Science.gov

Sample records for chinon annee 2002-2003

  1. Texas Almanac Teacher's Guide, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, Betty; Ferguson, Sharon; Haynes, Beverly; Jacobs, Margaret; Jameson, Eugenia E.; Massey, Linda; Moran, Rebecca; Wilson, Ann

    This interdisciplinary guide utilizes the subject matter in the 2002-2003 "Texas Almanac" to help classroom educators teach students in grades three to eight about the social, economic, cultural, and historical background of Texas. The guide has questions, puzzles, and activities that teachers can use to inform their students about the Lone Star…

  2. Institutional Outcomes Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Rainey Harper Coll., Palatine, IL. Office of Planning and Research.

    This document presents the institutional outcomes for 2002-2003 for William Rainey Harper College. The document begins with the Presidents Introduction, which includes a list of accomplishments of the college. Some of these success are: (1) 90% retention rates for students involved in retention services and programs; (2) achieving a hiring…

  3. AGU 2002-2003 Congressional Science Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illa Amerson, a Ph.D. candidate at the Oregon Health & Science University in Beaverton, was selected as AGU's 26th Congressional Science Fellow for 2002-2003. Starting in September, Amerson will serve a one-year assignment in the office of a senator or representative, or on a committee's staff as one of only a handful of scientists on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. Once in an office, Amerson can expect to work as a regular member of the staff, serving as a legislative assistant. Her duties could include advising her boss how to vote on specific bills, writing speeches or press releases, crafting legislation, meeting with lobbyists and special interest groups, and even answering constituent mail.Amerson expects to receive her Ph.D. in environmental science and engineering this summer. Her dissertation focuses on the environmental impact of the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). She completed a M.S. in civil and environmental engineering at Arizona State University and a S.B. in chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Amerson has also spent three years working in environmental regulation and consulting, dealing primarily with air and water quality issues.

  4. The Illinois Articulation Initiative: Annual Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This document consists of two reports on Illinois higher education. The first, "The Illinois Articulation Initiative: Annual Report 2002-2003," discusses the current status of the Illinois Articulation Imitative (IAI), which was designed to ease transfer for students among Illinois colleges and universities. May 2003 marked the end of the fifth…

  5. South Texas Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jessie, Ed.

    This 2002-2003 Fact Book for South Texas Community College (STCC) is divided into the following sections: (1) College Profile; (2) Access; (3) Completion; (4) Transfer Rate and Success; (5) Employment; (7) Student Development; (8) TASP (Texas Academic Skills Program) Test; (9) Academic Progress of All Students; (10) Stakeholder Satisfaction; (11)…

  6. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  7. Saturn: Observations during the 2002-2003 apparition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Julius L., Jr.

    A superb variety of 218 visual, photographic, webcam and CCD observations of Saturn were contributed to the ALPO Saturn Section during the 2002-2003 Apparition by 33 individuals residing in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Singapore, China, Italy, Puerto Rico, Canada and the United States. The observations covered the period from 2002 August 12 through 2003 May 08, and the instruments used to record these data ranged in aperture from 10.2 cm (4.0 in) up to 40.6 cm (16.0 in). Saturn observers reported occasional dusky festoons and other short-lived dark spots in the mid-temperate latitude belts and zones of Saturn's Southern Hemisphere during the observing season, as well as several diffuse, small transient white spots or ovals near the South Tropical Zone (STrZ), South Polar Region (SPR), and southern Equatorial Zone (EZs). A few recurring central meridian (CM) transit timings were reported for these features, but their short longevity hampered derivation of reliable rotation rates. The inclination of the ring system to Earth, B, reached a maximum value of -27°.013 on 2003 April 09, and as would be expected, observers were afforded optimum views of Saturn's Southern Hemisphere and the South face of the Rings during the 2002-2003 Apparition. A synopsis of visual observations and images of Saturn made throughout 2002-2003 are discussed, including the results of continuing efforts to image the bicolored aspect and azimuthal brightness asymmetries of the Rings. Accompanying the report are references, drawings, photographs, webcam and CCD images, graphs, and tables.

  8. A Multidimensional Investigation of Named Professorships in Accounting: 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Heidi Hylton; Kamath, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    In the 2002-2003 academic year, there were 526 accounting faculty members in the United States who held the title of named chair, distinguished professor, or fellow at their universities. In this study, the authors relied on J. R. Hasselback's "Accounting Faculty Directory 2002-2003" as the primary source for determining (a) personal profiles of…

  9. Stromboli (2002-2003) crisis management and risk mitigation actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolaso, Guido; De Bernardinis, Bernardo; Cardaci, Chiara; Scalzo, Antonella; Rosi, Mauro

    The 2002-2003 eruptive emergency of Stromboli was the most dangerous to have occurred on the island in the past three centuries. Starting from 30 December, the national Department of Civil Protection (DCP), operating under the direct authority of the prime minister, took responsibility for the emergency management. One of the most relevant achievements was the setting up, on the island, of Centro Operativo Avanzato, a permanent scientific/civil protection structure where signals of volcano monitoring are visualized in real time and eventually used by the personnel of the DCP for immediate reactions. Volcanic risk was also structurally reduced by the construction of a new pier to facilitate rapid evacuation of Ginostra village and the planning and implementation of new walking trails and shelters at the top of the mountain. The shelters, six in total, of moderate size, were designed to resist the impact of heavy materials launched by the volcano. The risk mitigation initiatives were completed with the installation of alarm sirens in the two villages, the production and distribution of leaflets, and also by the installation of signs indicating the fastest routes to reach safe waiting areas in case of tsunami. Besides the substantial improvements in the preparedness of the Civil Protection and Stromboli's community to respond effectively to possible future emergencies of the volcano, one of the most important heritages was the elaboration and testing of new protocols and procedures concerning the handling of volcanic emergencies. Although the issues raised during the crisis showed similarities with other volcanic crisis around the world, the role played by the Civil Protection with personnel specifically trained in volcanic problems showed comparatively considerable advantages.

  10. Global and App Express Updates, 2002-2003. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This manual identifies the major changes for 2002-2003 in EDExpress, the electronic data exchange aspect of the Title IV student financial aid application process. It describes the major changes in the global EDExpress module and the App Express module and discusses locations for other resources describing changes in EDExpress. The Global Module…

  11. The Junior Science and Humanities Symposium: Management and Operation, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document provides the administrative, management, and supervisory guidance necessary to successfully conduct and support grades 7-12 science symposia. It was developed as the operations manual for the Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (PJSHS) program for 2002-2003 which is an 10-month, precollege student research program…

  12. School Mental Health Services in the United States, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Susan; Rollefson, Mary; Doksum, Teresa; Noonan, Denise; Robinson, Gail; Teich, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Recent research points to public schools as the major providers of mental health services for school-aged children. The current study, "School Mental Health Services in the United States, 2002-2003," provides the first national survey of mental health services in a representative sample of the approximately 83,000 public elementary, middle, and…

  13. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Troisieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 3.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  14. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Huitieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 8.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  15. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Neuvieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 9.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  16. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Cinquieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 5.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  17. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Deuxieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 2.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  18. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Premier annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 1.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  19. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Sixieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 6.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  20. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Septieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 7.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  1. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Quatrieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 4.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA SCIence Files (tm) is a research-, inquiry-, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 60-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 3-5. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files (tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2002-2003 NASA CONNECT(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry-, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2002 2003 NASA CONNECT series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galilean Satellites mutual events 2002-2003 (Arlot, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlot, J.-E.

    2002-02-01

    Mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter will occur in 2002-2003. This paper provides predictions of these events as well as information useful for their observations. Such events are uncommon, since they occur only every 6 years when the Earth and the Sun pass through the common orbital plane of the Galilean satellites. Therefore, we encourage professional and amateur astronomers to join the networks of observers in order to get as many observations as possible. Data on the predictions of the events are available on the web server of the Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul de Ephemerides (IMCCE) ( http://www.bdl.fr ). (1 data file).

  5. Scientific community and civil protection synergy during the Stromboli 2002-2003 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolaso, G.; Bonaccorso, A.; Boschi, E.

    The eruption of Stromboli 2002-2003, thanks to its complex scenario (flank instability, tsunami, necessity to rapidly upgrade monitoring networks), has provided an important opportunity to verify the response of the national system of civil protection to volcanic emergencies. In particular, it has tested and validated the model of collaboration, in use by Italian law, between the Department of Civil Protection and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. This synergy has enabled a better understanding and ability to tackle the eruptive crisis from its first stages, as well as implement monitoring systems both dependably and swiftly. In this work, the numerous first monitoring tasks carried out during the critical initial stages of the eruption are described, and the activities and planned action are reported over the course of the eruption that has made Stromboli one of the best monitored volcanoes not only in Italy but throughout the world.

  6. High-precision locations of the microseismicity preceding the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, S.; Mostaccio, A.; Patanè, D.; Scarfì, L.; Ursino, A.

    2004-09-01

    To recognize possible signals of intrusive processes leading to the last 2002-2003 flank eruption at Mt. Etna, we analyzed the spatial pattern of microseismicity between August 2001 and October 2002 and calculated 23 fault plane solutions (FPSs) for shocks with magnitude greater than 2.5. By applying the double-difference approach of Waldhauser and Ellsworth [2000] on 3D locations, we found that most of the scattered epicentral locations further collapse in roughly linear features. High-precision locations evidenced a distribution of earthquakes along two main alignments, oriented NE-SW to ENE-WSW and NW-SE, matching well both with the known tectonic and volcanic lineaments of Etna and FPSs results. Moreover, microseismicity and swarms located along the NNW-SSE volcano-genetic trend suggest, together with geodetic data and volcanological evidence that progressive magma refilling has occurred since February 2002.

  7. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation[s]; Stock Status of Burbot, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Hoyle, Genevieve

    2005-09-01

    The Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation Project planned to monitor burbot Lota lota movement in the winter of 2002-2003 and test a hypothesis regarding the relationship of winter flow to upstream spawning migration success. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration were unable to provide the consistent low winter flows needed to meet the experimental design criteria in that monitoring and evaluation plan (approximately 170 m{sup 3}/s from Libby Dam). Although conditions consistent with management for sustained minimum flows persisted throughout the winter, and stable low flows were maintained below Libby Dam from September 1 through November 24, 2002 (158 m{sup 3}/s average) and from January 1, 2003 until May 1 (144 m{sup 3}/s average), flows in the intervening 37 d period from November 25 to December 31 were increased significantly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. During that important December spawning migration period for burbot, flows were well above those proposed in the monitoring and evaluation plan and peaked at 741 m{sup 3}/s on December 21, 2002. Furthermore, despite the low flow conditions for much of the winter, our capture of 10 burbot was the lowest since this investigation began in 1993, evidence that the stock is extremely depressed and the numbers of burbot are declining. We captured a single burbot in 2002-2003 that provided circumstantial evidence reproduction occurred during the winter of 2000-2001. This burbot of 352 mm TL was among the smallest captured since sampling began in 1993. Seven burbot were monitored with sonic telemetry; two of those were tagged the previous winter. The capture of a female burbot at Ambush Rock during the spawning period supports results of previous findings that low flows during winter enhances burbot migration and spawning. Sampling for larval burbot was conducted, but no larval burbot were captured.

  8. Intestinal parasitoses and environmental factors in a rural population of Argentina, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A; de Luca, María M; Ciarmela, María L; Pezzani, Betina C; Grenovero, María S; Minvielle, Marta C

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 504 people and the degree of association between environmental variables and parasites found in population, soil and water in a rural area of Argentina during 2002-2003. A structured survey was used to evaluate the environmental variables and fecal-human, soil and water samples were analyzed. The prevalence of parasites was 45.4%. Most prevalent protozoa were Blastocystis hominis (27.2%) and Giardia lamblia (6.9%), while the most prevalent helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%). The analyzed environmental variables showing association (p < 0.05) with presence of parasites in population were: cardboard-tin or wooden house, dirt floor, home or communal water pump, faucet outside the house or public faucet and cesspool or latrine. Parasite forms were found in 82.3% of the soil samples and in 84.2% of the water samples. In both samples we found parasites that were also found in people. In this study we have found deficient sanitary conditions associated with presence of parasites in population and we have evidenced that contaminated soil and water were the source of these parasites.

  9. Three-dimensional Probabilistic Earthquake Location Applied to 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaccio, A.; Tuve', T.; Zuccarello, L.; Patane', D.; Saccorotti, G.; D'Agostino, M.

    2005-12-01

    Recorded seismicity for the Mt. Etna volcano, occurred during the 2002-2003 eruption, has been relocated using a probabilistic, non-linear, earthquake location approach. We used the software package NonLinLoc (Lomax et al., 2000) adopting the 3D velocity model obtained by Cocina et al., 2005. We applied our data through different algorithms: (1) via a grid-search; (2) via a Metropolis-Gibbs; and (3) via an Oct-tree. The Oct-Tree algorithm gives efficient, faster and accurate mapping of the PDF (Probability Density Function) of the earthquake location problem. More than 300 seismic events were analyzed in order to compare non-linear location results with the ones obtained by using traditional, linearized earthquake location algorithm such as Hypoellipse, and a 3D linearized inversion (Thurber, 1983). Moreover, we compare 38 focal mechanisms, chosen following stricta criteria selection, with the ones obtained by the 3D and 1D results. Although the presented approach is more of a traditional relocation application, probabilistic earthquake location could be used in routinely survey.

  10. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-03-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2002-2003 project year, there were 545 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 29 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 1 adult and 1 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway adult trap between January 1 and June 23, 2003. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap for trap and haul purposes was not necessary this year. The project transported 21 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery and 281 from Threemile Dam to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility. Of these, 290 were outplanted in August for natural spawning in the basin.

  11. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted.

  12. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted. PMID:27344291

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  14. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an ''H

  15. 2002-2003 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor Country Consulting conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2002-2003 wet season to complete requirements of the Guidelines (USFWS 1996) used to determine the distribution of federally-listed branchiopods within the study area. The first survey was performed during the previous wet season (2001-2002). The 2002-2003 wet season survey, combined with the previous season's survey, is intended to provide LLNL with information that will assist them in determining the effects of the proposed action on federally listed branchiopods and provide information useful in the preparation of the associated environmental documentation. It is also expected to satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS. For the purpose of this report, the term branchiopod refers specifically to phyllopodous branchiopods and not cladocerans. Fairy shrimp, tadpole shrimp, and clam shrimp are all categorized as phyllopodous branchiopods and are currently the only members of the Class Branchiopoda that contain species that are listed under the federal Endangered Species Act. Although cladocerans are branchiopods and were found on the site, they are only referred to by the Order in this report because they are not the target species of this study.

  16. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  17. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home. PMID:25166939

  18. Meridional overturning transports at 30°S in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in 2002-2003 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-08-01

    The meridional circulation and transports at 30°S in the Pacific and Indian Oceans for the years 2002-2003 and 2009 are compared, using GO-SHIP hydrographic section data with an inverse box model and several choices of constraints. Southward heat transport across the combined Indian-Pacific sections, reflecting net heating north of these sections, doubled from -0.7 ± 0.2 PW in 2002-2003 to -1.4 ± 0.1 PW in 2009 (negative sign is southward), with the increase concentrated in the Indian Ocean (∼0.6 PW compared with ∼0.2 PW in the Pacific), and was insensitive to model choices for the Indonesian Throughflow. Diagnosed net evaporation also more than doubled in the Indian Ocean, from 0.21-0.27 Sv in 2002-2003 to 0.51-0.58 in 2009, with a smaller but significant increase in net evaporation in the Pacific, from 0.06-0.08 Sv to 0.16-0.32 Sv. These increased heat and freshwater exports coincided with Indian Ocean warming, a shift in the Indian's shallow gyre overturning transport to lower densities, and an increase in southward Agulhas Current transport from 75 Sv in 2002 to 92 Sv in 2009. The Indian's deep overturn weakened from about 11 Sv in 2002 to 7 Sv in 2009. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean overturning circulation was nearly unchanged from 2003 to 2009, independent of model within the uncertainties. The East Australian Current transport decreased only slightly, from -52 Sv to -46 Sv. The southward Pacific Deep Water transport was at a higher density than the southward Indian Deep Water transport in both years and all models, similar to prior results. Estimated diapycnal diffusivity and velocity are strongly enhanced near the ocean bottom and are higher farther up in the water column in the Indian than in the Pacific, likely extending the reach of Indian Ocean overturning up to shallower depths than in the Pacific. The horizontal distribution of transports in the Pacific at all depths changed notably from 2003 to 2009, despite the stability of its meridional

  19. The Socioeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Outcomes in Uganda: School Enrolment and the Schooling Gap in 2002/2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirye, Ibrahim; Hisali, Eria

    2010-01-01

    Due to high prime-age mortality--a result of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the number of orphans in Uganda continues to rise. Using the 2002/2003 Uganda National Household Survey, this paper investigates how HIV/AIDS orphan status affects schooling enrolment and grade progression. Our results show that HIV/AIDS orphans are not significantly less likely to…

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California and other recent outbreaks in North America.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Janice C; Senne, Dennis A; Woolcock, Peter R; Kinde, Hailu; King, Daniel J; Wise, Mark G; Panigrahy, Brundaban; Seal, Bruce S

    2004-05-01

    Isolates from the 2002-2003 virulent Newcastle disease virus (v-NDV) outbreak in southern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Texas in the United States were compared to each other along with recent v-NDV isolates from Mexico and Central America and reference avian paramyxovirus type 1 strains. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on a 1,195-base genomic segment composing the 3' region of the matrix (M) protein gene and a 5' portion of the fusion (F) protein gene including the M-F intergenic region. This encompasses coding sequences for the nuclear localization signal of the M protein and the F protein cleavage activation site. A dibasic amino acid motif was present at the predicted F protein cleavage activation site in all v-NDVs, including the California 2002-2003, Arizona, Nevada, Texas, Mexico, and Central America isolates. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the California 2002-2003, Arizona, Nevada, and Texas viruses were most closely related to isolates from Mexico and Central America. An isolate from Texas obtained during 2003 appeared to represent a separate introduction of v-NDV into the United States, as this virus was even more closely related to the Mexico 2000 isolates than the California, Arizona, and Nevada viruses. The close phylogenetic relationship between the recent 2002-2003 U.S. v-NDV isolates and those viruses from countries geographically close to the United States warrants continued surveillance of commercial and noncommercial poultry for early detection of highly virulent NDV.

  1. Close temporal correspondence between geomagnetic anomalies and earthquakes during the 2002-2003 eruption of Etna volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Currenti, G.; Del, Negro C.; Johnston, M.; Sasai, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of the 2002-2003 lateral eruption at Mount Etna were accompanied by slow changes (over some hours) and some rapid step offsets in the local magnetic field. At five monitoring locations, the total magnetic field intensity has been measured using continuously operating Overhauser magnetometers at a sampling rate of 10 s. The very unique aspect of these observations is the close temporal correspondence between magnetic field offsets and earthquakes that occurred in the upper northern flank of the volcano on 27 October 2002 prior to a primary eruption. Rapid coseismic changes of the magnetic field were clearly identified for three of the most energetic earthquakes, which were concentrated along the Northeast Rift at a depth of about 1 km below sea level. Coseismic magnetic signals, with amplitudes from 0.5 to 2.5 nT, have been detected for three of the largest seismic events located roughly midway between the magnetic stations. We quantitatively examine possible geophysical mechanisms, which could cause the magnetic anomalies. The comparison between magnetic data, seismicity and surface phenomena implies that piezomagnetic effects are the primary physical mechanism responsible for the observed magnetic anomalies although the detailed cause of the rapid high stress change required is not clear. The modeling of the observed coseismic magnetic changes in terms of piezomagnetic mechanism provides further evidence of the complex interaction between volcanic and tectonic processes during dike propagation along the Northeast Rift. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. NCLENotes, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These two volumes of a newsletter on English as A Second Language (ESL) literacy education provide articles on: "Health Literacy: Recognizing its Importance in ESL Instruction" (Kate Singleton) and "English That Works" (Brigitte Marshall). Both volumes offer interviews (one with an ESL teacher and one with an author who write about ESL issues).…

  3. Understanding the Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Mexico City Airshed in 2002, 2003 and 2006 using Positive Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, I. M.; Dzepina, K.; Canagaratna, M.; Zhang, Q.; Decarlo, P.; Salcedo, D.; Aiken, A. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Allan, J.; Russell, L. M.; Grivicke, R.; Lamb, B.; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosol mass spectrometric measurements yield spectra of ambient aerosols that are a mix of various primary and secondary sources. Organic aerosol (OA) datasets acquired using Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, C-ToF-AMS, and HR-ToF-AMS) deployed in 2002, 2003, and 2006 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at multiple ground locations and from aircraft flights are analyzed with Positive Matrix Factorization to deconvolve information about important sources and processes for organic aerosols. Several components are identified in each dataset. Most datasets resolve contributions from: reduced (oxidative state) hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), which correlates well with primary combustion tracers such as CO, NOx, and BC; biomass burning OA (BBOA), which correlates with regional fire counts, potassium, levoglucosan, acetonitrile, and HCN; highly-oxidized OA (OOA-I) which shows more regional behavior; and less oxidized OA (OOA-II) which correlates with semivolatile inorganic species such as ammonium nitrate and gas-phase secondary species such as Ox (NO2 + O3) and glyoxal. These correlations are consistent across most datasets when run separately in PMF. Factor spectra are also compared to reference spectra, and ratios of factor concentrations to relevant tracers (e.g., HOA/CO, OOA/Ox) are presented. Factor spectra, time series, diurnal cycles, and ratios are compared at sampling locations across the MCMA and in different years in order to understand the evolution of OA across the airshed. The effect of running multiple datasets within a single PMF model (e.g., simultaneous measurements made at two locations in Mexico City), and the stability of PMF solutions will be described.

  4. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: 10e, 11e, 12e annees. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grades 10, 11, and 12.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that high school students are faced with decisions that will determine future opportunities and endeavors, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the high school curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills,…

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2004-04-01

    different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. This report provides information on PIT tagging of wild chinook salmon parr in 2002 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish. Fish were monitored as they migrated through two in-stream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek and at juvenile migrant traps in 2002 and 2003 as well as through interrogation systems at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during 2003. Fish were also monitored by the PIT-tag trawl in the mouth of the Columbia River in 2003. In 2002-2003, we also continued to collect environmental data for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program, which was developed from 1993 to 1997. The project was designed to collect data for use in conjunction with data on parr and smolt movements to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between these movements and environmental factors. Water quality data collected consist of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH measured at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho.

  7. [Spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families: a descriptive study with data from the Family Budget Surveys 2002-2003 and 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; de Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia; Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia; de Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana

    2015-05-01

    Spending on health insurance represents an important share of private expenditure on health in Brazil. The study aimed to describe the evolution of spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families, according to their income. Data from the Family Budget Surveys (POF) 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 were used. To compare the spending figures among the surveys, the Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was applied. The proportion of families with private health insurance expenses remained stable in both surveys (2002-2003 and 2008-2009), around 24%. However, the household spending on health insurance plans increased. Among those families who spent money oh health insurance plans, the average spending increased from R$154.35 to R$183.97. The average spending on health insurance plans was greater with increasing household income, as well as portions of the family income and total expenditure committed to these expenses. Spending on health insurance is concentrated among higher-income families, for which it was the main component of total health expenditure. PMID:26017945

  8. [Tobacco control policy and variation in Brazilian family spending on cigarettes: results of the Brazilian Household Budget Surveys in 2002/2003 and 2008/2009].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Sant'Anna, Ana Cláudia; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia de

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to describe trends in family spending on cigarettes and its share of family budget, comparing 2002 and 2009, using the Brazilian Household Budget Surveys from 2002/2003 and 2008/2009. The Expanded Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was used. The proportion of families that purchased cigarettes decreased from 23.5% to 18.2%, however their spending increased from BRL 55.36 to BRL 59.45. Spending on cigarettes was proportional to family income and head-of-family's schooling. Higher-income families still accounted for most of the expenditure, although the share of family income spent on cigarettes declined. The share of income for purchasing cigarettes was 5.2% in the lowest income quintile and 1.2% in the highest. Tobacco control policy has succeeded in reducing smoking prevalence in Brazil. However, economic measures are still important in the country, since the family's share of income and spending on cigarettes have decreased.

  9. Out-of-phase decadal changes in boreal summer rainfall between Yellow-Huaihe River Valley and southern China around 2002/2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Chen, Haishan; Hu, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the decadal variability of rainfall over China in boreal summer (June-August) since the early 1990s. Results show that the rainfall experiences an abrupt decadal change at around 2002/2003. The decadal change is statistically significant and characterized by an out-of-phase pattern between southern China (SC) and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV). The rainfall over SC decreases during the decade 2003-2012 compared to that in the preceding decade 1993-2002. A simultaneous decadal increase in rainfall has occurred over the YHRV. Meanwhile, a significant sea surface temperature warming appears over the western Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean after 2002 on the decadal time scale. Further analysis reveals that enhanced convections are activated over the tropical regions between 130°E and 160°E and west of 80°E due to the SST anomalies, which induce the dry air in an area of anomalous subsidence located over SC and the northern South China Sea (SCS) via zonal circulation. Accompanied by the anomalous descending flow over the northern SCS, tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the SCS also experience a concurrent decadal reduction. The decrease in landfall TCs contributes to the decadal decrease in SC rainfall since 2003. Corresponding to the anomalous descending motion that is dominant south of 30°N, an anomalous moist ascending flow develops over the YHRV at around 35°N. Meanwhile, the western Pacific subtropical high becomes stronger and extends further westward during 2003-2012, leading to enhanced moisture transport by the southwesterly in the northwestern flank of subtropical high. As a result, more precipitation occurs over the YHRV. The above analysis has revealed the physical-dynamical processes involved in the decadal changes in rainfall over China. The mechanisms behind the out-of-phase pattern of rainfall changes between SC and the YHRV that occurred at 2002/2003 are explored.

  10. American Library Directory[TM], 2002-2003. Vol. 1: Libraries in the United States [and] Vol. 2: Libraries in Canada, Library Networks, Consortia & Schools, Organization Index, Personnel Index. 55th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The "American Library Directory[TM] 2002-2003," in two volumes, provides access to comparative data, additional resources, and sales prospects for the United States and Canadian library communities. Containing full profiles on public, academic, government, and special libraries, the totally updated 55th edition is organized by state and city. Each…

  11. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  12. Utilization of village midwives and other trained delivery attendants for home deliveries in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Titaley, Christiana R; Dibley, Michael J; Roberts, Christine L

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to examine factors associated with utilization of village midwife and other trained delivery attendants for home deliveries. Information from 14,672 cases of the most recent home deliveries of mothers in the 5 year-period prior to the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007 were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed. The association between 26 factors categorised into external environment, predisposing, enabling, need and previous utilization of maternal health services, and utilization of village midwife and other trained delivery attendants, such as nurses, other midwives and doctors, for home deliveries was examined. The population attributable risk of selected significant predictors was calculated. The odds of using village midwives and other trained delivery attendants at childbirth for home deliveries increased with increasing household wealth index and levels of parental education. The odds increased among first birth, mothers who were exposed to mass media, mothers with knowledge of delivery complications, and mothers who had any delivery complications. However, mothers who attended less than four antenatal care visits, who had high parity, or who reported distance and transportation to health facilities was a major problem, had significantly reduced odds for utilizing any trained delivery attendants. Health promotion strategies to raise community awareness about the importance of safe delivery should target low educated parents, mothers from low household economic status, as well as high parity mothers. Efforts to promote antenatal care visits are likely to increase utilization of trained delivery attendants for home deliveries in Indonesia. PMID:20936501

  13. Texas Almanac, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary G., Ed.

    The 61st edition of the "Texas Almanac" has a reputation as the definitive source for Texas information since 1857. It contains details of the Census 2000 official population count, including statewide, county and town counts, plus an analysis of the numbers by experts at Texas's State Data Center. It includes information about politics,…

  14. Northwest Education, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee, Ed.; Boss, Suzie, Ed.; Weeks, Denise Jarrett, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document contains the four issues of Northwest Education published during the 2002-03 school year. Issue themes are: (1) "Closing the Gap: How Northwest Schools Are Raising Minority Achievement"; (2) "Focus on Writing"; (3) "The Hidden Disability: When Bright Children Struggle To Learn"; and (4) "Discoveries in Learning: Lessons from Lewis &…

  15. Geology, tectonics, and the 2002-2003 eruption of the Semeru volcano, Indonesia: Interpreted from high-spatial resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solikhin, Akhmad; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Harris, Andy J. L.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2012-02-01

    The paper illustrates the application of high-spatial resolution satellite images in interpreting volcanic structures and eruption impacts in the Tengger-Semeru massif in east Java, Indonesia. We use high-spatial resolution images (IKONOS and SPOT 5) and aerial photos in order to analyze the structures of Semeru volcano and map the deposits. Geological and tectonic mapping is based on two DEMs and on the interpretation of aerial photos and four SPOT and IKONOS optical satellite images acquired between 1996 and 2002. We also compared two thermal Surface Kinetic Temperature ASTER images before and after the 2002-2003 eruption in order to delineate and evaluate the impacts of the pyroclastic density currents. Semeru's principal structural features are probably due to the tectonic setting of the volcano. A structural map of the Tengger-Semeru massif shows four groups of faults orientated N40, N160, N75, and N105 to N140. Conspicuous structures, such as the SE-trending horseshoe-shaped scar on Semeru's summit cone, coincide with the N160-trending faults. The direction of minor scars on the east flank parallels the first and second groups of faults. The Semeru composite cone hosts the currently active Jonggring-Seloko vent. This is located on, and buttressed against, the Mahameru edifice at the head of a large scar that may reflect a failure plane at shallow depth. Dipping 35° towards the SE, this failure plane may correspond to a weak basal layer of weathered volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. We suggest that the deformation pattern of Semeru and its large scar may be induced by flank spreading over the weak basal layer of the volcano. It is therefore necessary to consider the potential for flank and summit collapse in the future. The last major eruption took place in December 2002-January 2003, and involved emplacement of block-and-ash flows. We have used the 2003 ASTER Surface Kinetic Temperature image to map the 2002-2003 pyroclastic density current deposits. We

  16. Thin-ice dynamics and ice production in the Storfjorden polynya for winter-seasons 2002/2003-2013/2014 using MODIS thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preußer, A.; Willmes, S.; Heinemann, G.; Paul, S.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial and temporal characteristics of the Storfjorden polynya, which forms regularly in the proximity of the islands Spitsbergen, Barentsøya and Edgeøya in the Svalbard archipelago under the influence of strong north-easterly winds, have been investigated for the period 2002/2003 to 2013/2014 using thermal infrared satellite imagery. Thin-ice thicknesses were calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures, combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy-balance model. Based on calculated thin-ice thicknesses, associated quantities like polynya area and total ice production were derived and compared to previous remote sensing and modeling studies. A basic coverage-correction scheme was applied to account for cloud-gaps in the daily composites. The sea ice in the Storfjorden area experiences a late fall freeze-up in several years over the 12 winter-period, with an increasing frequency of large polynya events until the end of December. During the regarded period, the mean polynya area is 4555.7 ± 1542.9 km2. The average ice production in the fjord is estimated with 28.3 ± 8.5 km3 per winter and therefore lower than in previous studies. Despite this comparatively short record of 12 winter-seasons, a significant positive trend of 20.2 km3 per decade could be detected, which contrasts earlier reports of a slightly negative trend in accumulated ice production prior to 2002. Derived estimates underline the importance of this relatively small coastal polynya system considering its contribution to the cold halocline layer through salt release during ice formation processes.

  17. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  18. Thin-ice dynamics and ice production in the Storfjorden polynya for winter seasons 2002/2003-2013/2014 using MODIS thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusser, A.; Willmes, S.; Heinemann, G.; Paul, S.

