that they might have assimilated Cantonese vowels to their closest native vowels. In addition, listeners' perceptual patterns were consistent with the principles of Best's Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best in Speech perception and linguistic experience: issues in cross-language research. York Press, Timonium, 1995).

  1. Are Young Children With Cochlear Implants Sensitive to the Statistics of Words in the Ambient Spoken Language?

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.; Spencer, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with cochlear implants (CIs) are sensitive to statistical characteristics of words in the ambient spoken language, whether that sensitivity changes in expected ways as their spoken lexicon grows, and whether that sensitivity varies with unilateral or bilateral implantation. Method We analyzed archival data collected from the parents of 36 children who received cochlear implantation (20 unilateral, 16 bilateral) before 24 months of age. The parents reported their children's word productions 12 months after implantation using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories: Words and Sentences (Fenson et al., 1993). We computed the number of words, out of 292 possible monosyllabic nouns, verbs, and adjectives, that each child was reported to say and calculated the average phonotactic probability, neighborhood density, and word frequency of the reported words. Results Spoken vocabulary size positively correlated with average phonotactic probability and negatively correlated with average neighborhood density, but only in children with bilateral CIs. Conclusion At 12 months postimplantation, children with bilateral CIs demonstrate sensitivity to statistical characteristics of words in the ambient spoken language akin to that reported for children with normal hearing during the early stages of lexical development. Children with unilateral CIs do not. PMID:25677929

  2. A common neural system is activated in hearing non-signers to process French sign language and spoken French.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Cyril; Jobard, Gael; Vigneau, Mathieu; Beaucousin, Virginie; Razafimandimby, Annick; Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Mellet, Emmanuel; Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2011-01-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the areas activated by signed narratives in non-signing subjects naïve to sign language (SL) and compared it to the activation obtained when hearing speech in their mother tongue. A subset of left hemisphere (LH) language areas activated when participants watched an audio-visual narrative in their mother tongue was activated when they observed a signed narrative. The inferior frontal (IFG) and precentral (Prec) gyri, the posterior parts of the planum temporale (pPT) and of the superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ) were activated by both languages. The activity of these regions was not related to the presence of communicative intent because no such changes were observed when the non-signers watched a muted video of a spoken narrative. Recruitment was also not triggered by the linguistic structure of SL, because the areas, except pPT, were not activated when subjects listened to an unknown spoken language. The comparison of brain reactivity for spoken and sign languages shows that SL has a special status in the brain compared to speech; in contrast to unknown oral language, the neural correlates of SL overlap LH speech comprehension areas in non-signers. These results support the idea that strong relationships exist between areas involved in human action observation and language, suggesting that the observation of hand gestures have shaped the lexico-semantic language areas as proposed by the motor theory of speech. As a whole, the present results support the theory of a gestural origin of language.

  3. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  4. Research on Spoken Dialogue Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aist, Gregory; Hieronymus, James; Dowding, John; Hockey, Beth Ann; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Farrell, Kim; Renders, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Research in the field of spoken dialogue systems has been performed with the goal of making such systems more robust and easier to use in demanding situations. The term "spoken dialogue systems" signifies unified software systems containing speech-recognition, speech-synthesis, dialogue management, and ancillary components that enable human users to communicate, using natural spoken language or nearly natural prescribed spoken language, with other software systems that provide information and/or services.

  5. Children with reading difficulties show differences in brain regions associated with orthographic processing during spoken language processing.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Amy S; Cone, Nadia E; Bolger, Donald J; Bitan, Tali; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

    2010-10-14

    We explored the neural basis of spoken language deficits in children with reading difficulty, specifically focusing on the role of orthography during spoken language processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activation between children with reading difficulties (aged 9-to-15 years) and age-matched children with typical achievement during an auditory rhyming task. Both groups showed activation in bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA 42 and 22), a region associated with phonological processing, with no significant between-group differences. Interestingly, typically achieving children, but not children with reading difficulties, showed activation of left fusiform cortex (BA 37), a region implicated in orthographic processing. Furthermore, this activation was significantly greater for typically achieving children compared to those with reading difficulties. These findings suggest that typical children automatically activate orthographic representations during spoken language processing, while those with reading difficulties do not. Follow-up analyses revealed that the intensity of the activation in the fusiform gyrus was associated with significantly stronger behavioral conflict effects in typically achieving children only (i.e., longer latencies to rhyming pairs with orthographically dissimilar endings than to those with identical orthographic endings; jazz-has vs. cat-hat). Finally, for reading disabled children, a positive correlation between left fusiform activation and nonword reading was observed, such that greater access to orthography was related to decoding ability. Taken together, the results suggest that the integration of orthographic and phonological processing is directly related to reading ability.

  6. Implicit learning of nonadjacent phonotactic dependencies in the perception of spoken language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2004-05-01

    We investigated the learning of nonadjacent phonotactic dependencies in adults. Following previous research examining learning of dependencies at a grammatical level (Gomez, 2002), we manipulated the co-occurrence of nonadjacent phonological segments within a spoken syllable. Each listener was exposed to consonant-vowel-consonant nonword stimuli produced by one of two phonological grammars. Both languages contained the same adjacent dependencies between the initial consonant-vowel and final vowel-consonant sequences but differed on the co-occurrences of initial and final consonants. The number of possible types of vowels that intervened between the initial and final consonants was also manipulated. Listeners learning of nonadjacent segmental dependencies were evaluated in a speeded recognition task in which they heard (1) old nonwords on which they had been trained, (2) new nonwords generated by the grammar on which they had been trained, and (3) new nonwords generated by the grammar on which they had not been trained. The results provide evidence for listener's sensitivity to nonadjacent dependencies. However, this sensitivity is manifested as an inhibitory competition effect rather than a facilitative effect on pattern processing. [Research supported by Research Grant No. R01 DC 0265802 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health.

  7. How and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-07-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of accentuation. Chinese spoken sentences were used as stimuli. The critical word in the carrier sentence was either semantically congruent or incongruent to the preceding sentence context. Meanwhile, the critical word was de-accented (DeAccent), generally accented (Accent), or greatly accented (GreatAccent). Results showed that, relative to semantically congruent words, the semantically incongruent word elicited a parietal-occipital N400 effect in the Accent condition and a broadly distributed N400 effect in the GreatAccent condition; however, no significant N400 effect was found in the DeAccent condition. Further onset analysis found that the N400 effect in the GreatAccent condition started around 50ms earlier than that in the Accent conditions. In addition, in the GreatAccent condition, the incongruent words also elicited an early negative effect in the window latency of 110-190ms after the acoustic onset of the critical word. The results indicated that, during on-line speech processing, accentuation can rapidly modulate temporally selective attention and consequently influence the depth or the speed of subsequent semantic processing; the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing can change with the degree of accentuation gradually.

  8. Impact of cognitive function and dysarthria on spoken language and perceived speech severity in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feenaughty, Lynda

    Purpose: The current study sought to investigate the separate effects of dysarthria and cognitive status on global speech timing, speech hesitation, and linguistic complexity characteristics and how these speech behaviors impose on listener impressions for three connected speech tasks presumed to differ in cognitive-linguistic demand for four carefully defined speaker groups; 1) MS with cognitive deficits (MSCI), 2) MS with clinically diagnosed dysarthria and intact cognition (MSDYS), 3) MS without dysarthria or cognitive deficits (MS), and 4) healthy talkers (CON). The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language production and perceptual variables for speakers with cognitive deficits was also explored. Methods: 48 speakers, including 36 individuals reporting a neurological diagnosis of MS and 12 healthy talkers participated. The three MS groups and control group each contained 12 speakers (8 women and 4 men). Cognitive function was quantified using standard clinical tests of memory, information processing speed, and executive function. A standard z-score of ≤ -1.50 indicated deficits in a given cognitive domain. Three certified speech-language pathologists determined the clinical diagnosis of dysarthria for speakers with MS. Experimental speech tasks of interest included audio-recordings of an oral reading of the Grandfather passage and two spontaneous speech samples in the form of Familiar and Unfamiliar descriptive discourse. Various measures of spoken language were of interest. Suprasegmental acoustic measures included speech and articulatory rate. Linguistic speech hesitation measures included pause frequency (i.e., silent and filled pauses), mean silent pause duration, grammatical appropriateness of pauses, and interjection frequency. For the two discourse samples, three standard measures of language complexity were obtained including subordination index, inter-sentence cohesion adequacy, and lexical diversity. Ten listeners

  9. Birds, primates, and spoken language origins: behavioral phenotypes and neurobiological substrates

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Christopher I.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    Vocal learners such as humans and songbirds can learn to produce elaborate patterns of structurally organized vocalizations, whereas many other vertebrates such as non-human primates and most other bird groups either cannot or do so to a very limited degree. To explain the similarities among humans and vocal-learning birds and the differences with other species, various theories have been proposed. One set of theories are motor theories, which underscore the role of the motor system as an evolutionary substrate for vocal production learning. For instance, the motor theory of speech and song perception proposes enhanced auditory perceptual learning of speech in humans and song in birds, which suggests a considerable level of neurobiological specialization. Another, a motor theory of vocal learning origin, proposes that the brain pathways that control the learning and production of song and speech were derived from adjacent motor brain pathways. Another set of theories are cognitive theories, which address the interface between cognition and the auditory-vocal domains to support language learning in humans. Here we critically review the behavioral and neurobiological evidence for parallels and differences between the so-called vocal learners and vocal non-learners in the context of motor and cognitive theories. In doing so, we note that behaviorally vocal-production learning abilities are more distributed than categorical, as are the auditory-learning abilities of animals. We propose testable hypotheses on the extent of the specializations and cross-species correspondences suggested by motor and cognitive theories. We believe that determining how spoken language evolved is likely to become clearer with concerted efforts in testing comparative data from many non-human animal species. PMID:22912615

  10. Factors Influencing Chinese Language Learners' Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…

  11. Taiwan's Chinese Language Development and the Creation of Language Teaching Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Chuan Po

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Teaching in Taiwan in recent years in response to the international trend of development, making at all levels of Chinese language teaching in full swing, for the recent boom in Chinese language teaching, many overseas Chinese language learning for children also had a passion while actively learning Chinese language, and even many overseas…

  12. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  13. Communicative Language Teaching in the Chinese Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…

  14. Understanding of spoken language under challenging listening conditions in younger and older listeners: a combined behavioral and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael

    2011-09-30

    Numerous studies suggested an age-related decline in speech perception under difficult listening conditions. Here, spoken language understanding of two age groups of listeners was investigated in a naturalistic "stock price monitoring" task. Stock prices of listed companies were simultaneously recited by three speakers at different positions in space and presented via headphones to 14 younger and 14 older listeners (age ranges 19-25 and 54-64 years, respectively). The listeners had to respond when prices of target companies exceeded a specific value, but to ignore all other prices as well as beep sounds randomly interspersed within the stock prices. Older listeners did not produce more missing responses, or longer response times than younger listeners. However, differences in event-related potentials indicated a reduced parietal P3b of older, relative to younger, listeners. Separate analyses for those listeners who performed relatively high or low in the behavioral task revealed a right-frontal P3a that was pronounced especially in the group of high-performing older listeners. Correlational analyses indicated a direct relationship between P3a amplitude and spoken language comprehension in older, but not younger, listeners. Furthermore, younger (especially, low-performing) listeners showed a more pronounced P2 on irrelevant beep sounds than older listeners. These subtle differences in cortical processing between age groups suggest that high performance of older middle-aged listeners in demanding listening situations is associated with increased engagement of frontal brain areas, and thus the allocation of mental resources for compensation of potential declines in spoken language understanding.

  15. KANNADA--A CULTURAL INTRODUCTION TO THE SPOKEN STYLES OF THE LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRISHNAMURTHI, M.G.; MCCORMACK, WILLIAM

    THE TWENTY GRADED UNITS IN THIS TEXT CONSTITUTE AN INTRODUCTION TO BOTH INFORMAL AND FORMAL SPOKEN KANNADA. THE FIRST TWO UNITS PRESENT THE KANNADA MATERIAL IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION ONLY, WITH KANNADA SCRIPT GRADUALLY INTRODUCED FROM UNIT III ON. A TYPICAL LESSON-UNIT INCLUDES--(1) A DIALOG IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION, (2)…

  16. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  17. Are Phonological Representations of Printed and Spoken Language Isomorphic? Evidence from the Restrictions on Unattested Onsets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris

    2008-01-01

    Are the phonological representations of printed and spoken words isomorphic? This question is addressed by investigating the restrictions on onsets. Cross-linguistic research suggests that onsets of rising sonority are preferred to sonority plateaus, which, in turn, are preferred to sonority falls (e.g., bnif, bdif, lbif). Of interest is whether…

  18. Chunk Learning and the Development of Spoken Discourse in a Japanese as a Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the development of spoken discourse among L2 learners of Japanese who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks. Participants in this study were 22 college students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course. They received instruction on a set of grammatical chunks in class through communicative drills and the…

  19. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Adank, Patti; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A repetition-suppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variation-speaker and accent-during spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and a novel accent of Dutch. Each speaker produced sentences in both accents. Participants listened to two sentences presented in quick succession while their haemodynamic responses were recorded in an MR scanner. The first sentence was spoken in Standard Dutch; the second was spoken by the same or a different speaker and produced in Standard Dutch or in the artificial accent. This design made it possible to identify neural responses to a switch in speaker and accent independently. A switch in accent was associated with activations in predominantly left-lateralized areas including posterior temporal regions, including superior temporal gyrus, planum temporale (PT), and supramarginal gyrus, as well as in frontal regions, including left pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). A switch in speaker recruited a predominantly right-lateralized network, including middle frontal gyrus and prenuneus. It is concluded that posterior temporal areas, including PT, and frontal areas, including IFG, are involved in processing accent variation in spoken sentence comprehension.

  20. On Chinese Loan Words from English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Yun; Deng, Tianbai

    2009-01-01

    In the recent twenty years, with China's reform and opening policy to the outside world, there is a sharp increase in English loan words in Chinese. On the one hand, it demonstrates that China's soft power has been booming up. But on the other hand, some language pollution in the meanwhile is caused by non-standard use of loan words in Chinese.…

  1. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., "Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil", preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition.

  2. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

  3. Fremdsprachenunterricht als Kommunikationsprozess (Foreign Language Teaching as a Communicative Process). Language Centre News, No. 1. Focus on Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzkamm, Wolfgang

    Teaching, as a communicative process, ranges between purely message-oriented communication (the goal) and purely language-oriented communication (a means). Classroom discourse ("Close the window", etc.) is useful as a drill but is also message-oriented. Skill in message-oriented communication is acquired only through practice in this kind of…

  4. Articulation in Programs of Chinese Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Henry C.

    1970-01-01

    The teaching of the Chinese language in the United States needs first to depart from the classical attitude that the sole goal is research, and to include among its objectives the occupational needs of all types of learners. To meet the problem of student "nomadism" at home and abroad, there should be certification of all transfers in terms of…

  5. Self-Ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…

  6. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  7. A Multilingual Approach to Analysing Standardized Test Results: Immigrant Primary School Children and the Role of Languages Spoken in a Bi-/Multilingual Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…

  8. Let's all speak together! Exploring the masking effects of various languages on spoken word identification in multi-linguistic babble.

    PubMed

    Gautreau, Aurore; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the linguistic interference that occurs during speech-in-speech comprehension by combining offline and online measures, which included an intelligibility task (at a -5 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and 2 lexical decision tasks (at a -5 dB and 0 dB SNR) that were performed with French spoken target words. In these 3 experiments we always compared the masking effects of speech backgrounds (i.e., 4-talker babble) that were produced in the same language as the target language (i.e., French) or in unknown foreign languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) to the masking effects of corresponding non-speech backgrounds (i.e., speech-derived fluctuating noise). The fluctuating noise contained similar spectro-temporal information as babble but lacked linguistic information. At -5 dB SNR, both tasks revealed significantly divergent results between the unknown languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) with Italian and French hindering French target word identification to a similar extent, whereas Irish led to significantly better performances on these tasks. By comparing the performances obtained with speech and fluctuating noise backgrounds, we were able to evaluate the effect of each language. The intelligibility task showed a significant difference between babble and fluctuating noise for French, Irish and Italian, suggesting acoustic and linguistic effects for each language. However, the lexical decision task, which reduces the effect of post-lexical interference, appeared to be more accurate, as it only revealed a linguistic effect for French. Thus, although French and Italian had equivalent masking effects on French word identification, the nature of their interference was different. This finding suggests that the differences observed between the masking effects of Italian and Irish can be explained at an acoustic level but not at a linguistic level.