    2015-05-01

    Spatial and temporal characteristics of the Storfjorden polynya, which forms regularly in the proximity of the islands Spitsbergen, Barentsøya and Edgeøya in the Svalbard archipelago under the influence of strong northeasterly winds, have been investigated for the period of 2002/2003 to 2013/2014 using thermal infrared satellite imagery. Thin-ice thicknesses were calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy-balance model. Associated quantities like polynya area and total ice production were derived and compared to previous remote sensing and modeling studies. A basic coverage-correction scheme was applied to account for cloud gaps in the daily composites. On average, both polynya area and ice production are thereby increased by about 30%. The sea ice in the Storfjorden area experiences a late fall freeze-up in several years over the 12-winter period, which becomes most apparent through an increasing frequency of large thin-ice areas until the end of December. In the course of an average winter season, ice thicknesses below 10 cm are dominating within the Storfjorden basin. During the regarded period, the mean polynya area is 4555.7 ± 1542.9 km2. Maximum daily ice production rates can reach as high as 26 cm d-1, while the average ice production is estimated at 28.3 ± 8.5 km3 per winter and therefore lower than in previous studies. Despite this comparatively short record of 12 winter seasons, a significant positive trend of 20.2 km3 per decade could be detected, which originates primarily from a delayed freeze-up in November and December in recent winter seasons. This contrasts earlier reports of a slightly negative trend in accumulated ice production prior to 2002. Although featuring more pronounced interannual variations between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, our estimates underline the importance of this relatively small coastal polynya system considering its contribution to the cold

  19. Circumpolar polynya characteristics in the Arctic between 2002/2003 and 2014/2015 as derived from MODIS thermal infrared imagery and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preußer, Andreas; Willmes, Sascha; Heinemann, Günther; Paul, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In this pan-Arctic study, high-resolution MODIS thermal infrared satellite data are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 16 prominent coastal polynya regions and leads over the entire Arctic basin. Thin-ice thickness distributions (≤ 20cm) are calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures swath-data (MOD/MYD29), combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy balance model for the last 13 winter-seasons (2002/2003 to 2014/2015; November to March). From all available swath-data, (quasi-) daily thin-ice thickness composites are computed in order to derive valuable quantities such as polynya area and total thermodynamic ice production. Two different cloud-cover correction schemes are applied to account for cloud and data gaps in the MODIS composites. During the investigated period, the average total wintertime accumulated ice production in all 16 polynya regions is estimated with about 1481 ± 262 km³, plus an additional 65 ± 59 km³ if leads in the central Arctic Ocean are taken into consideration. The largest contributions originate from the Kara Sea region and the North Water polynya (both ~19%) as well as scattered smaller polynyas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (all combined ~15%), while other well-known sites of polynya formation (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea) show smaller contributions with around 2-7%. Compared to another recently published pan-Arctic polynya study using coarser resolution passive microwave remote sensing data, our estimates are considerably larger due to distinct differences regarding the observed winter-period and applied polynya masks/reference areas. In addition, the use of high-resolution MODIS data increases the capability to resolve small scale (> 2km) thin-ice features such as leads, which therefore contribute to our ice production estimates. Despite the short record of 13 winter-seasons, positive trends in ice production can be detected for some regions of the eastern Arctic (most

  20. L'annee psychologique: history of the founding of a 100-year-old.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, S; Segui, J; Ferrand, L

    2000-02-01

    The authors present the history of the founding of the French journal L'Annee Psychologique. The names of Theodule Ribot (1839-1916), Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), and Alfred Binet (1857-1911) are closely associated with the journal. Ribot's election to the chair of Experimental and Comparative Psychology at the College de France in 1888 marked the official emancipation of psychology in France. Because there was no laboratory associated with the chair, Beaunis, a physiological psychologist from Nancy, proposed to Ribot the creation of the first French laboratory of experimental psychology (1889). Under Beaunis's direction, this laboratory was established at the Sorbonne in Paris but was in fact dependent on another educational institution, L'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. In 1893 the laboratory's research was first published in a yearly journal named Travaux du Laboratoire de Psychologie Physiologique (2 volumes: 1893-1894). Binet, who joined the laboratory in 1891, was not satisfied by the form of this publication. With Beaunis's agreement, he then created L'Annee Psychologique in 1894 to develop the reputation of the laboratory's research. The authors present the evolution and vicissitudes of the journal from 1895 to 1912, with a glance up to the present.

  1. CCSF Management Plan, 2002/2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    This is the 2001-2002 management plan for the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), California. The plan contains the following sections: (1) Overview of Planning and Budgeting; (2) Vision, Values, and Mission; (3) College Goals and Strategic Priorities; (4) Annual Institutional Plan CCSF 2002-03; (5) College Core Performance Indicators; and (6)…

  2. English Leadership Quarterly, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bonita L., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This 25th volume of "English Leadership Quarterly" contains articles on topics of interest to those in positions of leadership in departments (elementary, secondary, or college) where English is taught. Each issue focuses on a different theme. Articles in Volume 25 Number 1 focus on leadership and literacy and are: "Research Summary of a Best…

  3. English Teaching & Learning, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teaching & Learning, 2003

    2003-01-01

    These four issues contain the following articles: "A Case Documentation of English Instruction at the Elementary School Level: The Cross-Cultural Impact of Native Speaker Teachers" (Hsien-Chin Liou) [written in Chinese]; "A Collaborative Tale with Two Taiwanese EFL College Groups" (Feng-Ming Chi); "A Developmental Study on Phonological Awareness…

  4. Special Issue: Book Reviews 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This special issue reviews 71 books on the following topics: career management; career opportunities for people with disabilities; federal government career information; college career development/counseling; job search strategies, tools, methods; coaching; retirement issues; strategies for managers; women and careers; general career books; and…

  5. Socio-economic factors and use of maternal health services are associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: secondary analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Titaley, Christiana R; Loh, Philips C; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Ariawan, Iwan; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2014-01-01

    This analysis aims to examine factors associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Data were derived from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Information from 12,191 singleton live-born infants aged 0-23 months was used to examine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Furthermore, information from 3,187 singleton live-born infants aged 0-5 months was used to identify factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Associations between potential predictors and study outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Our study found that infants from high household wealth-index had significantly increased odds of both delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Other factors associated with an increased odds of delayed initiation of breastfeeding included infants from Sumatera region (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.38-1.95), Caesarean-section deliveries (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.39-2.44) and deliveries in government-owned (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.76) and non-health facility (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43). Other factors associated with an increased odds for non-exclusive breastfeeding included parents who were in the workforce (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.78) and mothers with obstetric complication at childbirth (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). However, the odds reduced for infants from Eastern Indonesia (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.85). Poor breastfeeding practices are associated with environmental, socio-economic, pregnancy-birthing characteristics and maternal health services factors. Efforts to promote breastfeeding practices should be conducted comprehensively to target population at risk for poor breastfeeding practices.

  6. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a result, restoration work is in the planning stages for Canadian tributaries that flow into the Moyie River in northern Idaho and the Yaak River in northwest Montana.

  7. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Adalyn, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of all 25 issues of Volume 13 of "The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education," a biweekly journal that addresses issues in higher education for Hispanic Americans. Each issue contains several feature articles, a "First Impressions" or "Periodically" brief report, "Targeting Higher Education" section on higher education…

  8. District Composite Report: West Baton Rouge Parish. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. This report is specific to West Baton Rouge Parish. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year's data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating…

  9. District Composite Report: East Baton Rouge Parish. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The passage of the Children First Act in 1988 ushered in a new era of data collection, analysis, and reporting about the overall quality and condition of education in Louisiana. Implemented in 1990, this major piece of legislation resulted in the publication of the Progress Profiles (School Report Cards, District Composite Report, and the…

  10. Forrest Ranch Management and Implementation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The contract period was the first year of the program with December 2001 through July 2nd 2002 being previous to acquisition of the property. The majority of the activities conducted under the contract period were spent on O&M and pre acquisition activities.

  11. Hangman Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Coeur d'Alene Tribe

    2003-10-01

    Progress has been made in defining the level of work that needs to be accomplished in the Hangman Watershed in order to restore a viable riparian system and hydrology. The end goal is to use wildlife habitat to protect streams and provide water for instream fish habitats. In order to define the most expedient means of attaining that goal an Instream Flow/Watershed Hydrology Study was initiated. The study is intended to be comprehensive in order to determine the potential of increasing base flow with Hangman Watershed Streams and predict available fish habitats for the range of flow level possibilities. The Study Plan and work for the first field season was contracted and the Plan and end of field season reports are included with this Annual Report. The initial draft of the wildlife portion of the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan was completed and presented to the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Wildlife Committee. The Committee felt that the Basin Hydrology Study needed to be closer to completion before the bulk of wildlife monitoring should be implemented. The extent of the landscape that must be restored in order to facilitate the needed stream flows may not be large enough to affect the population levels of the Plan's target species. The main result of the Committee review of the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan however, was that since the Hangman Restoration Project is not a HU driven wildlife mitigation project than the Wildlife Committee does not have a role to play since their focus is wildlife HU crediting projects. Further work on the wildlife portion of the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan is suspended until the crediting issues surrounding the Hangman Restoration Project are settled. Certain aspects of the Plan, such as the land bird, amphibian, reptile and beaver monitoring can be implemented in the spring of the coming year because monitoring these species and groups needs to be accomplished regardless of crediting status and baseline data is needed for these. Data from the Hangman Creek Watershed from portions upstream and east of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation were included in the Second Iteration of the Habitat Prioritization Plan. These data were gathered both by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and Idaho's Department of Environmental Quality. The addition of this portion of the Watershed in the Prioritization Plan fills a gap that the lack of data left in the first draft of the Plan. The streams in these upper headwaters support remnant salmonid populations and are close enough to be integrated with the streams and trout populations on the Reservation. The addition of this area strengthens the base from which the Hangman Restoration Project can work to secure and expand resident fish populations. An extensive 2-year search for historic photos of the upper portion of the Hangman Watershed was completed during this annual funding cycle. The disappointing result is that few photographs were acquired. One excellent panoramic view of the Upper Hangman Watershed from Tekoa Mountain was recovered and photos of this view were taken for comparison. The task of finding historic photos has been removed from future Scopes of Work, however search for photos will continue as part of the Project's public outreach. The notable exception to the lack of historic photos is the purchase, digitizing and GIS registry of 1947 aerial photo coverage of the entire Hangman Creek Watershed east of the Washington/Idaho State Boarder. In addition, 1933 aerial photo coverage of most of this same area is being registered to our GIS system. These 1933 photos were available to the Tribe prior to the initiation of this Project; however these photos are being registered partly as a result of requests made from this Project. The process of developing a map of potential vegetation types for the Hangman Watershed has benefited from establishment of an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Geologic Survey to hire a Scientific Advisor. The Scientific Advisor has assisted with the design of a scheme to sample remnant native vegetation within and close to the Hangman Watershed and will assist in using the acquired data to develop and test a multivariate model that predicts potential vegetation for any given site within the Hangman Watershed. This information is essential in modeling the potential stream flows within the watershed and for identifying the appropriate vegetation types to manage for in any restoration project.In spite of the progress made during this last year, this Project was not able to accomplish the primary tasks of acquiring management rights to properties that offer the greatest potential to protect and restore the streams and fisheries within the Hangman Watershed. Appraisals, hazardous materials surveys, and cultural resource inventories were completed on 3 properties that have been identified as priority parcels to acquire and restore to their biotic potential.

  12. Keck observations of the 2002 2003 jovian ring plane crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Showalter, Mark R.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    We present new observations of Jupiter's ring system at a wavelength of 2.2 μm obtained with the 10-m W.M. Keck telescopes on three nights during a ring plane crossing: UT 19 December 2002, and 22 and 26 January 2003. We used conventional imaging, plus adaptive optics on the last night. Here we present detailed radial profiles of the main ring, halo and gossamer rings, and interpret the data together with information extracted from radio observations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. The main ring is confined to a 800-km-wide annulus between 128,200 and 129,000 km, with a ˜5000 km extension on the inside. The normal optical depth is 8×10, 15% of which is provided by bodies with radii a≳5 cm. These bodies are as red as Metis. Half the optical depth, τ≈4×10, is attributed to micron-sized dust, and the remaining τ≈3×10 to grains tens to hundreds of μm in size. The inward extension consists of micron-sized ( a≲10 μm) dust, which probably migrates inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The inner limit of this extension falls near the 3:2 Lorentz resonance (at orbital radius r=122,400 km), and coincides with the outer limit of the halo. The gossamer rings appear to be radially confined, rather than broad sheets of material. The Amalthea ring is triangularly shaped, with a steep outer dropoff over ˜5000 km, extending a few 1000 km beyond the orbit of Amalthea, and a more gradual inner dropoff over 15,000-20,000 km. The inner edge is near the location of the synchronous orbit. The optical depth in the Amalthea ring is ˜5×10, up to 20% of which is comprised of macroscopic material. The optical depth in the Thebe ring is a factor of 3 smaller.

  13. Mutual phenomena involving J5 Amalthea in 2002-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachier, F.; Arlot, J. E.; Thuillot, W.

    2002-10-01

    Every six years mutual eclipses and occultations occur among the Jovian system of satellites. Very accurate astrometric measurements and several physical characteristics of the surfaces can be infered from their observation. This paper is provide predictions of this type of events involving the fifth satellite J5 Amalthea, spanning from November 2002 to June 2003 and to urge astronomers to observe them. Only the predictions of the eclipses of Amalthea by Io are presented, when the distance between Amalthea-Io and Amalthea-Jutpiter is large enough for photometric purposes. A full list of phenomena is available on the server http://www.imcce.fr/Phemu03/phemu03_eng.html

  14. The Bill of Rights in Action, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2003-01-01

    This document includes the following issues of this journal: volume 18, number 3, Summer 2002; volume 18, number 4, Fall 2002; volume 19, number 2, Spring 2003; and volume 19, number 3, Summer 2003. The summer 2002 issue of "The Bill of Rights in Action" views problems related to victims of war. It focuses on the internment of Japanese Americans…

  15. Seroprevalence to cytomegalovirus in the Portuguese population, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Lopo, S; Vinagre, E; Palminha, P; Paixao, M T; Nogueira, P; Freitas, M G

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections ranges between 50% and 85% in adults in the United States, and its epidemiology varies in different regions of the world and between socioeconomic and age groups. In Portugal, no study has been carried out to date to determine the prevalence of CMV in the general population. Under the second National Serological Survey conducted in continental Portugal in 2001–2002, we estimated the prevalence of individuals with antibodies to CMV using indirect immunofluorescence to detect virus-specific IgG. The population sample included 2,143 individuals of both sexes and different ages from all 18 districts in Portugal. The national seroprevalence of CMV was determined as 77%. We analysed the proportion of CMV IgG by sex, age group and district of residence. This was the first nationally representative study of seroprevalence of CMV in Portugal. The results of the study indicate that CMV infection is highly prevalent in the population and occurs mainly in the first years of life. PMID:21722611

  16. Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L

    2006-01-01

    Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity.

  17. District Composite Report: Cameron Parish. 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the District Composite Report, up to six years of data is presented. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year?s data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating longitudinal data in the District Composite Report enables policy makers to anticipate changes in educational outcomes, not just…

  18. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. FY 2002 was used to continue seasonal fish and lakewide creel surveys and adjust methods and protocols as needed. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 meters deep, with 16-17 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until August when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-meters deep. Secchi depths ranged from 2.5-8 meters and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in October 2002 and May and July 2003 using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens (32 %) and cottid spp. (22 %) dominated the nearshore species composition in October; however, by May yellow perch (12 %) were the third most common species followed by smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (34 %) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (14 %). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during October (78 %) and May (81 %). Fish diet analysis indicated that juvenile fishes consumed primarily insects and zooplankton, while adult piscivores consumed cottids spp. and yellow perch most frequently. For FY 2002, the following creel statistics are comprehensive through August 31, 2003. The highest angling pressure occurred in June 2003, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 76 % of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. An estimated total of 11,915 ({+-}140 SD) smallmouth bass, 6,412 ({+-}59 SD) walleye, 5,470 ({+-}260 SD) rainbow trout, and 1,949 ({+-}118 SD) yellow perch were harvested from Banks Lake in FY 2002. Only 3 kokanee were reported in the catch during the FY 2002 creel survey. In the future, data from the seasonal surveys and creel will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  19. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  20. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2002-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2003-11-01

    Research in earth and atmospheric sciences is becoming increasingly important in light of the energy, climate change, and environmental issues facing the United States and the world. The development of new energy resources other than hydrocarbons and the safe disposal of nuclear waste and greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane) are critical to the future energy needs and environmental safety of this planet. In addition, the cleanup of many contaminated sites in the U.S., along with the preservation and management of our water supply, remain key challenges for us as well as future generations. Addressing these energy, climate change, and environmental issues requires the timely integration of earth sciences' disciplines (such as geology, hydrology, oceanography, climatology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics, ecology, and environmental sciences). This integration will involve focusing on fundamental crosscutting concerns that are common to many of these issues. A primary focus will be the characterization, imaging, and manipulation of fluids in the earth. Such capabilities are critical to many DOE applications, from environmental restoration to energy extraction and optimization. The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is currently addressing many of the key technical issues described above. In this document, we present summaries of many of our current research projects. While it is not a complete accounting, it is representative of the nature and breadth of our research effort. We are proud of our scientific efforts, and we hope that you will find our research useful and exciting. Any comments on our research are appreciated and can be sent to me personally. This report is divided into five sections that correspond to the major research programs in the Earth Sciences Division: (1) Fundamental and Exploratory Research; (2) Nuclear Waste; (3) Energy Resources; (4) Environmental Remediation Technology; and (5) Climate Variability and Carbon Management. These programs draw from each of ESD's disciplinary departments: Microbial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Geophysics and Geomechanics, Geochemistry, and Hydrogeology and Reservoir Dynamics. Short descriptions of these departments are provided as introductory material. A list of publications for the period from January 2002 to June 2003, along with a listing of our personnel, are appended to the end of this report.

  1. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Judy; Homer, Will

    2004-02-01

    Problems Encountered During Contract Year--Wheeler County residents are mostly non participants when it comes to Farm Services programs. Results of the counties non participation is the rental rates are the lowest in the state. There is a government fear factor as well as an obvious distance limitation. The FSA office is nearly 150 mile roundtrip from two of the counties urban areas. I find myself not only selling the CREP-Riparian Buffer but also selling Farm Services in general. Training has been very limited. NRCS is obviously not designed around training and certification. They are an on-the-job training organization. It has caused a hesitation in my outreach program and a great deal of frustration. I feel my confidence will strengthen with the follow through of the current projects. The most evident problem has come to light as of late. The program is too expensive to implement. The planting is too intensive for a 12''-18'' rainfall area. I provide the potential landowner a spread sheet with the bonuses, the costs, and the final outcome. No matter the situation, CREP or CCRP, the landowner always balks at the cost. The program assumes the landowner has the capital to make the initial investment. For example, project No.2 is going to be a minimum width buffer. It is approximately 3,000 ft long and 5.5 acres. The buffer for tree planting and fencing alone will result in a cost of nearly $13,000. With the water developments it nears $23,000. That is nearly 10% of a 250 mother-cow operating budget. Project No.1, the tree planting estimate is $45,000. This alone is nearly 25% of the same type of budget. I would greatly appreciate any help in finding a third party willing to put money to work covering the initial costs of the program, expecting reimbursement from Farm Services Agency. I believe this could create a powerful tool in buffering streams in Wheeler County. Outlook for Contract Year 2--I have been in this position now for 6 months. I am beginning to feel a much more confident in the buffer program. As my confidence improves I will move forward rapidly in contacting. With increased contacting I will find participating landowners. I am positive the landowner involved in my first project will be doing another after the first is complete.

  2. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  3. Lake Pend Oreille Predation Research, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Bassista, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    During August 2002 we conducted a hydroacoustic survey to enumerate pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho. The purpose of this survey was to determine a collective lakewide biomass estimate of pelagic bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and lake trout S. namaycush and compare it to pelagic prey (kokanee salmon O. nerka) biomass. By developing hydroacoustic techniques to determine the pelagic predator to prey ratio, we can annually monitor their balance. Hydroacoustic surveys were also performed during December 2002 and February 2003 to investigate the effectiveness of autumn and winter surveys for pelagic predators. The inherent problem associated with hydroacoustic sampling is the inability to directly identify fish species. Therefore, we utilized sonic tracking techniques to describe rainbow trout and lake trout habitat use during our winter hydroacoustic survey to help identify fish targets from the hydroacoustic echograms. During August 2002 we estimated there were 39,044 pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille (1.84 f/ha). Based on temperature and depth utilization, two distinct groups of pelagic fish >406 mm were located during August; one group was located between 10 and 35 m and the other between 40 and 70 m. The biomass for pelagic fish >406 mm during August 2002 was 73 t (metric ton). This would account for a ratio of 1 kg of pelagic predator for every 2.63 kg of kokanee prey, assuming all pelagic fish >406 mm are predators. During our late fall and winter hydroacoustic surveys, pelagic fish >406 mm were observed at lake depths between 20 and 90 m. During late fall and winter, we tracked three rainbow trout (168 habitat observations) and found that they mostly occupied pelagic areas and predominantly stayed within the top 10 m of the water column. During late fall (one lake trout) and winter (four lake trout), we found that lake trout (184 habitat observations) utilized benthic-nearshore areas 65% of the time and were found in the pelagic area only 35% of the time. Lake trout were found at depths between 10 and 90 m (average was approximately 30 m). Based on hydroacoustic surveys of pelagic fish >406 mm and habitat use of sonic tagged rainbow trout and lake trout during late fall and winter, we conclude that hydroacoustic sampling during those times would be ineffective at acquiring an accurate pelagic predator population estimate and recommend conducting abundance estimates for pelagic predators when Lake Pend Oreille is thermally stratified (i.e. August).

  4. Direct Loan Update, 2002-2003. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This participant guide is an update to basic training in the Direct Loan (DL) portion of the EDExpress system designed for financial aid professionals who have already participated in the basic training. The first session considers new aspects of DL processing, focusing on DL process changes and EDExpress DL changes. Session 2 contains three…

  5. Apps 101, 2002-2003. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This manual is a guide to handling data related to the federal student financial aid program through the electronic data exchange (EDE) system EDExpress. The overview defines how data is exchanged and identifies key players in the exchange of data. The overall process for sending and receiving data is outlined, along with the overall processing…

  6. 2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J E; Valentine, J

    2004-04-09

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago DTRA partnered with NNSA to evaluate commercially available technologies that could be deployed quickly to defend against threats posed by unconventional nuclear weapons under a program called the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) Program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was one of several National laboratories that participated in this program, which consisted in developing, deploying, and demonstrating detection systems suitable for military base protection. Two key contributions to this program by the LLNL team were the development of two Radiation Detection Buoys (RDB) deployed at Naval Base in Kings Bay in Georgia, and the Detection and Tracking System (DTS) demonstrated at Fort Leonard Wood Missouri, headquarters for the Total Force's Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN). The RDB's were designed to detect the potential transportation of an unconventional nuclear or radiological weapon by a boat. The RDB's consisted of two commercial marine buoys instrumented with several types of detectors sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons, two key modes of energy emitted by radioactive materials. The engineering team selected a standard marine buoy as the overall system platform for this deployment since buoys are already designed to sustain the harsh marine environment, and also for their covertness, since once deployed, they look just like any other buoy on the water. Since this was the first time such a system was ever deployed, the team choose to instrument the buoys with a suite of different types of detectors with the goal to learn which detectors would be best suited for future deployments of this kind. This goal has now being achieved, and through a combination of computer modeling and experimental data, the team has gain the necessary knowledge to better understand the capabilities and limitations of RDB's, and the tradeoffs involve in the selection of the different detectors. The two LLNL RDB's are currently operational at Kings Bay, and the team is looking forward to another opportunity to design the next generation RDB's.

  7. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2002/2003/2004

    SciTech Connect

    A.Keith Dunker

    2004-10-26

    Brief introduction to Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing The Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing is an international, multidisciplinary conference covering current research in the theory and the application of computational methods in problems of biological significance. Researchers from the United States, the Asian Pacific nations and around the world gather each year at PSB to exchange research results and discuss open issues in all aspects of computational biology. PSB provides a forum for work on databases, algorithms, interfaces, visualization, modeling and other computational methods, as applied to biological problems. The data-rich areas of molecular biology are emphasized. PSB is the only meeting in the bioinformatics field with sessions defined dynamically each year in response to specific proposals from the participants. Sessions are organized by leaders in emerging areas to provide forums for publication and for discussion of research in biocomputing ''hot topics''. PSB therefore enables discussion of emerging methods and approaches in this rapidly changing field. PSB has been designated as one of the major meetings in this field by the recently established International Society for Computational Biology (see www.iscb.org). Papers and presentations are peer reviewed typically with 3 reviews per paper plus editorial oversight from the conference organizers. The accepted papers are published in an archival proceedings volume, which is indexed by PubMed, and electronically (see http://psb.stanford.edu/). Finally, given the tight schedule from submission of papers to their publication, typically 5 to 5 1/2 months, the PSB proceedings each year represents one of the most up-to-date surveys of current trends in bioinformatics.

  8. Fifteenmile Creek Riparian Buffers Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Ron

    2004-02-01

    This project implements riparian buffer systems in the Mid-Columbia, addressing limiting factors identified in the Fifteenmile Subbasin Summary, June 30, 2000. The project is providing the technical planning support needed to implement at least 36 riparian buffer system contracts on approximately 872 acres covering an estimated 40 miles of anadromous fish streams over a three year period. During this second year of the project, 11 buffer contracts were implemented on 10.9 miles of stream. Buffer widths averaged 132 ft. on each side of the stream. Implementation included prescribed plantings, fencing, and related practices. Actual implementation costs, lease payments, and maintenance costs are borne by existing USDA programs: Conservation Reserve and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Programs. The lease period of each contract may vary between 10 to 15 years. During this year the average was 14.6 years. The total value of contracts established this year is $666,121 compared with $71,115 in Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract costs to provide the technical support needed to get the contracts implemented. This project provides technical staffing to conduct assessments and develop plans to help keep pace with the growing backlog of potential riparian buffer projects. Word of mouth from satisfied customers has brought in many new sign-ups during the year. In addition, specific outreach efforts targeting the orchard areas of the county began to bear fruit with orchardists sign-ups as the project year ended. Progress this second year of project includes only work accomplished in the Fifteenmile subbasin. A similar but separate effort to implement buffers in the Columbia Plateau Province was initiated during the year under project number 2002-019-00. This project supports RPA 150 and 153 as required under the Federal Hydropower System biological opinion.

  9. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  10. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  11. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  12. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  13. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  14. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  15. West Orange Collaborative STARK Program, 2002-2003 Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron; Wang, Weiping; Thompson, Laura

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the Year 2 evaluation study results of the Students and Teachers Accessing Real-time Knowledge (STARK) Program in the West Orange Consolidated Independent School District (CSID). The overall purpose of the evaluation was twofold: (a) to provide formative evaluation data to the participant schools to serve as a basis for…

  16. District Composite Report: Sabine Parish. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year?s data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating longitudinal data in the District Composite Report enables…

  17. Potlatch River Watershed Restoration, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Kenneth

    2003-09-01

    The project's goal is to improve instream fish habitat in the Potlatch River and the lower Clearwater River through comprehensive watershed planning, implementation of best management practices and expanded water quality and fish habitat monitoring. This proposal has two primary objectives: (1) complete the Potlatch River watershed implementation plan; and, (2) augment existing monitoring efforts in the Potlatch River to broaden the water quality and fish resource data baseline.

  18. Gilliam County Riparian Buffers; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Coiner, Josh

    2003-05-01

    There are only two problems that have been encountered during the contract year. The first problem has to do with eligibility. To be eligible for CREP you must own land adjacent to stream that has been delineated an anadromous fish stream. The problem is there are areas in Gilliam County that are designated anadromous fish streams that probably don't deserve that delineation and then there are streams that are not listed that probably do deserve that delineation. This has affected a few proposed projects. For instance, there is a project area on a stream that is delineated on the eligibility map, but the particular reach we are working with does not show up on the map. ODFW then receives an eligibility sheet from FSA or the SWCD technician. On this particular area it says steelhead distribution is downstream .5 miles. FSA won't consider this area eligible for CREP, thus the landowner must enroll in CCRP, which doesn't quite have the incentives as CREP. We are working to improve the maps. A meeting has been scheduled to discuss some particular areas and possibly re-draw the eligibility map. The other problem has to do with the amount of cost share for off-stream watering facilities. Many landowners who wish to install spring developments and other off-stream watering facilities run into a problem with cost-share limits within the CREP guidelines. When a landowner wants to enroll all of his/her stream and exclude livestock from the creek entirely they are having to pay some out of pocket expenses to get enough water to sufficiently support their livestock without using the creek. There has been one landowner who decided not to enroll because of this technicality. The problems encountered are problems that occur within the parameters of the program. These problems may or may not be changed. Otherwise, interest in the programs has been excellent and will only get better. The number of contracts that were estimated to be negotiated in the three-year term may be a bit excessive. In counties such as Gilliam, most tracts of land are large parcels. If multiple project areas occur in the same tract then you have one contract per tract. This reduces your total number in a lot of cases. In year 1 there were 6 contracts negotiated and approved in the CREP program. Prior to the contract there were a total of 9. The program started in 1998. The numbers will only increase in year 2. Year two should be a drastic improvement over year one. There has already been several projects proposed that may or may not be approved during year 2. There are 367.4 acres of land that has been proposed in either CREP or CCRP, which would include 30.94 miles of stream buffered on both sides.

  19. Report of the Council and Accounts, 2002-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, G. M.; Tucker, D.

    2003-10-01

    The Council of the British Astronomical Association presents its annual Report and Accounts for the session ended 2003 July 31. The excess of income over expenditure for the financial year ended 2003 June 30 was £ 275,068. This amount has been transferred to reserve.

  20. Evaluation d'une approche pedagogique respectant les facons d'apprendre des filles en sciences et en TIC en 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirette-Pitre, Nicole T.

    2009-07-01

    La reussite scolaire des filles les amene de plus en plus a poursuivre une formation postsecondaire et a exercer des professions qui demandent un haut niveau de connaissances et d'expertise scientifique. Toutefois, les filles demeurent toujours tres peu nombreuses a envisager une carriere en sciences (chimie et physique), en ingenierie ou en TIC (technologie d'information et de la communication), soit une carriere reliee a la nouvelle economie. Pour plusieurs filles, les sciences et les TIC ne sont pas des matieres scolaires qu'elles trouvent interessantes meme si elles y reussissent tres bien. Ces filles admettent que leurs experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC ne leur ont pas permis de developper un interet ni de se sentir confiante en leurs habiletes a reussir dans ces matieres. Par consequent, peu de filles choisissent de poursuivre leurs etudes postsecondaires dans ces disciplines. La theorie sociocognitive du choix carriere a ete choisie comme modele theorique pour mieux comprendre quelles variables entrent en jeu lorsque les filles choisissent leur carriere. Notre etude a pour objet la conception et l'evaluation de l'efficacite d'un materiel pedagogique concu specifiquement pour ameliorer les experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC des filles de 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick. L'approche pedagogique privilegiee dans notre materiel a mis en oeuvre des strategies pedagogiques issues des meilleures pratiques que nous avons identifiees et qui visaient particulierement l'augmentation du sentiment d'auto-efficacite et de l'interet des filles pour ces disciplines. Ce materiel disponible par Internet a l'adresse http://www.umoncton.ca/lirettn/scientic est directement en lien avec le programme d'etudes en sciences de la nature de 9e annee du Nouveau-Brunswick. L'evaluation de l'efficacite de notre materiel pedagogique a ete faite selon deux grandes etapes methodologiques: 1) l'evaluation de l'utilisabilite et de la convivialite du materiel et 2

  1. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions favorable for a fish parasite, Heteropolaria lwoffi. Educational activities further the likelihood that future generations will continue to understand and enjoy the presence of native fish stocks in the Wind River basin.

  2. John Day River Subbasin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Russ M.; Delano, Kenneth H.

    2004-04-01

    Work undertaken in 2003 included: (1) Seven new fence projects were completed thereby protecting 7.6 miles of stream (2) Completion of 0.7 miles of dredge tail leveling on Granite Creek. (3) Maintenance of all active project fences (66.14 miles), watergaps (66), spring developments (33) and plantings were checked and repairs performed. (4) Since the initiation of the Fish Habitat Project in 1984 we have 72.94 miles of stream protected using 131.1 miles of fence. With the addition of the Restoration and Enhancement Projects we have 205.96 miles of fence protecting 130.3 miles of stream.

  3. Program Unit Funding: A Handbook for ECS Operators in the 2002/2003 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Special Education Branch.

    This handbook is written specifically for Early Childhood Services (ECS) operators in Alberta, Canada, applying for Program Unit Funding for students with severe disabilities. It is also designed to enhance the understanding of how assistance is provided to ECS children with severe disabilities by teachers, special needs assistants, parents, and…

  4. [Malaria in military personnel: the case of the Ivory Coast in 2002-2003].

    PubMed

    Migliani, R; Josse, R; Hovette, P; Keundjian, A; Pages, F; Meynard, J-B; Ollivier, L; Sbai Idrissi, K; Tifratene, K; Orlandi, E; Rogier, C; Boutin, J-P

    2003-01-01

    French troops were sent to the Ivory Coast on September 22, 2002 within the framework of Operation Unicorn in response to the political unrest. From September 22 to October 20, a total of 37 cases of malaria were reported, i.e., 35.7 cases per 1000 man-months. As of October 11, the central headquarters of the Armed Services Health Corps decided to use doxycycline as the exclusive agent for drug prophylaxis in military personnel on duty in the Ivory Coast and to enhance vector control measures. The incidence of malaria decreased to 2 cases per 1000 man-months at the sixth month. A recrudescence of malaria to 15 cases per 1000 man-months was observed with the rainy season in April. During this period one person presenting severe malaria with coma required emergency evacuation to France. In May 2003, several studies were undertaken to determine the factors that caused this recrudescence. These studies included surveys to evaluate awareness concerning malaria and monitor compliance with drug prophylaxis and tolerance of doxycycline, a case-control study to identify factors related to malarious episodes and an entomological study. Awareness of malaria was high with 75% of the 477 respondents stating that malaria could be transmitted by single mosquito bite. The case-control study showed a correlation between occurrence of malarious bouts and non-compliance with drug prophylaxis (p < 10(-5)). The odds-ratio was 3.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-6.14) for subjects claiming zero to one incident of non-compliance per week and 7.51 (IC95%, 3.24-17.40) for those claiming more than one incident of non-compliance per week. Tolerance of doxycyline was good since 72% of respondents reported no adverse effects. The main vector was Anopheles gambiae. The number of bites per man per night ranged from 25 to 2 and the number of infected bites ranged from 2 to 3 per week. Treatment was initiated promptly using quinine at a total dose of 25 mg/kg in 3 daily doses for 7 days by the intravenous then oral route. This experience shows that malaria remains a major concern for military forces, that standardization of preventive measures in emergency situations is needed, and that enhanced vector control, verification of compliance with drug prophylaxis and prompt treatment based on the presence of a physician in each emergency outpost is crucial. These recommendation must be applied to all French military personnel in the Ivory Coast.

  5. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to develop and propose a comprehensive fishery management plan for Lake Roosevelt. The Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project (LRHIP) was designed with goals directed towards increasing natural production while maintaining genetic integrity among current tributary stocks. The initial phase of the Lake Roosevelt Habitat Improvement Project (Phase I, baseline data collection: 1990-91) was focused on the assessment of limiting factors, including the quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other constraints. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, five streams meeting specific criteria were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation -1992-1995). Four of these projects were on the Colville Indian Reservation South Nanamkin, North Nanamkin, Louie and Iron Creeks and one Blue Creek was on the Spokane Indian Reservation. At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring-1996-2000) began. This phase assessed the changes and determined the success achieved through the improvements. Data analysis showed that passage improvements are successful for increasing habitat availability and use. The results of in-stream habitat improvements were inconclusive. Project streams, to the last monitoring date, have shown increases in fish density following implementation of the improvements. In 2000 Bridge Creek, on the Colville Reservation was selected for the next phase of improvements. Data collection, including baseline stream survey and population data collection, was carried out during 2001 in preparation for the design and implementation of stream habitat/passage improvements. Agencies cooperating on the project include the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, Ferry County District), Ferry County Conservation District, and Ferry County. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided project funding support and program integration assistance. A stock of redband rainbow trout, were discovered in 2001 in an isolated section of Bridge Creek above a set of waterfalls. DNA microsatellite analysis was conducted at the University of Idaho and indicated that very little if any hybridization. The targeted species in the genetic analysis was red band/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss spp.). The sub-contract is with Madison Powell and Joyce Faler at the Center for Salmonid and Freshwater Species at Risk at the University of Idaho/HFCES. DNA analysis used mitochondrial and nuclear RFLP markers along with two microsatellite loci. Sample populations were screened for detectable levels of introgressive hybridization arising from possible admixtures of hatchery coastal rainbow trout with native red band trout.

  6. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Klickitat Only Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin; Evenson, Rolf

    2003-12-01

    The monitoring and evaluation activities described in this report were determined by consensus of the scientists from the Yakama Nation (YN). Klickitat Subbasin Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) activities have been subjected to scientific and technical review by members of YKFP's Science/Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) as part of the YKFP's overall M&E proposal. Yakama Nation YKFP project biologists have transformed the conceptual design into the tasks described. This report summarizes progress and results for the following major categories of YN-managed tasks under this contract: (1) Monitoring and Evaluation - Accurately characterize baseline available habitat and salmonid populations pre-habitat restoration and pre-supplementation. (2) EDT Modeling - Identify and evaluate habitat and artificial production enhancement options. (3) Genetics - Characterize the genetic profile of wild steelhead in the Klickitat Basin. (4) Ecological Interactions - Determine the presence of pathogens in wild and naturally produced salmonids in the Klickitat Basin and develop supplementation strategies using this information.

  7. MODIS Validation, Data Merger and Other Activities Accomplished by the SIMBIOS Project: 2002-2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, satellite data processing, and data product validation. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report focuses on the SIMBIOS Project s efforts in support of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra platform (similar evaluations of MODIS/Aqua are underway). This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project.

  8. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North Fork Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Donald C.; Ruhl, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    This dataset was collected with a PLGR government-issue GPS, and through manual measurement in the field. Points were gathered while canoeing along the North Fork Shenandoah River. Each location marked a change in meso-scale habitat type. GPS points were supplemented with GIS-derived points in areas where manual measurements were made. The points were used to generate a line coverage. This coverage represents physical habitat at a meso-scale (width of stream).

  9. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  10. Lake Roosevelt Volunteer Net Pens, Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Net Pens, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gene

    2003-11-01

    The completion of Grand Coulee Dam for power production, flood control, and irrigation resulted in the creation of a blocked area above the dam and in the loss of anadromous fish. Because of lake level fluctuations required to meet the demands for water release or storage, native or indigenous fish were often threatened. For many years very little effort was given to stocking the waters above the dam. However, studies by fish biologists showed that there was a good food base capable of supporting rainbow and kokanee (Gangmark and Fulton 1949, Jagielo 1984, Scholz etal 1986, Peone etal 1990). Further studies indicated that artificial production might be a way of restoring or enhancing the fishery. In the 1980's volunteers experimented with net pens. The method involved putting fingerlings in net pens in the fall and rearing them into early summer before release. The result was an excellent harvest of healthy fish. The use of net pens to hold the fingerlings for approximately nine months appears to reduce predation and the possibility of entrainment during draw down and to relieve the hatcheries to open up available raceways for future production. The volunteer net pen program grew for a few years but raising funds to maintain the pens and purchase food became more and more difficult. In 1995 the volunteer net pen project (LRDA) was awarded a grant through the Northwest Power Planning Council's artificial production provisions.

  11. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. During the years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas of headwater streams to Lolo Creek. Inventory of culverts is an on-going practice, being completed by sub-drainage, and are being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage and 100-year flow events throughout the watershed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  12. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-12-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations, supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. A primary goal of the Council's program is to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. The MWC will always have a baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. This watershed program is strengthened by the completion of the BPA funded Sub-basin Assessment, Conservation Strategy and the establishment of a Benchmarks system, thus, providing the MWC a prioritized framework for restoration efforts. Objectives for FY03 included: (1) Continued coordination of McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups that restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though a strategic and comprehensive outreach and education program, utilizing Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and council operations.

  13. The health sector gap in the southern Africa crisis in 2002/2003.

    PubMed

    Griekspoor, Andre; Spiegel, Paul; Aldis, William; Harvey, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The southern Africa crisis represents the first widespread emergency in a region with a mature HIV/AIDS epidemic. It provides a steep learning curve for the international humanitarian system in understanding and responding to the complex interactions between the epidemic and the causes and the effects of this crisis. It also provoked much debate about the severity and causes of this emergency, and the appropriateness of the response by the humanitarian community. The authors argue that the over-emphasis on food aid delivery occurred at the expense of other public health interventions, particularly preventative and curative health services. Health service needs were not sufficiently addressed despite the early recognition that ill-health related to HIV/AIDS was a major vulnerability factor. This neglect occurred because analytical frameworks were too narrowly focused on food security, and large-scale support to health service delivery was seen as a long-term developmental issue that could not easily be dealt with by short-term humanitarian action. Furthermore, there were insufficient countrywide data on acute malnutrition, mortality rates and performance of the public health system to make better-balanced evidence-based decisions. In this crisis, humanitarian organisations providing health services could not assume their traditional roles of short-term assistance in a limited geographical area until the governing authorities resume their responsibilities. However, relegating health service delivery as a long-term developmental issue is not acceptable. Improved multisectoral analytical frameworks that include a multidisciplinary team are needed to ensure all aspects of public health are dealt with in similar future emergencies. Humanitarian organisations must advocate for improved delivery and access to health services in this region. They can target limited geographical areas with high mortality and acute malnutrition rates to deliver their services. Finally, to address the underlying problem of the health sector gap, a long-term strategy to ensure improved and sustainable health sector performance can only be accomplished with truly adequate resources. This will require renewed efforts on part of governments, donors and the international community. Public health interventions, complementing those addressing food insecurity, were and are still needed to reduce the impact of the crisis, and to allow people to re-establish their livelihoods. These will increase the population's resilience to prevent or mitigate future disasters. PMID:15569380

  14. Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, Progress Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hank

    2003-03-01

    Safe Access work has concentrated on the lower portions of five drainages in the Upper Yakima Basin. Streams in the Kittitas Valley include Wilson Creek, Naneum and Little Naneum Creeks, Reecer and Currier Creeks, and Manastash Creek. Tucker Creek is tributary to the Yakima River near Easton, Washington to the northwest. For numerous reasons delays in project implementation have occurred. Unclear water rights have resulted in long delays; however, permitting delays, general landowner reluctance to commit to any deviation from past practices, and lengthy legal review have all been factors. Realistic work windows are short and do not coincide well with fiscal year planning and contract renewals. The following is a summary of the projects anticipated under Safe Access that the Yakama Nation thought would be funded by BPA via carry-forward/over monies. Preparatory work toward construction in 03 was done for projects in the Wilson, Naneum and Tucker Creek systems; feasibility studies were done in the Manastash and Reecer systems by Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH) relative to screening and passage options and associated costs.

  15. Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hank

    2003-03-01

    ''Safe Access'' work has concentrated on the lower portions of five drainages in the Upper Yakima Basin. Streams in the Kittitas Valley include Wilson Creek, Naneum and Little Naneum Creeks, Reecer and Currier Creeks, and Manastash Creek. Tucker Creek is tributary to the Yakima River near Easton, Washington to the northwest. For numerous reasons delays in project implementation have occurred. Unclear water rights have resulted in long delays; however, permitting delays, general landowner reluctance to commit to any deviation from past practices, and lengthy legal review have all been factors. Realistic work windows are short and do not coincide well with fiscal year planning and contract renewals. The following is a summary of the projects anticipated under ''Safe Access'' that the Yakama Nation thought would be funded by BPA via carry-forward/over monies. Preparatory work toward construction in '03 was done for projects in the Wilson, Naneum and Tucker Creek systems; feasibility studies were done in the Manastash and Reecer systems by Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH) relative to screening and passage options and associated costs.

  16. Keck Observations of the 2002-2003 Jovian Ring Plane Crossing

    SciTech Connect

    de Pater, I; Showalter, M R; Macintosh, B A

    2007-11-29

    We present new observations of Jupiter's ring system at a wavelength of 2.2 {micro}m obtained with the 10-m W. M. Keck telescopes on three nights during a ring plane crossing: UT 19 December 2002, and 22 and 26 January 2003. We used conventional imaging, plus adaptive optics on the last night. Here we present detailed radial profiles of the main ring, halo and gossamer rings, and interpret the data together with information extracted from radio observations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. The main ring is confined to a 800-km-wide annulus between 128,200 and 129,000 km, with a {approx} 5000 km extension on the inside. The normal optical depth is 8 x 10{sup -6}, 15% of which is provided by bodies with radii a {approx}> 5 cm. These bodies are as red as Metis. Half the optical depth, {tau} {approx} 4 x 10{sup -6}, is attributed to micron-sized dust, and the remaining {tau} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} to grains tens to hundreds of {micro}m in size. The inward extension consists of micron-sized (a {approx}< 10 {micro}m) dust, which probably migrates inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The inner limit of this extension falls near the 3:2 Lorentz resonance (at orbital radius r = 122,400 km), and coincides with the outer limit of the halo. The gossamer rings appear to be radially confined, rather than broad sheets of material. The Amalthea ring is triangularly shaped, with a steep outer dropoff over {approx} 5000 km, extending a few 1000 km beyond the orbit of Amalthea, and a more gradual inner dropoff over 15,000-20,000 km. The inner edge is near the location of the synchronous orbit. The optical depth in the Amalthea ring is {approx} 5 x 10{sup -7}, up to 20% of which is comprised of macroscopic material. The optical depth in the Thebe ring is a factor of 3 smaller.

  17. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In fulfillment of the NWPPC's 3-Step Process for the implementation of new hatcheries in the Columbia Basin, this Step 1 submission package to the Council includes four items: (1) Cover letter from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Interdisciplinary Team Chair, and the USFWS; (2) References to key information (Attachments 1-4); (3) The updated Master Plan for the Tribe's native cutthroat restoration project; and (4) Appendices. In support of the Master Plan submitted by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe the reference chart (Item 2) was developed to allow reviewers to quickly access information necessary for accurate peer review. The Northwest Power Planning Council identified pertinent issues to be addressed in the master planning process for new artificial production facilities. References to this key information are provided in three attachments: (1) NWPPC Program language regarding the Master Planning Process, (2) Questions Identified in the September 1997 Council Policy, and (3) Program language identified by the Council's Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). To meet the need for off-site mitigation for fish losses on the mainstem Columbia River, in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a trout production facility located adjacent to Coeur d'Alene Lake on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The updated Master Plan (Item 3) represents the needs associated with the re-evaluation of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Trout Production Facility (No.199004402). This plan addresses issues and concerns expressed by the NWPPC as part of the issue summary for the Mountain Columbia provincial review, and the 3-step hatchery review process. Finally, item 4 (Appendices) documents the 3-Step process correspondence to date between the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and additional relevant entities. Item 4 provides a chronological account of previous ISRP reviews, official Coeur d'Alene fisheries program responses to a series of ISRP reviews, master planning documentation, and annual reports dating back to 1990. Collectively, the materials provided by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe in this Step-1 submission package comprehensively assesses key research, habitat improvement activities, and hatchery production issues to best protect and enhance native cutthroat trout populations and the historically and culturally important tribal fisheries they support.

  18. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment; Years 11 and 12, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report examines the results from the eleventh and twelfth years (2002 and 2003) of the Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. Experimental fertilization has occurred with an adaptive management approach since 1992 in order to restore productivity lost as a result of upstream dams. One of the main objectives of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are a main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kootenay Lake is located between the Selkirk and Purcell mountains in southeastern British Columbia. It has an area of 395 km2, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to Kootenay Lake in 2002 and 2003 was similar to that added from 1992 to 1996. After four years of decreased fertilizer loading (1997 to 2000), results indicated that kokanee populations had declined, and the decision was made to increase the loads again in 2001. The total load of fertilizer in 2002 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 206.7 tonnes of nitrogen. The total fertilizer load in 2003 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 240.8 tonnes of nitrogen. Additional nitrogen was added in 2003 to compensate for nitrogen depletion in the epilimnion. The fertilizer was applied to a 10 km stretch in the North Arm from 3 km south of Lardeau to 3 km south of Schroeder Creek. The maximum surface water temperature in 2002, measured on July 22, was 22 C in the North Arm and 21.3 C in the South Arm. In 2003, the maxima were recorded on August 5 at 20.6 C in the North Arm and on September 2 at 19.7 C in the South Arm. The maximum water temperature in the West Arm was 18.7 C on September 2, 2003. Kootenay Lake had oxygen-saturated water throughout the sampling season with values ranging from about 11-16 mg/L in 2002 and 2003. In both years, Secchi depth followed the expected pattern for an oligo-mesotrophic lake of decreasing in May, June, and early July, concurrent with the spring phytoplankton bloom, and clearing again as the summer progressed. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-11 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 2-21 {micro}g/L in 2003. With average TP values generally in the range of 3-10 {micro}g/L, Kootenay Lake is considered to be an oligotrophic to oligo-mesotrophic lake. Total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) followed the same seasonal trends as TP in 2002 and 2003 and ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 2-10 {micro}g/L in 2003. Total nitrogen (TN) ranged from 90-380 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 100-210 {micro}g/L in 2003. During both the 2002 and 2003 sampling seasons, TN showed an overall decline in concentration with mid-summer and fall increases at some stations, which is consistent with previous years results. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations showed a more pronounced declining trend over the sampling season compared with TN, corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being used by phytoplankton during summer stratification. DIN ranged from 7-176 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 8-147 {micro}g/L in 2003. During 2003, discrete depth sampling occurred, and a more detailed look at the nitrate concentrations in the epilimnion was undertaken. There was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, which supports the principle of increasing the nitrogen loading and the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio during the fertilizer application period. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in Kootenay Lake were in the range of 1.4-5.1 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 0.5-4.9 {micro}g/L in 2003. Over the sampling season, Chl a at North Arm stations generally increased in spring corresponding with the phytoplankton bloom, decreased during the summer, and increased again in the fall with mixing of the water column. The trend was similar, but less pronounced, at South Arm stations in these years, and spring Chl a concentrations were lower. During 2002, total algal biomass averaged during June, July and August was lower in the North Arm than the South Arm. This was the first time this occurred since the commencement of the North Arm fertilization experiment. Results in 2002 indicated Kootenay lake continues to be a diatom dominated lake (80 to 89% of the total average biomass). The overall trend observed throughout the 2003 sampling season was one of a slight decline in algal biomass from the North Arm stations towards those in the South Arm. Kootenay Lake continued to be a diatom-dominated lake (76-83% of total average biomass). Synedra spp. and some Asterionella, as in the previous three years, dominated the early biomass increase in 2003, but the peak biomass in July was largely due to Tabellaria.

  19. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have decreased in 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. These results indicate that the surface waters in Arrow Lakes Reservoir were approaching nitrogen limitation. Results from the 2003 discrete profile series indicate nitrate concentrations decreased significantly below 25 {micro}g/L (which is the concentration where nitrate is considered limiting to phytoplankton) between June and July at stations in Upper Arrow and Lower Arrow. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (weight:weight) were also low during these months indicating that the surface waters were nitrogen deficient. These results indicated that the nitrogen to phosphorus blends of fertilizer added to the reservoir need to be fine tuned and closely monitored on a weekly basis in future years of nutrient addition. Phytoplankton results shifted during 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. During 2002, there was a co-dominance of potentially 'inedible' diatoms (Fragilaria spp. and Diatoma) and 'greens' (Ulothrix). Large diatom populations occurred in 2003 and these results indicate it may be necessary to alter the frequency and amounts of weekly loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in future years to prevent the growth of inedible diatoms. Zooplankton density in 2002 and 2003, as in previous years, indicated higher densities in Lower Arrow than in Upper Arrow. Copepods and other Cladocera (mainly tiny specimens such as Bosmina sp.) had distinct peaks, higher than in previous years, while Daphnia was not present in higher numbers particularly in Upper Arrow. This density shift in favor to smaller cladocerans was mirrored in a weak biomass increase. In Upper Arrow, total zooplankton biomass decreased from 1999 to 2002, and in 2003 increased slightly, while in Lower Arrow the biomass decreased from 2000-2002. In Lower Arrow the majority of biomass was comprised of Daphnia throughout the study period except in 2002, while in Upper Arrow the total biomass was comprised of copepods from 2000-2003.

  20. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume II of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Previous ISRP Reviews (Project 199004400) Implement Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities-Coeur d'Alene Reservation; (2) Step 1 review of the hatchery master plan (Memorandum from Mark Fritsch, Fish Production Coordinator, Draft version March 10, 2000); (3) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response to ISRP comments on Project No. 199004402; includes attachment A Water Quantity Report. This is an incomplete document Analysis of Well Yield Potential for a Portion of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation near Worley, Idaho, February 2001; (4) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program, Rainbow Trout Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation prepared by Ronald L. Peters, February 2001; (5) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response letter pursuant to the questions raised in the Step 1 review of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility from Ronald L. Peters, March 27, 2001 ; includes attachments Water quantity report (this is the complete report), Appendix A Logs for Test Wells and 1999 Worley West Park Well, letters from Ralston, Appendix B Cost of Rainbow Purchase Alternative; (6) NPPC response (memorandum from Mark Fritsch, March 28, 2001); (7) Response to NPPC (letter to Frank Cassidy, Jr., Chair, from Ernest L. Stensgar, April 18, 2001); (8) Final ISRP review (ISRP 2001-4: Mountain Columbia Final Report); (9) Response to ISRP comment (letter to Mark Walker, Director of Public Affairs, from Ronald Peters, May 7, 2001); (10) Final comments to the Fish 4 committee; (11) Scope of Work/Budget FY 2001-2004; (12) Letter from City of Worley concerning water service; (13) Letter to BPA regarding status of Step 1 package; (14) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1990 annual report; (15) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1991 annual report; and (16) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1992 annual report.

  1. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation Project.

  2. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  3. Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Johnson, June; Bunn, Paul

    2006-06-01

    This report covers the following 3 parts of the project: Part 1--Improve wild steelhead trout smolt-to-adult survival rate information by PIT tagging additional wild steelhead trout juveniles. Part 2--Estimating the stock-recruitment relationship for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon and forecasting wild/natural smolt production. Part 3--Monitoring age composition of wild adult spring and summer chinook salmon returning to the Snake River basin.

  4. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Companies. Fifth Annual Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Wilson, Glen; Allen, Daniel

    This document, prepared by an Arizona State University education research unit, provides profiles of 47 educational-management organizations (EMOs) for 2002-03. The report begins with a description of the structure of the educational management industry and a discussion of the pros and cons of EMOs. This edition (fifth annual report) divides EMOs…

  5. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a total of 364 adult fall chinook and 472 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 290 fall chinook and 403 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 214. The peak redd count for chum was 776. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 15 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 6 December. There were estimated to be a total of 1,881 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2002. The study area's 2002 chum population was estimated to be 4,232 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2002 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on February 3 2003 and ended 7 May 2003, with peak emergence occurring 20 April. 2002 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 27 January and continued through 6 April 2003. Peak chum emergence took place 1 March. A total of 10,925 juvenile chinook and 1,577 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 24 January and 21 July 2003 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2003 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2002 and 2003 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration suggests chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville dam are similar to stocks of chum found in Hamilton and Hardy creek and are part of the Lower Columbia River Chum ESU.

  6. Atmospheric Stability & Turbulence from Temperature Profiles over Sicily During Summer 2002 & 2003 HASI Balloon Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Angrilli, F.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results and interpretation of the temperature measurements data retrieved during the balloon campaigns (in 2002 and in 2003) for testing HASI (Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument), launched from the Italian Space Agency Base in Trapani (Sicily), are presented. Both ascending and descending phases are analysed; data reveal interesting features near the tropopause (present in the region between 11km-14km), where temperature cooling can be related to layers with strong winds (2002 flight); in the troposphere a multistratified structure of the temperature field is observed and discussed (particularly in the 2003 flight) Finally, stability and turbulence of the atmosphere are analysed; the buoyancy N2 parameters for both the flights show lowers value respect to standard tropospheric values corresponding to a lower stability of the atmosphere; still there is a higher stability above the tropopause. The energy spectrum of temperature data is consistent with the Kolmogorov theory: the characteristic k(sup -5/3) behaviour is reproduced.

  7. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  8. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz. PMID:25420654

  9. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  10. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  11. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management efforts to increase rainbow trout recruitment. North and South Callahan creeks support the largest spawning population of bull trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Idaho, so management of the watershed should consider bull trout as high priority.

  12. The Stromboli Volcano: An Integrated Study of the 2002-2003 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvari, Sonia; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Ripepe, Maurizio; Rosi, Mauro

    This book presents a study of the "eruptive crisis" that took place at the Stromboli volcano from December 2002 to July 2003. It features an integrative approach to the monitoring of eruptive activity, including lava flow output, explosive activity, flank instability, submarine and subaerial landslides, tsunami, paroxysmal explosive events, and mitigation strategies. The book comes with a DVD with spectacular photos and video of • The landslide and the tsunami that hit the coast of the island; • The 5 April 2003 paroxysmal event; • The whole eruption showing the stages of effusive activity and growth of the lava flow field; • Selected data useful for testing geochemical, petrological, seismological, thermal, and ground deformation models. This multidisciplinary and multimedia experience, unique for the amount, quality, and variety of data it covers, can be applied to other active volcanoes. Stromboli will appeal to solid Earth scientists and students working in seismology, geodynamics, geochemistry, and mineral physics, as well as nonspecialists with an interest in the inner workings of our planet and others.

  13. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  14. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate

    2004-02-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of June 2002-September 2003. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2002 and 2003 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. In 2002, 27 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored until they nested. Four more females carrying old transmitters were also monitored; only one of these transmitters lasted through the nesting season. In 2003, 30 females were monitored. Twenty-three of the females monitored in 2002 nested and produced 84 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in fall 2002 and reared in captivity at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in the head-start program. Twenty-seven of the turtles monitored in 2003 nested. Six of the turtles nested twice, producing a total of 33 nests. The nests will be checked in September and October 2003 for hatchlings. Of 121 head-started juvenile western pond turtles collected in the Columbia Gorge during the 2001 nesting season, 119 were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2002, and 2 held over for additional growth. Of 86 turtles reared in the head-start program at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos fall 2002 through summer 2003, 67 were released at sites in the Columbia Gorge in summer of 2003, and 15 held over for more growth. Fifty-nine juveniles were released at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge in July 2002, and 51 released there in July 2003. Sixteen of those released in 2002 and 16 released in 2003 were instrumented with radio transmitters and monitored for varying amounts of time for survival and habitat use between the time of release and August 2003, together with juveniles from the 2001 release which were monitored from June 2001 through August 2003, and juveniles from the 2000 release which were monitored from August 2000 through August 2003. The number of functioning transmitters varied due to transmitter failures and detachments, and availability of replacement transmitters, as well as opportunities to recapture turtles. By August 15, 2003, a total of 39 turtles were being monitored: 6 from the 2000 release, 8 from the 2001 release, 10 from the 2002 release, and 15 from the 2003 release. During the 2002 field season trapping effort, 280 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 236 previously head-started turtles. During the 2003 trapping season, 349 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge; 304 of these had been head-started. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual re-sightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 160 individual painted turtles captured in 2002 and 189 painted turtles captured in 2003 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population. Eight female painted turtles were monitored by telemetry during the 2002 nesting season; 4 nests were recorded for these animals, plus 35 nests located incidentally. Preferred habitat for nesting was identified based on the telemetry results, to be considered in anticipating future turtle habitat needs and in management planning at Pierce NWR. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding supported activities in the Columbia River Gorge from June 2002 through September 2003.

  15. The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning and Teaching, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coreil, Clyde, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of papers includes: "Martians Invade the Classroom: A Workshop in Language Learning" (Carmine Tabone and Robert Albrecht); "Autonomous Learning through Cinema: One Learner's Memories" (Connie Haham); "Learning a Second Language Through Culture" (Barbara Le Blanc and Joseph Dicks); "Shakespeare for ESL? 'Hamlet' through Imaginative…

  16. Federal Student Aid Handbook, 2002-2003. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This volume of the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Handbook discusses the eligibility requirements for students and parent borrowers and the responsibilities of institutions in checking to be sure that recipients qualify for their aid awards. The guide also describes recent changes to FSA requirements and procedures. The biggest change for this year is…

  17. Epidemiology, transmission dynamics and control of SARS: the 2002-2003 epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Roy M; Fraser, Christophe; Ghani, Azra C; Donnelly, Christl A; Riley, Steven; Ferguson, Neil M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, T H; Hedley, Anthony J

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews current understanding of the epidemiology, transmission dynamics and control of the aetiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We present analyses of data on key parameters and distributions and discuss the processes of data capture, analysis and public health policy formulation during the SARS epidemic are discussed. The low transmissibility of the virus, combined with the onset of peak infectiousness following the onset of clinical symptoms of disease, transpired to make simple public health measures, such as isolating patients and quarantining their contacts, very effective in the control of the SARS epidemic. We conclude that we were lucky this time round, but may not be so with the next epidemic outbreak of a novel aetiological agent. We present analyses that help to further understanding of what intervention measures are likely to work best with infectious agents of defined biological and epidemiological properties. These lessons learnt from the SARS experience are presented in an epidemiological and public health context. PMID:15306395

  18. Direct Loan Basic Training, 2002-2003. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This participant guide instructs college financial aid personnel in the use of the EDExpress system as it relates to direct student loans. The first chapter contains a welcome and introduction to the training sessions, and the second session contains an overview of the six-step data process, a discussion of key players in direct loans (DL), a…

  19. Insights on Student Aid Technology from NASFAA's 2002-2003 Technology Initiatives Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Craig; Evans, Mark A.; Hallenbeck, Theodore R.; Clemente, Stephen J.; Redwine, Elaine; Croft, Devin; Lowdermilk, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    This special section contains four articles on using technology to improve student financial aid services: (1) "The Technology Pyramid" (advice on the transition from paper to paperless systems); (2) "Strengthening Our Security"; (3) "COD: Moving toward a Universal Delivery System" (about the government's new Common Origin and Disbursement…

  20. Accountability Procedures Manual for On-Site Evaluations, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This Accountability Procedures Manual (APM) is designed to be used by Texas Education Agency staff and other education system personnel as a guide for on-site evaluations. It is the responsibility of each member of an on-site peer review team to become familiar with the contents of the APM. Quality peer review evaluations demand consistency,…

  1. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence. School Year. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Code of Virginia requires school divisions statewide to submit data annually to the Department of Education (DOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence. These incidents shall include: (1) those that occurred on school property, on a school bus, or at a school-sponsored activity; and (2) offenses, wherever committed, by students…

  2. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  3. Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, D.; Ready, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program (YTAHP) was organized to restore salmonid passage to Yakima tributaries that historically supported salmonids and to improve habitat in areas where access is restored. This program intends to (a) screen unscreened diversion structures to prevent fish entrainment into artificial waterways; (b) provide for fish passage at man-made barriers, such as diversion dams, culverts, siphons and bridges; and (c) provide information and assistance to landowners interested in to contributing to the improvement of water quality, water reliability and stream habitat. The YTAHP developed from a number of groups actively engaged in watershed management, and/or habitat restoration within the Yakima River Basin. These groups include the Washington State Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Kittitas County Conservation District (KCCD), North Yakima Conservation District (NYCD), Kittitas County Water Purveyors (KCWP), and Ahtanum Irrigation District (AID). The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Yakama Nation (YN) both participated in the development of the objectives of YTAHP. Other entities that will be involved during permitting or project review may include the YN, the federal Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The objectives of YTAHP are listed below and also include subtasks detailed in the report: (1) Conduct Early Action Projects; (2) Review Strategic Plan; (3) Restore Access, including stream inventory, prioritization, implementation; and (4) Provide opportunities to improve habitat and conserve resources. The BPA YTAHP funding supported activities of the program which are described in this report. These activities are primarily related to objective 1 (conduct early action projects) and parts of objectives 2-4. The work supported by YTAHP funding will support a series of scheduled projects and be made larger by complementary funding through NRSC EQIP, Irrigation Efficiencies, WA State Salmon Recovery Funding Board and other local, state and federal programs. Projects completed FY-03: The Cooke Creek siphon and screen/bypass was completed on time and within budget. The Rosbach Farms project was completed in cooperation with the NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program and the KCCD's Irrigation Efficiencies Program. Tributary survey teams were trained and surveys of tributaries in Yakima and Kittitas counties commenced in December of 2002. By the end of September 2003 Cowiche Creek in Yakima County was completed as well as Coleman, Reecer, Currier, Dry, Cabin, Indian, and Jack Creeks in Kittitas County. A screen was installed on the Hernandez/Ringer diversion in cooperation with the NRCS office in Kittitas County. YTAHP submitted six applications to the Salmon Recovery Funding Board and three were selected and funded. Another Salmon Recovery Funding Board project awarded in 2000 to the Yakama Nation was transferred to the KCCD. Two miles of fencing of riparian zones on the north fork Ahtanum was completed by the North Yakima Conservation District in cooperation with the Department of Natural Resources and the Ahtanum Irrigation District and funded by US fish and Wildlife as part of YTAHP's outreach partnering. Completion of this year's effort has provided significant inroads to working on the private lands in two counties which will be vital to future efforts by YTAHP and others to protect and enhance Yakima River Basin habitat. 2003 saw the migration of the WEB site from MWH to the Kittitas County Conservation District and can be accessed at www.kccd.net.