  9. Let's All Speak Together! Exploring the Masking Effects of Various Languages on Spoken Word Identification in Multi-Linguistic Babble

    PubMed Central

    Gautreau, Aurore; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the linguistic interference that occurs during speech-in-speech comprehension by combining offline and online measures, which included an intelligibility task (at a −5 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and 2 lexical decision tasks (at a −5 dB and 0 dB SNR) that were performed with French spoken target words. In these 3 experiments we always compared the masking effects of speech backgrounds (i.e., 4-talker babble) that were produced in the same language as the target language (i.e., French) or in unknown foreign languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) to the masking effects of corresponding non-speech backgrounds (i.e., speech-derived fluctuating noise). The fluctuating noise contained similar spectro-temporal information as babble but lacked linguistic information. At −5 dB SNR, both tasks revealed significantly divergent results between the unknown languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) with Italian and French hindering French target word identification to a similar extent, whereas Irish led to significantly better performances on these tasks. By comparing the performances obtained with speech and fluctuating noise backgrounds, we were able to evaluate the effect of each language. The intelligibility task showed a significant difference between babble and fluctuating noise for French, Irish and Italian, suggesting acoustic and linguistic effects for each language. However, the lexical decision task, which reduces the effect of post-lexical interference, appeared to be more accurate, as it only revealed a linguistic effect for French. Thus, although French and Italian had equivalent masking effects on French word identification, the nature of their interference was different. This finding suggests that the differences observed between the masking effects of Italian and Irish can be explained at an acoustic level but not at a linguistic level. PMID:23785442

  10. Will They Catch Up? The Role of Age at Cochlear Implantation in the Spoken Language Development of Children with Severe to Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Johanna Grant; Geers, Ann E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the benefits of younger cochlear implantation, longer cochlear implant use, and greater pre-implant aided hearing to spoken language at 3.5 and 4.5 years of age. Method: Language samples were obtained at ages 3.5 and 4.5 years from 76 children who received an implant by their 3rd birthday. Hierarchical linear modeling…

  11. Fast Mapping Semantic Features: Performance of Adults with Normal Language, History of Disorders of Spoken and Written Language, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on a Word-Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Gutmann, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to test the word learning abilities of adults with typical language abilities, those with a history of disorders of spoken or written language (hDSWL), and hDSWL plus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (+ADHD). Methods: Sixty-eight adults were required to associate a novel object with a novel label, and then…

  12. Developing Accuracy and Fluency in Spoken English of Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhiqin

    2014-01-01

    Chinese EFL learners may have difficulty in speaking fluent and accurate English, for their speaking competence are likely to be influenced by cognitive, linguistic and affective factors. With the aim to enhance those learners' oral proficiency, this paper first discusses three effective models of teaching English speaking, and then proposes a…

  13. The Language, Tone and Prosody of Emotions: Neural Substrates and Dynamics of Spoken-Word Emotion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Liebenthal, Einat; Silbersweig, David A.; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala—a subcortical center for emotion perception—are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may also function for brief non-verbal vocalizations (e.g., laugh, cry), in which emotional category is conveyed effectively by voice tone and intensity. However, emotional prosody which evolves on longer time scales and is conveyed by fine-grained spectral cues appears to be processed via a slower, indirect cortical route. For verbal emotional content, the bulk of current evidence, indicating predominant left lateralization of the amygdala response and timing of emotional effects attributable to speeded lexical access, is more consistent with an indirect cortical route to the amygdala. Top-down linguistic modulation may play an important role for prioritized perception of emotions in words. Understanding the neural dynamics and interactions of emotion and language perception is important for selecting potent stimuli and devising effective training and/or treatment approaches for the alleviation of emotional dysfunction across a range of neuropsychiatric states. PMID

  14. The Language, Tone and Prosody of Emotions: Neural Substrates and Dynamics of Spoken-Word Emotion Perception.

    PubMed

    Liebenthal, Einat; Silbersweig, David A; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala-a subcortical center for emotion perception-are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may also function for brief non-verbal vocalizations (e.g., laugh, cry), in which emotional category is conveyed effectively by voice tone and intensity. However, emotional prosody which evolves on longer time scales and is conveyed by fine-grained spectral cues appears to be processed via a slower, indirect cortical route. For verbal emotional content, the bulk of current evidence, indicating predominant left lateralization of the amygdala response and timing of emotional effects attributable to speeded lexical access, is more consistent with an indirect cortical route to the amygdala. Top-down linguistic modulation may play an important role for prioritized perception of emotions in words. Understanding the neural dynamics and interactions of emotion and language perception is important for selecting potent stimuli and devising effective training and/or treatment approaches for the alleviation of emotional dysfunction across a range of neuropsychiatric states.

  15. Task-Oriented Spoken Dialog System for Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using task-oriented dialogue processing technology. The system promotes dialogue with a second-language learner for a specific task, such as purchasing tour tickets, ordering food, passing through immigration, etc. The dialog system plays a role of a…

  16. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  17. The Sound of Motion in Spoken Language: Visual Information Conveyed by Acoustic Properties of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2007-01-01

    Language is generally viewed as conveying information through symbols whose form is arbitrarily related to their meaning. This arbitrary relation is often assumed to also characterize the mental representations underlying language comprehension. We explore the idea that visuo-spatial information can be analogically conveyed through acoustic…

  18. Foreign Language Authoring Systems: Judith Frommer's MacLang Spoken Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith

    1987-01-01

    MacLang, a user-friendly authoring system for the Macintosh computer, helps second language teachers prepare and tailor computer exercises and activities; is usable with any Roman-alphabet language, Russian, and Greek; gives students intelligent feedback; and allows students to control computer activity in order to individualize learning.…

  19. Do Spoken Nonword and Sentence Repetition Tasks Discriminate Language Impairment in Children with an ASD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper-Hill, Keely; Copland, David; Arnott, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to investigate heterogeneity in language abilities of children with a confirmed diagnosis of an ASD (N = 20) and children with typical development (TD; N = 15). Group comparisons revealed no differences between ASD and TD participants on standard clinical assessments of language ability, reading ability or…

  20. Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yun

    2006-01-01

    Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

  1. Spared and impaired spoken discourse processing in schizophrenia: effects of local and global language context.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Tamara Y; Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Luck, Steve J; Kring, Ann M; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S

    2013-09-25

    Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness.

  2. A Glimpse of the Chinese Language: Peking's Language Reforms and the Teaching of Chinese in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Francis

    This paper is intended to provide "an informative general survey" for those persons interested in Chinese, a language used by 25 percent of the world's population. One of the earliest languages in recorded form, written Chinese has both classical and modern forms. Language reforms in Peking, designed to standardize and simplify spoken…

  3. Motor excitability during visual perception of known and unknown spoken languages.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Swathi; MacSweeney, Mairéad; Boyles, Rowan; Waters, Dafydd; Watkins, Kate E; Möttönen, Riikka

    2013-07-01

    It is possible to comprehend speech and discriminate languages by viewing a speaker's articulatory movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have shown that viewing speech enhances excitability in the articulatory motor cortex. Here, we investigated the specificity of this enhanced motor excitability in native and non-native speakers of English. Both groups were able to discriminate between speech movements related to a known (i.e., English) and unknown (i.e., Hebrew) language. The motor excitability was higher during observation of a known language than an unknown language or non-speech mouth movements, suggesting that motor resonance is enhanced specifically during observation of mouth movements that convey linguistic information. Surprisingly, however, the excitability was equally high during observation of a static face. Moreover, the motor excitability did not differ between native and non-native speakers. These findings suggest that the articulatory motor cortex processes several kinds of visual cues during speech communication.

  4. Auditory Cortical Activity During Cochlear Implant-Mediated Perception of Spoken Language, Melody, and Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Anne T.; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Braun, Allen R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the significant advances in language perception for cochlear implant (CI) recipients, music perception continues to be a major challenge for implant-mediated listening. Our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie successful implant listening remains limited. To our knowledge, this study represents the first neuroimaging investigation of music perception in CI users, with the hypothesis that CI subjects would demonstrate greater auditory cortical activation than normal hearing controls. H215O positron emission tomography (PET) was used here to assess auditory cortical activation patterns in ten postlingually deafened CI patients and ten normal hearing control subjects. Subjects were presented with language, melody, and rhythm tasks during scanning. Our results show significant auditory cortical activation in implant subjects in comparison to control subjects for language, melody, and rhythm. The greatest activity in CI users compared to controls was seen for language tasks, which is thought to reflect both implant and neural specializations for language processing. For musical stimuli, PET scanning revealed significantly greater activation during rhythm perception in CI subjects (compared to control subjects), and the least activation during melody perception, which was the most difficult task for CI users. These results may suggest a possible relationship between auditory performance and degree of auditory cortical activation in implant recipients that deserves further study. PMID:19662456

  5. A History Reclaimed. An Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Language Materials on the Chinese of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Him Mark

    Because past frames of reference and perspectives on Chinese Americans have relied mainly on English language sources, they seldom reflected the attitudes and experiences of the Chinese themselves. This bibliography attempts to remedy that situation by listing over 1,500 available works in the Chinese language which can be found in libraries and…

  6. Lévy-like diffusion in eye movements during spoken-language comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.; Dixon, James A.

    2009-05-01

    This study explores the diffusive properties of human eye movements during a language comprehension task. In this task, adults are given auditory instructions to locate named objects on a computer screen. Although it has been convention to model visual search as standard Brownian diffusion, we find evidence that eye movements are hyperdiffusive. Specifically, we use comparisons of maximum-likelihood fit as well as standard deviation analysis and diffusion entropy analysis to show that visual search during language comprehension exhibits Lévy-like rather than Gaussian diffusion.

  7. Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Petitto, L A; Katerelos, M; Levy, B G; Gauna, K; Tétreault, K; Ferraro, V

    2001-06-01

    Divergent hypotheses exist concerning the types of knowledge underlying early bilingualism, with some portraying a troubled course marred by language delays and confusion, and others portraying one that is largely unremarkable. We studied the extraordinary case of bilingual acquisition across two modalities to examine these hypotheses. Three children acquiring Langues des Signes Québécoise and French, and three children acquiring French and English (ages at onset approximately 1;0, 2;6 and 3;6 per group) were videotaped regularly over one year while we empirically manipulated novel and familiar speakers of each child's two languages. The results revealed that both groups achieved their early linguistic milestones in each of their languages at the same time (and similarly to monolinguals), produced a substantial number of semantically corresponding words in each of their two languages from their very first words or signs (translation equivalents), and demonstrated sensitivity to the interlocutor's language by altering their language choices. Children did mix their languages to varying degrees, and some persisted in using a language that was not the primary language of the addressee, but the propensity to do both was directly related to their parents' mixing rates, in combination with their own developing language preference. The signing-speaking bilinguals did exploit the modality possibilities, and they did simultaneously mix their signs and speech, but in semantically principled and highly constrained ways. It is concluded that the capacity to differentiate between two languages is well in place prior to first words, and it is hypothesized that this capacity may result from biological mechanisms that permit the discovery of early phonological representations. Reasons why paradoxical views of bilingual acquisition have persisted are also offered.

  8. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  9. Introduction to Spoken Telugu. Program in Oriental Languages. Publication Series B--Aids--Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisker, Leigh

    This is a self-teaching textbook for learning Telugu, designed to be used with a language guide or a native speaker of Telugu. The emphasis is placed on speaking rather than on reading or writing. The book opens with a phonetic preface, to introduce the student to the sounds of Telugu. The textbook itself consists of thirty lessons, each divided…

  10. The Influence of Spoken Language Patterns on the Writing of Black College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jerrie Cobb

    A study explored the relationship between oral and written patterns produced by a group of black college freshmen enrolled in remedial writing classes. Forty students were asked to produce, in formal language style, both oral and written summaries of a reading selection. The data were analyzed to determine (1) the extent to which patterns,…

  11. The Interplay between Spoken Language and Informal Definitions of Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Ilana; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Various terms are used to describe mathematical concepts, in general, and statistical concepts, in particular. Regarding statistical concepts in the Hebrew language, some of these terms have the same meaning both in their everyday use and in mathematics, such as Mode; some of them have a different meaning, such as Expected value and Life…

  12. Spoken Interaction in Online and Face-to-Face Language Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Barbara; Duensing, Annette; Stickler, Ursula; Batstone, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    While interaction in online language learning in the area of written computer-mediated communication is well researched, studies focusing on interaction in synchronous online audio environments remain scarce. For this reason, this paper seeks to map the nature and level of interpersonal interaction in both online and the face-to-face language…

  13. Automatic detection of Parkinson's disease in running speech spoken in three different languages.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Arroyave, J R; Hönig, F; Arias-Londoño, J D; Vargas-Bonilla, J F; Daqrouq, K; Skodda, S; Rusz, J; Nöth, E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the analysis of continuous speech signals of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) considering recordings in different languages (Spanish, German, and Czech). A method for the characterization of the speech signals, based on the automatic segmentation of utterances into voiced and unvoiced frames, is addressed here. The energy content of the unvoiced sounds is modeled using 12 Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and 25 bands scaled according to the Bark scale. Four speech tasks comprising isolated words, rapid repetition of the syllables /pa/-/ta/-/ka/, sentences, and read texts are evaluated. The method proves to be more accurate than classical approaches in the automatic classification of speech of people with PD and healthy controls. The accuracies range from 85% to 99% depending on the language and the speech task. Cross-language experiments are also performed confirming the robustness and generalization capability of the method, with accuracies ranging from 60% to 99%. This work comprises a step forward for the development of computer aided tools for the automatic assessment of dysarthric speech signals in multiple languages.

  14. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  15. Assessing Spoken Language Competence in Children with Selective Mutism: Using Parents as Test Presenters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Evelyn R.; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Shipon-Blum, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) display a failure to speak in select situations despite speaking when comfortable. The purpose of this study was to obtain valid assessments of receptive and expressive language in 33 children (ages 5 to 12) with SM. Because some children with SM will speak to parents but not a professional, another purpose was…

  16. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  17. Looking Chinese and Learning Chinese as a Heritage Language: The Role of Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2016-01-01

    The identity-language link has been widely recognised. In Heritage Language research, the complex entanglement between Chinese ethnic identity and Chinese Heritage Language has gained increasing attention in recent decades. Both social psychological and poststructural schools have offered meaningful insights into this field, but have also received…

  18. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  19. Language Attitudes and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui; Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates attitudes toward heritage language (HL) maintenance among Chinese immigrant parents and their second-generation children. Specific attention is given to exploring (1) what attitudes are held by the Chinese parents and children toward Chinese language maintenance in the USA, (2) what efforts are engaged in by the…

  20. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  1. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    PubMed

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.

  2. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Brian; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information - e.g., grammatical gender and number marking - can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions.) and interrogative (Where are the lions?) sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2) and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3). We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.

  3. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Brian; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions.) and interrogative (Where are the lions?) sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2) and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3). We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing. PMID:25999900

  4. Chinese Language Education in Europe: The Confucius Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the background to the Chinese government's decision to embark on a programme of promoting the study of Chinese language and culture overseas. This includes the impact of Joseph Nye's concept of "soft power" in China, ownership of the national language, the Confucius connection, and how these factors interact with…

  5. Teacher Education Curriculum for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attaran, Mohammad; Yishuai, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide growing demand of CFL (Chinese as a Foreign Language) teachers has many implications for both curriculum development and teacher education. Much evidence has shown more in-depth research is needed in the field of teaching Chinese as a foreign language (Tsung & Cruickshank, 2011). Studying in-service teachers' experience in…

  6. Research among Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language. Chinese Language Teachers Association Monograph Series. Volume IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Michael E., Ed.; Shen, Helen H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Cutting-edge in its approach and international in its authorship, this fourth monograph in a series sponsored by the Chinese Language Teachers Association features eight research studies that explore a variety of themes, topics, and perspectives important to a variety of stakeholders in the Chinese language learning community. Employing a wide…

  7. Validation of the "Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environment Inventory" for Investigating the Nature of Chinese Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Chua Siew; Wong, Angela F. L.; Der-Thanq, Victor Chen

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory (CLCEI) is a bilingual instrument developed for use in measuring students' and teachers' perceptions toward their Chinese Language classroom learning environments in Singapore secondary schools. The English version of the CLCEI was customised from the English version of the "What is…

  8. Cross-sensory correspondences and symbolism in spoken and written language.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight, sharpness, smallness, speed, and thinness, because higher pitched sounds appear to have these cross-sensory features. Correspondences also support prosodic sound symbolism. For example, speakers might raise the fundamental frequency of their voice to emphasize the smallness of the concept they are naming. The conceptual nature of correspondences and their functional bidirectionality indicate they should also support other types of symbolism, including a visual equivalent of prosodic sound symbolism. For example, the correspondence between auditory pitch and visual thinness predicts that a typeface with relatively thin letter strokes will reinforce a word's reference to a relatively high pitch sound (e.g., squeal). An initial rating study confirms that the thinness-thickness of a typeface's letter strokes accesses the same cross-sensory correspondences observed elsewhere. A series of speeded word classification experiments then confirms that the thinness-thickness of letter strokes can facilitate a reader's comprehension of the pitch of a sound named by a word (thinner letter strokes being appropriate for higher pitch sounds), as can the brightness of the text (e.g., white-on-gray text being appropriate for the names of higher pitch sounds). It is proposed that the elementary visual features of text are represented in the same conceptual system as word meaning, allowing cross-sensory correspondences to support visual symbolism in language. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Human inferior colliculus activity relates to individual differences in spoken language learning.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M

    2012-03-01

    A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.