  4. Epidemiology of Extraarticular Tibia Fractures, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital-Bandar Abbass-Iran 2002, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saied, A. R.; Karimi Mobarake, M.

    Tibia fractures are among the most common long bone fractures and recognition of their epidemiology helps their better management and prevention. In this cross sectional prospective study, 250 patients with extraarticular tibia fracture, of all age groups, referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbass were studied. Information about age and sex and the fracture side, localization, open or closed fracture, comminution, associated injuries and the mechanism of the injury were registered. Tibia fractures constituted about 65% of all diaphyseal long bone fractures (the most common) and 70% of all open diaphyseal fractures (the most common). Most of the fractures occurred in young men (90%) and in the middle third of the bone (55%). In more than 75% of the cases injury was limited to the leg, more than 55% the fractures were closed and in more than 65% there was little comminution. About half of fractures occurred on either side and no statistically significant difference was found between the left and right limb with regard to open fracture occurrence and the severity of comminution (p = 0.291 and 0.713, respectively). The most common involved factor in occurrence of the fracture was motorcycle (65%), in contrast to findings of others where it constituted about 30% of the causes. Noting the results and that 58% of tibia fractures are caused by motorcycle accident with the reason being direct trauma to the shin of the driver in the majority of them, it is suggested that the use of a guard or shield get mandatory for protection of the shin of the motorcyclists.

  5. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Catholic School Version, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta…

  6. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Catholic School Version, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta…

  7. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Catholic School Version, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta…

  8. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Catholic School Version, Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta…

  9. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Catholic School Version, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta…

  10. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Catholic School Version, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta…

  11. High Resolution Doppler Imager FY 2001,2002,2003 Operations and Algorithm Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    During the performance period of this grant HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager) operations remained nominal. The instrument has suffered no loss of scientific capability and operates whenever sufficient power is available. Generally, there are approximately 5-7 days per month when the power level is too low to permit observations. The daily latitude coverage for HRDI measurements in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere (MLT) region are shown.It shows that during the time of this grant, HRDI operations collected data at a rate comparable to that achieved during the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) prime mission (1991 -1995). Data collection emphasized MLT wind to support the validation efforts of the TIDI instrument on TIMED, therefore fulfilling one of the primary objectives of this phase of the UARS mission. Skinner et al., (2003) present a summary of the instrument performance during this period.

  12. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Holmes, Chris; Muongchanh, Christine; Anderson, James J.

    2003-11-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 00004124) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Realtime (DART) integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application. DART also provides analysis tools and performance measures helpful in evaluating the condition of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  13. Undergraduate Transfers: Maryland Public Institutions of Higher Education, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report is composed of a set of tables showing, by campus, the undergraduate students who were enrolled in Maryland public colleges in 2002 and the Maryland public college to which they transferred in 2003. This analysis is possible because the Commission collects enrollment data on all students using an encrypted social security number as a…

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance

    2003-08-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2002 included: (1) Implementing 1 new fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that will protect an additional 0.95 miles of stream and 22.9 acres of habitat; (2) Conducting instream work activities in 3 streams to enhance habitat and/or restore natural channel dimensions, patterns or profiles; (3) Planting 31,733 plants along 3.7 stream miles, (4) Establishing 71 new photopoints and retaking 254 existing photopoint pictures; (5) Monitoring stream temperatures at 12 locations on 6 streams; (6) Completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 100.5 miles of project fences. Since initiation of the project in 1984 over 68.7 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams and 1,933 acres of habitat have been protected, enhanced and maintained.

  15. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. Its goal is also to re-establish normal patters of production, dispersal, and exchange of genetic information within the 1855 Treaty Area. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination includes: within department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, and treaty area coordination.

  16. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project : Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring and Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  17. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume III of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1993-94 annual report; (2) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Supplementation Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1998 technical report; and (3) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1998 annual report.

  18. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Notice Requesting Comments, 70 FR 46193 (Aug. 9, 2005), Docket 2005-2 CRB SD 2001-2003; Notice Requesting Comments, 73 FR 5597 (Jan. 30, 2008), Docket 2008-5 CRB SD 1999-2000; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 4423 (Jan. 27, 2010) Docket 2010-2 CRB SD 2004-2007; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 66799 (Oct....

  19. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2003-06-23

    This project was designed to provide project coordination and technical assistance to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality enhancement and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Enhancement Reserve Program (CREP) and other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Three of those four streams and one other major Sherman County stream are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Temperature in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has resulted in providing technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including over 50 WASCBs, several thousand feet of terraces, two implemented CREP contracts, and the development of 3 additional CREP projects slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY '04. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in reducing the backlog of conservation projects within Sherman County, while adhering to the objectives set forth for this grant.

  20. Water and sediment quality of the Yukon River and its tributaries, from Eagle to St. Marys, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dornblaser, Mark M.; Halm, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    The Yukon River basin is a vast and diverse ecosystem covering more than 330,000 square miles, an area larger than Texas. Approximately 126,000 people live within the basin and depend on the Yukon River and its tributaries for drinking water, commerce, and recreational and subsistence fish and game resources. Much of the Yukon River basin is underlain by permafrost containing vast amounts of organic carbon and nutrients. Recent climatic warming of the basin has resulted in lengthening of the growing season, melting of permafrost, deepening of the soil active layer, drying of upland soils, and shrinking of wetlands. These mostly terrestrial effects also affect the hydrology of the basin, changing the timing, magnitude, and fate of water and dissolved and particulate materials delivery to the Yukon River and its tributaries. As permafrost melts, stored carbon and nutrients are expected to become available for decomposition by soil organisms or for export downstream and to the Bering Sea. Such changes can have numerous, far-reaching effects on the ecosystem, including increased emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane; changes in stream productivity, including salmon populations; changes in the productivity and chemistry of the Bering Sea; and increased fire frequency. One important question is whether organic carbon export to rivers will increase or decrease downstream from large wetland areas presently having substantial carbon storage, such as Yukon Flats. Because very few historical water-quality data are available for the Yukon River basin, scientists are unable to quantitatively assess potential effects of climate warming on aquatic ecosystems in the basin. In order to address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a comprehensive baseline water-quality characterization of the Yukon River and its major tributaries during 2000-05. The study included frequent water-quality sampling at a fixed-site network. In addition to the fixed-site sampling, intensive synoptic sampling of tributaries draining directly into the Yukon River was conducted along its entire length. This report contains observations of water and sediment quality made in the Yukon River basin during the synoptic sampling cruises in years 2002 and 2003. Chemical and biological data are presented for the Yukon River and its major tributaries between the towns of Eagle and St. Marys, Alaska.

  1. Anomalous snow accumulation over the southeast region of the Greenland ice sheet during 2002-2003 snow season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Steffen, K.; Huff, R.; Neumann, G.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective is to determine seasonal snow accumulation in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet on the daily-weekly basis over the large scale. Our approach utilizes data from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) and from the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite (QSCAT) to measure snow accumulation (SA) in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. GC-Net measurements provide crucial in-situ data to facilitate the interpretation of QSCAT backscatter signature for the development of an algorithm to map SA.

  2. [Status report on the chemotherapy of ovarian cancer at special cancer centers in Hungary (2002-2003)].

    PubMed

    Pulay, Tamás; Baki, Márta; Bodoky, György; Dank, Magdolna; Cseh, József; Csejtei, András; Csömör, Sándor; Erfán, József; Esik, Olga; Faluhelyi, Zsolt; Izsó, József; Hernádi, Zoltán; Kammerer, Kinga; Krommer, Károly; Magyar, Tamás; Mayer, Arpád; Megyery, Eva; Moskovits, Katalin; Pécsi, Lajos; Pikó, Béla; Pintér, Tamás; Ruzsa, Agnes; Szánthó, András; Szántó, István; Szántó, János; Szucs, Miklós; Tálos, Zsuzsanna; Thurzó, László; Kásler, Miklós

    2004-01-01

    Data on the first-line treatment of ovarian cancer in special centers of Hungary 2002 and 2003 are presented, involving 283 and 416 patients, respectively. Patients' age, clinical stage and histological type of the tumor were highly similar to literature data, while grades were different. Surgical effectiveness in case of IIIc staged tumors with >1 cm residual mass was 37%. The ratio of interval laparotomy was about 15%. Overall response rates of the first-line treatment of ovarian cancer was 82%, while the rate of complete remissions was 60%. The authors provide detailed analysis of factors that can improve the chemotherapy of ovarian cancer in Hungary.

  3. Silicoflagellate Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso, Mexico During the 2002-2003 El Niño Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, I. G.; Martínez-López, A.; Silverberg, N.

    2007-05-01

    Changes in the circulation and water mass patterns in the Gulf of California are closely associated with changes in atmospheric circulation. At the interannual scale, such changes are associated with events like El Niño, which in the Gulf are characterized by greater penetration of tropical-equatorial water. Subsamples of sediment trap material, collected between January 2002 and February 2004 were examined with the aim of inferring average oceanographic conditions in Cuenca Alfonso, Bahia de La Paz and those during the relatively mild 2002- 03 El Niño. Analysis of the silicoflagellate data series reveals seasonal and interannual relationships between the silicoflagellate fluxes and the dynamics of the water column. Comparison of silicoflagellate fluxes with those of the diatom group indicate that the former represent 0-52% of their combined flux. Both silicate groups generally co-vary but show differences in intensity. Thirteen taxa made up the silicoflagellate species composition. The simultaneous occurrence of Dictyocha epiodon and Distephanus speculum with Dictyocha calida and Dictyocha californica during August 2002 to May 2003, indicated the presence of both California Current Water and Equatorial Surface Water in the area close to Cuenca Alfonso. This favored the increase, mainly in November-December, in the flux of the dominant species, Octactis pulchra (as high as 7 x 106 skeletons m-2 day-1). Spring, on the other hand, was notable for a drop in the total silicoflagellate flux, probably due to the influence of the El Niño event. The subsequent increase in species typical of warm water and the replacement of the dominant species (O. pulchra) by Dictyocha messanensis var messanensis, suggest that the effects of El Niño extended to the fall of 2003.

  4. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff,

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management.

  5. Selected Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data for 30 Urbanizing Streams in the North Carolina Piedmont Ecoregion, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, E.M.; Moorman, Michelle; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Harned, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides summarized physical, chemical, and biological data collected during a study of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment study. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of streams across a gradient of urban intensity. Thirty sites were selected along an urbanization gradient that represents conditions in the North Carolina Piedmont ecoregion, including the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, Asheboro, and Oxford. Data collected included streamflow variability, stream temperature, instream chemistry, instream aquatic habitat, and collections of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. In addition, ancillary data describing land use, socioeconomic conditions, and urban infrastructure were compiled for each basin using a geographic information system analysis. All data were processed and summarized for analytical use and are presented in downloadable data tables, along with the methods of data collection and processing.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  7. Understanding Environmental Literacy in America and Making It a Reality: Three-Year Report 2002/2003/2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research by the National Environmental Education & Training Foundation (NEETF) and Roper Public Affairs at NOP World tells that the average 12th grader (and by extension, the average adult) still falls far short of what would be considered "environmentally literate" by anyone's definition. Seemingly elementary questions elude most of the public:…

  8. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project; Factors Affecting the Recreational Fishery in Moses Lake Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-11-01

    This annual report is a precursor to the final technical report we will be writing the next contract period. Consequently, this report, covering the period between September 27, 2002, and September 26, 2003, represents a progress report towards the final technical report we anticipate completing by September 26, 2004. Sample analysis and field work have progressed well and we anticipate no further delays. There are 4 objectives: (1) To quantify secondary production Moses Lake; (2) To quantify the influence of predation on target fishes in Moses Lake; (3) To quantify mortality of selected fished in Moses Lake; and (4) To assess effects of habitat changes from shoreline development and carp on the fish community in Moses Lake.

  9. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of LCR chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce extinction risks to the Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction into the Chinook River basin. The Duncan Creek project was developed using the same recovery strategy implemented for LCR chum. Biologists with the WDFW and Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) identified Duncan Creek as an ideal upriver location below Bonneville Dam for chum re-introduction. It has several attributes that make it a viable location for a re-introduction project: historically chum salmon were present, the creek is low gradient, has numerous springs/seeps, has a low potential for future development and is located close to a donor population of Lower Gorge chum. The Duncan Creek project has two goals: (1) re-introduction of chum into Duncan Creek by providing off channel high-quality spawning and incubation areas, and (2) to simultaneously evaluate natural recolonization and a supplementation strategy where adults are collected and spawned artificially at a hatchery. For supplementation, eggs are incubated and the fry reared at the Washougal Hatchery to be released back into Duncan Creek. The tasks associated with re-establishing a naturally self-sustaining population include: (1) removing mud, sand and organics present in four of the creek branches and replace with gravels expected to provide maximum egg-to-fry survival rates to a depth of at least two feet; (2) armoring the sides of these channels to reduce importation of sediment by fish spawning on the margins; (3) planting native vegetation adjacent to the channels to stabilize the banks, trap silt and provide shade; (4) annual sampling of gravel in the spawning channels to detect changes in gravel composition and sedimentation levels. Tasks associated with the second goal of the recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum are detailed in The Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Duncan Creek Chum Salmon Reintroduction Program. Four main questions are used to evaluate the success of this program: (1) what egg-to-fry survival rates are being achieved in the renovated channels, (2) what is the survival of the eggs and fry used in the artificial rearing program in Duncan Creek, (3) what is the survival and spawning ground distribution of adult chum salmon produced from the spawning channels and the artificial rearing program, and (4) what is the straying rate of non-program chum salmon into Duncan Creek. The monitoring portion of the Duncan M&E includes documenting and monitoring the physical attributes of the channels.

  10. Seismic Activity Related to the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Volcano Eruption (Italy): Fault Plane Solutions and Stress Tensor Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, G.; Cammarata, L.; Cocina, O.; Maiolino, V.; Musumeci, C.; Privitera, E.

    2003-04-01

    Late on the night of October 26, 2002, a bi-lateral eruption started on both the eastern and the southeastern flanks of Mt. Etna. The opening of the eruptive fracture system on the NE sector and the reactivation of the 2001 fracture system, on the S sector, were accompanied by a strong seismic swarm recorded between October 26 and 28 and by sharp increase of volcanic tremor amplitude. After this initial phase, on October 29 another seismogenetic zone became active in the SE sector of the volcano. At present (January 2003) the eruption is still in evolution. During the whole period a total of 862 earthquakes (Md≫1) was recorded by the local permanent seismic network run by INGV - Sezione di Catania. The maximum magnitude observed was Md=4.4. We focus our attention on 55 earthquakes with magnitude Md≫ 3.0. The dataset consists of accurate digital pickings of P- and S-phases including first-motion polarities. Firstly earthquakes were located using a 1D velocity model (Hirn et alii, 1991), then events were relocated by using two different 3D velocity models (Aloisi et alii, 2002; Patane et alii, 2002). Results indicate that most of earthquakes are located to the east of the Summit Craters and to northeast of them. Fault plane solutions (FPS) obtained show prevalent strike-slip rupture mechanisms. The suitable FPSs were considered for the application of Gephart and Forsyth`s algorithm in order to evaluate seismic stress field characteristics. Taking into account the preliminary results we propose a kinematic model of the eastern flank eastward movement in response of the intrusion processes in the central part of the volcano. References Aloisi M., Cocina O., Neri G., Orecchio B., Privitera E. (2002). Seismic tomography of the crust underneath the Etna volcano, Sicily. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 4154, pp. 1-17 Hirn A., Nercessian A., Sapin M., Ferrucci F., Wittlinger G. (1991). Seismic heterogeneity of Mt. Etna: structure and activity. Geophys. J. Int., 105, 139-153. Patane D., Chiarabba C., Cocina O., De Gori P., Moretti M., Boschi E. (2002). Tomographic images and 3D earthquake locations of the seismic swarm preceding the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: Evidence for a dyke intrusion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10, 135-138.

  11. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project; Klickitat Watershed Enhancement, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, Will

    2004-01-01

    The overall goal of the Klickitat Watershed Enhancement Project (KWEP) is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of stream reaches and watersheds supporting native anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss; ESA- listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU) and spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha). Habitat restoration activities in the Klickitat subbasin augment goals and objectives of the Yakima Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the NMFS Biological Opinion (All-H paper). Work is conducted to enhance instream and contributing upland habitat to facilitate increased natural production potential for native salmonid stocks. Efforts in the Klickitat Subbasin fall into two main categories: (1) identification and prioritization of sites for protection and restoration activities, (2) implementation of protection and restoration measures. KWEP personnel also assist monitoring efforts of the YKFP Monitoring & Evaluation Project. During the September 2002-August 2003 reporting period, KWEP personnel continued efforts to address feedback from the August 2000 Provincial Review that indicated a need for better information management and development of geographic priorities by: (1) Assisting development of the Strategic Habitat Plan for the Klickitat Lead Entity (Task A3.1) and Klickitat steelhead EDT model (Task A4.1); (2) Improving the functionality of reference point, habitat unit, and large woody debris modules of the habitat database as well as addition of a temperature module (Tasks A1.1-1.2); (3) Continuing development and acquisition of GIS data (Task A1.3); (4) Ongoing data collection efforts to fill information gaps including streamflow, habitat, and temperature (Objectives C1 and C2); and (5) Completion of planning, field work, and hydrologic modeling associated with roads assessment in the White Creek watershed (Task A4.2). Significant milestones associated with restoration projects during the reporting period included: (1) Completion of the Surveyors Fish Creek Passage Enhancement project (Task B2.3); (2) Completion of interagency agreements for the Klickitat Meadows (Task B2.4) and Klickitat Mill (Task B2.10) projects; (3) Completion of topographic surveys for the Klickitat Meadows (Task B2.4), Klickitat River Meadows (Task B2.5), Trout Creek and Bear Creek culvert replacements (Task B2.7), and Snyder Swale II (Task B2.13) projects; (4) Completion of the Snyder Swale II - Phase 1 project (Task B2.13); (5) Completion of design, planning, and permitting for the Klickitat Mill project (Task B2.10) and initiation of construction; (6) Design for the Trout and Bear Creek culverts (B2.7) were brought to the 60% level; and (7) Completion of design work for the for the Klickitat Meadows (Task B2.4) and Klickitat River Meadows (Task B2.5) projects.

  12. Columbia Plateau Basin and Fifteenmile Subbasin Water Rights Acquisitons; Oregon Water Trust Combined Work Plan, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Fritz

    2003-12-01

    This is the Final Report submitted regarding Oregon Water Trust's Combined Work Plan for fiscal year 2003, with the contract period April 2002 to May 2003. Of this 12 month period, six month were spent concluding our work for the 2002 irrigation season and six months were spent preparing for the 2003 irrigation season. After this grant was completed, projects were finished with funding from the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program. Many of the 2003 irrigation season successes began in the fall of 2002, when projects were researched and partnerships were developed. Trout Creek Ranch was one of the large successes. During the 2003 irrigation season, 2.6 cfs was leased which led to a permanent instream transfer, protecting critical spawning habitat for summer steelhead in the Deschutes basin. Another success was the Walla Walla Lease Bank project. This project is an agreement between the OWT, the Walla Walla Irrigation District and 11 individual landowners. Through this single year lease, 7.9 cfs of water was legally protected in the Walla Walla River. The Vidando lease on Middle Fork John Day River was renewed for 2 more years, protecting 11.29 cfs. An innovative single year split-season lease was conducted with Voight on Standard Creek in the John Day basin to protect 4.93 cfs. Many other deals were conducted and the total was an impressive 50.43 cfs instream during 2003 and 9.39 cfs pending approval for the 2004 season. Included is a summary of the activities within the Fifteenmile subbasin and the Columbia Plateau basin by quarter and two tables. The summary of activities is broken down by objectives and quarters. The first summarizes the total cfs by type of lease or transfer. The second table lists all the projects by subbasin and provides project type, lease number, cfs, cost of acquisition, partners in the project and funding source.

  13. Sharp-tailed Grouse Restoration; Colville Tribes Restore Habitat for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) (CSTG) are an important traditional and cultural species to the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI), and other Tribes in the Region. They were once the most abundant upland bird in the Region. Currently, the largest remaining population in Washington State occurs on the CCT Reservation in Okanogan County. Increasing agricultural practices and other land uses has contributed to the decline of sharp-tail habitat and populations putting this species at risk. The decline of this species is not new (Yokum, 1952, Buss and Dziedzic, 1955, Zeigler, 1979, Meints 1991, and Crawford and Snyder 1994). The Tribes (CCT and STOI) are determined to protect, enhance and restore habitat for this species continued existence. When Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Hydro-projects were constructed, inundated habitat used by this species was lost forever adding to overall decline. To compensate and prevent further habitat loss, the CCT proposed a project with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding to address this species and their habitat requirements. The projects main focus is to address habitat utilized by the current CSTG population and determine ways to protect, restore, and enhance habitats for the conservation of this species over time. The project went through the NPPC Review Process and was funded through FY03 by BPA. This report addresses part of the current CCT effort to address the conservation of this species on the Colville Reservation.

  14. Water quality and ground-water/surface-water interactions along the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2005-01-01

    The headwaters of the John River are located near the village ofAnaktuvuk Pass in the central Brooks Range of interior Alaska. With the recent construction of a water-supply system and a wastewater-treatment plant, most homes in Anaktuvuk Pass now have modern water and wastewater systems. The effluent from the treatment plant discharges into a settling pond near a tributary of the John River. The headwaters of the John River are adjacent to Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and the John River is a designated Wild River. Due to the concern about possible water-quality effects from the wastewater effluent, the hydrology of the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass was studied from 2002 through 2003. Three streams form the John River atAnaktuvuk Pass: Contact Creek, Giant Creek, and the John RiverTributary. These streams drain areas of 90.3 km (super 2) , 120 km (super 2) , and 4.6 km (super 2) , respectively. Water-qualitydata collected from these streams from 2002-03 indicate that the waters are a calcium-bicarbonate type and that Giant Creek adds a sulfate component to the John River. The highest concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate were found at the John River Tributary below the wastewater-treatment lagoon. These concentrations have little effect on the water quality of the John River because the flow of the John River Tributary is only about 2 percent of the John River flow. To better understand the ground-water/surface-water interactions of the upper John River, a numerical groundwater-flow model of the headwater area of the John River was constructed. Processes that occur during spring break-up, such as thawing of the active layer and the frost table and the resulting changes of storage capacity of the aquifer, were difficult to measure and simulate. Application and accuracy of the model is limited by the lack of specific hydrogeologic data both spatially and temporally. However, during the mid-winter and open-water periods, the model provided acceptable results and was coupled with a particle-movement model to simulate the movement and possible extent of conservative particles from the wastewater-treatment-plant lagoon.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of trace elements in snow, streams, and streambed sediments, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    Cape Krusenstern National Monument is located in Northwest Alaska. In 1985, an exchange of lands and interests in lands between the Northwest Alaska Native Association and the United States resulted in a 100-year transportation system easement for 19,747 acres in the monument. A road was then constructed along the easement from the Red Dog Mine, a large zinc concentrate producer and located northeast of the monument, through the monument to the coast and a port facility. Each year approximately 1.3 million tonnes of zinc and lead concentrate are transported from the Red Dog Mine via this access road. Concern about the possible deposition of cadmium, lead, zinc and other trace elements in the monument was the basis of a cooperative project with the National Park Service. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc from 28 snow samples from a 28 mile by 16 mile grid were below drinking water standards. In the particulate phase, approximately 25 percent of the samples analyzed for these trace elements were higher than the typical range found in Alaska soils. Boxplots of concentrations of these trace elements, both in the dissolved and particulate phase, indicate higher concentrations north of the access road, most likely due to the prevailing southeast wind. The waters of four streams sampled in Cape Krusenstern National Monument are classified as calcium bicarbonate. Trace-element concentrations from these streams were below drinking water standards. Median concentrations of 39 trace elements from streambed sediments collected from 29 sites are similar to the median concentrations of trace elements from the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment database. Statistical differences were noted between trace-element concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at sites along the access road and sites north and south of the access road; concentrations along the access road being higher than north or south of the road. When normalized to 1 percent organic carbon, the concentrations of these trace elements are not expected to be toxic to aquatic life when compared to criteria established by the Canadian government and other recent research.

  16. Hood River Fish Habitat Project; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the project implementation and monitoring of all habitat activities in the Hood River basin that occurred over the October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003 period (FY 03). Some of the objectives in the corresponding statement of work for this contract were not completed within FY 03. A description of the progress during FY 03 and reasoning for deviation from the original tasks and timeline are provided. OBJECTIVE 1 - Provide coordination of all activities, administrative oversight and assist in project implementation and monitoring activities. Administrative oversight and coordination of the habitat statement of work, budget, subcontracts, personnel, implementation, and monitoring was provided. OBJECTIVE 2 - Continue to coordinate, implement, and revise, as needed, the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan. The Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was completed in 2000 (Coccoli et al., 2000). This document was utilized for many purposes including: drafting the Watershed Action Plan (Coccoli, 2002), ranking projects for funding, and prioritizing projects to target in the future. This document has been reviewed by many, including stakeholders, agencies, and interested parties. The Hood River Watershed Group Coordinator and author of the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan, Holly Coccoli, has updated and revised the plan. Changes will be reflected in the Hood River Subbasin Plan, and after submission of the Subbasin Plan, a formally revised version of the Monitoring Plan will be put out for review. This will more specifically address changes in the Hood River subbasin since 2000, and reflect changes to fish habitat and needs in the Hood River subbasin regarding monitoring. OBJECTIVE 3 - Evaluate and monitor the habitat, accessibility, and presence of winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout upstream of the Middle Fork Irrigation District water sources on Evans Creek. Through this project, BPA funded the Middle Fork Irrigation District (MFID) a total of $194,000 in FY 03 for the Glacier Ditch- Evans Creek project. BPA funds accounted for approximately 30% of the project while the remaining 70% was cost-shared by the MFID, the US Forest Service, and the Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board. The MFID operated irrigation diversions on Evans Creek (Hutson pond RM 4.0 and the Evans Creek diversion RM 5.5), a tributary to the East Fork Hood River. Both diversions had inadequate upstream fish passage, and utilized Evans Creek to transport Eliot Branch water to distribute irrigation water lower in the basin. This project consisted of: piping a portion of the Glacier ditch to create a pressurized irrigation pipeline system, piping the Hutson extension, removing the culvert on Evans Creek near the Glacier ditch, removing the culvert above the Hutson pond, revegetating the disturbed areas, and providing adequate and approved fish passage on Evans Creek. Prior to any work, Brian Connors with MFID completed a NEPA checklist. Some of the key regulatory points of this project included wetland delineations, a cultural resources survey, and consultations with NOAA Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This project will eliminate the overflow of silty water into Evans Creek and West Fork Evans Creek. Upon completion of this project, access to 2.5 miles of winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout habitat will be restored. Elimination of the interbasin transfer of water will discontinue the conveyance of silty Eliot Branch water into clear East Fork tributaries. Additionally, less water taken from Coe Branch, Eliot Branch, and Laurance Lake which will benefit listed steelhead and bull trout. The Glacier Ditch provided irrigation water from the Eliot Branch to upper valley orchards and agriculture for more than 100 years. The Glacier Ditch served approximately 1,438 acres with 18 cfs of water. The Glacier Ditch portion of this project consisted of 12,000 feet of 24-inch HDPE pipe, and was installed in February and March of 2003. Most of this pipeline was installed in or along the Glacier Ditch. The pipe crossed Evans Creek near the concrete diversion. A wooddecked steel bridge will be built during the summer of 2004, to replace the culvert crossing. The bridge will enable Evans Creek to be restored to a natural flow pattern. The pond will be left to equalize with the hydrology of the area. The Hutson Extension phase of this project consisted of 4,330 feet of 48-inch HDPE pipe. This part of the project eliminated the need for the existing diversion and fish ladder at Hutson Pond. This pipe was installed during April 2003 and lies beneath the Evans Creek and West Fork Evans Creek stream channels (Figure 1). One culvert was removed at the Hutson Pond on Evans Creek (RM 3.3).

  17. Income-based disparities in health care utilisation under universal health coverage in Brazil, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Cataife, Guido; Courtemanche, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Since Brazil's adoption of universal health care in 1988, the country's health care system has consisted of a mix of private providers and free public providers. We test whether income-based disparities in medical visits and medications remain in Brazil despite universal coverage using a nationally representative sample of over 48,000 households. Additional income is associated with less public sector utilisation and more private sector utilisation, both using simple correlations and regressions controlling for household characteristics and local area fixed effects. Importantly, the increase in private care use is greater than the drop in public care use. Also, income and unmet medical needs are negatively associated. These results suggest that access limitations remain for low-income households despite the availability of free public care.

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Risk of Overweight among 3-to 5-Year-Old Chicago Children, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…

  19. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

  20. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These six issues of a periodical intended for teachers and tutors of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students offer articles and features including the following: readers' comments and questions; in-class map practice ideas; songs for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning; suggested films to show in class; conversation activities;…

  1. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maroney, Joseph R.; Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F.

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  2. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam hydroacoustic system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the strobe lights in eliciting a negative phototactic response in fish. The transducers were deployed so they tracked fish entering and within the region illuminated by the strobe lights. Two of the seven transducers were mounted to the frame containing the strobe lights and were oriented horizontally. The remaining five transducers were spaced approximately 4 m apart on individual floating frames upstream of the barge, with the transducers looking vertically downward.

  3. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Easterbrooks, John A.

    2003-09-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a supplementation project sponsored by the Northwest Power Planning Council and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. The YKFP has adopted the definition of supplementation described by Regional Assessment of Supplementation Program (1992), which is ''the use of artificial propagation in an attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population, and keeping the ecological and genetic impacts on nontarget populations within specified biological limits''. Recent scientific reviews of hatchery supplementation continue to highlight the experimental nature and risk of supplementation (Independent Scientific Group 1996; National Research Council 1996; Lichatowich 1999; Independent Multidisciplinary Science Team 2000; Independent Scientific Advisory Board 2003; Hatchery Scientific Review Group 2003). In addition, many of these reviews included recommendations about the best ways to operate a supplementation program. Most of these recommendations were already being done or have been incorporated into the YKFP. The objectives of the YKFP are: (1) to test the hypothesis that new supplementation techniques can be used in the Yakima River Basin to increase natural production and to improve harvest opportunities while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the wild and native salmonid populations and keeping adverse ecological interactions within acceptable limits (Yakima Fisheries Project Final Environment Impact Statement, 1996); (2) provide knowledge about the use of supplementation, so that it may be used to mitigate effects on anadromous fisheries throughout the Columbia River Basin; (3) to maintain and improve the quantity and productivity of salmon and steelhead habitat, including those areas made accessible by habitat improvements; (4) to ensure that Project implementation remains consistent with the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program; and (5) to implement the Project in a prudent and environmentally sound manner. Current YKFP operations have been designed to test the principles of supplementation (Busack et al. 1997). The Project's experimental design has focused on the following critical uncertainties affecting supplementation: (1) The survival and reproductive success of hatchery fish after release from the hatchery; (2) The impacts of hatchery fish as they interact with non-target species and stocks; and, (3) The effects of supplementation on the long-term genetic fitness of fish stocks. The YKFP endorses an adaptive management policy applied through a project management framework as described in the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Planning Status Report (1995), Fast and Craig (1997), and Clune and Dauble 1991. The project is managed by a Policy Group consisting of a representative of the Yakama Nation (YN, lead agency) and a representative of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The functions of the parties are described in an MOU between the YN and the WDFW. A Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of one representative from each management entity reports to the Policy Group and provides technical input on policy and other issues. Additional committee's, such as the Monitoring Implementation and Planning Team (MIPT), serve at the discretion of STAC. The Policy Group and STAC meet periodically (usually monthly) to conduct the business of the YKFP. Although the YKFP is an all stocks initiative (BPA 1996), most effort to date has been directed at spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. This report is a compilation of the year's activities between August 1, 2002 and July 31, 2003. The Yakama Nation's portion of the YKFP is presented in another report. All findings should be considered preliminary until data collection is completed or the information is published in a peer-reviewed journal. Pearsons and Easterbrooks (2003) described last year's activities.

  4. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

  5. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2003-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 2002. This report documents the number and extent of chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River, and is the fourth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds located in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. There was a significant increase in the number of fall chinook salmon redds found in the locations surveyed during the 2002 surveys when compared to previous surveys by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A total of 192 redds were found in two general locations adjacent to Pierce Island (river km 228.5) encompassing an area of approximately 9.31 ha. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 15, 2002. An estimated 1,768 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding {approx}1.m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2002. This estimate is the expanded number based on the number of redds found within the pre-defined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 0.9 to 8.5 m and were constructed in gravel to large cobble ranging in size from 4.83 to 13.4 cm in diameter. No chum salmon redds were found in areas surveyed during 2002, although several carcasses were found at the mouth of Woodward Creek and in the deeper sections below Hamilton Creek.

  6. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  7. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per year of ground water is lost to evapotranspiration in Dry Valley. Combining subsurface-outflow estimates with ground-water evapotranspiration estimates, total natural ground-water discharge from Dry Valley ranges from a minimum of about 700 acre-feet to a maximum of about 1,000 acre-feet annually. Water quality in Dry Valley generally is good and primary drinking-water standards were not exceeded in any samples collected. The secondary standard for manganese was exceeded in three ground-water samples. One spring sample and two surface-water samples exceeded the secondary standard for pH. Dry Valley has two primary types of water chemistry that are distinguishable by cation ratios and related to the two volcanic-rock units that make up much of the surrounding mountains. In addition, two secondary types of water chemistry appear to have evolved by evaporation of the primary water types. Ground water near the State line appears to be an equal mixture of the two primary water chemistries and has as an isotopic characteristic similar to evaporated surface water.

  8. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be conducted in FY 2005, we anticipate a significant number of key papers being prepared and submitted in FY 2004 which will go toward identifying the data gaps this RPA is intended to address; (2) Make available data from this project for use on Project 2003-038-00 ('Evaluate restoration potential of Snake River fall chinook salmon') which is a BPA-funded project that will start in FY 2004; and (3) Present results of our work at regional and national meetings in order to facilitate technology transfer and information sharing. The objective of this project is to define the production potential of fall chinook salmon that spawn in the Hanford Reach. We will provide fisheries and resource managers with the information they need to determine if the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is indeed healthy, and whether this population will be capable of seeding other satellite populations in the future. We will accomplish this purpose by continuing our on-going research at determining the carrying capacity of the Hanford Reach for producing fall chinook salmon under current operational scenarios, and then begin an assessment of whether the Reach is functioning as a model of a normative river as is widely believed. The product of our research will be a better understanding of the key habitat features for mainstem populations of anadromous salmonids, as well as a better understanding of the measures that must be taken to ensure long-term protection of the Hanford Reach fall chinook population. Although the project was originally funded in FY 1994, it was significantly redefined in FY 2000. At that time five tasks were proposed to accomplish the project objective. The purpose of this progress report is to briefly describe the activities that have been completed on each of the five tasks from FY 2000 through FY 2003.

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  10. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  11. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  12. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

  13. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Connor, William P.

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  14. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim; Schwabe, Lawrence

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  15. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the two sites located on ridge tops. BTEX and DRO were not detected in any of the water samples, and petroleum hydrocarbons do not appear to have leached into ground water at these sites. Ground-water samples were collected from a small spring and from three auger holes at the third site, which is located in a stream valley. BTEX and DRO were not detected in these ground-water samples, and currently, petroleum hydrocarbons do not appear to be leaching into ground water at this site. Weathered crude oil, however, was detected at the water surface in one of the auger holes, indicating that soluble petroleum hydrocarbons may have leached into the ground water and may have migrated downgradient from the site in the past. The concentration of soluble petroleum hydrocarbons present in the ground water would depend on the concentration of the hydrocarbons in the crude oil at the site. A laboratory study was conducted to examine the dissolution of petroleum hydrocarbons from a fresh crude oil sample collected from one of the study sites. The effective solubility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes for the crude oil sample was determined to be 1,900, 1,800, 220, and 580 micrograms per liter (?g/L), respectively. These results indicate that benzene and toluene could be present at concentrations greater than maximum contaminant levels (5 ?g/L for benzene and 1,000 ?g/L for toluene for drinking water) in ground water that comes into contact with fresh crude oil from the study area.

  16. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian

    2004-02-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2002 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2003. We tagged 20,950 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,904 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 1 April 2003 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 15 April 2003. We tagged 20,820 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,628 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning during two acclimation periods. The volitional release for the early acclimation group began 12 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 23 March 2003. The volitional release for the late acclimation group began 31 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 14 April 2003. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2003, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Survival rates for the Imnaha River, Lostine River, and Catherine Creek stocks were 0.714, 0.557, and 0.350, respectively. We PIT-tagged 20,944 BY 2002 Imnaha River stock and 20,980 BY 2002 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny in October and November 2003 as part of the CSS for MY 2004. From tagging to January 28, 2004, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.16% and 0.04%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.19% and 0.06%, respectively.

  17. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effect on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington: Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2003-05-15

    A study of mine-waste contamination effects on Methow River habitat on the eastern slopes of the north Cascade Mountains in Washington state, U.S.A., revealed impacts at ecosystem, community, population, individual, tissue, and cellular levels. Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's, but the mines are now inactive. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to compare potentially impacted to control sites. The concentrations of eleven trace elements (i.e., Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Methow River sediments downstream from the abandoned mine sites were higher than background levels. Exposed trout and caddisfly larvae in the Methow River showed reduced growth compared to controls. Samples of liver from juvenile trout and small intestine from exposed caddisfly larvae were examined for evidence of metal accumulation, cytopathological change, and chemical toxicity. Morphological changes that are characteristic of nuclear apoptosis were observed in caddisfly small intestine columnar epithelial and trout liver nuclei where extensive chromatin condensation and margination was observed. Histopathological studies revealed glycogen bodies were present in the cytosol and nuclei, which are indicators of Type IV Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD IV). This suggests food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body resulting in poor growth. Examination of trout hepatocytes by transmission electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of electron dense granules in the mitochondrial matrix. Matrix granules contain mixtures of Cd, Cu, Au, Pb, Ni, and Ti. Contaminated sediments caused adverse biological effects at different levels of biological organization, from the cellular to ecosystem-level responses, even where dissolved metal concentrations in the corresponding surface water met water-quality criteria.

  18. Reconsidering childhood undernutrition: can birth spacing make a difference? An analysis of the 2002-2003 El Salvador National Family Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Gribble, James N; Murray, Nancy J; Menotti, Elaine P

    2009-01-01

    It is well understood that undernutrition underpins much of child morbidity and mortality in less developed countries, but the causes of undernutrition are complex and interrelated, requiring a multipronged approach for intervention. This paper uses a subsample of 3853 children under age 5 from the most recent family health survey in El Salvador to examine the relationship between birth spacing and childhood undernutrition (stunting and underweight). While recent research and guidance suggest that birth spacing of three to five years contributes to lower levels of infant and childhood mortality, little attention has been given to the possibility that short birth intervals have longer-term effects on childhood nutrition status. The analysis controls for clustering effects arising from siblings being included in the subsample, as well as variables that are associated with household resources, household structure, reproductive history and outcomes, and household social environment. The results of the multiple regression analyses find that in comparison to intervals of 36-59 months, birth intervals of less than 24 months and intervals of 24-35 months significantly increase the odds of stunting (<24 months Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.92; 25-36 months OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.05-1.64). Other factors related to stunting and underweight include standard of living index quintile, child's age, mother's education, low birthweight, use of prenatal care, and region of the country where the child lives. Policy and program implications include more effective use of health services and outreach programs to counsel mothers on family planning, breastfeeding, and well child care.

  19. Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River, 2002-2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Richmond, M.; Coleman, A.

    2003-06-01

    Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Hydrodynamic, water quality, and meteorological conditions around the reservoir were monitored at frequent intervals, and this effort is continuing in 2003. Monitoring of the reservoir is a multi-year endeavor, and this report spans only the first year of data collection. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been applied. This model uses field data as boundary conditions and has been applied to the entire 2002 field season. Numerous data collection sites were within the model domain and serve as both calibration and validation locations for the numerical model. Errors between observed and simulated data varied in magnitude from location to location and from one time to another. Generally, errors were small and within expected ranges, although, as additional 2003 field data becomes available, model parameters may be improved to minimize differences between observed and simulated values. A two-dimensional, laterally-averaged hydrodynamic and water quality model was applied to the three reservoirs downstream of LGR (the pools behind Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor Dams). A two-dimensional model is appropriate for these reservoirs because observed lateral thermal variations during summer and fall 2002 were almost negligible; however, vertical thermal variations were quite large (see USACE 2003). The numerical model was applied to each reservoir independently to simulate the time period between May 1 and October 1, 2002. Differences between observed and simulated data were small, although improvements to model coefficients may be performed as additional thermal data, collected in the reservoirs during 2003, becomes available.

  20. Biosolids, soil, crop, ground-water, and streambed-sediment data for a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2004-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. Monitoring components were biosolids, soils, crops, ground water, and streambed sediments. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area. Constituents of primary concern to the public are arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, plutonium, and gross alpha and gross beta activity, and they are included for all monitoring components. This report presents chemical data from the fourth and fifth years of the monitoring program, 2002 through 2003, for biosolids, soils, crops, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediment. The ground-water section also includes climate data and water levels. The chemical data include the constituents of highest concern to the public in addition to many other constituents.

  1. Hydrogeologic framework and ground-water Flow in quaternary deposits at the U.S. Army Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center near Edinburgh, Indiana, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.; Risch, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    A hydrogeologic framework was developed for unconsolidated Quaternary deposits at the U.S. Army Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center. The framework describes the potential for the occurrence of ground water on the basis of physiography and the distribution of geologic materials within the study area. Four geologic units-the Jessup, Trafalgar, Atherton, and Martinsville Formations-were identified, and their distribution was mapped as four hydrogeologic regions. The Jessup and Trafalgar Formations are fine-grained, poorly sorted tills. At least two facies of the Atherton Formation, the lacustrine and outwash facies, are in the study area. The Martinsville Formation includes materials deposited or reworked since the glacial period. With the exception of the Atherton Formation outwash facies, the Quaternary deposits are primarily fine-grained, silt- and clay-rich sediments that function as confining layers or aquitards. The Atherton Formation out-wash facies includes sand and gravel deposits that constitute the primary aquifers in the study area. The four hydrogeologic regions mapped in this investigation are designated as the Bedrock, Jessup Till, Trafalgar Till, and Atherton Outwash Regions. Each region represents an area with a distinctive physiographic expression and vertical sequence of Quaternary deposits. The Bedrock Region in the western and southwestern part of the study area commonly is underlain by 0 to 15 feet of Martinsville Formation resting directly on bedrock. Potential ground-water yields are limited. The Jessup Till Region in the southeastern part of the study area includes the uplands on either side of the stream valleys. Sediments commonly range from 30 to 90 feet in thickness. This region includes clay-rich till of the Jessup Formation and sand and gravel deposits of the Atherton Formation outwash facies; the Atherton Formation outwash facies tends to be thin, and ground-water yields will be moderate. The Trafalgar Till Region in the north and northwest-central part of the study area commonly is underlain by 10 to 30 feet of Trafalgar till or Trafalgar till over 25 to 50 feet of Jessup till. Within, separating, and beneath these tills are deposits of the Atherton Formation outwash facies-the sand and gravel deposits with the best potential to support a water-supply well. Generally, the outwash facies in this region are thin sand and gravel lenses, except in a few locations that are in excess of 30 feet thick. The Atherton Outwash Region is the lowland area associated with the major valleys in all but the far southwestern part of the study area. This region has the greatest thickness of outwash facies sands and gravels (often in excess of 20 feet), which are the primary aquifers. In the Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center, the combined Atherton Outwash Region and the Trafalgar Till Region have the greatest potential as infiltration areas because of low topographic relief and(or) sandy soils. From water-level data collected in July and August 2003, horizontal ground-water flow was determined generally to be toward the Atherton Outwash Region and the valley of the Drift-wood River to the east. Vertical hydraulic gradients were documented at nested well pairs. At two sites, upwardly directed gradients are reflected by flowing wells. Ground-water discharge to surface water is likely in some eastern reaches of the valleys of Nineveh and Lick Creeks. In the valley of Nineveh Creek, potential for ground-water discharge is indicated by the presence of a flowing well, upwardly directed vertical hydraulic gradients, and ground-water heads that were higher than surface-water elevations. In the valley of Lick Creek, ground-water discharge also is indicated by the presence of flowing wells and ground-water heads that were higher than surface-water elevations.

  2. Reconnaissance of Surface-Water Quality and Possible Sources of Nutrients and Bacteria in the Turkey Creek Watershed, Northwest Oklahoma, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency investigated the distribution of surface-water quality and possible sources of nutrients and Escherichia coli bacteria to surface water in Turkey Creek, which flows about 70 miles through mostly rural agricultural areas in northwest Oklahoma. Results show that discharge on the main stem of Turkey Creek increased during low-flow conditions from an average of 5.4 cubic feet per second at the upper most site to 39 cubic feet per second at the lower most site in the watershed, indicating that Turkey Creek gains water from ground-water discharge. A portion of the increase in stream discharge may be from discharges of treated effluent from city sewage lagoons. However, the volume and frequency of discharges are unknown. Surface-water-quality samples show that specific conductance ranged from 1,180 to 1,740 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius during low-flow conditions and in general, decreased downstream with site 1 or site 2 having the largest measurement and site 5 having the lowest. The pH values were slightly alkaline and ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 with a median of 8.2. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 9.3 to 15.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of November, February, and March and ranged from 5.3 to 13.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of June, July, and August. Surface-water-quality samples show that the median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (1.16 milligrams per liter) and total phosphorus (0.275 milligram per liter) are larger than the average median concentrations of 0.35 and 0.083 milligram per liter, respectively, calculated from water-quality sites in Oklahoma and part of Arkansas (excluding sites in the Ozark Highland and the Ouachita Mountains ecoregions) having similar stream orders and stream slopes. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen increased slightly in the winter months and decreased in the summer months, whereas, concentrations of total phosphorus and orthophosphate as phosphorus tended to increase during the summer months and decrease in the winter months. During high-flow conditions total phosphorus increased 7.7 times above the average concentration of 0.261 milligram per liter in low-flow samples. Orthophosphate concentrations increased 3.5 to 4 times during high-flow conditions. Almost all low-flow samples showed 15N values between 4 and 10 parts per thousand, above the range for atmospheric nitrogen and synthetic fertilizer and below the range for animal waste. These samples may represent a mixture of nitrate from these two sources and other sources enriched with 15N, such as soils and plants. Results of the bacterial source tracking indicated that the two source groups having the greatest number of ribopattern matches with surface-water isolates were the cattle group, 53 isolates or 23.5 percent, and the human group, 41 isolates or 18.2 percent. Fewer surface-water isolates matched the deer and horse groups, 8.0 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively. About 43 percent or 96 surface-water isolates were not matched to any source group.

  3. Factors associated with not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia: the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    背景:本研究分析了印度尼西亚产前未补充铁/叶酸的相关因素。方法:本研 究使用了2002、2003 和2007 年印度尼西亚人口与健康普查(IDHS)数据, 采集了每次普查前近5 年26591 位妇女生育资料,其中主要的相关变量就是没 有补充铁/叶酸。我们使用Logistic 回归分析,研究一些外部环境的作用、诱 发、启用、需要因素,以及使用其他孕产妇保健服务对产前未补充铁/叶酸的 人群的影响。结果:Java-巴厘地区以外以及农村地区有更多未补充铁/叶酸的 母亲(OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03)。不服用这些补充剂的可能性随着家庭财 富指数和父母受教育程度降低而增高。对于那些很少主动关注自身健康 (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49)、生产过多胎经产妇、对产科并发症知识低以 及很少接触大众媒体的母亲,其不服用补充剂的几率升高。影响产前不补充铁 /叶酸的主观因素主要有去做产前检查的费用(OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.44)和 与产前检查机构的距离(OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40)。我们的研究说明产前 护理作为一个非常重要的补充剂的分配渠道。结论:提高社区意识,增加健康 服务的覆盖率、在孕期护理期间加强宣传指导、组织社区参与健康计划,对提 高铁/叶酸补充剂的摄入、增加印度尼西亚婴儿存活率将是非常必要的。

  4. Return Spawning/Rearing Habitat to Anadromous/Resident Fish within the Fishing Creek to Legendary Bear Creek Analysis Area Watersheds; 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Jr., Emmit E.

    2004-03-01

    This project is a critical component of currently on-going watershed restoration effort in the Lochsa River Drainage, including the Fishing (Squaw) Creek to Legendary Bear (Papoose) Creek Watersheds Analysis Area. In addition, funding for this project allowed expansion of the project into Pete King Creek and Cabin Creek. The goal of this project is working towards the re-establishment of healthy self-sustaining populations of key fisheries species (spring Chinook salmon, steelhead, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) through returning historic habitat in all life stages (spawning, rearing, migration, and over-wintering). This was accomplished by replacing fish barrier road crossing culverts with structures that pass fish and accommodate site conditions.

  5. The morphology and evolution of the Stromboli 2002-2003 lava flow field--An example of a basaltic flow field emplaced on a steep slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lodato, Luigi; Harris, A.; Spampinato, L.; Calvari, Sonia; Dehn, J.; Patrick, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a hand-held thermal camera during the 2002–2003 Stromboli effusive eruption proved essential in tracking the development of flow field structures and in measuring related eruption parameters, such as the number of active vents and flow lengths. The steep underlying slope on which the flow field was emplaced resulted in a characteristic flow field morphology. This comprised a proximal shield, where flow stacking and inflation caused piling up of lava on the relatively flat ground of the vent zone, that fed a medial–distal lava flow field. This zone was characterized by the formation of lava tubes and tumuli forming a complex network of tumuli and flows linked by tubes. Most of the flow field was emplaced on extremely steep slopes and this had two effects. It caused flows to slide, as well as flow, and flow fronts to fail frequently, persistent flow front crumbling resulted in the production of an extensive debris field. Channel-fed flows were also characterized by development of excavated debris levees in this zone (Calvari et al. 2005). Collapse of lava flow fronts and inflation of the upper proximal lava shield made volume calculation very difficult. Comparison of the final field volume with that expecta by integrating the lava effusion rates through time suggests a loss of ~70% erupted lava by flow front crumbling and accumulation as debris flows below sea level. Derived relationships between effusion rate, flow length, and number of active vents showed systematic and correlated variations with time where spreading of volume between numerous flows caused an otherwise good correlation between effusion rate, flow length to break down. Observations collected during this eruption are useful in helping to understand lava flow processes on steep slopes, as well as in interpreting old lava–debris sequences found in other steep-sided volcanoes subject to effusive activity.

  6. Una guia para los padres sobre lo mas importante: el logro academico plan de educacion de Maryland desde preescolar hasta el 12 grado, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Spanish-language guide for parents outlines the goals and characteristics of…

  7. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were determined on selected samples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mercury, sulfate stable isotope composition (d34S and d18O of sulfate), stable isotope composition of water (d2H and d18O of water) were measured for selected samples. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and 3He and 3H were measured for age dating on selected samples. Linear regressions from the Straight Creek ground-water data were used to compare ground-water chemistry trends in non-Straight Creek ground waters with Straight Creek alluvial ground-water chemistry dilution trends. Most of the solute trends for the ground waters are similar to those for Straight Creek but there are some notable exceptions. In lithologies that contain substantial pyrite mineralization, acid waters form with similar chemistries to those in Straight Creek and all the waters tend to be calcium-sulfate type. Hottentot ground waters contain substantially lower calcium concentrations relative to those in Straight Creek. This anomaly results from the exposure of rhyolite porphyry in the Hottentot scar and weathering zone. The rhyolite contains less calcium than the altered andesites and tuffs in the Straight Creek catchment and probably does not have the abundant gypsum and calcite. The Hansen ground waters have reached gypsum saturation and have similar calcium, magnesium, and beryllium concentrations as Straight Creek ground waters but have lower concentrations of fluoride, manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel, copper, and lithium. Lower concentrations of elements related to mineralization at Hansen likely reflect the more distal location of Hansen with respect to intrusive centers that provided the heat source for hydrothermal alteration. The other ground water with water chemistry trends that are outside the Straight Creek trends was from an alluvial well from Capulin Canyon (CC2A). Although it had pH values near 6.0 and most major ions similar to the other Capulin Canyon ground waters, it contained high concentrations

  8. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in aquatic biota associated with abandoned mine lands in the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area and nearby Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, northwestern California, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Gibson, Jennifer K.; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other recently evaluated mine-impacted watersheds in northern California, invertebrates, amphibians, and fish from sites within the Upper Clear Creek watershed tended to have significantly lower concentrations of Hg than at most other sites. For other metals and trace elements, Upper Clear Creek sites were only compared with the Deer Creek watershed, Nevada County, California. Copper from both Willow Creek sites (WLCC and WLTH) in the Clear Creek watershed was the only metal with concentrations in biota that were significantly higher than biota from Deer Creek

  9. Hydrogeology, Ground-Water-Age Dating, Water Quality, and Vulnerability of Ground Water to Contamination in a Part of the Whitewater Valley Aquifer System near Richmond, Indiana, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Watson, Lee R.; Greeman, Theodore K.

    2007-01-01

    Results of detailed water-quality analyses, ground-waterage dating, and dissolved-gas analyses indicated the vulnerability of ground water to specific types of contamination, the sequence of contaminant introduction to the aquifer relative to greenfield development, and processes that may mitigate the contamination. Concentrations of chloride and sodium and chloride/bromide weight ratios in sampled water from five wells indicated the vulnerability of the upper aquifer to roaddeicer contamination. Ground-water-age estimates from these wells indicated the onset of upgradient road-deicer use within the previous 25 years. Nitrate in the upper aquifer predates the post-1972 development, based on a ground-water-age date (30 years) and the nitrate concentration (5.12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) in water from a deep well. Vulnerability of the aquifer to nitrate contamination is limited partially by denitrification. Detection of one to four atrazine transformation products in water samples from the upper aquifer indicated biological and hydrochemical processes that may limit the vulnerability of the ground water to atrazine contamination. Microbial processes also may limit the aquifer vulnerability to small inputs of halogenated aliphatic compounds, as indicated by microbial transformations of trichlorofluoromethane and trichlorotrifluoroethane relative to dichlorodifluoromethane. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in other parts of the aquifer system also may be mitigated by hydrodynamic dispersion and biologically mediated transformations of nitrate, pesticides, and some organic compounds. Identification of the sequence of contamination and processes affecting the vulnerability of ground water to contamination would have been unlikely with conventional assessment methods.

  10. [Investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients nationwide with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation (2002-2003)--proportion of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2005-11-01

    The propotions of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents were determined for 468 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 557 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation at 20 medical institutions nationwide in the predefined 4-week period during November 2002 and June 2003. PRSP of the S. pneumoniae strains, accounted for 27%, and BLNAR accounted for 35% of the H. influenzae strains. Against the S. pneumoniae strains, faropenem showed the best MIC90 value, 0.5 microg/mL, of the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, followed by cefditoren-pivoxil, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, telithromycin showed the best MIC90 value, 0.12 microg/mL. Against the H. influenzae strains, cefditoren-pivoxil showed the best MIC90 value, 0.25 microg/mL, among the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, azithromycin showed the best activity, followed by telithromycin. It seems necessary to take these results into consideration when choosing drugs for treatment. It will be necessary to survey the trends in resistant strains and the clinical efficacy of various oral antibacterial agents in the future. PMID:16366360

  11. Relationship between Attitude towards Technical Education and Academic Achievement in Mathematics and Science of the First and Second Year High School Students, Caritas Don Bosco School, SY 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study made use of the "Model of Academic Choice" by Meece et al. (1982). It is a general model of academic choice, expectation and value of attitude leading to achievement. The model links achievement with constructs of expectation of success on a task and the subjective value of the task influencing the attitude of students.…

  12. Hydrogeology, Ground-Water-Age Dating, Water Quality, and Vulnerability of Ground Water to Contamination in a Part of the Whitewater Valley Aquifer System near Richmond, Indiana, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Watson, Lee R.; Greeman, Theodore K.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected from the seven observation wells in August and September 2002 indicated that concentrations of chloride, sodium, and nitrate generally were larger in ground water from the upper aquifer than in other parts of the Whitewater Valley aquifer system. Drinking-water-quality standards for Indiana were exceeded in water samples from one well for chloride concentrations, from four wells for dissolved-solids concentrations, and from one well for nitrate concentrations. Application of low-level methods for trace-element analyses determined that concentrations of aluminum, cobalt, iron, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc were less than or equal to 8 micrograms per liter; concentrations of arsenic, cadmium,

  13. Processes Affecting Phosphorus and Copper Concentrations and Their Relation to Algal Growth in Two Supply Reservoirs in the Lower Coastal Plain of Virginia, 2002-2003, and Implications for Alternative Management Strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, Gary K.; Simon, Nancy S.; Mood-Brown, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated phosphorus concentrations commonly promote excessive growth of algae in waters nationwide. When such waters are used for public supply, the algae can plug filters during treatment and impart tastes and odors to the finished water. This increases treatment costs and results in finished water that may not be of the quality desired for public supply. Consequently, copper sulfate is routinely applied to many reservoirs to control algal growth but only is a 'temporary fix' and must be reapplied at intervals that can range from more than 30 days in the winter to less than 7 days in the summer. Because copper has a maximum allowable concentration in public drinking water and can be toxic to aquatic life, water suppliers commonly seek to develop alternative, long-term strategies for managing reservoirs. Because these are nationwide issues and part of the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to define and protect the quality of the Nation's water resources and better understand the physical, chemical, and biological processes in wetlands, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, investigations into these issues are important to the fulfillment of the mission of the USGS. The City of Newport News, Virginia, provides 50 million gallons per day of treated water for public supply from Lee Hall and Harwoods Mill Reservoirs (terminal reservoirs) to communities on the lower York-James Peninsula. About 3,500 pounds of copper sulfate are applied to each reservoir at 3- to 99-day intervals to control algal growth. Consequently, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Newport News, investigated the effects of management practices and natural processes on phosphorus (the apparent growth-limiting nutrient), copper, and algal concentrations in the terminal reservoirs to provide information that can be used to develop alternative management strategies for the terminal reservoirs. Initial parts of the research evaluated circulation and stratification in the reservoirs because these factors affect phosphorus availability to algae. Results indicate that (1) water flows through both reservoirs in a 'plug-flow' manner; (2) little water in the lower part of Lee Hall Reservoir, into which pumped water enters, flows into the upper part of the reservoir and mixes with that water; (3) Lee Hall Reservoir generally does not stratify; and (4) Harwoods Mill Reservoir stratifies from April to June through September or October into an upper epilimnion that does not mix with water in the lower hypolimnion. The ratio of dissolved nitrogen to phosphorus concentrations (N:P) for sites in both reservoirs generally was greater than 20:1, indicating that phosphorus likely is the growth-limiting nutrient in both reservoirs. Phosphorus was present predominantly as suspended, rather than dissolved, species except in the hypolimnion of Harwoods Mill Reservoir and the natural inflow represented by Baptist Run. Because Harwoods Mill Reservoir stratified, field-measured physical and chemical characteristics and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species changed sharply over short depth intervals in this reservoir. Dissolved phosphorus concentration increased from 0.015 to 0.057 milligrams per liter between a depth of 15 feet (ft) and the bottom (depth of 18 ft), indicating the release of phosphorus by the decomposition of organic material and(or) the reduction of iron oxides in bed sediment and the lower water column. Because the mixing boundary between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion likely was between depths of 6 and 10 ft, such sources in the hypolimnion would not contribute phosphorus to the growth of algae in the epilimnion from which water is withdrawn for supply until the breakdown of stratification in the fall. Furthermore, laboratory studies of samples from both reservoirs indicated that dissolved phosphorus was released from suspended particles at rates of 0.0007 to 0.0019 milligrams per liter per day. At these rates of release, particl

  14. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean {+-} SD; 1.468 {+-} 0.107 mm, N = 320) than for western brook lampreys (1.237 {+-} 0.064 mm, N = 280). An unpaired t-test showed that the difference in mean chorion diameter between species was highly significant (t = 32.788, df = 528.62, P < 0.0001). For larvae, we collected, digitized, and preserved 156 individuals from each species. Eight homologous landmarks defining a two-cell truss network with two appended triangles were selected for morphometric analyses and species discrimination. A full model discriminant analysis correctly classified 92% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. When applied to a test data set, the classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys. A backward elimination discriminant analysis removed four variables from the full model, and the reduced model correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. The reduced model classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys in a test data set. In 2001 and 2002 Pacific and western brook lampreys were artificially spawned and resulting progeny were reared in the laboratory at 10 C, 14 C, 18 C, and 22 C. The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.85 C for Pacific and 4.97 C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18 C followed by 14 C, 10 C, and 22 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook than for Pacific lampreys, although the difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Survival to hatch was significantly greater than survival to the larval stage with a difference of only 0.03. The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22 C followed by 18 C, 10 C, and 14 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures.

  15. Physics 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Physique 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Physics 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 37 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  16. Chemistry 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Chimie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both French and English versions, is the Chemistry 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 44 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  17. Biology 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Biologie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Biology 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 48 multiple-choice and 8 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  18. Mathematics 33: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Mathematiques 33: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Mathematics 33 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 37 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 4 written-response questions of equal value worth 30%…

  19. Curriculum Summary: Grade Three, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes, 3e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 3 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  20. Curriculum Summary: Grade Eight, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 8e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 8 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover health and life skills, physical education,…

  1. Curriculum Summary: Grade Nine, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 9e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 9 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover health and life skills, physical education,…

  2. Grade 9 Pilot Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test Pilote. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This pilot test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination and the use of a calculator is highly recommended. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: decimals; exponents; arithmetic word…

  3. Funding of Schools, 2000-2001 School Year = Financement des ecoles, Annee scolaire 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Available in English or French, this reference guide summarizes the funding of Manitoba public schools for the 2000-2001 school year. School funding for operating and capital expenses is administered by the provincial government. Following a list of 2000-2001 revisions to the Schools Finance Program, the first section describes base support. The…

  4. Grade 12 Diploma Examination. Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee. Complete Set, January 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The Alberta (Canada) Department of Education issues "Grade 12 Diploma Examinations" for various disciplines every six months (dated January and June of each year). Except for the English and Francais examinations (which are issued only in their own language), the examinations are issued in an English edition and a French edition. The eight…

  5. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the major examination for the course. Both English and French versions are provided. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  6. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 49 multiple-choice questions and four written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring…

  7. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Physique 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a twelfth-grade physics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and four written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  8. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 49 multiple-choice questions and 4 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  9. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Physique 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade physics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the major examination for the course. Both English and French versions are provided. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  10. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1987 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a twelfth-grade physics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the major examination for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during January, 1987, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are…

  11. Grade 12 Diploma Examination. Mathematics 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Mathematiques 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This twelfth grade diploma examination is written in both French and English. The test consists of 52 multiple-choice items and three written response questions. Two and one-half hours are provided for taking the test; approved calculators may be used. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: geometry; trigonometry;…

  12. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  13. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and 3 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  14. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade chemistry course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  15. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a twelfth-grade chemistry course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  16. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two and one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  17. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a twelfth-grade biology course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and six written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  18. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and four written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring…

  19. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and five written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  20. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and 7 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is done by the provincial education department. The…

  1. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and seven written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  2. Multicultural Education. A Policy for the 1990s = L'education multiculturelle. Une politique pour les annees 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This publication presents the official multicultural education policy statement for Manitoba (Canada) institutions of education and training. The policy is guided by the following three principles: (1) education for full participation in society; (2) education for cultural and linguistic development; and (3) education for intercultural…

  3. Images de la societe dans le cinema francais des dix dernieres annees (Images of Society in French Film in the Last Ten Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteve, Michel

    1980-01-01

    It is proposed that film has become a mirror of French society and of social change in France since 1968. It reflects changes in life-style, evolution of morals, fluctuations in fashion, and changes in urban and rural landscapes. However, it rarely questions society seriously. (MSE)

  4. Curriculum Summary: Senior High School, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 10e, 11e, 12e annees, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grades 10, 11, 12 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover career and life management, physical…

  5. Etude du comportement sous charges laterales des ossatures de beton arme avec murs de remplissage de maconnerie, construites avant les annees 1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Karine

    Reinforced concrete structures with unreinforced masonry infills (BMR) are considered vulnerable to earthquakes. Under seismic actions, infills could fail (causing injuries or death) and cause damages to columns. In Quebec and Canada, most of BMR structures have been constructed prior to the introduction of modern seismic design codes raising question on the contribution of the infill to the structure lateral resistance. The aim of this thesis is to improve modelling technique of BMR structures built in Quebec between 1915 and 1960. This type of structures is found in hospitals or schools buildings, which must comply with some post-earthquake functionality requirements. They could also be residential or office buildings. Actually, practicing engineers usually calculate seismic capacity of BMR structures without considering the infill's structural contribution to the lateral resistance. Yet, this contribution should not be omitted. The first part of the thesis investigates the construction techniques and material properties of the old BMR structures in the Province. The results are the material properties (concrete, reinforcing steel, brick, terra cotta tile, and mortar) and the characteristics of the assemblies (wall section, reinforcement details…). The second part of the thesis presents the results of series of parametric analyses to identify among modelling and geometric parameters, which ones are the most influent on the lateral load response (rigidity, fundamental period, normal modes). Linear and modal analyses were performed. The most influent parameters identified are: number of storeys, number of bays, bay's width, soft storey, openings, upper storeys modelized (instead of being replaced by punctual loads) and the modelization technique of infills panels (strut or shell). Nonlinear static analyses have been performed to identify the most influent parameters to be considered for evaluating the lateral resistance, the capacity (load / displacement) and the yielding sequence (beam versus columns versus infills). The identified parameters are the presence of the infills, the openings and the geometric characteristics of the models (number of storeys and number of bays). One important contribution of this work is the development of an equivalent strut model to represent the action of the infill. The model could be easily implemented in standard analysis software. A central axial hinge reproducing the nonlinear behaviour of the masonry is added to the strut element. This model is a hybridization of existing proposals (FEMA and others) with added innovations by the author. It has been validated with experimental and numerical analyses results from literature. An important conclusion of this thesis is that the contribution of infills to lateral load resisting capacities of BMR structures should be considered for structure of more than one storey. Infills can add up to 51 % to bare frame capacity. The National building code requires that the lateral resistance of existing buildings must be at least 60 % of the equivalent static seismic force (V2005). It is concluded that one storey BMR buildings have a sufficient resistance, while three-storeys structures exhibit plastic deformations for loads under 0,6* V2005.