  10. Language-universal sensory deficits in developmental dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha; Wang, H-L Sharon; Cruz, Alicia; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina

    2011-02-01

    Studies in sensory neuroscience reveal the critical importance of accurate sensory perception for cognitive development. There is considerable debate concerning the possible sensory correlates of phonological processing, the primary cognitive risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Across languages, children with dyslexia have a specific difficulty with the neural representation of the phonological structure of speech. The identification of a robust sensory marker of phonological difficulties would enable early identification of risk for developmental dyslexia and early targeted intervention. Here, we explore whether phonological processing difficulties are associated with difficulties in processing acoustic cues to speech rhythm. Speech rhythm is used across languages by infants to segment the speech stream into words and syllables. Early difficulties in perceiving auditory sensory cues to speech rhythm and prosody could lead developmentally to impairments in phonology. We compared matched samples of children with and without dyslexia, learning three very different spoken and written languages, English, Spanish, and Chinese. The key sensory cue measured was rate of onset of the amplitude envelope (rise time), known to be critical for the rhythmic timing of speech. Despite phonological and orthographic differences, for each language, rise time sensitivity was a significant predictor of phonological awareness, and rise time was the only consistent predictor of reading acquisition. The data support a language-universal theory of the neural basis of developmental dyslexia on the basis of rhythmic perception and syllable segmentation. They also suggest that novel remediation strategies on the basis of rhythm and music may offer benefits for phonological and linguistic development.

  11. Oracle Bones and Mandarin Tones: Demystifying the Chinese Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Project on East Asian Studies in Education.

    This publication will provide secondary level students with a basic understanding of the development and structure of Chinese (guo yu) language characters. The authors believe that demystifying the language helps break many cultural barriers. The written language is a good place to begin because its pictographic nature is appealing and inspires…

  12. Educating Teachers of "Chinese as a Local/Global Language": Teaching "Chinese with Australian Characteristics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe

    2014-01-01

    How can the education of teacher-researchers from China be framed in ways so that they might make Chinese learnable for primary and secondary school learners for whom English is their everyday language of instruction and communication. The concept "making Chinese learnable" and the characters of the language learners are explained in the…

  13. Semantic Radical Knowledge and Word Recognition in Chinese for Chinese as Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxiang; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relation of knowledge of semantic radicals to students' language proficiency and word reading for adult Chinese-as-a-foreign language students. Ninety-seven college students rated their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in Chinese, and were administered measures of receptive and…

  14. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  15. Distinguishing Features in Scoring L2 Chinese Speaking Performance: How Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley

    2013-01-01

    For Chinese as a second language (L2 Chinese), there has been little research into "distinguishing features" (Fulcher, 1996; Iwashita et al., 2008) used in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance. The study reported here investigates the relationship between the distinguishing features of L2 Chinese spoken performances and the scores…

  16. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items.

  17. Interactive Patterns in Paired Discussions between Chinese Heritage and Chinese Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Having acquired some degree of oral proficiency but low (or non-existent) literacy, the learning of Chinese heritage learners' (CHLs) learning needs are different from those of Chinese foreign language learners (CFLs), who have learned Chinese only in the classroom setting. Although researchers have advocated for a separate curriculum for…

  18. Associations between Chinese Language Classroom Environments and Students' Motivation to Learn the Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2009-01-01

    Associations between the nature of Chinese Language Classroom Environments and Singapore secondary school students' motivation to learn the Chinese Language were investigated. A sample of 1,460 secondary three (grade 9) students from 50 express stream (above average academic ability) classes in Singapore government secondary schools was involved…

  19. A randomized trial comparison of the effects of verbal and pictorial naturalistic communication strategies on spoken language for young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C

    2014-05-01

    Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.

  20. 75 FR 5767 - All Terrain Vehicle Chinese Language Webinar; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION All Terrain Vehicle Chinese Language Webinar; Meeting AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is announcing the following meeting:...

  1. How Vocabulary Size in Two Languages Relates to Efficiency in Spoken Word Recognition by Young Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2010-01-01

    Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26 ; 2 ; 6). Between-language…

  2. Age differences in the use of informative/heuristic communicative functions in young children with and without hearing loss who are learning spoken language.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J G

    2000-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the normal development of communicative functions proceeds from the directing or "instrumental" types to the informative or "heuristic" types with age. This paper describes a cross-sectional study of communicative function in children with profound hearing loss and children with normal hearing, from ages 12-54 months. The children with hearing loss were learning spoken English as their primary means of communication. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the pattern of age differences seen in the two groups of children (those with and without normal hearing) are similar patterns that occur at differing chronological ages, or whether they are dissimilar patterns altogether. A second purpose was to examine the relationship between the use of informative/heuristic functions and the acquisition of vocabulary and syntax. The data suggested a somewhat different pattern of communicative function development in children with and without hearing loss. In addition, the use of language for social purposes was closely related to the achievement of traditional language milestones. In both normally hearing children and in those with hearing loss, the correlations between the use of informative-heuristic functions and various measures of language development indicated that the more mature uses of language co-occur with increased frequency of communication, larger vocabulary, and longer utterance length. These results document that when linguistic improvements such as increasing vocabulary size and sentence length occur in deaf children learning spoken English, they are used for appropriate and informative social purposes that are commensurate with their language age.

  3. Preparation of Programmed Chinese Language Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, William L.

    A project to convert part of a Chinese language course ("Standard Chinese: A Modular Approach") to the PLATO computerized teaching system is reported. The project involved: (1) transcribing all the first sequence audiotapes for the first six instructional modules (these tapes present the material of each lesson); (2) rewriting the lesson…

  4. Children’s Recall of Words Spoken in Their First and Second Language: Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Reverberation Time

    PubMed Central

    Hurtig, Anders; Keus van de Poll, Marijke; Pekkola, Elina P.; Hygge, Staffan; Ljung, Robert; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants’ first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 s) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language. PMID:26834665

  5. Implementation of Task-Based Language Teaching in Chinese as a Foreign Language: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    Task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been drawing increased attention from language teachers and researchers in the past decade. This paper focuses on the effects of TBLT on beginner learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in Denmark. Participatory observation and semi-structured interviews were carried out with 18 participants from two…

  6. Languaging in Story Rewriting Tasks by Chinese EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Luxin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of languaging by asking four pairs of Chinese university English as a foreign language (EFL) students to rewrite a story from a different perspective through three stages (composing--comparing- revising). Multiple sources of data were collected, including pair discussions, co-constructed writings, individual…

  7. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  8. Ethnic Contestation and Language Policy in a Plural Society: The Chinese Language Movement in Malaysia, 1952-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao Sua, Tan; Hooi See, Teoh

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese language movement was launched by the Chinese educationists to demand the recognition of Chinese as an official language to legitimise the status of Chinese education in the national education system in Malaysia. It began in 1952 as a response to the British attempt to establish national primary schools teaching in English and Malay to…

  9. Spoken name pronunciation evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepperman, Joseph; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    Recognition of spoken names is an important ASR task since many speech applications can be associated with it. However, the task is also among the most difficult ones due to the large number of names, their varying origins, and the multiple valid pronunciations of any given name, largely dependent upon the speaker's mother tongue and familiarity with the name. In order to explore the speaker- and language-dependent pronunciation variability issues present in name pronunciation, a spoken name database was collected from 101 speakers with varying native languages. Each speaker was asked to pronounce 80 polysyllabic names, uniformly chosen from ten language origins. In preliminary experiments, various prosodic features were used to train Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to identify misplaced syllabic emphasis within the name, at roughly 85% accuracy. Articulatory features (voicing, place, and manner of articulation) derived from MFCCs were also incorporated for that purpose. The combined prosodic and articulatory features were used to automatically grade the quality of name pronunciation. These scores can be used to provide meaningful feedback to foreign language learners. A detailed description of the name database and some preliminary results on the accuracy of detecting misplaced stress patterns will be reported.

  10. Bringing out Children's Wonderful Ideas in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yi

    This paper describes one after-school program at the Cambridge Chinese School, dedicated to teaching Chinese literacy to Chinese K-12 students in the Boston, Massachusetts area. In 1998, the school initiated the "Chinese as a Foreign Language" program to cater to the needs of U.S. families with an interest in the Chinese language and culture…

  11. Examining the English Language Policy for Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese University: A Language Ideology and Language Regime Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yawen; De Costa, Peter I.; Cui, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the learning of English in a Chinese university in Jiangsu and the university's preferential language policy, which allowed Uyghur minority students from Xinjiang to be enrolled despite their lower scores in the entrance examination. Guided by the constructs of language ideologies [Kroskrity, P. V. (2000). "Regimes of language:…

  12. Language spoken at home and the association between ethnicity and doctor–patient communication in primary care: analysis of survey data for South Asian and White British patients

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Kara; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if language spoken at home mediates the relationship between ethnicity and doctor–patient communication for South Asian and White British patients. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of patient experience survey data collected from 5870 patients across 25 English general practices. Mixed effect linear regression estimated the difference in composite general practitioner–patient communication scores between White British and South Asian patients, controlling for practice, patient demographics and patient language. Results There was strong evidence of an association between doctor–patient communication scores and ethnicity. South Asian patients reported scores averaging 3.0 percentage points lower (scale of 0–100) than White British patients (95% CI −4.9 to −1.1, p=0.002). This difference reduced to 1.4 points (95% CI −3.1 to 0.4) after accounting for speaking a non-English language at home; respondents who spoke a non-English language at home reported lower scores than English-speakers (adjusted difference 3.3 points, 95% CI −6.4 to −0.2). Conclusions South Asian patients rate communication lower than White British patients within the same practices and with similar demographics. Our analysis further shows that this disparity is largely mediated by language. PMID:26940108

  13. Reader for Advanced Spoken Tamil. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold

    This final report describes the development of a textbook for advanced, spoken Tamil. There is a marked dirrerence between literary Tamil and spoken Tamil, and training in the former is not sufficient for speaking the language in everyday situations with reasonably educated native speakers. There is difficulty in finding suitable material that…

  14. Aspects of Authentic Spoken German: Awareness and Recognition of Elision in the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the importance of spoken German in classroom instruction. The paper examines the nature of natural spoken language as opposed to written language. We find a general consensus that the prevailing language measure (whether pertaining to written or spoken language) in instructional settings more often typifies the rules associated…

  15. Variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners' Development of the Chinese Numeral Classifier System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xiaofei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners' development of the Chinese numeral classifier system from a dynamic systems approach. Our data consisted of a longitudinal corpus of 657 essays written by CFL learners at lower and higher intermediate levels and a corpus of 100 essays written by native speakers (NSs)…

  16. Spoken (Yucatec) Maya. [Preliminary Edition].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Robert W.; Vermont-Salas, Refugio

    This two-volume set of 18 tape-recorded lesson units represents a first attempt at preparing a course in the modern spoken language of some 300,000 inhabitants of the peninsula of Yucatan, the Guatemalan department of the Peten, and certain border areas of Belize. (A short account of the research and background of this material is given in the…

  17. Distinguish Spoken English from Written English: Rich Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at the feature analysis of four expository essays (Text A/B/C/D) written by secondary school students with a focus on the differences between spoken and written language. Texts C and D are better written compared with the other two (Texts A&B) which are considered more spoken in language using. The language features are…

  18. ON THE LITERARY LANGUAGE IN CHINA AND JAPAN. PRELIMINARY TRANSLATIONS OF SELECTED WORKS IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS, NUMBER V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KONRAD, N.I.

    ORIENTALISTS HAVE OBSERVED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL "STANDARD" LANGUAGES OF CHINA AND JAPAN AS A GRADUAL REPLACEMENT OF THE OLD "WRITTEN-LITERARY" LANGUAGE BY THE "COLLOQUIAL" SPOKEN LANGUAGE. THE AUTHOR DEFINES "WRITTEN-LITERARY" LANGUAGE, CORRESPONDING TO "WEN-YEN" IN CHINESE AND…

  19. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An in Vivo Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Brubaker, Brian; Wu, Sumei; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to the critical features of a component (tone in…

  20. An Instrument for Investigating Chinese Language Learning Environments in Singapore Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how a new classroom environment instrument, the "Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory (CLCEI)", was developed to investigate the nature of Chinese language classroom learning environments in Singapore secondary schools. The CLCEI is a bilingual instrument (English and Chinese Language) with 48 items…

  1. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  2. Text Memorisation in Chinese Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xia

    2012-01-01

    In China, a widespread learning practice for foreign languages are reading, reciting and memorising texts. This book investigates this practice against a background of Confucian heritage learning and western attitudes towards memorising, particularly audio-lingual approaches to language teaching and later largely negative attitudes. The author…

  3. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  4. LIST OF CHINESE DICTIONARIES IN ALL LANGUAGES. EXTERNAL RESEARCH PAPER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    A COMPILATION FROM LISTS OF DICTIONARIES USED BY SEVERAL U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS, THIS DOCUMENT INCLUDES THE TITLES OF AND INFORMATION CONCERNING DICTIONARIES COVERING OVER 25 TOPICS IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL FIELDS, AND NUMEROUS AREAS OF ECONOMICS, AND POLITICAL, AND SOCIOLOGICAL TOPICS. MANY CHINESE-FOREIGN LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES ARE…

  5. Dyslexia in Chinese Language: An Overview of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia appears to be the most prevalent disability of students with special educational needs in many mainstream classes, affecting around 9.7% of the school population in Hong Kong. The education of these students is therefore of great concern to the community. In the present paper research into dyslexia in the Chinese language is briefly…

  6. Chinese Language Study Abroad in the Summer, 1990. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard T.

    After an analysis of the changing numbers of Americans studying Chinese abroad and of Sino-American academic exchanges after the Tiananmen events of 1989, this paper reports on visits to summer language programs. Enrollments were down by 13 percent between the summer of 1988 and 1989, but down by 50 percent between 1989 and 1990. The following…

  7. Processing Relative Clauses in Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates second language (L2) learners' processing of four types of Chinese relative clauses crossing extraction types and demonstrative-classifier (DCl) positions. Using a word order judgment task with a whole-sentence reading technique, the study also discusses how psycholinguistic theories bear explanatory power in L2 data. An…

  8. Neuropsychological and cognitive effects of Chinese language instruction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Tori, C D

    1993-12-01

    Since little is known concerning the cortical and cognitive effects resulting from the study of a tonal, logographic language which is read from top to bottom and in a right-to-left direction, neuropsychological and intellectual measures on 51 bilingual and 41 monolingual Chinese-American children aged 9 to 12 years were compared. Multivariate statistical analyses yielded significant group differences. As predicted, the over-all mean IQ of bilinguals was higher than that of monolinguals. Other than coding skills, expected superior performance of bilinguals on right-hemisphere or bilaterally sensitive measures was not found; rather, the left-dominant sequential abilities of bilinguals surpassed those of their monolingual peers. English fluency of the two groups was equivalent and monolingual youngsters obtained higher scores on two of five academic achievements tests than bilinguals. The effects of Chinese language instruction among Chinese-American children are discussed in relation to the distinguished educational accomplishments of Asian Americans.

  9. Engaging a "Truly Foreign" Language and Culture: China through Chinese Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she uses Chinese film in her Chinese language and culture classes. She demonstrates how Chinese films can help students "navigate the uncharted universe of Chinese culture" with reference to several contemporary Chinese films. She describes how intensive viewing of films can develop a deeper and…

  10. Development of Domain-Specific Scenarios for Training and Evaluation of Two-Way, Free Form, Spoken Language Translation Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Marrakech , Morocco. Paris, France: European Language Resources Association. Schlenoff, Craig, Michelle P. Steves, Brian A. Weiss, Mike Shneier, and Ann...systems. In Proceedings of the 6th edition of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, May 28–30 2008, Marrakech , Morocco. Paris, France

  11. Compound Nouns in Spoken Language Production by Speakers with Aphasia Compared to Neurologically Healthy Speakers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiesland, Eli Anne; Lind, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Compounds are words that are made up of at least two other words (lexemes), featuring lexical and syntactic characteristics and thus particularly interesting for the study of language processing. Most studies of compounds and language processing have been based on data from experimental single word production and comprehension tasks. To enhance…

  12. Asia Society's Ongoing Chinese Language Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris; Wang, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Asia Society remains committed to promoting the teaching and learning of Chinese in American schools as an integral part of the broader agenda of building students' global competency, the key goal of its Partnership for Global Learning. Under the leadership of Asia Society's new Vice President for Education Tony Jackson and with continuing…

  13. Age and amount of exposure to a foreign language during childhood: behavioral and ERP data on the semantic comprehension of spoken English by Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Children's foreign-language (FL) learning is a matter of much social as well as scientific debate. Previous behavioral research indicates that starting language learning late in life can lead to problems in phonological processing. Inadequate phonological capacity may impede lexical learning and semantic processing (phonological bottleneck hypothesis). Using both behavioral and neuroimaging data, here we examine the effects of age of first exposure (AOFE) and total hours of exposure (HOE) to English, on 350 Japanese primary-school children's semantic processing of spoken English. Children's English proficiency scores and N400 event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were analyzed in multiple regression analyses. The results showed (1) that later, rather than earlier, AOFE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, when HOE was controlled for; and (2) that longer HOE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, whether AOFE was controlled for or not. These data highlight the important role of amount of exposure in FL learning, and cast doubt on the view that starting FL learning earlier always produces better results.

  14. Scientific psychology within the Chinese language and cultural context.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heyong

    2006-01-01

    The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.

  15. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  16. Auditory perception and word recognition in Cantonese-Chinese speaking children with and without Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Joanna C; Shum, Kathy K; Wong, Anita M-Y; Ho, Connie S-H; Au, Terry K

    2017-01-01

    Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical age-matched controls were assessed with a speech-gating task to measure spoken word recognition, psychophysical tasks to measure auditory Frequency Modulation (FM) detection and Frequency Discrimination (FD), and standardized psychometric tests of phonological processing and oral language. As a group, children with SLI took significantly longer than language-typical controls to recognize words with high neighborhood density, perhaps reflecting subpar phonological representations. FM, but not FD, was significantly worse in SLI. However, while both poorer speech-gating performance and poorer auditory thresholds (FM) were evident in SLI, spoken word recognition did not mediate any relation between auditory perception and either phonological processing or oral language.

  17. Auditory Perception and Word Recognition in Cantonese-Chinese Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy K.; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.

    2017-01-01

    Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical…

  18. An ERP study on Chinese natives' second language syntactic grammaticalization.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Zhenhai; Bai, Chen; Qiu, Yinchen

    2013-02-08

    The present study is concerned with how the Chinese learners of English grammaticalize different English syntactic rules. The ERPs (event related potentials) data were collected when participants performed English grammatical judgment. The experimental sentences varied in the degree of the similarity between the first language Chinese (L1) and the second language English (L2): (a) different in the L1 and the L2; (b) similar in the L1 and the L2; (c) unique to the L2. The P600 effect was found in L2 for structures that are similar in the L1 and the L2 and that are unique in L2, but there was no P600 effect of sentence type for the mismatch structures. The results indicate L1-L2 similarity and L2 proficiency interact in a complex way.

  19. The Role of Spoken and Sign Languages in the Retention of Written Words by Prelingually Deafened Native Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and efficiency of the strategies used by prelingually deafened native signers for the temporary retention of written words with reference to a primary language-coding hypothesis (M. A. Shand, 1982). For the gathering of the data, participants were shown lists of serially presented written…

  20. Spoken word recognition in young tone language learners: Age-dependent effects of segmental and suprasegmental variation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyi; Zhou, Peng; Singh, Leher; Gao, Liqun

    2017-02-01

    The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones.

  1. Utah State University: Cross-Discipline Training through the Graduate Studies Program in Auditory Learning & Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Since 1946, Utah State University (USU) has offered specialized coursework in audiology and speech-language pathology, awarding the first graduate degrees in 1948. In 1965, the teacher training program in deaf education was launched. Over the years, the Department of Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education (COMD-DE) has developed a rich history…

  2. Language Development of Chinese Adoptees 18-35 Months Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, T.X.; Yang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the expressive language development of 186 18-35 months old Chinese girls adopted into American families. The adoptees were adopted between 3 and 25 months (M=11.0, S.D.=3.1) and had lived in the adoptive families for 3-27 months (M=16.2, S.D.=5.8) at the time of the study. The adoptive mothers provided information…

  3. Chinese Cultural Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong: Primary School Chinese Language Teachers' Belief and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ming Kai Marko

    2010-01-01

    Before 1997, no formal curriculum on Chinese cultural education for primary schools was developed in Hong Kong although the education authority had started to introduce some items of Chinese cultural learning into the Chinese language syllabus when the Target Oriented Curriculum was implemented in 1996. However, such items were incorporated into…

  4. An Empirical Study of the Dominating Predictive Features of Spoken Language in a Representative Sample of School Pupils: A Multivariate Description and Analysis of Oral Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marascuilo, Leonard A.; Loban, Walter

    To determine whether language behavior represents an early conditioned verbal response or whether it changes with age and experience was the purpose of this study which attempted to define unique isolates of language on the basis of actual language produced by young children. Tape recorded data were collected for 12 years from 211 children in…

  5. Acquisition of Compound Words in Chinese-English Bilingual Children: Decomposition and Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both languages. The compound words in one language contained…

  6. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. In its…

  7. Responding to the Diversity of Chinese Language Learners in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Until recently Chinese language learning in Australian primary and junior secondary schools has been characterised by programs primarily designed for second language learners who have had no prior knowledge of or exposure to Chinese language. Participation in such programs by Australian-born children who speak Putonghua (Mandarin) or another…

  8. The Multilingual Translator: Words and Phrases in 15 Languages To Help You Communicate with Students of Diverse Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Helen H.

    The illustrated guide provides vocabulary for common classroom terminology in 15 languages: Arabic; Bengali; Chinese; Farsi; Haitian-Creole; Hindi; Italian; Korean; Polish; Russian; Serbo-Croatian; Spanish; Tagalog; Urdu; and Vietnamese. The languages are those most commonly spoken by immigrants to the United States. For each language there are…

  9. The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration FALCON Program in Chinese Language at Cornell University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John

    The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration (FALCON) program was designed for students who need an intensive program in Chinese to make them proficient enough for graduate study. Using L1, FALCON teaches students to express adult concepts in L2. Since good writing requires a great degree of proficiency, it is neglected initially for the sake of a…

  10. A Thematic Unit on "Moon" in a Third-Grade Chinese Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kylie

    A thematic approach used to teach Chinese to third-grade Chinese-American children is described and illustrated with photographs and student art. The unit discussed focused on the moon, and was scheduled to coincide with the Chinese Moon Festival. Language related to the moon was taught by introducing vocabulary and Chinese characters with a moon…

  11. Language-specific memory for everyday arithmetic facts in Chinese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yalin; Yanke, Jill; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2016-04-01

    The role of language in memory for arithmetic facts remains controversial. Here, we examined transfer of memory training for evidence that bilinguals may acquire language-specific memory stores for everyday arithmetic facts. Chinese-English bilingual adults (n = 32) were trained on different subsets of simple addition and multiplication problems. Each operation was trained in one language or the other. The subsequent test phase included all problems with addition and multiplication alternating across trials in two blocks, one in each language. Averaging over training language, the response time (RT) gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems were greater in the trained language than in the untrained language. Subsequent analysis showed that English training produced larger RT gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems in English at test relative to the untrained Chinese language. In contrast, there was no evidence with Chinese training that problem-specific RT gains differed between Chinese and the untrained English language. We propose that training in Chinese promoted a translation strategy for English arithmetic (particularly multiplication) that produced strong cross-language generalization of practice, whereas training in English strengthened relatively weak, English-language arithmetic memories and produced little generalization to Chinese (i.e., English training did not induce an English translation strategy for Chinese language trials). The results support the existence of language-specific strengthening of memory for everyday arithmetic facts.

  12. Language Spoken and Differences in Health Status, Access to Care, and Receipt of Preventive Services Among US Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Gizlice, Ziya

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined self-reported health status, health behaviors, access to care, and use of preventive services of the US Hispanic adult population to identify language-associated disparities. Methods. We analyzed 2003 to 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 45 076 Hispanic adults in 23 states, who represented 90% of the US Hispanic population, and compared 25 health indicators between Spanish-speaking Hispanics and English-speaking Hispanics. Results. Physical activity and rates of chronic disease, obesity, and smoking were significantly lower among Spanish-speaking Hispanics than among English-speaking Hispanics. Spanish-speaking Hispanics reported far worse health status and access to care than did English-speaking Hispanics (39% vs 17% in fair or poor health, 55% vs 23% uninsured, and 58% vs 29% without a personal doctor) and received less preventive care. Adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors did not mitigate the influence of language on these health indicators. Conclusions. Spanish-language preference marks a particularly vulnerable subpopulation of US Hispanics who have less access to care and use of preventive services. Priority areas for Spanish-speaking adults include maintenance of healthy behaviors, promotion of physical activity and preventive health care, and increased access to care. PMID:18799780

  13. Morphological constraints in children's spoken language comprehension: a visual world study of plurals inside compounds in English.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renita; Gerth, Sabrina; Clahsen, Harald

    2013-11-01

    Many previous studies have shown that the human language processor is capable of rapidly integrating information from different sources during reading or listening. Yet, little is known about how this ability develops from child to adulthood. To gain insight into how children (in comparison to adults) handle different kinds of linguistic information during on-line language comprehension, the current study investigates a well-known morphological phenomenon that is subject to both structural and semantic constraints, the plurals-in-compounds effect, i.e. the dislike of plural (specifically regular plural) modifiers inside compounds (e.g. rats eater). We examined 96 seven-to-twelve-year-old children and a control group of 32 adults measuring their eye-gaze changes in response to compound-internal plural and singular forms. Our results indicate that children rely more upon structural properties of language (in the present case, morphological cues) early in development and that the ability to efficiently integrate information from multiple sources takes time for children to reach adult-like levels.

  14. Language spoken at home and parental birthplace moderate the association of race/ethnicity and distorted weight perception.

    PubMed

    Gee, Leslie; Peebles, Rebecka; Golden, Neville H; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Heinberg, Leslie J; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2012-12-01

    Distorted weight perception (DWP), specifically overestimating weight status, is common in adolescents and may lead to eating disorders. The authors examined the role of acculturation proxies as effect modifiers of the relationship between race/ethnicity and DWP in a diverse adolescent population. Analysis of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey showed that of 2955 adolescents with underweight or healthy weight status, 10.6% reported DWP. Latino adolescents had increased odds of DWP compared with white adolescents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00, 4.57). Latinos who spoke English and other language(s) at home (aOR = 3.38; 95% CI = 2.11, 5.41) and Latino (aOR = 5.00; 95% CI = 2.34, 10.72) and Asian (aOR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.15, 8.35) adolescents who spoke no English at home had increased odds of DWP compared with white, English-only speakers. Latino adolescents had increased odds (aOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.45, 6.47) of DWP if neither parent was US born. Assessing acculturation proxies may help identify adolescents at risk of DWP.

  15. Simultaneous perception of a spoken and a signed language: The brain basis of ASL-English code-blends.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Jill; McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Code-blends (simultaneous words and signs) are a unique characteristic of bimodal bilingual communication. Using fMRI, we investigated code-blend comprehension in hearing native ASL-English bilinguals who made a semantic decision (edible?) about signs, audiovisual words, and semantically equivalent code-blends. English and ASL recruited a similar fronto-temporal network with expected modality differences: stronger activation for English in auditory regions of bilateral superior temporal cortex, and stronger activation for ASL in bilateral occipitotemporal visual regions and left parietal cortex. Code-blend comprehension elicited activity in a combination of these regions, and no cognitive control regions were additionally recruited. Furthermore, code-blends elicited reduced activation relative to ASL presented alone in bilateral prefrontal and visual extrastriate cortices, and relative to English alone in auditory association cortex. Consistent with behavioral facilitation observed during semantic decisions, the findings suggest that redundant semantic content induces more efficient neural processing in language and sensory regions during bimodal language integration.

  16. Adaptive interface for spoken dialog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusan, Sorin; Flanagan, James

    2002-05-01

    Speech has become increasingly important in human-computer interaction. Spoken dialog interfaces rely on automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, language understanding, and dialog management. A main issue in dialog systems is that they typically are limited to pre-programmed vocabularies and sets of sentences. The research reported here focuses on developing an adaptive spoken dialog interface capable of acquiring new linguistic units and their corresponding semantics during the human-computer interaction. The adaptive interface identifies unknown words and phrases in the users utterances and asks the user for the corresponding semantics. The user can provide the meaning or the semantic representation of the new linguistic units through multiple modalities, including speaking, typing, pointing, touching, or showing. The interface then stores the new linguistic units in a semantic grammar and creates new objects defining the corresponding semantic representation. This process takes place during natural interaction between user and computer and, thus, the interface does not have to be rewritten and compiled to incorporate the newly acquired language. Users can personalize the adaptive spoken interface for different domain applications, or according to their personal preferences. [Work supported by NSF.

  17. Spoken Dialogue Interfaces: Integrating Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.

  18. Combining Treatment for Written and Spoken Naming

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Egnor, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with left-hemisphere damage often have concomitant impairment of spoken and written language. Whereas some treatment studies have shown that reading paired with spoken naming can benefit both language modalities, little systematic research has been directed toward the treatment of spelling combined with spoken naming. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of pairing a lexical spelling treatment referred to as Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) with verbal repetition of target words. This approach (CART + Repetition) was compared with treatment using verbal repetition without the inclusion of orthographic training (Repetition Only). Two individuals with moderate aphasia and severe impairment of spelling participated in the study using a multiple baseline design across stimulus sets and treatment conditions. Both participants improved spelling of targeted words as well as spoken naming of those items, but improvement in spoken naming was marked for one individual in the CART + Repetition condition, while the other participant made smaller gains in spoken than written naming irrespective of treatment condition. Consideration of the participant profiles suggested that CART + Repetition provides greater benefit when there is some residual phonological ability and the treatment serves to stimulate links between orthography and phonology. PMID:17064445

  19. A Scoping Review of Interventions to Supplement Spoken Communication for Children with Limited Speech or Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Maria Antonella; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is used for treating children with severe disorders of speech-language production and/or comprehension. Various strategies are used, but research and debate on their efficacy have remained limited to a specific area and have rarely reached the general medical community. Objective To systematically evaluate outcomes of AAC interventions in children with limited speech or language skills. Methods Searches were conducted (up to December 2012) in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, DARE, and Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, relevant journals were searched by hand. References from identified studies were examined. Only RCTs were considered. Trial quality was assessed according to a standardized and validated set of criteria. Results Fourteen of 1661 retrieved papers met inclusion criteria. A total of 666 children were included in the review and 7 papers involved only children <5 years old. Papers were of average quality and all but one had been published during the previous 10 years by one of 8 research groups, 5 of which from the United States. Seven studies directly addressed AAC use by children with different disabilities. Seven studies enrolled typically developing children: 5 evaluated the use of AAC technologies by children without disabilities in order to obtain results that could be used to improve interventions in peers with disabilities, and 2 evaluated peers’ attitudes towards children who used AAC. Both interventions and outcome measures varied widely between studies. Overall findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the AAC interventions considered, but the focus on RCTs alone appears too restrictive. Conclusions Solid evidence of the positive effects of AAC interventions in children with severe communication disorders must be generated, and different methods are needed besides RCTs. Moreover, it is important that knowledge, research, and debate extend to the medical community in order

  20. The Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by English, Japanese and Korean Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by speakers of non-tonal languages within the framework of Optimality Theory. The effects of three L1s are analyzed: American English, a stress-accent language; Tokyo Japanese, a lexical pitch accent language; and Seoul Korean, a non-stress and non-pitch accent…

  1. Teacher Identity, Teaching Vision, and Chinese Language Education for South Asian Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in research on language teacher identity as relevant research suggests that language teacher self-identification has an impact on their language teaching. The present paper explores the self-identification and subsequent effects on their actual teaching vision and practice of 16 Chinese language subject teachers…

  2. Towards Homogeneity in Home Languages: Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil Families in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…

  3. Predicting the language proficiency of Chinese student pilots within American airspace: Single-task versus dual-task English-language assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Clifford Elliott, II

    2002-09-01

    The problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of three single-task instruments---(a) the Test of English as a Foreign Language, (b) the Aviation Test of Spoken English, and (c) the Single Manual-Tracking Test---and three dual-task instruments---(a) the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, (b) the Certified Flight Instructor's Test, and (c) the Simulation-Based English Test---to predict the language performance of 10 Chinese student pilots speaking English as a second language when operating single-engine and multiengine aircraft within American airspace. Method. This research implemented a correlational design to investigate the ability of the six described instruments to predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation, which was the Examiner's Test. This test assessed the oral communication skill of student pilots on the flight portion of the terminal checkride in the Piper Cadet, Piper Seminole, and Beechcraft King Air airplanes. Results. Data from the Single Manual-Tracking Test, as well as the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, were discarded due to performance ceiling effects. Hypothesis 1, which stated that the average correlation between the mean scores of the dual-task evaluations and that of the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of single-task evaluations, was not supported. Hypothesis 2, which stated that the correlation between the mean scores of the participants on the Simulation-Based English Test and the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of all single- and dual-task evaluations, was also not supported. The findings suggest that single- and dual-task assessments administered after initial flight training are equivalent predictors of language performance when piloting single-engine and multiengine aircraft.