  6. Modeles de rendement langagier: Francais, 12e annee. Francais langue premiere (Models of Linguistic Production: French, 12th Grade. French as a Native Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Aligned with its 1998 standards for first- and second-language learning, Alberta Learning has published lesson plans that aim for a closer relationship between learning and evaluation. Each volume in this series presents a specific task for students that involves planning, carrying out, and evaluating their work. The task for twelfth grade…

  7. Le Rendement en Lecture dans les Ecoles Franco-Ontariennes (Sixieme, Septieme, et Huitieme Annees) (Reading in Franco-Ontarian Schools [Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grades]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Jean; Langevin, Claude

    A research project was carried out to investigate the reading situation in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades of French-language schools in Ontario. Specifically, the project sought to determine the nature of reading deficiencies found in these schools, the percentage of the student body affected by these deficiencies, and the psychological,…

  8. Les annees de transition: une epoque de changement. Reveu et analyse des projets pilotes sur les questions relatives aux annees de Transition. Volume 1: Resume (Year of Transition: Times for Change. A Review and Analysis of Pilot Projects Investigating Issues in the Transition Years. Volume 1: Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy; And Others

    In 1990, the Ontario (Canada) Ministry of Education implemented the Transition Years project, an initiative for restructuring middle-grades education. This French-language document presents findings of a study that identified effective policies and practices used by the pilot schools. Data were derived from: (1) surveys completed by staffs in…

  9. Closing the Education Gender Gap: Estimating the Impact of Girls' Scholarship Program in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajigo, Ousman

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of a school fee elimination program for female secondary students in The Gambia to reduce gender disparity in education. To assess the impact of the program, two nationally representative household surveys were used (1998 and 2002/2003). By 2002/2003, about half of the districts in the country had benefited from the…

  10. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet). June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

  11. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Readings Booklet. June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this test, to be accompanied by the questions booklet, contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of…

  12. Francais de base. Programme de 9 ans, materiel didactique: 4e, 5e et 6e annees (Core French. Nine-Year Study Program, Instructional Materials: 4th, 5th and 6th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    Official instructional materials for the first three years (grades 4-6) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program consist of units in geography, weather and calendars, holidays, and music designed for each of the three instructional levels. The units on geography focus on Manitoba and Canada. Units on the calendar and…

  13. Examen et Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Text Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and drama, the…

  14. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and…

  15. Francais de base. Programme de 9 ans, materiel didactique: 7e, 8e et 9e annees (Core French. Nine-Year Study Program, Instructional Materials: 7th, 8th and 9th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    Official instructional materials for the second three years (grades 7-9) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program are presented. These materials, intended for teachers, consist of units of instruction for each year, which contain notes for the teacher, suggestions for class activities, materials for student use, and…

  16. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

  17. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Text Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and drama, the…

  18. En Bons Termes avec les Etudes Sociales. Glossaire pour les 10e, 11e, et 12e Annees (On Good Terms with the Social Studies. A Glossary for the 10th, 11th, and 12th Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    This social studies resource is designed for French-speaking high school students who have need for definitions of widely used terms relating to social studies. Divided into four sections, the first section presents a term, the gender of the French term, a related term, the definition, a sentence using the word, and the English equivalent. The…

  19. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  20. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  1. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  2. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  3. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Huitieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  4. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  5. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  6. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Septieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  7. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Huitieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning"Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  8. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  9. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  10. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Neuvieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  11. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manual a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning"Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  12. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  13. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Septieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  14. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  15. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Neuvieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  16. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  17. Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages. Volume XXX, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Gertrud S., Ed.

    The following papers of relevance to second language instruction are compiled here: (1) "Bilingual Math in a Monolingual Classroom: A Field Study," by Elizabeth M. Baricevic; (2) "Ideologie et pedagogie: reflexions sur le manuel de francais au programme de '3e annee secondaire' en Algerie," by Jeanne Adam; (3) "Pedagogic Grammar and Applied…

  18. Rever d'une langue: Anthologie des ecoles d'immersion de l'Alberta de la maternelle a la 11e annee (Dreaming in One Language: An Anthology of Essays from Immersion Schools in Alberta from Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Teachers Association, Edmonton.

    This publication, launched by the French Council of the Alberta Teachers' Association and prepared under the Millennium Partnership Program in Canada, presents a collection of essays written by French language immersion students in the elementary and secondary grades. Essay topics touch on the following themes: remembering, dreaming, celebrating,…

  19. Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

    Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

  20. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: 10e, 11e, and 12e annees (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grades 10, 11, and 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the senior high school (grades 10-12) curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in…

  1. La reussite scolaire de votre enfant: Pour aider votre enfant a mieux apprendre a la Maison et a l'ecole, de la 1re a la 9e annee. Manuel d'accompagnement a l'intention du parent = The Parent Advantage: Helping Children Become More Successful Learners at Home and School, Grades 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Catherine; Antaya-Moore, Dana

    This guide for French-speaking parents of students with learning disabilities in Alberta presents a variety of strategies parents can use to help their children in grades 1 through 9 become successful learners. Section 1 offers ideas for helping students get and stay organized, such as using self-talk to create a positive attitude and organizing…

  2. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: 10e, 113 et 12e annees (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grades 10, 11 and 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that high school students are faced with decisions that will determine future opportunities and endeavors, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the high school curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills,…

  3. Narrative Language Pedagogy and the Stabilization of Indigenous Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warford, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses recent trends in language pedagogy that emphasize movement from a psycholinguistic to a more sociocultural view of language teaching and learning. Nourished primarily by sociocultural theory and Hinton's (2002, 2003) efforts to promote the stabilization of indigenous languages, the author presents Narrative Language…

  4. 40 CFR 1033.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Overview and Applicability § 1033.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part... locomotives originally manufactured in calendar years 2002, 2003, and 2004 are subject to the Tier 1...

  5. 40 CFR 1033.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Overview and Applicability § 1033.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part... locomotives originally manufactured in calendar years 2002, 2003, and 2004 are subject to the Tier 1...

  6. Reading Levels of Spanish Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, S. T.; Hernandez, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reading Levels of a population of 93 Spanish deaf students were examined. All study participants had prelingual profound hearing loss; their ages ranged from 9 to 20 years. All were enrolled in compulsory education during 2002-2003 in the Canary Islands (Spain). They were evaluated with sentence and text comprehension subtests from the…

  7. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bask, Miia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…

  8. Evolution of a Department as a Community of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, Charles; Mitchel, Lourdes; Mitchel, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The 2002/2003 Seton Hall University (SHU) ELMP (Education Leadership, Management and Policy) Department objectives included developing a "learning community" or Community of Learners (COL) framework for ELMP to advance a research and scholarship culture and have a "researchable" element. The Department developed a framework and…

  9. 34 CFR 200.45 - Supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arrange, consistent with paragraph (d) of this section, for each eligible student in the school to receive... services to all eligible students not later than the first day of the 2002-2003 school year. (3) The LEA... eligible students until the end of the school year in which the LEA is making those services available....

  10. 34 CFR 200.45 - Supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arrange, consistent with paragraph (d) of this section, for each eligible student in the school to receive... services to all eligible students not later than the first day of the 2002-2003 school year. (3) The LEA... eligible students until the end of the school year in which the LEA is making those services available....

  11. Root Infinitives in Child Second Language English: An Aspectual Features Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavruseva, Elena

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of finiteness in early second language (L2) English of five consecutive bilinguals (ages 6 to 9). The departure point is Gavruseva's (2002; 2003) proposal that nonfinite root predicates result from the underspecification of syntactic aspectual heads at the initial state S0. Gavruseva's 'underspecification of…

  12. Mission IM-Possible: Starting an Instant Message Reference Service Using Trillian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocco, Ronalee; Huff, Alice

    2007-01-01

    The authors, both of whom are working at the Musselman library, relate how they are always looking for ways to improve and update their reference service. When they introduced a chat reference service to their online library services, they received only four inquiries in the entire year 2002-2003. The authors found out later that the paltry number…

  13. Voices from the Field: Educators Respond to Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Elisabeth L.; Buttles, Melissa; Kafka, Judith; Park, Sandra; Russell, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to understand teachers' and administrators' experiences with public school accountability, Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE), with the support of the Noyce Foundation, established the Educator Responses to Accountability Project (ERAP). During the 2002-2003 school year, the authors conducted in-depth interviews with…

  14. Perceived Factors Influencing High School Student Participation in an Integrated Statewide Dual Credit Program: An Examination of Program Success and Student Higher Education Selection Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchstone, Allison J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Dual credit programs have become increasingly popular with 71% U.S. public high schools offering dual credit courses in 2002-2003. As this popularity has grown, so have concerns regarding academic rigor, course quality, parity with college courses, and effects on higher education. Determining actual dual credit course equivalent in higher…

  15. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  16. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  17. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  18. Recent Cocaine and Crack Use Among New Drug Treatment Clients in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Joanne; Robertson, Michele

    2004-01-01

    UK and US literature indicate that cocaine and crack users experience multiple problems and poor treatment outcomes (Gossop et al., 2002 , 2003 ). Using data collected as part of a Scottish national evaluation of drug treatment effectiveness, this paper: (i) provides information on the nature and extent of recent cocaine and crack use among 585…

  19. All Together Now? Arts and Social Science Views of Research Assessment in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamont, Sara

    2004-01-01

    During 2002-2003 there was an enquiry into the future of Research Assessment Exercises in Britain. Learned societies in Arts and Social Sciences who copied their submissions to the author for meta-analysis held very similar views. However these views are not strongly represented in the published report, because only a small minority of societies…

  20. Teachers' Responses to the Emotional Needs of Children and Young People. Results from the Scottish Needs Assessment Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Graham; Lockhart, Elaine; Wilson, Philip; Furnivall, Judy; Bryce, Graham; Barbour, Rose; Phin, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The Scottish Needs Assessment Programme (SNAP) was established in 2000 to advise the Scottish Government on the emotional health of the country's children and young people. The second phase, conducted in 2002-2003, involved surveying professionals who provide specialist mental health services to children and young people, and also those who work…

  1. How a Strong School Faced "Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likis, Lori

    2006-01-01

    When Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Boston realized that their students' 2002-2003 math scores on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System fell below the target set by Massachusetts for adequate yearly progress, they saw not one problem (poor math achievement), but two. Because it was the fifth year the school had not hit AYP…

  2. Effect of Technology-Based Programs on First- and Second-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    Data gathered from 25 rural public school districts in Texas during 2002-2003 were used to assess the impact of educator professional development and technology-intensive classroom learning activities on first- and second-grade students' reading achievement. Students from 18 school districts received the treatment while students from 7 randomly…

  3. Changing the System of Student Support in Norway: Were Policy Goals Met?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opheim, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a first assessment of the effects of changes in the Norwegian student support system, implemented in 2002-2003. Data have been drawn from NSELF, the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund and from "Statistics Norway" (various years). Covering the period 2001-04, the data compare the number and composition of those receiving…

  4. Improvements in Middle School Student Dietary Intake After Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after im...

  5. Reflective Teaching Practice among Student Teachers: The Case in a Tertiary Institution in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonor, B. O.; Badmus, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the reform outcome of reflective teaching introduced by the Faculty of Education among the student teachers in a Nigerian University during the 2002\\2003 teaching practice exercise. Three hundred and four students who were in the final and penultimate years of graduation comprised the sample for the study. Six research questions…

  6. Genetic Interactions with Prenatal Social Environment: Effects on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 16026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Dalton; Rauscher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Caspi et al. (2002, 2003), Guo et al. (2008a), and Pescosolido et al. (2008) all claim to have demonstrated allele-by-environment interactions, but in all cases environmental influences are potentially endogenous to the unmeasured genetic characteristics of the subjects and their families. Thus, gene-gene interactions cannot be ruled out as an…

  7. Methodological Report: Transnational European Evaluation Project II (TEEP II). ENQA Occasional Papers 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The second Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP II) was undertaken between August 2004 and June 2006. A methodology for evaluating transnational programmes had previously been tested during 2002-2003 by ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) in the first Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP I).…

  8. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  9. Suicide Coverage in U.S. Newspapers following the Publication of the Media Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Phillip T.; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    A nationally representative sample of 968 local and national newspapers was examined to determine whether the 2001 U.S. media guidelines were followed in articles published in 2002-2003, and featuring individual cases of suicidal behavior (N = 157). We found that, during this period of time, U.S. newspaper suicide coverage did not consistently…

  10. Key Performance Indicators Accountability Report Card, 2000-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton State Coll., GA. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This document is the annual Accountability Report Card that was created by the Dalton State College Office of Institutional Research and Planning for the academic year 2002-2003. The document addresses improvements made according to indicators in a variety of areas that have also been used in previous years. The results for the 2001-2002 are…

  11. Legislative Report on Charter Schools. Statutory Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Paula Crandall; Geraghty, Lisa; Wendt, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the actions taken on new charter school petitions or proposals. This report offers a summary of charter school activity in the 426 Wisconsin school districts during the 2002-2003 school year. The data is based upon an electronic survey administered by the Wisconsin Department of Public…

  12. In Search of Quality in Finnish Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted during the academic year 2002-2003 in a municipality in Eastern Finland. It focuses on pre-school education assessing its quality factors from the parents', teachers' and children's points of view. Theoretically, the study focuses on analyses of the purposes of the national core curriculum and pedagogical issues that are…

  13. Transforming the School Workforce: Remodelling Experiences in the Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Steve; Gunter, Helen; Thomas, Hywel; Butt, Graham; Lance, Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article draws upon a case study of a special school (Park Vale) participating in the Department for Education and Science (DfES) Transforming School Workforce (TSW) Pathfinder Pilot Project (2002-2003). The Project was developed as a response by the DfES: firstly, to growing difficulties in the recruitment and retention of teachers in the…

  14. Quantifying Variation in Head Start Effects on Young Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Skills Using Data from the National Head Start Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Weiland, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), a nationally representative multisite randomized trial, to quantify variation in effects of Head Start during 2002-2003 on children's cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes relative to the effects of other local alternatives, including parent care. We find that (1) treatment and control…

  15. Payload Flight Assignments: NASA Mixed Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Robert A. R.

    1997-01-01

    This manifest summarizes the missions planned by NASA for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV's) as of the date of publication. Space Shuttle and ELV missions are shown through calendar year 2003. Space Shuttle missions for calendar years 2002-2003 are under review pending the resolution of details in the assembly sequence of the International Space Station (ISS).

  16. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  17. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  18. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  19. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  20. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  1. Expert Opinions on Postsecondary Outdoor Adventure Risk Management Curriculum Design: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    A study of outdoor adventure risk management education was conducted in the fall of 2003 following the devastating avalanche season of winter 2002-2003, which took close to 50 lives in North America. The study was guided by the desire to better understand effective risk management training of outdoor adventure leaders in postsecondary…

  2. "Good Books": Is There a Future for Academic Writing within the Educational Publishing Industry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Jon; Wellington, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on questionnaire responses received (via e-mail) during the period 2002-2003 from senior commissioning editors located within seven of the major UK publishing outlets. Drawing on the analytical framework of an earlier study by Nixon (1999), it focuses on the mediation of educational studies by market forces operating within and…

  3. Jet Charge Tagging at CDF using Run II Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    We present a study of the jet charge tagging in Run II CDF. The jet charge tagging method is applied to determine the b/barb-quark flavor of B hadrons at the time of production in a sample of b arrow ℓ ν X decays collected in 2002-2003.

  4. Tracking Foreign Students in the U.S.: Recent Developments. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Patricia

    According to the latest report by the Institute of International Education, 586,323 foreign students studied in the United States in the 2002-2003 academic year. Foreign students benefit U.S. colleges and universities in many ways, including economic contributions and the value of their work as teachers and researchers, but there has been…

  5. The Impact of a Management Protocol on the Outcomes of Child Abuse in Hospitalized Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anselm C. W.; Li, C. H.; So, K. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the outcomes of children hospitalized for suspected child abuse before and after the implementation of a management protocol in a hospital in Hong Kong. Study period: Two 2-year periods before (1994-1995) and after (2002-2003) the implementation of the protocol in 1998. Methods: This is a retrospective hospital chart review in…

  6. Growing Pains in the Advanced Placement Program: Do Tough Trade-offs Lie Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffett, Ann; Farkas, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In 2002-2003, 1 million students participated in AP by taking at least one exam. Five years later, nearly 1.6 million did--a 50+ percent increase. But is growth all good? Might there be a downside? Are ill prepared students eroding the quality of the program? Perhaps harming the best and brightest? To find out, the Thomas B. Fordham Institute…

  7. Expect No Surprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Jeffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Mary Jo Maydew articulates her priorities as 2002-2003 board chair of the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO): helping business officers maximize their expanding roles on campus and guiding the association in better serving member needs. (EV)

  8. PARTICULATE ORGANIC SOURCE MARKERS IN THE NEW YORK CITY METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling network of four sites was established for the Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM2.5 (SOAP) project during 2002-2003 to investigate composition, seasonal and spatial variability, and source contributions to particulate organic matter in the New York City met...

  9. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs. Report Number CN-04-SBP. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lawrence S.; McLaughlin, Joan E.; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Daft, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project (SBPP) to study the implementation and effects of providing universal free school breakfast in six school districts across the United States. For three years, from School Year (SY) 2000-2001 through SY 2002-2003, these six school districts received federal funds to offer…

  10. Southeastern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees ...

  11. What To Look for in Arizona's Budget for Fiscal Years 2002 and 2003: A Guide for Advocates and Human Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.

    Noting that the best public policies for children and families cannot be effective without sufficient funding to back them up, this budget guide seeks to help advocates learn the key elements to examine in state budgets. Focusing on the 2002-2003 budget cycle in Arizona, the report considers basic principles as they apply to policy related to…

  12. The Compleat Teacher-Scholar: An Interview with Stephen F. Davis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William

    2009-01-01

    Stephen F. Davis is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Emporia State University. He served as the 2002-2003 Knapp Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Diego. Currently, he is Distinguished Guest Professor at Morningside College and Visiting Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Texas Wesleyan University. Since…

  13. The Changing Prevalence of Autism in Three Regions of Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Coo, Helen; Lam, Miu; Breitenbach, Marlene M.; Hennessey, Paula E.; Jackman, Paulette D.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Dewey, Deborah; Bernier, François P.; Chung, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2002/2003, the National Epidemiologic Database for the Study of Autism in Canada started capturing information on children diagnosed with autism in different regions of the country. Based on data collected through 2008 in Newfoundland and Labrador and 2010 in Prince Edward Island and Southeastern Ontario, the estimated average annual percent…

  14. Are Physical Education-Related State Policies and Schools' Physical Education Requirement Related to Children's Physical Activity and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether the extent of states' physical education (PE) requirement policies and the prevalence of schools requiring PE are associated with children's physical activity (PA) and obesity. Methods: Two cycles (2002-2003 and 2006-2007) of cross-sectional data with individual- and state-level information were…

  15. Fathers' Participation in the Domestic Activities of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Maria Clelia; Bruzzese, Dario

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the data from the multi-purpose survey on household "Time Use" conducted by Istat (the Italian National Statistical Institute) in 2002-2003 and the data from this same survey conducted in 1988-1989 will be analysed with the purpose of describing the fathers' daily participation in the domestic activities and of highlighting the…

  16. Competition: Charter and Public Elementary Schools in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamienski, Al

    2011-01-01

    Since the 2002-2003 academic year, the number of students attending and number of charter schools has grown. Yet, unknown are the comparative performance of charter schools as well as any factors, such as the market-based theory of competition, which may contribute to differences. Using geographic information systems and hierarchical linear…

  17. The Provision of Foreign Language Learning for Pupils at Key Stage 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Patricia; Jones, Jane; Macrory, Gee

    2004-01-01

    Following the publication of the National Languages Strategy "Languages for All: Languages for life" (2002), the DfES commissioned research in the 2002-2003 academic year to investigate the extent and nature of the teaching of modern foreign languages at key stage 2 (KS2) in England. Three further research aims related to the effectiveness of…

  18. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  19. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  20. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  1. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  2. Discourse Analysis as Potential for Re-Visioning Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Brent C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with a premise that each person's musical education is made of multiple and diverse experiences that occur in settings both in and out of school (Campbell 2002, 2003, 2008; Green 2002, 2005; Jaffurs 2004, 2006). Nevertheless, when speaking and writing about music education, one often restricts the kinds of music, ways of…

  3. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

  4. Rising College Costs and an Illinois Effort to Control Them: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Teresa Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Rising college costs are of increasing concern. At the 12 public universities in Illinois, average increases in tuition were modest, generally in the 4% range, until 1999 when individual campuses begin to increase tuition at double digit rates. In 2002-2003, the overall average increase in tuition/fees more than doubled at 13.79%. In an effort to…

  5. Factors Affecting the Impact of Professional Development Programs on Teachers' Knowledge, Practice, Student Outcomes & Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Meiers, Marion; Beavis, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003) studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study…

  6. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  7. The Influence of Teaching Note-Taking and Information Mapping on Learning and Recalling in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    This work describes an experimental research on note taking and concept mapping in a science class of 5 graders in Kayseri (Central Anatolia, Turkey) in the academic year 2002 - 2003. Gained results are in favor of convictions that view note taking as an effective learning strategy. At least it was more effective than concept mapping in the…

  8. The Influence of Teaching Note-Taking and Information Mapping on Learning and Recalling in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    This work describes an experimental research on note taking and concept mapping in a science class of 5 graders in Kayseri (Central Anatolia, Turkey) in the academic year 2002-2003. Gained results are in favor of convictions that view note taking as an effective learning strategy. At least it was more effective than concept mapping in the…

  9. Building an Effective Citizenry: Lessons Learned from Initiatives in Youth Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sarah S.; Voke, Heather M.

    In 2002-2003, American Youth Policy Forum conducted a series of forums and field trips focused on issues related to the development of effective citizenry and youth engagement. This publication reports on some of the ideas that were presented and discussed during the course of these activities, and describes some of the work that individuals and…

  10. Hierarchy and Happiness: The Influence of Emotion on Administrative Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Administrative job satisfaction in higher education is influenced by intrinsic and interpersonal factors (Volkwein & Zhou, 2002, 2003). Pioneers of the "affect as information" hypothesis of emotion postulate that emotions provide value-laden information regarding whether goals, standards, and attitudes are impacted positively or negatively by…

  11. Frequency of Repeated Courses Its Relation to Persistence and Performance in Lebanon's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Nauffal, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between the frequency of repeating courses and students' performance in college. The study uses cohort data from academic years 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. We compared those who had repeated one, two and three courses on GPA and whether a relation exists of those who graduated/did not…

  12. Organizational Implications of Web-Enhanced Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udin, Victor; Davis, Niki

    2002-01-01

    Distance education on university campuses is growing exponentially in the United States--it is predicted that 2.2 million students will be taking online classes in 2002, and 85% of American colleges and universities will be offering those classes in the academic year 2002/2003 (Baydo, 2001). Although availability of the technical means for…

  13. Lifelong Learning and "Time Competence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Ute

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the question of the strategies and responsibilities of employers and employees with regard to the investment of time into learning. It is based on the findings of a study of medium-sized businesses in Thuringen 2002/2003. Employees and human resources (HR) personnel from thirteen companies were surveyed about general and…

  14. Language Choice, Education and Community Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the pedagogical and cultural impact of the PROPELCA (Operational Research Project for the Teaching of Cameroonian Languages) mother-tongue education program being implemented in the Bafut, Kom and Nso' language communities of the Northwest Province of Cameroon. Using research carried out in 2002-2003, the author…

  15. The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A; De Mazancourt, P; Gilbert, T; Huynh-Charlier, I; Loublier, Y; Verhille, A M; Moulheirat, C; Patou-Mathis, M; Robbiola, L; Montagut, R; Masson, F; Etcheberry, A; Brun, L; Willerslev, E; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M

    2010-01-30

    Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques. In the case of the so-called 'Joan of Arc's relics' (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the 'Bottle of Chinon'), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern medico-legal cases of small quantities of human bones of carbonised aspect. PMID:19913375

  16. Banque de strategies d'ecoute pour un enseignement explicite de la 1re a la 7e annee. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes (1998) de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion (Listening Strategies for Specific Instruction in Grades 1 through 7. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This teacher's guide is intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language in immersion programs. It provides a host of strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom in Grades 1 through 7. The first section is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure. It discusses…

  17. Banque de strategies de lecture pour un enseignement explicite de la 1re a la 7e annee. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes (1998) de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion (Reading Strategies for Specific Instruction in Grades 1 through 7. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Culture and Employment, Yellowknife.

    This teacher's guide, intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language in an immersion setting, provides a host of strategies for teaching reading skills in the classroom (Grades 1 through 7). Section 1 is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure, discussing the motivation…

  18. Banque de strategies de lecture pour un enseignement explicite de la 6e a la 12e annee. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes (1998) de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion (Reading Strategies for Specific Instruction in Grades 6 through 12. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Culture and Employment, Yellowknife.

    This teacher's guide is intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language in an immersion setting. It provides a host of strategies for teaching reading skills in the classroom in Grades 6 through 12. The first section is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure. It discusses…

  19. Banque de strategies de production orale pour un enseignement explicite de la 6e a la 12e annee: Expose et interaction. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion de 1998 (Interactive Oral Presentation Strategies for Specific Instruction in Grades 6 through 12. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Culture and Employment, Yellowknife.

    This teacher's guide, intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language in an immersion setting, provides a host of strategies for teaching interactive oral presentation skills in the classroom (Grades 6 through 12). Section 1 is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure,…

  20. Banque de strategies de production orale pour un enseignement explicite de la 1re a la 7e annee: Expose et interaction. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion de 1998 (Interactive Oral Presentation Strategies for Specific Instruction in Grades 1 through 7. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This teacher's guide, intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language in an immersion setting, provides a host of strategies for teaching interactive oral presentation skills in the classroom (Grades 1 through 7). Section 1 is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure,…

  1. Banque de strategies d'ecriture pour un enseignement explicite de la 6e a la 12e annee. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion de 1998 (Writing Strategies for Specific Instruction in Grades 6 through 12. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This teacher's guide, intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language in an immersion setting, provides a host of strategies for teaching writing skills in the classroom (Grades 6 through 12). Section 1 is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure, discussing the motivation…

  2. Banque de strategies d'ecriture pour un enseignement explicite de la 1re a la 7e annee. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion de 1998 (Writing Strategies for the Specific Instruction in Grades 1 through 7. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This teacher's guide, written in French, intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language (immersion), provides a host of strategies for teaching writing skills in the classroom (grades 1 through 7). Section 1 is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure, discussing the…

  3. Banque de strategies d'ecoute pour un enseignement explicite de la 6e a la 12e annee. Document d'appui pour les programmes d'etudes (1998) de francais langue premiere et de francais langue seconde--immersion (Listening Strategies for Specific Instruction in Grades 6 through 12. Guide in Support of Programs Teaching French as a First Language and French as a Second Language--Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This teacher's guide is intended for the instruction of both French as a first language and French as a second language in an immersion setting. It provides a host of strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom in Grades 6 through 12. The first section is designed to bring the teacher's awareness to the training procedure. It…

  4. Changing the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Brazilian teaching hospital: the replacement of São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase-producing isolates.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Felipe Lira de Sá; Almeida, Anna Carolina Soares; Vilela, Marinalda Anselmo; Morais, Marcia Maria Camargo de; Morais Junior, Marcos Antonio de

    2012-05-01

    In Brazil, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates are closely related to the São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase (SPM) Brazilian clone. In this study, imipenem-resistant isolates were divided in two sets, 2002/2003 and 2008/2009, analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and tested for the Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes blaSPM-1, blaIMP and blaVIM. The results show a prevalence of one clone related to the SPM Brazilian clone in 2002/2003. In 2008/2009, P. aeruginosa isolates were mostly MBL negative, genetically diverse and unrelated to those that had been detected earlier. These findings suggest that the resistance to carbapenems by these recent P. aeruginosa isolates was not due to the spread of MBL-positive SPM-related clones, as often observed in Brazilian hospitals.

  5. Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bressan, Andrea

    2006-07-11

    The COMPASS Experiment at the CERN SPS has a broad physics program focused on the nucleon spin structure and on hadron spectroscopy, using muon and hadron beams. One of the main objectives for the spin program with the muon beam is the measurement of the transversity distribution {delta}Tq(x) in semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS). In the years 2002, 2003, and 2004 data were collected using a 160 GeV polarized muon beam and a 6LiD target transversely polarized with respect to the muon beam for about 20% of the running time. Here the results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetries extracted from the 2002 data are presented together with the projected statistical error for the whole 2002-2004 period and for the proton run foreseen in 2006. Results for {lambda} polarization from 2002-2003 data are also presented.

  6. Why Rural Matters 2005: The Facts about Rural Education in the 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Strange, Marty

    2005-01-01

    In 2002-2003, 27% (12.5 million) of public school students attended school in communities of fewer than 25,000 and 19% (8.8 million) attended school in smaller communities of fewer than 2,500. In this report, the authors focus on the schools in those smaller communities, the most rural schools in America. They frame the report around 22…

  7. Teaching and Communicating Astronomy at Rey Juan Carlos University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán-Obispo, M.; Serrano, A.; Aguirre, J.; Martín, P. San

    We present our activities of popularization of Astronomy at Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid, especially our 30-h workshop for people older than 55 (University for the Elderly) held since the academic year 2002/2003. Our course aims to introduce the basic topics on Astronomy to a group of motivated students who, in most cases, were not able to complete their education in their youth due to the historical environment of Spain in the middle of the twentieth century.

  8. Same Side Pion Tagging Study in Lepton+D^(*) Sample at CDF using Run 2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitin, Alexandre

    2003-04-01

    The same side pion tagging method is applied to determine the b/barb-quark flavor of B mesons at the time of production in a sample of B_u,d arrow ℓ D^(*) X decays collected in 2002-2003 using the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Three decay signatures are reconstructed. The analysis is a prerequisite to apply same-side kaon tagging to the lepton+D_s^(*) sample in the future.

  9. Same Side Pion Tagging Study at CDF using Run II Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    We present a study of the same side tagging in Run II CDF. The same side pion tagging method is applied to determine the b/barb-quark flavor of B mesons at the time of production in a sample of B_u,d arrow ℓ D^(*) X decays collected in 2002-2003. Three decay signatures are reconstructed. The analysis is a prerequisite to apply same-side kaon tagging to the lepton+D_s^(*) sample in the future.

  10. Results of GEANT simulations and comparison with first experiments at DANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    Reifarth, R.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Browne, J. C.; Esch, E. I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2003-07-29

    This report describes intensive Monte Carlo simulations carried out to be compared with the results of the first run cycle with DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments). The experimental results were gained during the commissioning phase 2002/2003 with only a part of the array. Based on the results of these simulations the most important items to be improved before the next experiments will be addressed.