  4. The Production of Referring Expressions in Oral Narratives of Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers and Monolingual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which the production of referring expressions such as noun phrases and pronouns to fulfill various discourse functions in narratives of Chinese-English bilingual children matches that of their monolingual peers in each of the two languages. Spoken narratives in English and Chinese were elicited from 30 9-year-old…

  5. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a K-5 Chinese Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Shoufen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to provide a comprehensive data-driven evaluation of a Chinese language Immersion Program (CIP) for the stakeholders. CIP was implemented in 2006 with a goal for students to become proficient in the Chinese language and develop increased cultural awareness while reaching at least the same level of academic…

  6. Transitioning Beliefs in Teachers of Chinese as a Foreign Language: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Robyn; Xu, HuiLing

    2015-01-01

    With the economic rise of China, there is global demand for effective teaching and learning of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). There has been limited sustained success in Chinese language learning in Australian schools, however, and this has been attributed, amongst other factors, to pedagogy employed by teachers. Today, it is commonplace to…

  7. Exploring Potential Uses of ICT in Chinese Language Arts Instruction: Eight Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Lee, Greg C.; Chen, Hsiu-Yen

    2004-01-01

    Eight experienced Chinese language arts teachers from a typical junior high school in Taiwan participated in this study to discuss the potential uses of information and communications technologies (ICT) in Chinese language arts instruction. After meeting for 12 roundtable sessions and using a web forum as a supplement for exchanging ideas, they…

  8. Dealing with Distinctiveness. Development of Chinese in the "Australian Curriculum: Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Andrew; Foster, Marnie; Mao, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    This article explores some of the distinctive challenges in Chinese language education in schools and discusses how the development of the "Australian Curriculum: Chinese" has responded to these challenges. It details how the curriculum framework outlined in the "Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Languages" (ACARA, 2011)…

  9. Which Learning Style is Most Effective in Learning Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Guanxin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is not only a tonal but also a visual language represented by tens of thousands of characters which are pictographic in nature. This presents a great challenge to learners whose mother tongue is alphabetical-based such as English. To assist English-speaking background learners to learn Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) well, a good…

  10. Cross-Language Differences in Informational Masking of Speech by Speech: English versus Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xihong; Yang, Zhigang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Jing; Li, Liang; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine why perceived spatial separation provides a greater release from informational masking in Chinese than English when target sentences in each of the languages are masked by other talkers speaking the same language. Method: Monolingual speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese listened to…

  11. The Culture and Language Learning of Chinese Festivals in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Chin

    2006-01-01

    Culture plays a vital role in second language learning. This paper presents an action research study that investigates the role of culture in a Chinese language program in a kindergarten classroom. Three topics have been explored: (a) culture as the core in the development of a thematic unit on Chinese festivals, (b) a culturally responsive…

  12. Adoption of Blogging by a Chinese Language Composition Class in a Vocational High School in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Wu, Shi-Chiao; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of adopting blogging upon Chinese language composition instruction in a vocational high school in Taiwan. The researchers developed a model that utilises blogging in Chinese language composition instruction. Forty randomly selected students from a public vocational high school served as the…

  13. The Wor(l)d is a Collage: Multi-Performance by Chinese Heritage Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the simultaneous use of English and Chinese by speakers of Chinese as a heritage language (CHL). It focuses on spontaneous, dynamic, and high-density mixing of the two languages within the smallest building block of a speaking turn: the turn constructional unit (TCU). Drawing upon data from different age and proficiency groups,…

  14. Humanistic Content in the Chinese Language Textbooks for Nine Year Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiao; Sargent, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ quantitative and qualitative content analysis to investigate the nature of humanistic value content in the Chinese language arts curriculum and whether or not this varies across old and new versions of the textbooks. Our findings illustrate the various dimensions of humanistic value content in the Chinese language arts…

  15. Spoken Records. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Helen

    Surveying 75 years of accomplishment in the field of spoken recording, this reference work critically evaluates commercially available recordings selected for excellence of execution, literary or historical merit, interest, and entertainment value. Some types of spoken records included are early recording, documentaries, lectures, interviews,…

  16. CHINESE LANGUAGE TEACHING IN THE UNITED STATES--THE STATE OF THE ART.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WRENN, JAMES J.

    IN THIS SURVEY OF CHINESE LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES THE AUTHOR FIRST ASSUMES THAT MOST SERIOUS STUDENTS HOPE EVENTUALLY TO ATTAIN SUFFICIENT READING AND WRITING ABILITY TO CONDUCT ORIGINAL RESEARCH USING RESOURCES WRITTEN IN CHINESE. BECAUSE OF THE NATURE OF THE CHINESE WRITING SYSTEM, THIS IS A VERY DIFFICULT GOAL AND "THE LEVEL…

  17. Eye Movements of Second Language Learners when Reading Spaced and Unspaced Chinese Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Deli; Liversedge, Simon P.; Tian, Jin; Zang, Chuanli; Cui, Lei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text.…

  18. Expanding Secondary School Chinese Language Programs: A Study of Potential Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dretzke, Beverly J.; Jordan, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in learning Chinese has been fueled by the growing strength of the Chinese economy and the need for Americans who are able to communicate at an advanced level in fields of business, science, and government. The present study reports the results of a survey of secondary school students enrolled in Chinese language classes with…

  19. How the Whole Language Approach Using Predictable Strategies Motivates Bilingual Children Learning To Read and Write Chinese as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-Chen

    In recent years, the rate of Chinese immigrants to the United States has been increasing. Chinese parents desire that their Chinese-American children learn Chinese as a second language. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects on four American-born Chinese children when the researcher, as an instructor, employed whole language…

  20. International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics Proceedings (4th, Taipei, Taiwan, July 18-20, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Dah-an, Ed.; Tseng, Chiu-yu, Ed.

    This publication of proceedings, most in English and some in Chinese, of a conference on Chinese languages and linguistics include the following papers: "On Rule Effect and Dialect Classification" (Chin-Chuan Cheng); "Cross-Linguistic Typological Variation, Grammatical Relations, and the Chinese Language" (Bernard Comrie); "Is Chinese a Pragmatic…

  1. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  2. Long-term experience with Chinese language shapes the fusiform asymmetry of English reading.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-04-15

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading.

  3. The Effect of Target Language Use in Social Media on Intermediate-Level Chinese Language Learners' Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shenggao; Vásquez, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined whether there was any difference in the quantity and quality of the written texts produced by two groups (N = 18) of intermediate Chinese language learners. Over one semester, students in the experimental (E) group wrote weekly updates and comments in Chinese on a designated Facebook group page, while…

  4. Home Literacy Environment and English Language and Literacy Skills among Chinese Young Children Who Learn English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the home literacy environment for Chinese ESL kindergarteners and examined the relationships between home literacy practices and language and literacy skills. Ninety Hong Kong Chinese ESL kindergarteners were assessed for English vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter knowledge and word reading. Their parents…

  5. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  6. Readings in Sayable Chinese. Volumes I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Yuen Ren

    The purpose of this series is to supply the advanced student of spoken Chinese with reading material he can actually use in his speech. The author has tried to include as great as possible a variety of subject matter and style of language. Volume I consists of "Short Stories, Conversations, and Learned Articles,""Fragments of an Autobiography"…

  7. Evaluating Language Environment Analysis System Performance for Chinese: A Pilot Study in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Jill; Zhang, Yiwen; Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Fan; Harnsberger, James; Topping, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) automated language-analysis system for the Chinese Shanghai dialect and Mandarin (SDM) languages. Method: Volunteer parents of 22 children aged 3-23 months were recruited in Shanghai. Families provided daylong in-home audio recordings using…

  8. The Use of Textual Memorisation in Foreign Language Learning: Hearing the Chinese Learner and Teacher Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Textual memorisation is a widely used yet underexplored language practice in foreign language teaching and learning in China. The research addresses the need for a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the practices and beliefs of Chinese learners regarding the use of textual memorisation in foreign language learning. This article reports on…

  9. Web-Based Synchronized Multimedia Lecture System Design for Teaching/Learning Chinese as Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Herng-Yow; Liu, Kuo-Yu

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of computer technology for language instruction has expanded rapidly. In Taiwan, overseas students whose native languages are not Chinese mostly get trouble in learning and communicating particularly during the first year of their study. To overcome their language barrier in National Chi Nan University (NCNU), a…

  10. English Language Proficiency and Bilingual Verbal Ability among Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Mariela M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes English language proficiency and bilingual verbal ability for a sample of 209 students aged 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students' English language proficiency…

  11. Training Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers to Create Instructional Video to Enhance Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lih-Ching Chen; Wang, Ming-Chian Ken

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language instruction is a complex and challenging task made even more so by situations in which the learner's native language is radically different from the foreign language being mastered. Nowhere is this more evident than in the case of native English speakers seeking to learn Mandarin Chinese. The rapid increase in the availability and…

  12. English Language Learning Strategy Use by Chinese Senior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yaping

    2010-01-01

    Language learning strategies are important factors that affect students' learning. In China, senior high school is an important stage in a person's education. This study examines the English language learning strategy use by Chinese senior high school students by means of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. The findings reveal that…

  13. Standardizing Chinese Sign Language for Use in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Christina Mien-Chun; Gerner de Garcia, Barbara; Chen-Pichler, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are over 100 languages in China, including Chinese Sign Language. Given the large population and geographical dispersion of the country's deaf community, sign variation is to be expected. Language barriers due to lexical variation may exist for deaf college students in China, who often live outside their home regions. In presenting an…

  14. The Necessity to Redefine Chinese Second Language Learners: A Victorian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Gary

    2014-01-01

    In language learning, there is much evidence to suggest that heritage language (HL) learners exhibit learning needs and profiles that are distinct from non-HL learners. In the case of Chinese language teaching in Victoria, this issue is particularly pronounced because of the loose eligibility criterion that divides students into the streams of…

  15. Bilingual Chinese, Malay and Tamil Children's Language Choices in a Multi-lingual Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    1999-01-01

    Examined language choice for three bilingual families in the context of Singapore's bilingual policy for preschool children. Found that Chinese families prefer English for all activities; Malay families prefer the Malayan language for worship and interaction with family; and Tamil families choose the Tamil language for worship but prefer English…

  16. Learning Chinese as a Heritage Language in Australia and Beyond: The Role of Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of learning and retaining heritage languages are well documented in the literature. Chinese heritage language learners' commitment to their heritage language learning has gained significant research ground in social psychological and post-structural schools, with empirical evidence predominantly emerging from the North American…

  17. Language Maintenance and Language Shift among Chinese Immigrant Parents and Their Second-Generation Children in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the language experiences of two distinct Chinese immigrant groups in the U.S.: a Mandarin-speaking group and a Fujianese-speaking group across two generations. The different language trajectories of the parents' generation, along with their social class and different settlement patterns in the U.S., shaped the second-generation…

  18. Cracking the Chinese Character: Radical Sensitivity in Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language and Its Relationship to Chinese Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; Yip, Joanna Hew Yan

    2015-01-01

    Radicals are building blocks of Chinese complex characters and exhibit certain positional, phonological and semantic regularities. This study investigated whether adult non-native learners of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) were aware of the positional (orthographic), phonological and semantic information of radicals, and whether such…

  19. Language nonselective access to phonological representations: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huixia; Chen, Baoguo; Yang, Meiying; Dunlap, Susan

    2010-10-01

    Four experiments with Chinese-English bilinguals were conducted in order to investigate the hypothesis of language nonselective access to an integrated lexicon for bilingual phonological representations. Results of a naming task (in Experiments 1 and 2) and a lexical decision task (in Experiments 3 and 4) showed homophone priming effects regardless of priming direction (English to Chinese, or Chinese to English) or English proficiency. Our findings are compatible with the BIA+ model of bilingual processing, provide further support for the hypothesis of language nonselective access to an integrated lexicon for bilingual phonological representations, and extend the hypothesis to language pairs with very different writing systems.

  20. Let's Tweet in Chinese! Exploring How Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language Self-Direct Their Use of Microblogging to Learn Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Twitter is becoming increasingly popular as a medium for language learning. This study explores self-directed learning via social interactions that use Twitter as an interactive learning environment. The participants in this study were thirty university students of Chinese as a foreign language at levels 1 and 2 of the "Hanyu Shuiping…

  1. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  2. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... special educators, psychologist). The SLP will evaluate spoken (speaking and listening) and written (reading and writing) language ... his or her classroom(s). Intervention with spoken language (speaking and listening) can also be designed to support ...

  3. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language?

    PubMed

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  4. Instructional Practices and Self-Regulated Learning in Chinese Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between teachers' instructional practices and students' self-regulated learning (SRL) in Hong Kong Chinese language classes using quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants were 1121 Grade 10 students from six secondary schools in Hong Kong. A Chinese reading comprehension (RC) test was used to assess…

  5. A Tale of Two Teachers: Chinese Immigrant Teachers' Professional Identity in US Foreign Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yunli

    2010-01-01

    This study looks at Chinese immigrant teachers' identity through the theoretical framework of the figured worlds, aiming to explore how the Chinese immigrant teachers navigate the cultural and educational practices and negotiate their professional identities in the figured world of foreign language classes in the US public schools, and how the two…

  6. A Standalone but Not Lonely Language: Chinese Linguistic Environment and Education in Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Huang; Kangdi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual education policy in Singapore permits the students learn both English as working language and mother tongues, such as Chinese, as L2 anchoring to culture heritage. Starting from historical and sociolinguistic reasons, this paper is intended to provide a panoramic view of Chinese education in Singapore, clarify and compare Chinese…

  7. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

    2012-01-01

    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  8. English Language Proficiency and Health-Related Quality of Life among Chinese and Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…

  9. Comparing Teachers' Judgments of Learners' Speech in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogical norms for Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) shared by teachers, curriculum writers, and resource designers inside and outside of Chinese societies are yet to be established. To initiate and inform dialogue within the CFL community over shared expectations of learners, this study compared the judgments of students' oral presentations…

  10. Developing Orthographic Awareness among Beginning Chinese Language Learners: Investigating the Influence of Beginning Level Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Hui-Mei

    2010-01-01

    The present study is based on the theoretical assumptions that frequency of characters and their structural components, as well as the frequency types of structural components, are important to enable learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) to discover the underlying structure of Chinese characters. In the CFL context, since reliable…

  11. An Investigation of Reading Strategies Applied by American Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Thompson, Li-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Minimal research has been conducted in reading Chinese as a second/ foreign language (CSI/CFL). In an effort to further the understanding of the reading process, this study, utilizing think aloud and retelling procedures, focuses on the identification of strategies that American university students applied to read Chinese texts (narrative and…

  12. China's Policy of Chinese as a Foreign Language and the Use of Overseas Confucius Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hongqin; Huang, Jianbin

    2010-01-01

    China's economic power is changing attitudes towards Mandarin Chinese worldwide. Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) consequently emerges as a subject for research as well as an educational market. This article investigates the modern evolution of CFL curriculum policy that has led to the current rapid growth of the Confucius Institute (CI) around…

  13. Children Learning Chinese as a Home Language in an English-Dominant Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Sinming

    2015-01-01

    Many Chinese families face many difficulties in maintaining their heritage language for their children in English-dominant societies. This article first looks at the losses from monolingualism and benefits of bilingualism. Then, it explores the common methods used today in teaching Chinese. We conclude that families and community play an…

  14. "Westerners," "Chinese," and/or "Us": Exploring the Intersections of Language, Race, Religion, and Immigrantization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Huamei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a four-year ethnography, I draw on critical race theory and Bourdieuian theory of language to analyze why a Chinese Immigrant couple regarded their 1.5-Generation Chinese Canadian leaders at an evangelical Christian church as "Westerners," and how the leaders differentiated themselves from "Westerners" and…

  15. Cognitive and Linguistic Factors Affecting Alphasyllabary Language Users Comprehending Chinese Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Mark Shiu Kee; Ki, Wing Wah; Leong, Che Kan

    2014-01-01

    Two groups of 13 to14-year-old alphasyllabary language users (mainly Hindi and Urdu), in integrated or designated school settings (respectively 40 and 48 students), were compared with 59 Chinese students in comprehending 4 elementary Chinese texts, each with three inferential questions requiring short open-ended written answers. Three constructs…

  16. Language Anxiety: Experiences of Chinese Graduate Students at U.S. Higher Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rui; Erben, Antony

    2012-01-01

    It is very common for Chinese graduate students to experience language anxiety in the U.S. higher institutions, yet the literature on this topic is limited. This research study focused on the influence of the length of stay in U.S. higher institutions, various programs, gender, and acculturation process on Chinese graduate students' language…

  17. Sociolinguistic Variation in the Speech of Learners of Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoshi

    2010-01-01

    With Chinese native-speaker data as the baseline, this study investigates the use of the morphosyntactic particle DE by learners of Chinese as a second language. The general patterns are as follows: (a) DE tends to be deleted more in informal speech than in formal settings; (b) higher proficiency and longer residence in China--more interactions…

  18. The Effect of Radical-Based Grouping in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The logographic nature of the Chinese writing system creates a huge hurdle for Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. Existing literature (e.g., Shen, [Shen, H. H., 2010]; Taft & Chung, [Taft, M., 1999]) suggests that radical knowledge facilitates character learning. In this project, we selected 48 compound characters in eight radical…

  19. Cultural Views, Language Ability, and Mammography Use in Chinese American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2009-01-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a…

  20. Collaborating with Front-Line Teachers to Incorporate Self-Regulated Learning in Chinese Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to initially explore the possibility of helping front-line teachers to integrate the principles of self-regulated learning (SRL) into Chinese reading instruction in a 1-year collaborative project. A total of 197 Secondary 3 students and 6 Chinese language teachers from a secondary school in Hong Kong participated in the study. The…

  1. The Significance of Bilingual Chinese, Malay, and Tamil Children's English Network Patterns on Community Language Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed groups of Chinese, Malay and Tamil families, their use of community languages or mother tongue, and their speaking, reading, and writing proficiency. Found that when parents' community language proficiency in speaking is lower they tend to choose English as preferred language. Children's language confidence affected their language choice.…