  11. The 1999-2003 Summary of the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Sauer, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey were used to estimate continental and regional changes in bird populations for the 5-yr period 1999-2003 and the 2-yr period 2002-2003. These short-term changes were placed in the context of population trends estimated over the 1966-2003 interval. During 1999-2003, 41% of all species exhibited positive trends over the entire survey area, while 64% of all species exhibited positive change between 2002-2003. The continental and regional percentages of species with positive trends were also analyzed for 12 species groups having shared life-history traits. Survey-wide for the entire survey period, grassland birds exhibited the lowest percentage of increasing species (14%), with their sharpest declines occurring in the West during 1999-2003 (10% increasing). During 1999-2003, short-distance migrants experienced significant declines in all regions, where numbers of species with increasing trends ranged from 22% - 34%. Most species fared well during the 2002-2003 period, with 64% (P < 0.05) increasing survey-wide. This was primarily a result of increases in the Central and Western BBS regions where 21 of 24 species groups exhibited significant increases in the number of species with positive trends.

  12. Surveillance of human influenza A(H3N2) virus from 1999 to 2009 in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    DE Donno, A; Idolo, A; Quattrocchi, M; Zizza, A; Gabutti, G; Romano, A; Grima, P; Donatelli, I; Guido, M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of influenza virus co-infections in humans and changes in the genetic variability of A(H3N2) virus strains in southern Italy from 1999 to 2009. A partial sequence of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene by human influenza H3N2 strains identified in oropharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness was analysed by DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. During the seasons 1999-2000, 2002-2003, 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, the influenza viruses circulating belonged to subtype H3N2. However, A(H1N1) subtype virus and B type were respectively prevalent during the 2000-2001, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006 seasons. The HA sequences appeared to be closely related to the sequence of the influenza A vaccine strain. Only the 2002-2003 season was characterized by co-circulation of two viral lineages: A/New York/55/01(H3N2)-like virus of the previous season and A/Fujian/411/02(H3N2)-like virus, a new H3 variant. In this study, over the decade analysed, no significant change was seen in the sequences of the HA gene of H3 viruses isolated.

  13. The 2009 exceptional Amazon flood and interannual terrestrial water storage change observed by GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission provides a new capability for measuring extreme climate events, such as floods and droughts associated with large-scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. GRACE gravity measurements show significant TWS increases in the lower Amazon basin in the first half of 2009, clearly associated with the exceptional flood season in that region. The extended record of GRACE monthly gravity solutions reveals the temporal and spatial evolution of both nonseasonal and interannual TWS change in the Amazon basin over the 7 year mission period from April 2002 to August 2009. GRACE observes a very dry season in 2002-2003 and an extremely wet season in 2009. In March 2009 (approximately the peak of the recent Amazon flood), total TWS surplus in the entire Amazon basin is ˜624 ± 32 Gt, roughly equal to U.S. water consumption for a year. GRACE measurements are consistent with precipitation data. Interannual TWS changes in the Amazon basin are closely connected to ENSO events in the tropical Pacific. The 2002-2003 dry season is clearly tied to the 2002-2003 El Niño and the 2009 flood to the recent La Niña event. The most significant contribution of this study in the area of water resources is to confront the hydrological community with the latest results of the GRACE satellite mission and further demonstrates the unique strength of GRACE and follow-up satellite gravity observations for measuring large-scale extreme climate events.

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in catastrophic health expenditure in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; de Barros, Aluísio Jardim Dornellas; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution of catastrophic health expenditure and the inequalities in such expenses, according to the socioeconomic characteristics of Brazilian families. METHODS Data from the National Household Budget 2002-2003 (48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (55,970 households) were analyzed. Catastrophic health expenditure was defined as excess expenditure, considering different methods of calculation: 10.0% and 20.0% of total consumption and 40.0% of the family’s capacity to pay. The National Economic Indicator and schooling were considered as socioeconomic characteristics. Inequality measures utilized were the relative difference between rates, the rates ratio, and concentration index. RESULTS The catastrophic health expenditure varied between 0.7% and 21.0%, depending on the calculation method. The lowest prevalences were noted in relation to the capacity to pay, while the highest, in relation to total consumption. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure increased by 25.0% from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 when the cutoff point of 20.0% relating to the total consumption was considered and by 100% when 40.0% or more of the capacity to pay was applied as the cut-off point. Socioeconomic inequalities in the catastrophic health expenditure in Brazil between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 increased significantly, becoming 5.20 times higher among the poorest and 4.17 times higher among the least educated. CONCLUSIONS There was an increase in catastrophic health expenditure among Brazilian families, principally among the poorest and those headed by the least-educated individuals, contributing to an increase in social inequality. PMID:25210822

  15. [Nutritional status of two generations of brothers and sisters <5 years of age beneficiaries from opportunities living in marginalized rural communities in Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    García-Parra, Esmeralda; Ochoa-Díaz-López, Héctor; García-Miranda, Rosario; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Morales, Helda; Estrada-Lugo, Erin Ingrid Jane; Solís-Hernández, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    En México, en las últimas décadas se han desarrollado varios programas para erradicar el problema de la desnutrición en infantes < de 5 años, principalmente de aquellos que viven en áreas indígenas y rurales. No obstante, no existe suficiente evidencia sobre su impacto en la salud y la nutrición infantil. Objetivo: describir los cambios nutricionales de dos generaciones de hermanos(as) que han sido beneficiados por el programa Oportunidades en comunidades rurales de Chiapas. Métodos: estudio transversal. Se determinó: bajo peso, baja talla, emaciación y SP + O (Sobrepeso más Obesidad). Los hermanos(as) mayores fueron evaluados en los años 2002-2003, para el 2010-2011 se evaluaron a los hermanos( as) menores, ambos grupos eran < de 5 años de edad en el momento de conseguir la información. Resultados: la desnutrición en sus tres formas es un problema, 43,4% de los hermanos(as) evaluados(as) en 2010-2011 presentaron baja talla, la prevalencia de bajo peso disminuyó de 18% a 13,2%, la emaciación (peso bajo para la talla) aumentó de 8,1% a 10.4%. El SP + O aumentó significativamente 12 puntos porcentuales entre los hermanos(as) de 24,8% en 2002-2003 a 36,8% en 2010-2011. La desnutrición en los niños (varones) es menor que la de sus hermanos de la generación de 2002- 2003 (baja talla p =.

  16. [Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on yield formation of wheat].

    PubMed

    Ynag, Lian-xin; Li, Shi-feng; Wang, Yu-long; Huang, Jian-ye; Yang, Hong-jian; Dong, Gui-chun; Zhu, Jian-guo; Liu, Gang

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of predicted higher CO2 levels on the growth duration, plant height, yield, and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with weak gluten variety Ningmai 9 was conducted at Anzhen of Wuxi in Jiangsu Province in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 growth seasons. The target [CO2] in FACE plots was 200 microl x L(-1) above that in ambient air. Three levels of N were supplied, i.e., 90 kg x hm(-2) (2001-2002) and 125 kg x hm(-2)(2002-2003) (low level, LN), 180 kg x hm(-2) 2002-2003) (medium level, MN), and 250 kg x hm(-2)(high level, HN). The durations from sowing to heading and from heading to maturity and the whole growth period of wheat in FACE plots shortened 1.3 , 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively, compared with the control. FACE increased the plant height (+4.0% significantly, due to the increases of panicle length and of the first and second internode lengths. FACE also greatly increased the grain yield by an average of 24.6%. Across the two years, there was a positive [CO2] x N interaction for grain yield, with a yield increase of 15.2%, 21.4% and 35.4% at LN, MN and HN, respectively. The ears per square meter in FACE plots was increased by an average of 17.8% mainly due to the increase of maximum tiller number per unit ground area rather than that of the percentage of productive tiller (panicle bearing). In addition, FACE increased the grain number per ear (+2.9% and the individual grain mass (+4.8%).

  17. Decreasing prevalence of isolates with vancomycin heteroresistance and vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥2 mg/L in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus over 11 years: potential impact of vancomycin treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Riad; Sharma, Mamta; Johnson, Leonard B; Riederer, Kathleen; Shemes, Stephen; Szpunar, Susan

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated vancomycin MIC (V-MIC) and the prevalence of intermediately susceptible (VISA) and heteroresistant (hVISA) isolates trends in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among 720 adults (≥ 18 years) inpatients over 4 study periods (2002-2003, 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2012). V-MIC (Etest) and the prevalence of hVISA and VISA (determined by population analysis profile-area under the curve) were stratified according to the study period. Mean vancomycin MIC was 1.78 ± 0.39, 1.81 ± 0.47, 1.68 ± 0.26, and 1.54 ± 0.28 mg/L in 2002-2003, 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2012, respectively (P < 0.0001). We noted a steadily decreasing prevalence of isolates with V-MIC ≥ 2 mg/L (50.0%, 45.2%, 35.4%, and 18.7%; P < 0.0001) and hVISA (9.7%, 6.6%, 3.0%, and 2.1%; P=0.0003). VISA prevalence remained low (0-2%). These changes coincided with steadily increasing vancomycin trough levels (9.9 ± 7.8, 11.1 ± 8.4, 16.6 ± 7.8, and 19.7 ± 5.9 mg/L in 2002-2003, 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2012, respectively; P < 0.0001). These changes imply that adherence to vancomycin treatment guidelines may suppress the development of less susceptible isolates.

  18. Decreasing Prevalence of β-Lactamase Production among Respiratory Tract Isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Kris P.; Rice, Cassie L.; Miller, Ashley L.; Miller, Norma J.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Richter, Sandra S.; Doern, Gary V.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 986 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with respiratory tract infections in 45 United States medical centers were characterized during the winter of 2002-2003. β-Lactamase production was noted with 26.2% of isolates; 14.6% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents was extremely uncommon. In comparison to the results of four previous national surveys conducted since 1994, the prevalence of β-lactamase production with this pathogen appears to be decreasing. PMID:15917574

  19. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2001-01-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NOx emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NOx reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NOx reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NOx SIP call.

  20. The influence of health expenditures on household impoverishment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. METHODS Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households) with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. RESULTS After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8%) and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%), respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9%) and 1.3 (17.3%) percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. CONCLUSIONS Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged. PMID:25372171

  1. Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.

  2. High Energy Cosmic Ray Electron Spectra measured from the ATIC Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K. E.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) is specifically designed for high energy cosmic ray ion detection. From simulation and a CERN beam test exposure we find that the design consisting of a graphite target and an energy detection device, a totally active calorimeter of BGO scintillator, gives us sufficient information to distinguish electrons from protons up to the TeV energy range. Balloon observations were successfully carried out over Antarctica in both 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 for a total of more than 35 days. This paper presents preliminary results on the spectrum of high energy electrons observed in the first ATIC flight.

  3. Being influenced: a Cherokee way of mentoring.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research findings related to how the Cherokee male achieves self-reliance and how health care professionals can facilitate and incorporate the Cherokee concept of self-reliance into heath care of the Cherokee. Self-reliance to the Cherokee has been defined as a cultural domain with a composite of the three categories: (a) being responsible, (b) being disciplined, and (c) being confident (Lowe, 2002, 2003). Two sample groups of 12 to 14 Cherokee adults were interviewed and observed. The results reveal that mentor-type relationships influenced the participants in the development of Cherokee self-reliance. PMID:16028448

  4. Luminosity determination at HERA-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Adams, M.; Agari, M.; Albrecht, H.; Aleksandrov, A.; Amaral, V.; Amorim, A.; Aplin, S. J.; Aushev, V.; Bagaturia, Y.; Balagura, V.; Bargiotti, M.; Barsukova, O.; Bastos, J.; Batista, J.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th. S.; Belkov, A.; Belkov, Ar.; Belotelov, I.; Bertin, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Böcker, M.; Bogatyrev, A.; Bohm, G.; Bräuer, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Bruschi, M.; Buchholz, P.; Buran, T.; Carvalho, J.; Conde, P.; Cruse, C.; Dam, M.; Danielsen, K. M.; Danilov, M.; De Castro, S.; Deppe, H.; Dong, X.; Dreis, H. B.; Egorytchev, V.; Ehret, K.; Eisele, F.; Emeliyanov, D.; Essenov, S.; Fabbri, L.; Faccioli, P.; Feuerstack-Raible, M.; Flammer, J.; Fominykh, B.; Funcke, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Gellrich, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Gläß, J.; Goloubkov, D.; Golubkov, Y.; Golutvin, A.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbounov, I.; Gorišek, A.; Gouchtchine, O.; Goulart, D. C.; Gradl, S.; Gradl, W.; Grimaldi, F.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Guilitsky, Yu.; Hansen, J. D.; Hernández, J. M.; Hofmann, W.; Hohlmann, M.; Hott, T.; Hulsbergen, W.; Husemann, U.; Igonkina, O.; Ispiryan, M.; Jagla, T.; Jiang, C.; Kapitza, H.; Karabekyan, S.; Karpenko, N.; Keller, S.; Kessler, J.; Khasanov, F.; Kiryushin, Yu.; Kisel, I.; Klinkby, E.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kolanoski, H.; Korpar, S.; Krauss, C.; Kreuzer, P.; Križan, P.; Krücker, D.; Kupper, S.; Kvaratskheliia, T.; Lanyov, A.; Lau, K.; Lewendel, B.; Lohse, T.; Lomonosov, B.; Männer, R.; Mankel, R.; Masciocchi, S.; Massa, I.; Matchikhilian, I.; Medin, G.; Medinnis, M.; Mevius, M.; Michetti, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.; Mizuk, R.; Muresan, R.; zur Nedden, M.; Negodaev, M.; Nörenberg, M.; Nowak, S.; Núñez Pardo de Vera, M. T.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Padilla, C.; Peralta, D.; Pernack, R.; Pestotnik, R.; Petersen, B. AA.; Piccinini, M.; Pleier, M. A.; Poli, M.; Popov, V.; Pose, D.; Prystupa, S.; Pugatch, V.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Pyrlik, J.; Reeves, K.; Reßing, D.; Rick, H.; Riu, I.; Robmann, P.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rybnikov, V.; Sánchez, F.; Sbrizzi, A.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schreiner, A.; Schröder, H.; Schwanke, U.; Schwartz, A. J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Schwenninger, B.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sciacca, F.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Shuvalov, S.; Silva, L.; Sözüer, L.; Solunin, S.; Somov, S.; Somov, A.; Spengler, J.; Spighi, R.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanovnik, A.; Starič, M.; Stegmann, C.; Subramania, H. S.; Symalla, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Titov, M.; Tsakov, I.; Uwer, U.; van Eldik, C.; Vassiliev, Yu.; Villa, M.; Vitale, A.; Vukotic, I.; Wahlberg, H.; Walenta, A. H.; Walter, M.; Wang, J. J.; Wegener, D.; Werthenbach, U.; Wolters, H.; Wurth, R.; Wurz, A.; Xella-Hansen, S.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zeuner, T.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Z.; Zimmermann, R.; Živko, T.; Zoccoli, A.

    2007-11-01

    A detailed description of an original method used to measure the luminosity accumulated by the HERA-B experiment for a data sample taken during the 2002-2003 HERA running period is reported. We show that, with this method, a total luminosity measurement can be achieved with a typical precision, including overall systematic uncertainties, at a level of 5% or better. We also report evidence for the detection of δ-rays generated in the target and comment on the possible use of such delta rays to measure luminosity.

  5. Magnetic CVs in the UCT CCD CV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.

    2004-12-01

    An overview is given of all the magnetic CVs found in the UCT CCD CV Survey (Woudt & Warner 2001, 2002, 2003a). We have identified eight new candidate Intermediate Polars (IP), of which six are classical novae (RR Cha, DD Cir, AP Cru, V697 Sco, V373 Sct, and RX J1039.7-0507). The two other candidate IPs are Aqr1 (2236+0052) and RX J0944.5+0357. In addition, there are two probable Polars, namely V351 Pup (= Nova Puppis 1991) and FIRST J102347.6+003841.

  6. Molecular Tools for Investigating the Gut Microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Christophe

    The “microbial world within us” (Zoetendal et al., 2006) is populated by a complex society of indigenous microorganisms that feature different “ethnic” populations. Those microbial cells thriving within us are estimated to outnumber human body cells by a factor of ten to one. Insights into the relation between the intestinal microbial community and its host have been gained through gnotobiology. Indeed, the influence of the gut microbiota upon human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition has been inferred by comparing gnotoxenic and axenic murine models (Hooper et al., 1998, 2002, 2003; Hooper and Gordon, 2001).

  7. Flow velocity, water temperature, and conductivity in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida: June 2002-July 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riscassi, Ami L.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.

    2004-01-01

    The data described in this report were collected in the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Priority Ecosystems Science project investigating Forcing Effects on Flow Structure in Vegetated Wetlands of the Everglades. Data collected at five locations in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, during the 2002-2003 wet season are documented in the report. Methods used to process the data are described. Daily mean flow velocities, water temperatures, and specific conductance values are presented in the appendices. The quality-checked and edited data have been compiled and stored on the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website http://sofia.usgs.gov.

  8. Transversity signals in two hadron correlation at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Rainer

    2006-07-11

    Measurement of two hadron production introducing the chiral odd interference fragmentation function H{sub 1}{sup arcl} is considered a new probe of the transverse spin distribution {delta}Tq(x). COMPASS is a fixed target experiment on the SPS M2 beamline at CERN. Its target can be polarised both longitudinally and transversely with respect to the polarised 160 GeV/c {mu}+ beam. In 2002, 2003, and 2004, 20% of the beam-time was spent in the transverse configuration on a 6LiD target, allowing the measurement of transversity effects. First results of the analysis of two hadron production will be reported.

  9. Transversity signals in two hadron correlation at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Rainer

    2005-10-06

    Measurement of two hadron production introducing the chiral odd interference fragmentation function H{sub 1} is considered a new probe of the transverse spin distribution {delta}Tq(x). COMPASS is a fixed target experiment on the SPS M2 beamline at CERN. Its target can be polarised both longitudinally and transversally with respect to the polarised 160 GeV/c {mu}+ beam. In 2002, 2003, and 2004, 20% of the beam-time was spent in the transverse configuration on a 6LiD target, allowing the measurement of transversity effects. First results of the analysis of two hadron production will be reported.

  10. [Linear discriminate analysis on annual and seasonal characteristics of major cations' profiles of rainwater at Zhoushan rain-sampling spot].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-fei; Liu, Su-mei; Ji, Lei; Bi, Yan-feng; Zhang, Jing

    2006-10-01

    Rainwater samples were collected at rain-sampling Spot of Zhoushan in 2002-2003. Major cation concentrations (H+, NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) of rainwater sample were determined. The concentration variation range and character were depicted by robust statistic analysis. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) was used to acquire a further knowledge on the annual and seasonal characteristics of research major cations. Distribution character of samples from sample spot was clearly depicted in the new CA1-CA2 ordinates generated by linear discriminate analysis, and the reasons that caused the outliers in samples were discussed.

  11. Direct measurement of the W boson decay width in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jun-jie

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation describes a direct measurement of the W boson total decay width, ΓW, using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement uses an integrated luminosity of 177.3 pb-1 data, collected during the 2002-2003 run. The width is determined from the shape of the transverse mass distribution, MT, by fitting the data in the tail region 100 < MT < 200 GeV. The result if ΓW = 2.011 ± 0.093(stat) ± 0.107(syst) GeV.

  12. Photometric observations of solar system bodies with ZA-320M automatic mirror astrograph in Pulkovo observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devyatkin, A. V.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Aleshkina, E. Yu.

    2008-11-01

    A short description of the Pulkovo ZA-320M automatic mirror astrograph and program package developed for this instrument is given in this paper. The results of the photometric observations of mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites in 1997 (three phenomena) and 2002-2003 (24 phenomena) with the instrument are shown. The method of interpretation of the observations is described. The results of the photometric observations of occultation of the star (HIP 2559) by the asteroid (111) Ate are also shown. Our estimation of its chord taken part in the occultation is 125.6±7.2km.

  13. Occupation, work organization conditions, and alcohol misuse in Canada: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the specific contribution of occupations and work organization conditions to the onset and recurrent alcohol misuse in Canadian workers between 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey, totaling 6,526 and 6,582 workers (45% females) nested in 1,337 and 1,413 neighborhoods for onset and recurrent alcohol misuse, respectively. Data were analyzed with multilevel logistic regression models. Results suggested a limited contribution for work factors to the onset of alcohol misuse, a stronger influence for them on recurrent alcohol misuse. The study's limitations are discussed.

  14. Identification of American Indian and Alaska Native veterans in administrative data of the Veterans Health Administration and the Indian Health Service.

    PubMed

    Kramer, B Josea; Wang, Mingming; Hoang, Tuyen; Harker, Judith O; Finke, Bruce; Saliba, Debra

    2006-09-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the Indian Health Service (IHS) identified enrollees who also use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as veterans. We used a bivariate analysis of administrative data from fiscal years 2002-2003 to study the target population. Of the 32259 IHS enrollees who received care as veterans in the VHA, only 44% were identified by IHS as veterans. IHS data underestimates the number of veterans, and both IHS and VHA need mechanisms to recognize mutual beneficiaries in order to facilitate better coordination of strategic planning and resource sharing among federal health care agencies. PMID:16873744

  15. Qui sera le nouvel Einstein ? Vers une nouvelle theorie de la gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1999-10-01

    Un debat de plus d'un siecle a resurgi ces toutes dernieres annees avec une vigueur nouvelle. L'enjeu ? Mettre fin, ni plus ni moins, a l'une des contradictions les plus inouies de la physique fondamentale, en reconciliant mecanique quantique et relativite generale. En effet, a l'heure ou la gravitation semble enfin sur le point de fusionner avec les trois autres forces de la nature. il est certain que la relativite d'Einstein doit etre bientot remplacer par une autre theorie... Reste quye tous les physiciens sont loin de s'accorder sur la marche a suivree. Gravitation quantique, relativite d'echelle, supersymetrie, les candidates ne manquent pas.

  16. Bumble bee fauna of Palouse Prairie: survey of native bee pollinators in a fragmented ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hatten, T D; Looney, C; Strange, J P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bumble bees, Bombus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae:), are dominant pollinators in the northern hemisphere, providing important pollination services for commercial crops and innumerable wild plants. Nationwide declines in several bumble bee species and habitat losses in multiple ecosystems have raised concerns about conservation of this important group. In many regions, such as the Palouse Prairie, relatively little is known about bumble bee communities, despite their critical ecosystem functions. Pitfall trap surveys for ground beetles in Palouse prairie remnants conducted in 2002-2003 contained considerable by-catch of bumble bees. The effects of landscape context, remnant features, year, and season on bumble bee community composition were examined. Additionally, bees captured in 2002-2003 were compared with historic records for the region to assess changes in the presence of individual species. Ten species of bumble bee were captured, representing the majority of the species historically known from the region. Few detectable differences in bumble bee abundances were found among remnants. Community composition differed appreciably, however, based on season, landscape context, and elevation, resulting in different bee assemblages between western, low-lying remnants and eastern, higherelevation remnants. The results suggest that conservation of the still species-rich bumble bee fauna should take into account variability among prairie remnants, and further work is required to adequately explain bumble bee habitat associations on the Palouse. PMID:23902138

  17. Vegetation communities at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.; Stroh, Esther D.

    2011-01-01

    New and existing data were used to describe and map vegetation communities at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Existing data had been gathered during the growing seasons of 2002, 2003, and 2004. New data were collected in 2007 to describe previously unsampled communities and communities within which insufficient data had been collected. Plot data and field observations were used to describe 17 natural and semi-natural communities at the Association level of the National Vegetation Classification System (NVCS). Four ruderal communities not included in the NVCS are also described. Data were used to inform delineation of communities using aerial photos from 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2007. During this process, eleven additional land cover classes including cultural features, managed vegetation communities, and water features were identified. These features were mapped, some were described, but no vegetation data were collected. In 2009, nearly all community polygons were field visited and classified to the Association level. When necessary, polygon boundaries were adjusted based on field observations. The final map includes 482 polygons of 27 land cover classes encompassing 3,174 hectares on 5 units of the refuge. Data and information will inform the development of the refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan.

  18. Five-year analysis of background carbon dioxide and ozone variations during summer seasons at the Mario Zucchelli station (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Calzolari, F.; Bonafè, U.; Lanconelli, C.; Lupi, A.; Busetto, M.; Vitale, V.; Colombo, T.; Bonasoni, P.

    2011-11-01

    The work focuses on the analysis of CO2 and O3 surface variations observed during five summer experimental campaigns carried out at the ‘Icaro Camp’ clean air facility (74.7°S, 164.1°E, 41 m a.s.l.) of the ‘Mario Zucchelli’ Italian coastal research station. This experimental activity allowed the definition of summer average background O3 values that ranged from 18.3 ± 4.7 ppbv (summer 2005-2006) to 21.3 ± 4.0 ppbv (summer 2003-2004). Background CO2 concentrations showed an average growth rate of 2.10 ppmv yr-1, with the highest CO2 increase between the summer campaigns 2002-2003 and 2001-2002 (+2.85 ppmv yr-1), probably reflecting the influence of the 2002/2003 ENSO event. A comparison with other Antarctic coastal sites suggested that the summer background CO2 and O3 at MZS-IC are well representative of the average conditions of the Ross Sea coastal regions. As shown by the analysis of local wind direction and by 3-D back-trajectory calculations, the highest CO2 and O3 values were recorded in correspondence to air masses flowing from the interior of the Antarctic continent. These results suggest that air mass transport from the interior of the continent exerts an important influence on air mass composition in Antarctic coastal areas.

  19. Precipitation thresholds and drought-induced tree die-off: insights from patterns of Pinus edulis mortality along an environmental stress gradient.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Michael J; Royer, Patrick D; Cobb, Neil S; Breshears, David D; Ford, Paulette L

    2013-10-01

    Recent regional tree die-off events appear to have been triggered by a combination of drought and heat - referred to as 'global-change-type drought'. To complement experiments focused on resolving mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality, an evaluation of how patterns of tree die-off relate to highly spatially variable precipitation is needed. Here, we explore precipitation relationships with a die-off event of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) in southwestern North America during the 2002-2003 global-change-type drought. Pinyon die-off and its relationship with precipitation was quantified spatially along a precipitation gradient in north-central New Mexico with standard field plot measurements of die-off combined with canopy cover derived from normalized burn ratio (NBR) from Landsat imagery. Pinyon die-off patterns revealed threshold responses to precipitation (cumulative 2002-2003) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), with little to no mortality (< 10%) above 600 mm and below warm season VPD of c. 1.7 kPa. [Correction added after online publication 17 June 2013; in the preceding sentence, the word 'below' has been inserted.] Our results refine how precipitation patterns within a region influence pinyon die-off, revealing a precipitation and VPD threshold for tree mortality and its uncertainty band where other factors probably come into play - a response type that influences stand demography and landscape heterogeneity and is of general interest, yet has not been documented.

  20. Comparing Model Ozone Loss during the SOLVE and SOLVE-2 Winters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Model simulations have been used to analyze the factors influencing ozone loss during the 1999-2000 and 2002-2003 js. For both winters, the evolution of the Arctic vortex from November to April has been simulated using a trajectory-based microphysical and photochemical model. Extensive PSC formation and strong ozone depletion are evident in both winters. However, the ozone loss begins earlier in the 2002-2003 winter, with significant ozone depletion by early January. Analysis of the model results shows that during December 2002 not only cold temperatures but also the vortex structure was critical, allowing PSC-processed air parcels to experience significant solar exposure. The resultant ozone loss can be differentiated from ozone loss that occurs in the springtime, in particular because of the continued exposure to PSCs. For example, chlorine reactivation by the PSCs causes ozone loss to be insensitive to denitrification. Therefore, diagnosing the extent of ozone loss early in the winter is critical In understanding the overall winter-long ozone depletion.

  1. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

  2. Long-term change in limnology and invertebrates in Alaskan boreal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corcoran, R.M.; Lovvorn, J.R.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is more pronounced at high northern latitudes, and may be affecting the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of the abundant wetlands in boreal forests. On the Yukon Flats, located in the boreal forest of northeast Alaska, wetlands originally sampled during 1985-1989 were re-sampled for water chemistry and macroinvertebrates in summer 2001-2003. Wetlands sampled lost on average 19% surface water area between these periods. Total nitrogen and most metal cations (Na, Mg, and Ca, but not K) increased between these periods, whereas total phosphorus and chlorophyll a (Chl a) declined. These changes were greater in wetlands that had experienced more drying (decreased surface area). Compared with 1985-1989, densities of cladocerans, copepods, and ostracods in both June and August were much higher in 2002-2003, whereas densities of amphipods, gastropods, and chironomid larvae were generally lower. In comparisons among wetlands in 2002-2003 only, amphipod biomass was lower in wetlands with lower Chl a, which might help explain the decline of amphipods since the late 1980s when Chl a was higher. The decline in Chl a corresponded to greatly increased zooplankton density in June, suggesting a shift in carbon flow from scrapers and deposit-feeders to water-column grazers. Declines in benthic and epibenthic deposit-feeding invertebrates suggest important food web effects of climate change in otherwise pristine wetlands of the boreal forest. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Precipitation thresholds and drought-induced tree die-off: insights from patterns of Pinus edulis mortality along an environmental stress gradient.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Michael J; Royer, Patrick D; Cobb, Neil S; Breshears, David D; Ford, Paulette L

    2013-10-01

    Recent regional tree die-off events appear to have been triggered by a combination of drought and heat - referred to as 'global-change-type drought'. To complement experiments focused on resolving mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality, an evaluation of how patterns of tree die-off relate to highly spatially variable precipitation is needed. Here, we explore precipitation relationships with a die-off event of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) in southwestern North America during the 2002-2003 global-change-type drought. Pinyon die-off and its relationship with precipitation was quantified spatially along a precipitation gradient in north-central New Mexico with standard field plot measurements of die-off combined with canopy cover derived from normalized burn ratio (NBR) from Landsat imagery. Pinyon die-off patterns revealed threshold responses to precipitation (cumulative 2002-2003) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), with little to no mortality (< 10%) above 600 mm and below warm season VPD of c. 1.7 kPa. [Correction added after online publication 17 June 2013; in the preceding sentence, the word 'below' has been inserted.] Our results refine how precipitation patterns within a region influence pinyon die-off, revealing a precipitation and VPD threshold for tree mortality and its uncertainty band where other factors probably come into play - a response type that influences stand demography and landscape heterogeneity and is of general interest, yet has not been documented. PMID:23772860

  4. Molecular characterization of norovirus GII strains identified in Albania.

    PubMed

    Donia, Domenica; Cenko, Fabian; Divizia, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered as the leading cause of diarrheal diseases in all groups of age. In the last decade the number of NoV outbreaks worldwide is increasing. Data published by the systems of NoV surveillance show the GII.4 strain as the human predominant genotype circulating worldwide and new genetic variants of GII.4 were associated with epidemic events. In Albania the economy transformation has damaged significantly the environment and a large circulation of enteric viruses was reported in the past with the presence of NoV among the genotyped strains. This study aimed to characterize, by molecular analysis, the NoV GII strains detected in Albania during two time periods: in 2010 from the outbreak occurred in Ballsh and in 2002-2003 from sporadic cases of diarrhoea. A total of 21 Nov GII strains were characterized. The NoV GII.4 was genotyped more frequently and it was related closely to the pandemic variants recorded in GenBank. During 2002-2003, six NoV GII recombinant strains have been characterized.