  2. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  3. A Comparison of Foreign Language Learning Social Environments, Motivation, and Beliefs between Chinese and American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…

  4. (Dis)connections between Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; Kidd, Joanna C.; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are found to co-occur in school-aged children learning Chinese, a non-alphabetic language (Wong, Kidd, Ho, & Au in "Sci Stud Read" 14:30--57, 2010). This paper examined the "Distinct" hypothesis--that SLI and dyslexia have different cognitive deficits and behavioural…

  5. Language Learner Strategy Use and Test Performance of Chinese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xiaomei; Cheng, Liying

    2006-01-01

    This article examines language learner strategy use reported by 121 Chinese learners of English through a questionnaire and the relationships between their strategy use and language performance on a national English proficiency test: College English Test-Band 4. Results showed that this group of learners reported using more metacognitive…

  6. Metacognitive Beliefs and Strategies in Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinghui; Spencer, Ken; Xing, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates the effects of second-year university students' metacognitive beliefs and strategies on learning Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL). The analysis shows that metacognitive beliefs, which identify students who are confident about their ability to learn a foreign language, are positively associated with students' CFL…

  7. A Socio-Political View of English Language Teaching in the Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yaying

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the urgent need for research into the socio-political contexts of the teaching and learning of English as a second/foreign language, the predominant paradigm of inquiry into EFL in the Chinese context still focuses on the functional aspects of second language education. In order to provide a critical understanding of the larger context…

  8. An Exploration of Chinese EFL Learners' Unwillingness to Communicate and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meihua; Jackson, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of the unwillingness to communicate, and anxiety of Chinese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in English language classrooms. A 70-item survey of 547 first-year undergraduate non-English majors revealed that (a) Most of the students were willing to participate in interpersonal…

  9. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  10. Chinese-English Code-Mixing: A Case of Matrix Language Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.; Cher-Leng, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the issue of whether there exists a matrix language to a code-mixed (CM) sentence, or whether no feasible linguistic analysis can reliably assign a matrix language to a CM sentence. The examination draws on natural conversations involving Chinese-English CM in Singapore. (41 references) (GLR)

  11. Chinese Language and Culture Curriculum: Teacher's Manual [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Yong-Kian; And Others

    This curriculum is designed to introduce Chinese language and culture in the elementary grades, and consists of a teacher's manual and student activity book. The teacher's guide consists of an introductory section, which outlines the rationale, objectives, suggested teaching techniques and materials, and language and culture content of the…

  12. Development of English Referring Expressions in the Narratives of Chinese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang; Pan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of referring expressions in the narratives of children learning English as a second language (L2). Spoken narratives in English were elicited from sixty Chinese-speaking participants at four ages--five, eight, ten, and young adults--using the wordless picture book "Frog, where are you?" (Mayer, 1969).…

  13. Unidimensionality of the Chinese version of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tsung-Yuan

    2002-12-01

    Previous research showed the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale is reliable and valid for assessing reading anxiety in groups of American college students beginning study of French, Japanese, or Russian. Because Saito, Horwitz, and Garza (1999) reported that reading anxiety tends to vary with the target language, the present investigation examined the factorial validity of the Chinese version of the scale in college students of English as a foreign language in Taiwan, Confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood method supports the unidimensionality of the scale, which is reliable and valid for eliciting reading anxiety of Chinese college foreign language learners and for predicting their global language performance. This study suggests exploring how language proficiency, culture, and topic familiarity may be related to such anxiety.

  14. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729

  15. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.

  16. Eye movements of second language learners when reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text.

    PubMed

    Shen, Deli; Liversedge, Simon P; Tian, Jin; Zang, Chuanli; Cui, Lei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Rayner, Keith

    2012-06-01

    The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text. Also, participants' native languages were different in terms of their basic characteristics: English and Korean are spaced, whereas the other two are unspaced; Japanese is character based whereas the other three are alphabetic. Thus, we assessed whether any spacing effects were modulated by native language characteristics. Eye movement measures showed least disruption to reading for word-spaced text and longer reading times for unspaced than character-spaced text, with nonword-spaced text yielding the most disruption. These effects were uninfluenced by native language (though reading times differed between groups as a result of Chinese reading experience). Demarcation of word boundaries through spacing reduces non-native readers' uncertainty about the characters that constitute a word, thereby speeding lexical identification, and in turn, reading. More generally, the results indicate that words have psychological reality for those who are learning to read Chinese as a second language, and that segmentation of text into words is more beneficial to successful comprehension than is separating individual Chinese characters with spaces.

  17. Comparison of co-occurrence networks of the Chinese and English languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wei; Shi, Yuming; Tse, Chi K.; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yanli; Cui, Xunqiang

    2009-12-01

    Co-occurrence networks of Chinese characters and words, and of English words, are constructed from collections of Chinese and English articles, respectively. Four types of collections are considered, namely, essays, novels, popular science articles, and news reports. Statistical parameters of the networks are studied, including diameter, average degree, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, average shortest path length, as well as the number of connected subnetworks. It is found that the character and word networks of each type of article in the Chinese language, and the word network of each type of article in the English language all exhibit scale-free and small-world features. The statistical parameters of these co-occurrence networks are compared within the same language and across the two languages. This study reveals some commonalities and differences between Chinese and English languages, and among the four types of articles in each language from a complex network perspective. In particular, it is shown that expressions in English are briefer than those in Chinese in a certain sense.

  18. Spoken Korean: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukoff, Fred

    This text is designed for students planning to learn spoken Korean. Ten lessons and two review sections based on cultural experiences commonly shared by Koreans are included in the text. Grouped in series of five lessons, the instructional materials include (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  19. Different mechanisms in learning different second languages: Evidence from English speakers learning Chinese and Spanish.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Sussman, Bethany L; Rios, Valeria; Yan, Xin; Wang, Zhao; Spray, Gregory J; Mack, Ryan M

    2017-03-01

    Word reading has been found to be associated with different neural networks in different languages, with greater involvement of the lexical pathway for opaque languages and greater invovlement of the sub-lexical pathway for transparent langauges. However, we do not know whether this language divergence can be demonstrated in second langauge learners, how learner's metalinguistic ability would modulate the langauge divergence, or whether learning method would interact with the language divergence. In this study, we attempted to answer these questions by comparing brain activations of Chinese and Spanish word reading in native English-speaking adults who learned Chinese and Spanish over a 2 week period under three learning conditions: phonological, handwriting, and passive viewing. We found that mapping orthography to phonology in Chinese had greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) than in Spanish, suggesting greater invovlement of the lexical pathway in opaque langauges. In contrast, Spanish words evoked greater activation in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) than English, suggesting greater invovlement of the sublexical pathway for transparant languages. Furthermore, brain-behavior correlation analyses found that higher phonological awareness and rapid naming were associated with greater activation in the bilateral IFG for Chinese and in the bilateral STG for Spanish, suggesting greater language divergence in participants with higher meta-linguistic awareness. Finally, a significant interaction between the language and learning condition was found in the left STG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with greater activation in handwriting learning than viewing learning in the left STG only for Spanish, and greater activation in handwriting learning than phonological learning in the left MFG only for Chinese. These findings suggest that handwriting facilitates assembled phonology in Spanish and addressed

  20. Parent-Child Reading in English as a Second Language: Effects on Language and Literacy Development of Chinese Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dialogic parent-child reading in English on 51 Hong Kong kindergarteners learning English as a second language. Children were pre-tested on nonverbal IQ, reading interest and receptive vocabulary, word reading and phonological awareness in both Chinese and English. They were then assigned randomly to one of…

  1. Chinese Language Study in American Higher Education: State of the Art. Language in Education: Theory and Practice. No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Peter A.; And Others

    A study was undertaken in order to provide current data and comprehensive information about Chinese language instruction in United States higher education. This report is based on the responses to a survey in 1979. In addition to the discussion of the survey responses, an examination of changes that have taken place since a previous report in 1969…

  2. Teenagers Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language in a European Confucius Institute: The Relationship between Language Learner Strategies and Successful Learning Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cáceres-Lorenzo, MTeresa

    2015-01-01

    The present research aims to identify the factors involved in the successful completion of the "Young Chinese Test" 2-A1 (YCT 2-A1) at Spanish Confucius Institute (Canary Islands). Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) entails several learning difficulties compared with other European languages. This study was conducted on 61 monolingual…

  3. Stakeholder Views on the Roles, Challenges, and Future Prospects of Korean and Chinese Heritage Language-Community Language Schools in Phoenix: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun; Liu, Na

    2011-01-01

    This study examines stakeholders' perspectives on Korean and Chinese heritage language and community language (HL-CL) schools and education in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Arizona. It investigates and compares the roles, major challenges, and future prospects of Korean and Chinese HL-CL schools as viewed by principals, teachers, and parents. To…

  4. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  5. Predicting the Vocabulary of Children from Written or Spoken Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michael; Goldstein, Zahava

    A study investigated the use of a mathematical model to predict individuals' total active Hebrew vocabulary from samples of their written and spoken language. The model is based on a generalized inverse Gaussian distribution. The subjects were Israeli junior high school students from both high and low socioeconomic groups. Hebrew language samples…

  6. Correlates of Early Language Development in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yiwen; Jin, Xingming; Shen, Xiamong; Zhang, Jinming; Hoff, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Caregivers of 608 (331 boys and 277 girls) children in Shanghai, China reported on their children's language development and on the language teaching practices used in the home. The children were between 24 and 47 months old. The relation of age-corrected language level to paternal education, child gender, and teaching practice use was examined.…

  7. The Spoken Word and the Integrity of English Instruction, Study Group Paper No. 1; and the Role of the Spoken Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loban, Walter; And Others

    In response to a study group concerned with the spoken word and the integrity of English instruction, Walter Loban traces speech and its development, examines oral language proficiency, discusses one study of oral language, discusses language and social class and language and learning, and concludes by commenting on the neglect speech instruction…

  8. Lexical Borrowing from Chinese Languages in Malaysian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imm, Tan Siew

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how contact between English and Chinese has resulted in the incorporation of Chinese borrowings into the lexicon of Malaysian English (ME). Using a corpus-based approach, this study analyses a comprehensive range of borrowed features extracted from the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus (MEN Corpus). Based on the contexts of…

  9. Language Non-Selective Activation of Orthography during Spoken Word Processing in Hindi-English Sequential Bilinguals: An Eye Tracking Visual World Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Previous psycholinguistic studies have shown that bilinguals activate lexical items of both the languages during auditory and visual word processing. In this study we examined if Hindi-English bilinguals activate the orthographic forms of phonological neighbors of translation equivalents of the non target language while listening to words either…

  10. Applying the Writing Scales of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with reference to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…

  11. Models of spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andrea; Scharenborg, Odette

    2012-05-01

    All words of the languages we know are stored in the mental lexicon. Psycholinguistic models describe in which format lexical knowledge is stored and how it is accessed when needed for language use. The present article summarizes key findings in spoken-word recognition by humans and describes how models of spoken-word recognition account for them. Although current models of spoken-word recognition differ considerably in the details of implementation, there is general consensus among them on at least three aspects: multiple word candidates are activated in parallel as a word is being heard, activation of word candidates varies with the degree of match between the speech signal and stored lexical representations, and activated candidate words compete for recognition. No consensus has been reached on other aspects such as the flow of information between different processing levels, and the format of stored prelexical and lexical representations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:387-401. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1178 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Towards Internationalising the Curriculum: A Case Study of Chinese Language Teacher Education Programs in China and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Danping; Moloney, Robyn; Li, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative curricular inquiry of teacher education programs of Chinese as a foreign language in China and Australia. While there is an increasing demand for qualified Chinese language teachers both within China and Western countries, pre-service teacher training is regarded as one of the major factors in impeding success in…

  13. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tone Production: A Case of Zimbabwean Students Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushangwe, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how technology can help in assessing and teaching Chinese tones to foreign students who are not used to tonal languages. It was an attempt to show how we can use the PRAAT software to make learners of Chinese as a foreign language realize their tonal errors. The data used was collected from the students at the University of…

  14. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Children Who Read English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in…

  15. Home Literacy Environment and Word Knowledge Development: A Study of Young Learners of Chinese as a Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examined young Heritage Language (HL) learners' home literacy environment and its impact on HL word-knowledge development, focusing on a group of Chinese-English bilingual children learning to read in Chinese as a Heritage Language in the United States. A home literacy survey revealed that parents mostly used HL to talk to children,…

  16. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  17. Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition: cross-language and writing system transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A; Liu, Ying

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated cross-language and writing system relationship in biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read two different writing systems-Chinese and English. Forty-six Mandarin-speaking children were tested for their first language (Chinese-L1) and second language (English-L2) reading skills. Comparable experiments in Chinese and English were designed focusing on two reading processes-phonological and orthographic processing. Word reading skills in both writing systems were tested. Results revealed that Chinese onset matching skill was significantly correlated with English onset and rime matching skills. Pinyin, an alphabetic phonetic system used to assist children in learning to read Chinese characters, was highly correlated with English pseudoword reading. Furthermore, Chinese tone processing skill contributed a moderate but significant amount of variance in predicting English pseudoword reading even when English phonemic-level processing skill was taken into consideration. Orthographic processing skill in the two writing systems, on the other hand, did not predict each other's word reading. These findings suggest that bilingual reading acquisition is a joint function of shared phonological processes and orthographic specific skills.

  18. Development and evaluation of a Chinese-language newborn feeding hotline: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Patricia A; Livingstone, Verity H; Chang, Bruce; Klein, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Background Preference for formula versus breast feeding among women of Chinese descent remains a concern in North America. The goal of this study was to develop an intervention targeting Chinese immigrant mothers to increase their rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods We convened a focus group of immigrant women of Chinese descent in Vancouver, British Columbia to explore preferences for method of infant feeding. We subsequently surveyed 250 women of Chinese descent to validate focus group findings. Using a participatory approach, our focus group participants reviewed survey findings and developed a priority list for attributes of a community-based intervention to support exclusive breastfeeding in the Chinese community. The authors and focus group participants worked as a team to plan, implement and evaluate a Chinese language newborn feeding information telephone service staffed by registered nurses fluent in Chinese languages. Results Participants in the focus group reported a strong preference for formula feeding. Telephone survey results revealed that while pregnant Chinese women understood the benefits of breastfeeding, only 20.8% planned to breastfeed exclusively. Only 15.6% were breastfeeding exclusively at two months postpartum. After implementation of the feeding hotline, 20% of new Chinese mothers in Vancouver indicated that they had used the hotline. Among these women, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 44.1%; OR 3.02, (95% CI 1.78–5.09) compared to women in our survey. Conclusion Initiation of a language-specific newborn feeding telephone hotline reached a previously underserved population and may have contributed to improved rates of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:19178746

  19. Lexical Processing in Spanish Sign Language (LSE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Baquero, Silvia; Corina, David

    2008-01-01

    Lexical access is concerned with how the spoken or visual input of language is projected onto the mental representations of lexical forms. To date, most theories of lexical access have been based almost exclusively on studies of spoken languages and/or orthographic representations of spoken languages. Relatively few studies have examined how…

  20. CA for SLA: Arguments from the Chinese Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2004-01-01

    When the seminal article on the organization of turn-taking by Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson (1974) was published 30 years ago, I started learning English as a foreign language. In addition to being a learner of the English language for many years, I was also trained in the traditions of Conversation Analysis (CA) and linguistic anthropology…

  1. Direct evidence from intraoperative electrocortical stimulation indicates shared and distinct speech production center between Chinese and English languages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinsong; Lu, Junfeng; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Chengjun; Zhuang, Dongxiao; Qiu, Tianming; Guo, Qihao; Hu, Xiaobing; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liangfu

    2015-12-01

    Chinese processing has been suggested involving distinct brain areas from English. However, current functional localization studies on Chinese speech processing use mostly "indirect" techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography, lacking direct evidence by means of electrocortical recording. In this study, awake craniotomies in 66 Chinese-speaking glioma patients provide a unique opportunity to directly map eloquent language areas. Intraoperative electrocortical stimulation was conducted and the positive sites for speech arrest, anomia, and alexia were identified separately. With help of stereotaxic neuronavigation system and computational modeling, all positive sites elicited by stimulation were integrated and a series of two- and three-dimension Chinese language probability maps were built. We performed statistical comparisons between the Chinese maps and previously derived English maps. While most Chinese speech arrest areas located at typical language production sites (i.e., 50% positive sites in ventral precentral gyrus, 28% in pars opercularis and pars triangularis), which also serve English production, an additional brain area, the left middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 6/9), was found to be unique in Chinese production (P < 0.05). Moreover, Chinese speakers' inferior ventral precentral gyrus (Brodmann's area 6) was used more than that in English speakers. Our finding suggests that Chinese involves more perisylvian region (extending to left middle frontal gyrus) than English. This is the first time that direct evidence supports cross-cultural neurolinguistics differences in human beings. The Chinese language atlas will also helpful in brain surgery planning for Chinese-speakers.

  2. Vocabulary Training of Spoken Words in Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollink, Hannah; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using signs in spoken language vocabulary training of hard-of-hearing children. Fourteen hard-of-hearing children participated in the present study. Vocabulary training with the support of signs showed a statistically significant effect in the participants' learning and retention of new spoken language…

  3. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  4. Challenges Facing Chinese Academic Staff in a UK University in Terms of Language, Relationships and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hui-hua

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…

  5. Instructional Preferences of Students in Transnational Chinese and English Language MBA Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambacas, Mary; Sanderson, Gavin B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on Stage 1 of a learning and teaching project focused on students studying in the Chinese and English language delivery of transnational Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs of an Australian university. The programs are delivered using limited and intensive face-to-face teaching augmented by self-directed and…

  6. Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Vocabulary: Context of Learning Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Fang, Shin-Yi; Legault, Jennifer; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In an increasingly multilingual world, it is important to examine methods that may lead to more efficient second language learning, as well as to analyze the mechanisms by which successful learning occurs. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how different learning contexts can impact the learning of Mandarin Chinese as a second…

  7. Bibliography of Universally Available Curriculum Materials for the Chinese Language. Bibliography 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of curriculum materials for the Chinese language consists of 81 items universally available through the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). The materials concern the teaching of Mandarin, Cantonese, and Foochow, and relate to the following topics:…

  8. Cross-Validating Chinese Language Mental Health Recovery Measures in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John; Chan, Tiffany Hill Ching; Chen, Eric HY; Ng, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting recovery in mental health services is hampered by a shortage of reliable and valid measures, particularly in Hong Kong. We seek to cross validate two Chinese language measures of recovery and one of recovery-promoting environments. Method: A cross-sectional survey of people recovering from early episode psychosis (n = 121)…

  9. Development and Validity Testing of a Chinese-Language Version of FourSight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was twofold: its first objective was to evaluate 151 Taiwanese high school students' creative process preferences using FourSight and its second, to assess the reliability and validity of FourSight's Chinese-language version. The results show that the highest proportion of our participants were high-Clarifiers…

  10. What's in a Name? How Different Languages Result in Different Brains in English and Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao

    2010-01-01

    The linguistic relativity hypothesis proposes that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently, but do their brains reflect these differences? In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories, whereas most Mandarin Chinese nouns provide explicit category information, either…

  11. Early Oral Language Markers of Poor Reading Performance in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Tardif, Twila; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Shu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which language skills at ages 2 to 4 years could discriminate Hong Kong Chinese poor from adequate readers at age 7. Selected were 41 poor readers (age M = 87.6 months) and 41 adequate readers (age M = 88.3 months). The two groups were matched on age, parents' education levels, and nonverbal intelligence. The…

  12. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  13. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  14. ICT and an Exploratory Pedagogy for Classroom-Based Chinese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, XingLong; Wang, MinJuan; Wu, Juan; He, KeKang

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a new pedagogy for Chinese language teaching and learning at elementary schools through exploratory classroom instruction using Information and Communication Technologies. The study used quantitative method to collect data from two elementary schools of China. The results showed that: (1) the three-in-one pedagogy of…

  15. Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) Academics' Perceptions about Research in a Transitional Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research capacity building has become a prominent theme in higher education institutions in China and across the world. However, Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language academics' research output has been quite limited. In order to build their research capacity, it is necessary to understand their perceptions about research. This case study…

  16. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  17. Planning for Development or Decline? Education Policy for Chinese Language in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how political discourse, language ideologies, recent Chinese curriculum reforms, and their representations in the media are inextricably related. Using the "Speak Mandarin Campaign" as background for the inquiry, I focus on textual features of the various media sources, TV advertisements, campaign slogans, official…

  18. Tasks and Learner Motivation in Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiang Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language at Aalborg University, Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews and participant observation, this study explores which kinds of…

  19. Designing Interaction Tasks in Second Life for Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners: A Preliminary Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Kan, Yu-Hsuan; Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chang, Kuo-En

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to develop guidelines for designing interaction tasks for learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) and to investigate the attitudes of CFL learners toward a full CFL class in Second Life (SL). Three research questions were addressed in this research: (1) what are the attitudes of CFL learners toward the…

  20. The Effect of Sign Language Structure on Complex Word Reading in Chinese Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age. PMID:25799066

  1. Human Diversity and the Genealogy of Languages: Noah as the Founding Ancestor of the Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics which were held to define the Chinese language within the Western intellectual tradition placed it for a time at the centre in discussions of the genealogy of mankind. The dominant premodern paradigm for the explanation of human linguistic diversity was Biblical exegesis, as discussed and elaborated within the framework of…

  2. Luce Pathways Project: A Pilot Project for Heritage Language Speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori; Fernandez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development process of a project for heritage language speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese at a high-enrollment community college in the northeast United States. This pilot project, funded by the Henry Luce Foundation, aimed to empower minority group students through active reinforcement of students'…

  3. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key…

  4. Between Knowledge and "Plagiarism," or, How the Chinese Language Was Studied in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Q. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at descriptions of the Chinese language in Western intellectual writings as indicative of a particular process of knowledge formation and reproduction. Beginning with the first systematic account produced by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), it charts views offered by John Wilkins (1614-1672), James Beattie (1735-1803), Friedrich von…

  5. Language Learner Strategy by Chinese-Speaking EFL Readers When Comprehending Familiar and Unfamiliar Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the language learner and test-taking strategies used by Chinese-speaking graduate students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in an English multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. Thirty-six participants at a large mid-western university performed three tasks: A content knowledge vocabulary…

  6. Metaphors Used by Pre-Service Teachers of Chinese as an International Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xiuli; Gao, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    This inquiry explored 68 pre-service perceptions and aspirations of Teaching Chinese as an International Language (TCIL) teachers by analysing the metaphors they used to describe themselves as teachers. The inquiry revealed that the participants used a variety of metaphors to project the images of themselves as pre-service TCIL teachers. The…

  7. Korean-Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Additive Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang; Park, Jae

    2012-01-01

    China's diversity of minority groups, marked by many languages and cultures, has led to much push and pull experience between homogenising forces and indigenous cultures. This is apparent in its bilingual education programme for ethnic minorities, among which Korean diaspora communities are to be counted. Korean-Chinese people in China have been…

  8. Barriers to the Adoption of ICT in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in US Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Kai; Chen, Chang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate barriers to the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) for teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in US universities. Although the development of ICT for teaching is growing, few published studies address ICT specifically regarding CFL teaching. Therefore, this study has reviewed the…

  9. Self-Efficacy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhu; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Participating in a research-oriented teacher education program, 20 university graduates from China were invited to teach Chinese as a foreign language in western Sydney schools and conducted teacher research for one and half years. By analysing their research on their own teaching through a qualitative approach, this study attempted to identify…

  10. Coming into an Inheritance: Family Support and Chinese Heritage Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Dooley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The critical role that family plays in Chinese Heritage Language learning (CHLL) has gained increasing attention from psychological, political and sociological scholarships. Guided by Bourdieu's notion of "habitus", our mixed methods sociological study firstly addresses the need for quantitative evidence on the relationship between…

  11. Reading in Asian Languages: Making Sense of Written Texts in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; Wang, Shaomei, Ed.; Iventosch, Mieko, Ed.; Goodman, Yetta M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction…

  12. Literature on Early Literacy Instruction in Four Languages (Chinese, Korean, Navajo, Russian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin; Albus, Debra; Shyyan, Vitaliy

    2003-01-01

    This report, sponsored by the Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA), is a summary of evidence-based research on teaching reading to Chinese, Korean, Navajo, and Russian children. It complements a recent summary of the literature on teaching reading to Spanish speaking students. There is a significant need for evidence-based research on…

  13. Chinese Language Learning Motivation: A Comparative Study of Heritage and Non-Heritage Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and motivation that influence heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese as a second language, examining the similarities and differences among three subgroups: bilingual, heritage motivated, and non-heritage learners. The study uses the socio-educational model by Gardner (1985), the internal…

  14. The Historical Evolution of Chinese Languages and Scripts. Pathways to Advanced Skills Series. Volume 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youguang, Zhou

    2003-01-01

    This bilingual text by Zhou Youguang (in Chinese) with English translation by Zhang Liqing makes it easier for English speakers to gain advanced level skills in East Asian languages. It also exposes learners at or above intermediate skill levels to the vocabulary and discourses of academic disciplines and provides entries into discussions with…

  15. Collaborating with Summer Camps to Prepare Chinese Language Teachers: Linking Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lucy C.; Curran, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Because interest in Chinese instruction, as well as in languages such as Arabic, Korean, Yoruba, Urdu, and Hindi, is new in the K-12 context, teacher educators do not have many established settings where teacher candidates can observe and engage in best practice. At Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, with the support of grant funds from…

  16. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  17. Dialogic Reading and Morphology Training in Chinese Children: Effects on Language and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Chow, Celia Sze-Lok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of parent-child shared book reading and metalinguistic training on the language and literacy skills of 148 kindergartners in Hong Kong. Children were pretested on Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and reading interest and then assigned randomly to 1 of 4 conditions: the dialogic…

  18. The Teachability of Situation-Bound Utterances in Modern Chinese as a Foreign Language Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Shu-Han

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the teachability of Situation-Bound Utterances (SBUs hence) in a Modern Chinese foreign language classroom. Specifically, the basic question to be examined is this: to what extent two instructional paradigms--explicit versus implicit instruction--affect learners' knowledge and ability to use SBUs. For…

  19. The Influence of Heritage Language and Public Schools on Chinese American Children's Biliteracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Chang

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated four Chinese American students' biliteracy development in two contexts: their heritage language school and public school. Data were collected through participant observations, audio-recorded classroom interactions, student work samples, and semistructured interviews. Findings demonstrated how literacy instruction across…

  20. Toward Deepening Cultural and Language Understanding: The Design and Practice of a Hybrid Business Chinese Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haidan

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an ongoing effort to use Internet resources in an Advanced Business Chinese for Professionals (ABCP) course in order to deepen learners' language and cultural understanding. This course blends face-to-face (F2F) classroom instruction and online communications using Brix, an online course management system developed by the…

  1. The effect of sign language structure on complex word reading in Chinese deaf adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aitao; Yu, Yanping; Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age.

  2. Mandarin Chinese Dictionary: English-Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fred Fangyu

    This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the…

  3. The Role of Lexical Knowledge and Related Linguistic Components in Typical and Poor Language Comprehenders of Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan; Ho, Man Koon

    2008-01-01

    The present study adapted the "Blueprint of the Reader" in comprehending language by Perfetti [2000, C. M. Brown & P. Hagoort. (Eds.), "The neurocognition of language" (pp. 167-208). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press] as a framework for understanding Chinese language and reading comprehension in a group of 361 secondary…

  4. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  5. A review and synthesis of the first 20 years of PET and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy of language has been investigated with PET or fMRI for more than 20 years. Here I attempt to provide an overview of the brain areas associated with heard speech, speech production and reading. The conclusions of many hundreds of studies were considered, grouped according to the type of processing, and reported in the order that they were published. Many findings have been replicated time and time again leading to some consistent and undisputable conclusions. These are summarised in an anatomical model that indicates the location of the language areas and the most consistent functions that have been assigned to them. The implications for cognitive models of language processing are also considered. In particular, a distinction can be made between processes that are localized to specific structures (e.g. sensory and motor processing) and processes where specialisation arises in the distributed pattern of activation over many different areas that each participate in multiple functions. For example, phonological processing of heard speech is supported by the functional integration of auditory processing and articulation; and orthographic processing is supported by the functional integration of visual processing, articulation and semantics. Future studies will undoubtedly be able to improve the spatial precision with which functional regions can be dissociated but the greatest challenge will be to understand how different brain regions interact with one another in their attempts to comprehend and produce language. PMID:22584224

  6. The Relationship between Spoken Language and Speech and Nonspeech Processing in Children with Autism: A Magnetic Event-Related Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Shu Hui; Brock, Jon; McArthur, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that language impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) stem from atypical neural processing of speech and/or nonspeech sounds. However, the strength of this proposal is compromised by the unreliable outcomes of previous studies of speech and nonspeech processing in ASD. The aim of this study was to…

  7. The Relationship between Lexical Frequency Profiling Measures and Rater Judgements of Spoken and Written General English Language Proficiency on the CELPIP-General Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Scott Roy

    2015-01-01

    Independent confirmation that vocabulary in use unfolds across levels of performance as expected can contribute to a more complete understanding of validity in standardized English language tests. This study examined the relationship between Lexical Frequency Profiling (LFP) measures and rater judgements of test-takers' overall levels of…

  8. A Randomized Trial Comparison of the Effects of Verbal and Pictorial Naturalistic Communication Strategies on Spoken Language for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication…

  9. When Novel Sentences Spoken or Heard for the First Time in the History of the Universe Are Not Enough: Toward a Dual-Process Model of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Although interest in the language sciences was previously focused on newly created sentences, more recently much attention has turned to the importance of formulaic expressions in normal and disordered communication. Also referred to as formulaic expressions and made up of speech formulas, idioms, expletives, serial and memorized speech, slang,…

  10. Impact of Home Language and Literacy Support on English-Chinese Biliteracy Acquisition among Chinese Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chan; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Studies on monolingual children have shown that home language and literacy support is crucial in children's early literacy acquisition. However, such support has not been examined as thoroughly among bilingual children, including heritage speakers. This study investigated the effect of home language and literacy support on important precursors of…

  11. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  12. Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What Are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…

  13. Heritage Language Fluency, Ethnic Identity, and School Effort of Immigrant Chinese and Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978

  14. Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

  15. The Microparametric Syntax of Resultatives in Chinese Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chyan-an Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the resultatives in Mandarin Chinese (henceforth Mandarin) and Taiwanese Southern Min (henceforth Taiwanese), a notoriously difficult construction that has drawn extensive attention in the literature. With a microparametric approach, I offer a syntactic analysis for two kinds of resultatives, phrasal resultatives and…

  16. Second Language Acquisition of the Chinese Particle "Le."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaohong

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated 14 English speakers' interlanguage constructions using the Chinese perfective aspect and the sentence-final modal particle. The results show that although the surface forms of the perfective aspect "-le" and the sentence-final "le" are identical, they are learned differently, with the perfective aspect…

  17. Glocalisation and English Language Education in Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Laxmisha; Deng, Chunrao

    2016-01-01

    With the frequent interaction between China and the world, glocalisation, the combination of globalisation and localisation, is an unavoidable trend. This paper argues that the association of local situation with global awareness is one of the ways to assimilate English for daily use in Chinese context. The fundamental idea is that the use of…

  18. Syllables in the processing of spoken Italian.

    PubMed

    Tabossi, P; Collina, S; Mazzetti, M; Zoppello, M

    2000-04-01

    Five experiments explored the role of the syllable in the processing of spoken Italian. According to the syllabic hypothesis, the sublexical unit used by speakers of Romance languages to segment speech and access the lexicon is the syllable. However, languages with different degrees of acoustic-phonetic transparency give rise to syllabic effects that vary in robustness. It follows from this account that speakers of phonologically similar languages should behave in a similar way. By exploiting the similarities between Spanish and Italian, the authors tested this prediction in Experiments 1-4. Indeed, Italian listeners were found to produce syllabic effects similar to those observed in Spanish listeners. In Experiment 5, the predictions of the syllabic hypothesis with respect to lexical access were tested. The results corroborated these predictions. The findings are discussed in relation to current models of speech processing.

  19. Development and validation of the Human Activity Profile into Chinese language: lessons in determining equivalence.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Ann; Wellard, Sally; Kenrick, Marita

    2006-03-01

    The Human Activity Profile (HAP), and associated Dyspnea Scale, is a self-report instrument for assessing levels of human activity. Although it has been used in studies examining the levels of activity in people, it is limited to people who are only able to understand English. However, many countries are multicultural with significant numbers of people whose native language is not English. This study sought to demonstrate the equivalence between the Chinese and English versions of the HAP and Dyspnea scales. Thirty-five bilingual university students completed both the Chinese and English versions of each questionnaire. There was 89% and 85% agreement between items across the HAP and Dyspnea Scale questionnaires, respectively. Although the psychometric evaluations suggested there was equivalence between the Chinese and English versions of both the HAP and Dyspnea Scale, lessons have been learnt regarding the different written forms of Chinese.

  20. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  1. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  2. Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

  3. Reader for Advanced Spoken Tamil, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    Part 1 of this reader consists of transcriptions of five Tamil radio plays, with exercises, notes, and discussion. Part 2 is a synopsis grammar and a glossary. Both are intended for advanced students of Tamil who have had at least two years of instruction in the spoken language at the college level. The materials have been tested in classroom use…

  4. SPOKEN MARATHI. BOOK I, FIRST-YEAR INTENSIVE COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAVADI, NARESH B.; SOUTHWORTH, FRANKLIN C.

    "SPOKEN MARATHI" PRESENTS THE BEGINNING STUDENT WITH THE BASIC PHONOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF MODERN MARATHI. IT IS ASSUMED THAT THE STUDENT WILL SPEND MOST OF HIS STUDY TIME LISTENING TO AND SPEAKING THE LANGUAGE, EITHER WITH A NATIVE SPEAKER INSTRUCTOR OR WITH RECORDED MATERIALS. THIS TEXT IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE MATERIAL FOR A ONE-YEAR…

  5. Automated Scoring of L2 Spoken English with Random Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…

  6. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  7. Does Language Matter? Exploring Chinese-Korean Differences in Holistic Perception.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Ann K; Voyer, Benjamin G; Gleibs, Ilka H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-cultural research suggests that East Asians display a holistic attentional bias by paying attention to the entire field and to relationships between objects, whereas Westerners pay attention primarily to salient objects, displaying an analytic attentional bias. The assumption of a universal pan-Asian holistic attentional bias has recently been challenged in experimental research involving Japanese and Chinese participants, which suggests that linguistic factors may contribute to the formation of East Asians' holistic attentional patterns. The present experimental research explores differences in attention and information processing styles between Korean and Chinese speakers, who have been assumed to display the same attentional bias due to cultural commonalities. We hypothesize that the specific structure of the Korean language predisposes speakers to pay more attention to ground information than to figure information, thus leading to a stronger holistic attentional bias compared to Chinese speakers. Findings of the present research comparing different groups of English, Chinese, and Korean speakers provide further evidence for differences in East Asians' holistic attentional bias, which may be due to the influence of language. Furthermore, we also extend prior theorizing by discussing the potential impact of other cultural factors. In line with critical voices calling for more research investigating differences between cultures that are assumed to be culturally similar, we highlight important avenues for future studies exploring the language-culture relationship.

  8. Can Learning a Foreign Language Foster Analytic Thinking?—Evidence from Chinese EFL Learners' Writings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software—Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007—was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students’ English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners’ EAT. Chinese EFL learners’ ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners’ EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years’ English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed. PMID:27741270

  9. Can Learning a Foreign Language Foster Analytic Thinking?-Evidence from Chinese EFL Learners' Writings.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT. Chinese EFL learners' ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners' EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years' English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed.

  10. Weaknesses in semantic, syntactic and oral language expression contribute to reading difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed.

  11. Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses.

  12. Pedagogical Use of Two Languages in a Chinese Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Tao; Chew, Phyllis Ghim-Lian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the manner in which English as a foreign language is taught in an elementary school in Helan County, China, in the nation's first decade of sweeping nation-wide educational reforms where English was first introduced as an official subject in 2001 and then as a compulsory subject in 2004. To cope with large classes…

  13. Heritage Language Learning for Chinese Australians: The Role of Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Heritage Language (HL) and ethnic identity has gained significant research ground in social psychological and poststructural scholarship, with empirical evidence largely emerging from the North American settings. There is little pertinent sociological work conducted outside North America. To fill this gap, this…

  14. Community-Based Heritage Language Schools: A Chinese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    English literacy skills are important in order to participate fully in public life; however, the heritage-based literacy skills learned outside of the classroom also are critical in the P-12 classroom. School teachers are important advocates for immigrant students--to preserve their first language and heritage, to integrate knowledge of their two…

  15. My Personal Philosophy in Teaching English as a Second Language: Some Methods I Used in Teaching English to Chinese Freshmen in Xi'an Foreign Language University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Huaxin

    The question in English-As-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms is not whether a teaching method is good or not, but whether the teacher knows how, for what purpose, for what kind of students, and in what language situation a particular method is used to enhance learning effectively. In teaching English to Chinese students at Xi'an Foreign Language…

  16. Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

  17. Neighborhood density effects in spoken word recognition in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Rodríguez, Eva

    2004-01-01

    The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed.

  18. Neighborhood density effects in spoken word recognition in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.; RODRÍGUEZ, EVA

    2008-01-01

    The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed. PMID:19018293

  19. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  20. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  1. Language and Power: Korean-Chinese Students' Language Attitude and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, F.

    2009-01-01

    Language is not only a method of communication, but also a mechanism of power. The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of Korean students, who are participating in a bilingual Korean school in Northeast China, construct their language attitude and practice. Research findings indicate that the Korean students value…

  2. A Hierarchical Model for Language Maintenance and Language Shift: Focus on the Malaysian Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaomei; Chong, Siew Ling

    2011-01-01

    Social factors involved in language maintenance and language shift (LMLS) have been the focus of LMLS studies. Previous studies provide fundamental support for the theoretical development of this research branch. However, there is no discussion regarding the hierarchical order of these social factors, i.e. the degree of importance of various…

  3. Word-Processor or Pencil-and-Paper? A Comparison of Students' Writing in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…

  4. Emerging Development of Semantic and Phonological Routes to Character Decoding in Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding by high-intermediate level Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. The results of the study suggest that the CFL learners tested have a well-developed semantic pathway to recognition; however, their phonological pathway is not yet a reliable means…

  5. A View from Within: A Case Study of Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueying, Ed.

    A collection of essays on Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States addresses these topics: the schools, their curricula, and organization (Theresa Hsu Chao); school administration and management (Chao, Lydia Chen, Edward Chang); academic curriculum (Pay-Fen Serena Wang); non-heritage Chinese learners: practices and…

  6. Do children with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders benefit from the presence of orthography when learning new spoken words?

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Patel, Nita; Charman, Tony; Lindsay, Geoff

    2015-06-01

    This experiment investigated whether children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and typically developing children benefit from the incidental presence of orthography when learning new oral vocabulary items. Children with SLI, children with ASD, and typically developing children (n=27 per group) between 8 and 13 years of age were matched in triplets for age and nonverbal reasoning. Participants were taught 12 mappings between novel phonological strings and referents; half of these mappings were trained with orthography present and half were trained with orthography absent. Groups did not differ on the ability to learn new oral vocabulary, although there was some indication that children with ASD were slower than controls to identify newly learned items. During training, the ASD, SLI, and typically developing groups benefited from orthography to the same extent. In supplementary analyses, children with SLI were matched in pairs to an additional control group of younger typically developing children for nonword reading. Compared with younger controls, children with SLI showed equivalent oral vocabulary acquisition and benefit from orthography during training. Our findings are consistent with current theoretical accounts of how lexical entries are acquired and replicate previous studies that have shown orthographic facilitation for vocabulary acquisition in typically developing children and children with ASD. We demonstrate this effect in SLI for the first time. The study provides evidence that the presence of orthographic cues can support oral vocabulary acquisition, motivating intervention approaches (as well as standard classroom teaching) that emphasize the orthographic form.

  7. How Do Chinese ESL Learners Recognize English Words during a Reading Test? A Comparison with Romance-Language-Speaking ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…

  8. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  9. Do Phonological Constraints on the Spoken Word Affect Visual Lexical Decision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A.; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Reading a word may involve the spoken language in two ways: in the conversion of letters to phonemes according to the conventions of the language's writing system and the assimilation of phonemes according to the language's constraints on speaking. If so, then words that require assimilation when uttered would require a change in the phonemes…

  10. High Proficiency in a Second Language is Characterized by Greater Involvement of the First Language Network: Evidence from Chinese Learners of English

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A.; Booth, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. PMID:23654223

  11. High proficiency in a second language is characterized by greater involvement of the first language network: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A; Booth, James R

    2013-10-01

    The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters.

  12. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  13. The Tongue in Between: Some Thoughts on the Teaching of Chinese as a Second Language in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Chee Lay

    2014-01-01

    In Singapore's unique and complex linguistic environment, it is common to have Chinese-language learners from many different backgrounds in the same school classroom, which is why Singapore is nicknamed as a "language laboratory." In this paper, I hope to examine our linguistic environment and response strategies from different angles,…

  14. Confucius Institute Programming in the United States: Language Ideology, Hegemony, and the Making of Chinese Culture in University Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how Confucius Institute teachers and U.S. students use language to index qualities of Chinese people and culture. The study draws on the model of "linguistic fact" to argue that students' and teachers' contextualized use of language occurs in relation to their different yet naturalized assumptions about a commonly…

  15. The Impact of an Online Learning Community Project on University Chinese as a Foreign Language Students' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Shengrong; Zhu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of an online learning community project on university students' motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language. A newly proposed second language (L2) motivation theory--the L2 motivational self system (Dornyei, 2005, 2009)--guided this study. A concurrent transformative mixed-methods design was employed to…

  16. Negotiating Power and Access to Second Language Resources: A Study on Short-Term Chinese MBA Students in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Xingsong

    2011-01-01

    By looking into a group of 13 Chinese master's in business administration students' study abroad experience in the United States, this study contends that being situated in the second language (L2) communicative context does not guarantee international students complete access to language and cultural resources in the host society. Due to limited…

  17. Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuxiang

    2009-01-01

    English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…

  18. Intelligibility of American English vowels and consonants spoken by international students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States.

  19. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  20. Dialogic reading and morphology training in Chinese children: effects on language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Chow, Celia Sze-Lok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of parent-child shared book reading and metalinguistic training on the language and literacy skills of 148 kindergartners in Hong Kong. Children were pretested on Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and reading interest and then assigned randomly to 1 of 4 conditions: the dialogic reading with morphology training (DR + MT), dialogic reading (DR), typical reading, or control condition. After a 12-week intervention period, the DR intervention yielded greater gains in vocabulary, and the DR + MT intervention yielded greater improvement in character recognition and morphological awareness. Both interventions enhanced children's reading interest. Results confirm that different home literacy approaches influence children's oral and written language skills differently: Shared book reading promotes language development, whereas parents' explicit metalinguistic training within a shared book reading context better prepares children for learning to read.

  1. Bilingual Cognitive Control in Language Switching: An fMRI Study of English-Chinese Late Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hengfen; Hu, Jiehui; Xi, Jie; Shen, Wen; Ge, Jianqiao; Geng, Feng; Wu, Yuntao; Guo, Jinjin; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the bilingual cognitive control mechanism by comparing Chinese-English bilinguals’ language switching in a blocked picture naming paradigm against three baseline conditions, namely the control condition (a fixation cross, low-level baseline), single L1 production (Chinese naming, high-level baseline), and single L2 production (English naming, high-level baseline). Different activation patterns were observed for language switching against different baseline conditions. These results indicate that different script bilingual language control involves a fronto-parietal-subcortical network that extends to the precentral gyrus, the Supplementary Motor Area, the Supra Marginal Gyrus, and the fusiform. The different neural correlates identified across different comparisons supported that bilingual language switching involves high-level cognitive processes that are not specific to language processing. Future studies adopting a network approach are crucial in identifying the functional connectivity among regions subserving language control. PMID:25180974

  2. Selected Topics from LVCSR Research for Asian Languages at Tokyo Tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Sadaoki

    This paper presents our recent work in regard to building Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition (LVCSR) systems for the Thai, Indonesian, and Chinese languages. For Thai, since there is no word boundary in the written form, we have proposed a new method for automatically creating word-like units from a text corpus, and applied topic and speaking style adaptation to the language model to recognize spoken-style utterances. For Indonesian, we have applied proper noun-specific adaptation to acoustic modeling, and rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping to solve the problem of large variation in proper noun and English word pronunciation in a spoken-query information retrieval system. In spoken Chinese, long organization names are frequently abbreviated, and abbreviated utterances cannot be recognized if the abbreviations are not included in the dictionary. We have proposed a new method for automatically generating Chinese abbreviations, and by expanding the vocabulary using the generated abbreviations, we have significantly improved the performance of spoken query-based search.

  3. Language and the Capital: A Case Study of English "Language Shock" among Chinese Students in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the experience of a group of Chinese teachers of English studying on ELT/Applied Linguistics-related MA courses at a London university. Drawing mainly on data from questionnaires, it shows how the early part of their stay was marked by surprise, disappointment and disorientation at the diversity and perceived poor quality of…

  4. Spoken French: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoeu, Francois; Hall, R. A., Jr.

    This textbook offers a course in French designed for those who need to make themselves understood on ordinary topics in French and cannot devote years of study to the language. It is a self-instructional course, but it is designed to be used with a native French speaker as a guide or, if no native speaker is available, with recordings that are…

  5. ELL Spoken Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Online resources and educator networks are providing teachers of English language learners with a support system they do not often get within their own school districts. Catherine Collier's Cross Cultural Developmental Education Services, based in Ferndale, WA., has been providing professional development and teaching materials to ELL teachers.…

  6. Spoken Chad Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This intensive course is designed to teach students to understand and speak Chad Arabic. The course is intended to be covered in approximately 360 hours in the classroom and the language laboratory. About 90 hours should be occupied with the pre-speech phase, which emphasizes passive recognition rather than active production. This phase consists…

  7. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals’ eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first vs. second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the Low-Constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition. PMID:25266052

  8. Measurement equivalence of the language-brokering scale for Chinese American adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Weaver, Scott R; Shen, Yishan; Wu-Seibold, Nina; Liu, Cindy H

    2014-04-01

    Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families. Using data from 279 Chinese American families with adolescents who function as language brokers for their parents, the current study developed a comprehensive scale to assess adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of language brokering. Both versions, parent and adolescent, showed stable factor structures. We also examined measurement equivalence, including factorial and construct-validity invariance, for each subscale across parent gender, adolescent gender, adolescent nativity, and translation frequency. In general, metric factorial invariance was observed for most subscales across the different groups; these subscales can thus be used in future studies examining the relations between language brokering and other variables. Further, two adolescent subscales (i.e., adolescent-focused burden, positive relations with parents) and three parent subscales (i.e., parent-focused burden, negative feelings, positive relations with child) demonstrated strong factorial invariance consistently across different groups, and can thus be used in future studies examining mean group differences in language-brokering experiences. In terms of construct-validity equivalence, most subscales were associated with parent-child conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms to a similar degree across parent gender, adolescent gender, and nativity. Implications of the current findings and recommendations for future use are discussed.

  9. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score.

  10. Healthcare Communication Barriers and Self-Rated Health in Older Chinese American Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-08-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.

  11. The Design of a Spoken Language Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    the AM offers the user a state indicator, in the form of a clickable button, and a sound level indicator, in the form of a VU meter. The following...M. A parallel implementation of FBS, Results and Comments (September 1989). 4. A.I. Rudnicky and J. L. Quirin. Subjective reaction to system

  12. Towards a Framework for Teaching Spoken Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmis, Ivor

    2005-01-01

    Since the advent of spoken corpora, descriptions of native speaker spoken grammar have become far more detailed and comprehensive. These insights, however, have been relatively slow to filter through to ELT practice. The aim of this article is to outline an approach to the teaching of native-speaker spoken grammar which is not only pedagogically…

  13. The Effects of Wiki-Based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Chee Kuen; Gong, Cheng; Tay, Boon Pei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore's Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade) students ("Students") received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45…

  14. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  15. Ragnar Rommetveit's Approach to Everyday Spoken Dialogue from Within.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.

  16. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hechun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Liang; Ma, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xuexin; Sun, Shengyu; Jia, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors. PMID:25657694

  17. Why Dose Frequency Affects Spoken Vocabulary in Preschoolers With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul J; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E; Warren, Steven F; Gardner, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only the participants with DS, we found that more therapy led to larger spoken vocabularies at posttreatment because it increased children's canonical syllabic communication and receptive vocabulary growth early in the treatment phase.

  18. Is Mandarin Chinese a Truth-Based Language? Rejecting Responses to Negative Assertions and Questions.

    PubMed

    Li, Feifei; González-Fuente, Santiago; Prieto, Pilar; Espinal, M Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the central question of whether Mandarin Chinese (MC) is a canonical truth-based language, a language that is expected to express the speaker's disagreement to a negative proposition by means of a negative particle followed by a positive sentence. Eight native speakers of MC participated in an oral Discourse Completion Task that elicited rejecting responses to negative assertions/questions and broad focus statements (control condition). Results show that MC speakers convey reject by relying on a combination of lexico-syntactic strategies (e.g., negative particles such as bù, méi(yǒu), and positive sentences) together with prosodic (e.g., mean pitch) and gestural strategies (mainly, the use of head nods). Importantly, the use of a negative particle, which was the expected outcome in truth-based languages, only appeared in 52% of the rejecting answers. This system puts into question the macroparametric division between truth-based and polarity-based languages and calls for a more general view of the instantiation of a reject speech act that integrates lexical and syntactic strategies with prosodic and gestural strategies.

  19. Is Mandarin Chinese a Truth-Based Language? Rejecting Responses to Negative Assertions and Questions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feifei; González-Fuente, Santiago; Prieto, Pilar; Espinal, M.Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the central question of whether Mandarin Chinese (MC) is a canonical truth-based language, a language that is expected to express the speaker's disagreement to a negative proposition by means of a negative particle followed by a positive sentence. Eight native speakers of MC participated in an oral Discourse Completion Task that elicited rejecting responses to negative assertions/questions and broad focus statements (control condition). Results show that MC speakers convey reject by relying on a combination of lexico-syntactic strategies (e.g., negative particles such as bù, méi(yǒu), and positive sentences) together with prosodic (e.g., mean pitch) and gestural strategies (mainly, the use of head nods). Importantly, the use of a negative particle, which was the expected outcome in truth-based languages, only appeared in 52% of the rejecting answers. This system puts into question the macroparametric division between truth-based and polarity-based languages and calls for a more general view of the instantiation of a reject speech act that integrates lexical and syntactic strategies with prosodic and gestural strategies. PMID:28066292

  20. Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lijuan; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zinszer, Benjamin; Yan, Xin; Shu, Hua; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng

    2012-09-01

    The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language.