  5. Estimating time-dependent magma source properties at the Long Valley caldera using InSAR and GPS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, B. V.; Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    For the past few decades, the Long Valley caldera in California has experienced several inflation and deflation episodes leading to uplift and subsidence, respectively, of the resurgent dome. The abundance of geodetic measurements from leveling, microgravity, GPS, two-color electronic distance meter (EDM), and interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series has allowed the geodetic community to closely monitor surface deformation of the caldera. However, estimation of the source properties of the underlying magma chamber has led to a number of different models that often disagree over important features, such as chamber depth, chamber shape, influence of the south moat fault on the southern edge of the caldera, etc. These discrepancies can often be attributed to strong non-linearities of the different source models and trade-offs between various parameters. Furthermore, underestimation of the observation errors and uncertainties regarding the elastic structure can lead to biases and overconfidence of the inversion results. We address these issues by studying the 2002-2003 inflation episode due to the availability of GPS, EDM, and InSAR time series for that time period. We first use a transient detection approach that incorporates compressed sensing principles to compactly reconstruct temporally and spatially coherent transient signals for the GPS and EDM data. A similar approach is used to construct a continuous InSAR time series formed from over 200 ERS and Envisat interferograms over a 20-year time period. We compute static offsets for the 2002-2003 inflation event and perform a fully Bayesian analysis to estimate parameter values and uncertainties for various non-linear source models. Additionally, we also test a linear source model consisting of a grid of point volume-sources. By again using compressed sensing principles, we show that the linear model is largely consistent with the more compact non-linear analytical models. We use the linear model

  6. Natural occurrence of Fusarium and subsequent fumonisin contamination in preharvest and stored maize in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Hell, K; Marasas, W F O; Wingfield, M J

    2005-03-15

    The natural occurrence of Fusarium and fumonisin contamination was evaluated from 1999 to 2003 in both preharvest and stored maize produced by small-scale farmers in four agroecological zones of Benin. Mycological analyses revealed a predominance of both Fusarium and Aspergillus in maize samples compared to other genera. The two Fusarium species most commonly isolated from maize were Fusarium verticillioides (68%) and Fusarium proliferatum (31%). Atypical isolates of F. verticillioides with some characteristics of Fusarium andiyazi but apparently closer to F. verticillioides, because the isolates were all high fumonisin producers, were also found only on preharvest maize. Study of F. verticillioides strains showed the presence of extremely high fumonisin producers in Benin with total fumonisin levels ranging from 8240 to 16,690 mg/kg. Apart from 2002-2003, Fusarium occurrence was not significantly different from one zone to another, although a slight decrease was observed from south, humid, to north, drier. Fusarium occurrence varied somewhat from one season to another. It significantly decreased over the 6 months of storage. Widespread fumonisin occurrence in maize was observed. Most of the maize samples collected were found positive for fumonisin with levels ranging from not detected to 12 mg/kg in 1999-2000, 6.7 mg/kg in 2000-2001 and 6.1 mg/kg in 2002-2003. Fumonisin levels in maize were found to be significantly higher in the two southern zones during all the surveys. The highest mean total fumonisin level was detected in 1999-2000 in maize samples from the southern Guinea Savannah (SGS) (12 mg/kg), whereas in both 2000-2001 and 2002-2003, it was in samples from the forest mosaic savannah (FMS) (6.7 and 6.1 mg/kg, respectively). Fumonisin levels varied from one season to another and, throughout the storage time, showing a decreasing trend in each zone. However, this decrease was not significant every season. An increasing trend was observed during some seasons

  7. Les cooperatives et l'electrification rurale du Quebec, 1945--1964

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorion, Marie-Josee

    Cette these est consacree a l'histoire de l'electrification rurale du Quebec, et, plus particulierement, a l'histoire des cooperatives d'electricite. Fondees par vagues successives a partir de 1945, les cooperatives rurales d'electricite ont ete actives dans plusieurs regions du Quebec et elles ont electrifie une partie significative des zones rurales. Afin de comprendre le contexte de la creation des cooperatives d'electricite, notre these debute (premiere partie) par une analyse du climat sociopolitique des annees precedant la naissance du systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale. Nous y voyons de quelle facon l'electrification rurale devient progressivement, a partir de la fin des annees 1920, une question d'actualite a laquelle les divers gouvernements qui se succedent tentent de trouver une solution, sans engager---ou si peu---les fonds de l'Etat. En ce sens, la premiere etatisation et la mise sur pied d'Hydro-Quebec, en 1944, marquent une rupture quant au mode d'action privilegie jusque-la. La nouvelle societe d'Etat se voit cependant retirer son mandat d'electrifier le monde rural un an apres sa fondation, car le gouvernement Duplessis, de retour au pouvoir, prefere mettre en place son propre modele d'electrification rurale. Ce systeme repose sur des cooperatives d'electricite, soutenues par un organisme public, l'Office de l'electrification rurale (OER). L'OER suscite de grandes attentes de la part des ruraux et c'est par centaines qu'ils se manifestent. Cet engouement pour les cooperatives complique la tache de l'OER, qui doit superviser de nouvelles societes tout en assurant sa propre organisation. Malgre des hesitations et quelques delais introduits par un manque de connaissances techniques et de personnel qualifie, les commissaires de l'OER se revelent perspicaces et parviennent a mettre sur pied un systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale qui produit des resultats rapides. Il leur faudra cependant compter sur l'aide des autres acteurs engages

  8. Reading levels of Spanish deaf students.

    PubMed

    Torres Monreal, Santiago; Santana Hernández, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    THE READING LEVELS of a population of 93 Spanish deaf students were examined. All study participants had prelingual profound hearing loss; their ages ranged from 9 to 20 years. All were enrolled in compulsory education during 2002-2003 in the Canary Islands (Spain). They were evaluated with sentence and text comprehension subtests from the Evaluation of Reading Processes of Primary Education Students, whose Spanish acronym is PROLEC (Cuetos, Rodríguez, & Ruano, 1996). A questionnaire on reading attitude was also used (Espín, 1987). Study results were consistent with those of previous research: Deaf students, at the end of their primary school education (mean age 13 years), have reading levels similar to or lower than the reading levels of hearing students at the onset of primary school education (mean age 7 years). These deaf students also have an indifferent attitude toward reading.

  9. Review of bats and SARS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zhengli; Zhang, Shuyi; Field, Hume; Daszak, Peter; Eaton, Bryan T

    2006-12-01

    Bats have been identified as a natural reservoir for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, including henipaviruses and variants of rabies viruses. Recently, we and another group independently identified several horseshoe bat species (genus Rhinolophus) as the reservoir host for a large number of viruses that have a close genetic relationship with the coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Our current research focused on the identification of the reservoir species for the progenitor virus of the SARS coronaviruses responsible for outbreaks during 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. In addition to SARS-like coronaviruses, many other novel bat coronaviruses, which belong to groups 1 and 2 of the 3 existing coronavirus groups, have been detected by PCR. The discovery of bat SARS-like coronaviruses and the great genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats have shed new light on the origin and transmission of SARS coronaviruses.

  10. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2000-07-05

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NO{sub x} SIP call.

  11. A drop in mid-summer shortwave radiation induced by changes in the ice-surface condition in the central Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun; Kikuchi, Takashi; Perovich, Donald K.; Morison, James H.

    2005-07-01

    Ice-surface changes during summer and effects on solar heat input in the Arctic were analyzed using incoming shortwave radiation data from drifting buoys deployed in 2002, 2003, and 2004 as part of the North Pole Environmental Observatory project. Observed shortwave radiation was about half of the incoming shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere during early summer, suggesting cloudy skies. In each year, events occurred after mid-summer during which time the shortwave radiation decreased 33% to one third of shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Snow-depth data, aerial photos, and date of melt onset at the buoy site suggest that a decrease in snow/ice albedo induced by snow melting and melt-pond formation modified the amount of shortwave radiation through multiple reflections. A simplified calculation of the ice-albedo feedback revealed that the drop in shortwave radiation after mid-summer was self damping.

  12. HCCI Engine Optimization and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Rolf D. Reitz

    2005-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop methods to optimize and control Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, with emphasis on diesel-fueled engines. HCCI offers the potential of nearly eliminating IC engine NOx and particulate emissions at reduced cost over Compression Ignition Direct Injection engines (CIDI) by controlling pollutant emissions in-cylinder. The project was initiated in January, 2002, and the present report is the final report for work conducted on the project through December 31, 2004. Periodic progress has also been reported at bi-annual working group meetings held at USCAR, Detroit, MI, and at the Sandia National Laboratories. Copies of these presentation materials are available on CD-ROM, as distributed by the Sandia National Labs. In addition, progress has been documented in DOE Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Progress Reports for FY 2002, 2003 and 2004. These reports are included as the Appendices in this Final report.

  13. Updated UBV Light-Curve and Period Analysis of Eclipsing Binary HS Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Zeynep; Değirmenci, Ömer Lütfi

    2006-08-01

    UBV light-curves of the eclipsing binary HS Herculis, obtained in 2002 2003 observational seasons, were analysed with Wilson-Devinney computer code. New absolute dimensions of the system were calculated using the results of the light-curve analysis. Period variation of the system was also investigated. Several new times of minima have been secured for this problematic system. An apsidal motion with a period of 80.7 years was confirmed and a third body in a pretty eccentric orbit (e 3 = 0.90 ± 0.08) with a period of 85.4 years was found. The corresponding internal structure constants of the binary system, log k 2, and the mass of the third body were derived.

  14. Updated UBV Light-Curve and Period Analysis of Eclipsing Binary HS Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Zeynep; Değirmenci, Ömer Lütfi

    2006-08-01

    UBV light-curves of the eclipsing binary HS Herculis, which obtained in 2002--2003 observational seasons, were analysed with Wilson-Devinney computer code. New absolute dimensions of the system were calculated using the results of the light-curve analysis. Period variation of the system also investigated. Several new times of minima have been secured for this problematic system. An apsidal motion with the period of 80.7 years was confirmed and a third body in an pretty eccentric orbit (e 3 = 0.90 ± 0.08) with a period of 85.4 years was found. The corresponding internal structure constants of the binary system, log k 2, and mass of third body were derived.

  15. Characterization of Field Exposed Thin Film Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Sastry, O. S.; Stokes, A.; Singh, Y. K.; Kumar, M.

    2012-06-01

    Test arrays of thin film modules have been deployed at the Solar Energy Centre near New Delhi, India since 2002-2003. Performances of these arrays were reported by O.S. Sastry [1]. This paper reports on NREL efforts to support SEC by performing detailed characterization of selected modules from the array. Modules were selected to demonstrate both average and worst case power loss over the 8 years of outdoor exposure. The modules characterized included CdTe, CIS and three different types of a-Si. All but one of the a-Si types were glass-glass construction. None of the modules had edge seals. Detailed results of these tests are presented along with our conclusions about the causes of the power loss for each technology.

  16. Sand and nest temperatures and an estimate of hatchling sex ratio from the Heron Island green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) rookery, Southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, David T.; Freeman, Candida

    2006-11-01

    Sand and nest temperatures were monitored during the 2002-2003 nesting season of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Sand temperatures increased from ˜ 24°C early in the season to 27-29°C in the middle, before decreasing again. Beach orientation affected sand temperature at nest depth throughout the season; the north facing beach remained 0.7°C warmer than the east, which was 0.9°C warmer than the south, but monitored nest temperatures were similar across all beaches. Sand temperature at 100 cm depth was cooler than at 40 cm early in the season, but this reversed at the end. Nest temperatures increased 2-4°C above sand temperatures during the later half of incubation due to metabolic heating. Hatchling sex ratio inferred from nest temperature profiles indicated a strong female bias.

  17. A methodology for the evaluation of water policies in European countries.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Lucia; Gilsanz, Javier de Pedraza; Gil, Fermín Villarroya

    2010-06-01

    Periodic assessment of progress toward established policy goals is crucial to understanding whether the applied efforts are effective. In Europe, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in year 2000 set ambitious environmental objectives to be achieved by the end of 2015 through the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles. While at this stage it is premature to measure the impact of this Directive in terms of environmental outcomes, it is nonetheless important to develop indicators in order to monitor whether water management practices throughout Europe are aligning towards IWRM. This article presents the methodological development of the Water and Wetland Index, a comparative water policy assessment by environmental NGOs that was carried out in 2002-2003, and highlights the interest of repeating it in 2015, when the first WFD planning cycle will be completed. PMID:20437178

  18. Tephra hazard assessment at Mt. Etna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scollo, S.; Coltelli, M.; Bonadonna, C.; Del Carlo, P.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a probabilistic hazard assessment for tephra fallout at Mt. Etna (Italy) associated with both short- and long-lived eruptions. Eruptive scenarios and eruption source parameters were defined based on the geological record, while an advection-diffusion-sedimentation model was used to capture the variation in wind speed and direction with time after calibration with the field data. Two different types of eruptions were considered in our analysis: eruptions associated with strong short-lived plumes and eruptions associated with weak long-lived plumes. Our probabilistic approach was based on one eruption scenario for both types and on an eruption range scenario for eruptions producing weak long-lived plumes. Due to the prevailing wind direction, the eastern flanks are the most affected by tephra deposition, with the 122 BC Plinian and 2002-2003 eruptions showing the highest impact both on infrastructures and agriculture.

  19. Abolishing the effect of reinforcement delay on human causal learning.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Marc J; May, Jon

    2004-04-01

    Associative learning theory postulates two main determinants for human causal learning: contingency and contiguity. In line with such an account, participants in Shanks, Pearson, and Dickinson (1989) failed to discover causal relations involving delays of more than two seconds. More recent research has shown that the impact of contiguity and delay is mediated by prior knowledge about the timeframe of the causal relation in question. Buehner and May (2002, 2003) demonstrated that the detrimental effect of delay can be significantly reduced if reasoners are aware of potential delays. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the negative influence of delay can be abolished completely by a subtle change in the experimental instructions. Temporal contiguity is thus not essential for human causal learning.

  20. Technology transfer from havana hospitals to primary care: yamila de armas, MD. Deputy director, provincial health department, havana city province.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Dr Yamila de Armas has occupied an array of posts since finishing her residency in family medicine in her home province of Cienfuegos in 1992. She has served as a family doctor; polyclinic, municipal and provincial health director; medical school dean; and twice vice minister of public health. But few would doubt her toughest job is the one she has now: deputy director of the Havana City Provincial Health Department, in charge of medical services for the 2.2 million people living in Cuba's complex, sprawling capital. It was here in 2002-2003 that the program was launched to repair, refurbish and expand the country's nearly 500 community polyclinics. Key to the effort was equipping these facilities with a broader range of new and upgraded medical technology. Dr de Armas offers MEDICC Review her reflections on the results five years later.

  1. Personal hygiene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002-2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygiene factors individually and as a composite hygiene score; potential confounding factors were controlled. Selected MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MRSA infection was significantly associated with a low composite hygiene score. Transmission among prison inmates appeared to be responsible for this outbreak. PFGE analysis showed that isolates were indistinguishable and associated with community-onset MRSA infections in other US prisons. Improving hygiene practices and environmental conditions may help prevent and interrupt future MRSA outbreaks in prison settings. PMID:16704779

  2. Gender differences in the relationship between discrimination and substance use disorder among Latinos.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, India J; Hong, Seunghye

    2012-10-01

    Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study collected in 2002-2003 (N = 2,554), we assessed the adjusted odds of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) associated with report of both unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination. Among men, SUD was increased for those reporting low, moderate, and high levels of unfair treatment compared to those reporting no unfair treatment and patterns were similar for racial/ethnic discrimination. Among women, only those reporting high levels of unfair treatment were at increased risk of lifetime SUD and no associations were observed between racial/ethnic discrimination and lifetime SUD. Future research should examine the role that discrimination plays in the development of substance misuse among Latinos.

  3. Visual Communication in Web Design - Analyzing Visual Communication in Web Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    Web sites are rapidly becoming the preferred media choice for information search, company presentation, shopping, entertainment, education, and social contacts. And along with the various forms of communication that the Web offers the aesthetic aspects have begun to play an increasingly important role. However, studies in the design and the relevance of focusing on the aesthetic aspects in planning and using Web sites have only to a smaller degree been subject of theoretical reflection. For example, Miller (2000), Thorlacius (2001, 2002, 2005), Engholm (2002, 2003), and Beaird (2007) have been contributing to set a beginning agenda that address the aesthetic aspects. On the other hand, there is a considerable amount of literature addressing the theoretical and methodological aspects focusing on the technical and functional aspects. In this context it is the aim of this article to introduce a model for analysis of visual communication on websites.

  4. Search for first generation leptoquarks in proton-antiproton collisions at the center of mass energy = 1.96 TeV in the dielectron + dijet channel using the D0 detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Shaohua

    2004-01-01

    We describe a search for first generation leptoquarks decaying into the eejj final state in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. this search is based on data collected during 2002-2003 with an integrated luminosity of (130.4 =- 8.5) pb -1. Leptoquarks are assumed to be produced in pairs and to decay into an electron and a quark with a branching ration β. We observe no evidence for leptoquarks, and set an upper cross section limit of 0.086 pb at the 95% confidence level corresponding to a lower mass limit of 231 GeV/c2 for scalar leptoquarks when β = 1.

  5. Characterisation of swabbing for virological analysis in the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System during four influenza seasons in the period 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, A; de Mateo, S

    2007-05-01

    This study sought to characterise the swabbing pattern in the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System (SISSS) and ascertain to what extent the system meets the guidelines currently being drafted by The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS). Data on seasons 2002/2003 to 2005/2006 were drawn from SISSS. The study analysed collection and dispatch of swab specimens for virological analysis by reference to variables relating to patient sex, age group, vaccination status, specimen collection period, period of influenza activity, time of swabbing and epidemiological season. SISSS adapts to EISS recommendations with respect to the specimen collection period and period of influenza activity, but there is a tendency to collect fewer specimens than recommended as the age of patients increases, and in the case of elderly patients (65 years and older), frequency of collection is clearly insufficient. Furthermore, sentinel physicians collect a higher percentage of specimens in cases where patients have received the influenza vaccine. PMID:17991396

  6. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  7. SABER observations of mesospheric ozone during NH late winter 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. K.; López-Puertas, M.; García-Comas, M.; Tukiainen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Observations from the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics) satellite show interannual variations of mesospheric ozone in the NH late winter. Ozone in the mid-January to mid-March period is significantly different in 2004, 2006, and 2009 than in other years (2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008). The altitudes of the ozone secondary maximum (˜90-95 km), the minimum (˜80 km) and the tertiary maximum (˜72 km) are all lower by 3-5 km during the three anomalous winters. The ozone anomalies indicate enhanced downward motion and are consistent with other observations of unusual profiles of trace species. The ozone perturbations extend to at least 100 km while temperatures above 90 km are within the range found in the other years.

  8. Comparative Markedness and Induced Opacity.

    PubMed

    Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Farris-Trimble, Ashley W

    2010-01-01

    Results are reported from a descriptive and experimental study that was intended to evaluate comparative markedness (McCarthy 2002, 2003) as an amendment to optimality theory. Two children (aged 4;3 and 4;11) with strikingly similar, delayed phonologies presented with two independent, interacting error patterns of special interest, i.e., Deaffrication ([tɪn] 'chin') and Consonant Harmony ([ɡɔɡ] 'dog') in a feeding interaction ([kik] 'cheek'). Both children were enrolled in a counterbalanced treatment study employing a multiple base-line single-subject experimental design, which was intended to induce a grandfather effect in one case ([dɔɡ] 'dog' and [kik] 'cheek') and a counterfeeding interaction in the other ([ɡɔɡ] 'dog' and [tik] 'cheek'). The results were largely supportive of comparative markedness, although some anomalies were observed. The clinical implications of these results are also explored.

  9. Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.

  10. Implementing and Supporting Earth Science Curriculum Reform in Secondary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    The American Geological Institute has been actively involved in developing earth science curricula for more thanm 40 years through programs like Earth Science Sourcebook and the Earth Science Curriculum Project. Recently, the AGI was funded by the National Science Foundation to develop curriculum for secondary school (grades 6-12) that would address the Earth science and inquiry content standards of the National Science Education Standards. The EarthComm (high school) and Investigating Earth Systems (middle school) curriculum programs were developed through funding from the National Science Foundation and corporate sponsors of the AGI Foundation, and published for the 2002-2003 schol year. The AGI is now actively involved in developing and refining systems for supporting the professional development of teachers who implement EarthComm and Investigating Earth Systems. The paper presentation will outline how AGI is supporting teachers through a combination of web-based programs, teacher workshops, and DVD and video materials.

  11. Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from the COMPASS data

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Paolo

    2005-10-06

    COMPASS is a fixed target experiment presently running at CERN. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 it used a 160 GeV polarized muon beam coming from SPS and scattered off a 6LiD (deuteron) target. The nucleons in the target can be polarized either longitudinally or transversely with respect to the muon beam and 20% of the running time has been devoted to transverse polarization. Hereby the final results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetries calculated from the data taken in transverse polarization in 2002 are presented. In the forthcoming 2006 run, COMPASS plans to run with a NH3 (proton) target. Projections for the statistical accuracy which will be ultimately achieved on both the proton and the deuteron asymmetries are also given.

  12. SPOT-VEG Based Analysis of Siberian Silkmoth Outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viatcheslav I.; Ranson, K. Jon; Im. Sergey T.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of an outbreak of the Siberian silkmoth were correlated with topographic features of the affected area using SPOT-VEG data and a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM). In 2002-2003 an outbreak affected approximately 20,000 ha in the South Siberian mountains of Russia. The outbreak began between the elevations of approximately 430- 480 m and on southwest slopes with steepness < 5 degrees. As the pest searched for food it moved up and down slope, resulting in an elevation distribution split within a range of approximately 390-540 m and slope steepness up to 15 degrees. In the final phase the azimuth distribution of damaged stands became even. The correlation between the initial phase and topographic features can be used to prioritize monitoring forest areas most vulnerable to destruction by pests.

  13. An agricultural survey for more than 9,500 African households.

    PubMed

    Waha, Katharina; Zipf, Birgit; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep; Hassan, Rashid M

    2016-01-01

    Surveys for more than 9,500 households were conducted in the growing seasons 2002/2003 or 2003/2004 in eleven African countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger and Senegal in western Africa; Egypt in northern Africa; Ethiopia and Kenya in eastern Africa; South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Households were chosen randomly in districts that are representative for key agro-climatic zones and farming systems. The data set specifies farming systems characteristics that can help inform about the importance of each system for a country's agricultural production and its ability to cope with short- and long-term climate changes or extreme weather events. Further it informs about the location of smallholders and vulnerable systems and permits benchmarking agricultural systems characteristics. PMID:27218890

  14. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on Television: A Quantitative Analysis Across Two Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Gruber, Enid L.

    2007-01-01

    Two annual content analyses of programming from the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 television seasons (n = 1,276 and 1,439 programs, respectively) were conducted to assess the presence of behaviors and verbal messages related to the sexuality of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Sexual content associated with nonheterosexuals was found in about 15% of programs overall; however, rates of occurrence within episodes were low. Of 14 genres, only movies and variety/comedy shows had substantial percentages of programs that contained nonheterosexual content. Programs on commercial broadcast networks were less likely to have nonheterosexual content than those on cable networks, especially those on premium cable movie networks. Implications of the continued lack of attention to sexual minorities are discussed for both heterosexual and nonheterosexual viewers. PMID:17594976

  15. Dr. Smith Goes to Washington: A Physicist Wanders the Halls of Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2005-03-23

    Dr. Tannenbaum was the 2002-2003 APS Congressional Science Fellow. He worked in the office of U.S. Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) on nuclear nonproliferation issues. His work in Congressman Markey's office focused on issues including missile defense, the nuclear program in Iran, prevention of the transfer of U.S. nuclear technology to North Korea, and the security of nuclear sites in Iraq. Dr. Tannenbaum will discuss this experience and observations concerning 'underinformed and uninformed' decision-making in Congress. He will also briefly discuss goals of the Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Finally, he will discuss ways in which physicists can get more involved in the political process.

  16. An agricultural survey for more than 9,500 African households

    PubMed Central

    Waha, Katharina; Zipf, Birgit; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep; Hassan, Rashid M.

    2016-01-01

    Surveys for more than 9,500 households were conducted in the growing seasons 2002/2003 or 2003/2004 in eleven African countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger and Senegal in western Africa; Egypt in northern Africa; Ethiopia and Kenya in eastern Africa; South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Households were chosen randomly in districts that are representative for key agro-climatic zones and farming systems. The data set specifies farming systems characteristics that can help inform about the importance of each system for a country’s agricultural production and its ability to cope with short- and long-term climate changes or extreme weather events. Further it informs about the location of smallholders and vulnerable systems and permits benchmarking agricultural systems characteristics. PMID:27218890

  17. Joint regression analysis and AMMI model applied to oat improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A.; Oliveira, T. A.; Mejza, S.

    2012-09-01

    In our work we present an application of some biometrical methods useful in genotype stability evaluation, namely AMMI model, Joint Regression Analysis (JRA) and multiple comparison tests. A genotype stability analysis of oat (Avena Sativa L.) grain yield was carried out using data of the Portuguese Plant Breeding Board, sample of the 22 different genotypes during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 in six locations. In Ferreira et al. (2006) the authors state the relevance of the regression models and of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) model, to study and to estimate phenotypic stability effects. As computational techniques we use the Zigzag algorithm to estimate the regression coefficients and the agricolae-package available in R software for AMMI model analysis.

  18. Moons over Jupiter: transits and shadow transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. H.; et al.

    2003-06-01

    There is no more beautiful illustration of orbital motions than the movements of Jupiter's satellites. Every six years, their movements are most strikingly displayed, when the jovian system is presented edge-on to Earth. This means that there is a higher frequency of multiple transits over the face of the planet, as all the moons transit across the equatorial zone, whereas in other years Ganymede and Callisto transit near the poles or not at all. Also, for a few months, the satellites pass in front of each other, displaying mutual eclipses and occultations. In 2002/2003 we have been able to observe a fine series of these multiple and mutual events. On the cover, and on these pages, are some of the highest-resolution images received.

  19. Dynamics of Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Malaria in an Armed Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Thomas; Raso, Giovanna; Acka, Cinthia A.; Tschannen, Andres B.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Background Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and malaria. Methodology The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Côte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. Principal Findings There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. Conclusion New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects. PMID:19907632

  20. Growing and shrinking in the smallest tortoise, Homopus signatus signatus: the importance of rain.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Victor J T; Hofmeyr, Margaretha D; Henen, Brian T

    2007-08-01

    Climate change models predict that the range of the world's smallest tortoise, Homopus signatus signatus, will aridify and contract in the next decades. To evaluate the effects of annual variation in rainfall on the growth of H. s. signatus, we recorded annual growth rates of wild individuals from spring 2000 to spring 2004. Juveniles grew faster than did adults, and females grew faster than did males. Growth correlated strongly with the amount of rain that fell during the time just before and within the growth periods. Growth rates were lowest in 2002-2003, when almost no rain fell between September 2002 and August 2003. In this period, more than 54% of the tortoises had negative growth rates for their straight carapace length (SCL), shell height (SH), and shell volume (SV); maximum shrinking for SCL, SH, and SV was 4, 11, and 12%, respectively. The shell of H. s. signatus has some flexibility dorso-ventrally, so a reduction in internal matter due to starvation or dehydration may have caused SH to shrink. Because the length and width of the shell seem more rigid, reversible bone resorption may have contributed to shrinkage, particularly of the shell width and plastron length. Based on growth rates for all years, female H. s. signatus need 11-12 years to mature, approximately twice as long as would be expected allometrically for such a small species. However, if aridification lowers average growth rates to the level of 2002-2003, females would require 30 years to mature. Additionally, aridification would lower average and maximum female size, resulting in smaller eggs and hatchlings. These projected life history responses to aridification heighten the threat posed by the predicted range contraction of this red-listed species. PMID:17453250

  1. Population survey and conservation assessment of the globally threatened cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichi) in Jhelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naeem Awan, Muhammad; Ali, Hassan; Charles Lee, David

    2014-07-01

    The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas. Though it is well established that the species is threatened and its numbers declining, updated definitive estimates are lacking, so in 2011, we conducted a survey to assess the density, population size, and threats to the species in Jhelum valley, Azad Kashmir, which holds the largest known population of cheer pheasants in Pakistan. We conducted dawn call count surveys at 17 points clustered in three survey zones of the valley, 11 of which had earlier been used for a 2002-2003 survey of the birds. Over the course of our survey, 113 birds were recorded. Mean density of cheer pheasant in the valley was estimated at 11.8 ± 6.47 pairs per km², with significant differences in terms of both counts and estimated density of cheer were significantly different across the three survey zones, with the highest in the Chinari region and the lowest, that is the area with no recorded sightings of the pheasants, in Gari Doppata. The total breeding population of cheer pheasants is estimated to be some 2 490 pairs, though this does not consider the actual area of occupancy in the study area. On the whole, more cheer pheasants were recorded in this survey than from the same points in 2002-2003, indicating some success in population growth. Unfortunately, increasing human settlement, fires, livestock grazing, hunting, and the collection of non-timber forest products continue to threaten the population of cheer in the Jhelum valley. To mitigate these potential impacts, some degree of site protection should be required for the conservation of cheer pheasants in Pakistan, and more effective monitoring of the species is clearly needed.

  2. Impacts of long-range transports of PM10 on air quality in Gwangju, South Korea using satellite and in-situ measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R.; Han, K.; Song, C.; Kang, Y.; Jung, W.; Ahan, S.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of long-range transported particular matter on the city of Gwangju which is one of metropolitan cities in the South Korea and is located in the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula, the PM10 concentrations measured at six measurement sites in Gwangju area were used. A decadal trend (2002-2011) of PM10 was analyzed and then the monthly and daily variations of PM10 for the years of 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011 were investigated. The events of long-range transport were selected from peaks of daily PM10 and were evaluated through 72-hours backward trajectory analysis using NOAA HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In addition, the events were evaluated using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-retrieved AI (Aerosol Index), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI)-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). Then the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport was filtered and the monthly variations calculated from the filtered daily PM10 and the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport were compared. For the year of 2002, up to ~50% of the PM10 concentration was influenced by Asian dust in March and April, respectively. In contrast, for the year of 2003, the impact of LRT on the PM10 concentrations were relatively small in the Gwangju areas. The monthly variations and annual mean values for 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011, calculated from the filtered daily PM10, were similar and therefore, the annual variations of PM10 in Gwangju could be mainly affected by the long-range transport.

  3. Changes in parents' perceptions of infant influenza vaccination over two years.

    PubMed Central

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Ko, Feng-Shou; Hoberman, Alejandro; Zoffel, Lisa; Kearney, Diana H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inner-city health centers serving large proportions of low-income and minority children participated in a study to introduce influenza vaccination among healthy infants in 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. METHODS: Following the 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 influenza vaccination seasons, a short, low-literacy level survey was mailed to parents of vaccine-eligible children. Factors related to vaccination status were determined using Chi-squared and logistic regression procedures. In 2003, 436 of 1000 surveys were returned and in 2004, 274 of 583 surveys were returned. RESULTS: Influenza vaccination rate by parental report was 56% in 2003 and 45% in 2004. The most important factors related to immunization were doctor's recommendation (OR = 10.5, 95% CI: 6.2-17.7; P < 0.001), receiving a reminder (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.01-2.6; P = 0.047) and parental belief that the child should be vaccinated (OR = 7.1, 95% CI: 4.3-11.6; P < 0.001). From 2003-2004, nonphysician social influences to have infants vaccinated against influenza increased overall, and perceived positive consequences of vaccination increased among parents of vaccinated children. CONCLUSIONS: Social support for influenza vaccination of healthy infants increased over the two years of the encouragement period, suggesting that information regarding this vaccine was reaching the general public. The most important facilitators of influenza immunization were physician recommendation, parental support and reminders. This suggests that reminders from physicians should specifically state that the doctor recommends influenza vaccine and address common misperceptions about influenza vaccine. These findings may have broader applications as the age groups for whom influenza vaccination is recommended continue to expand. PMID:17595932

  4. Atmospheric Effects of Energetic Particle Precipitation in the Arctic Winter 1978-1979 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (approximately 2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003 2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  5. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust.

    PubMed

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes.

  6. Impact of the "Guidelines for infection prevention in dentistry" (2006) by the Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch-Institute (KRINKO) on hygiene management in dental practices – analysis of a survey from 2009

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Handrup, Stephan; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess trends in hygiene management in dental practices in comparison to an earlier survey in 2002/2003 and to point out key aspects for future efforts. Method: The infection prevention management of all dental practices in Greifswald (n=35) was determined by a questionnaire in a personal interview in 2008/2009. Results: 26% of the dentists did not use sufficient personal protective equipment during the general examination of the patient. In conservative and prosthetic dentistry, 15% still did not use adequate measures and 9% did not even in surgical interventions. Vaccination coverage was clearly too low, as only 35% of dentists were vaccinated against influenza and coverage with other vaccinations was also quite low. 11% of the dentists did not perform a documented anamnesis and in 29% of the dental practices no appointment system for risk patients existed. There were significant deficiencies in the reprocessing of medical devices and in the equipment needed for reprocessing. The opportunity to participate in further training in this field was rejected by 23% of the dentists. In 10 dental practices, the colony count in the dental unit water-conducting system was five times higher than the limit. A contamination with P. aeruginosa was discovered in 4 practices. All units were renovated. Discussion: Overall, both the hygiene management and hygiene equipment in the practices have improved considerably compared to the previous survey in 2002/2003. This demonstrates the positive effect of the KRINKO guidelines from 2006. However, the survey again showed relevant deficiences in the hygiene management of dental practices, which agrees with a Germany-wide online survey from 2009. Conclusion: While the study revealed persistent deficiencies in hygiene management, especially in reprocessing, it confirms that the KRINKO guidelines for dental practices from 2006 led to significant improvements in hygiene management. Doubts about the impact of the guidelines are not

  7. Spatial correlations of foF2 deviations and their implications for global ionospheric models: 1. Ionosondes in Australia and Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Leo F.; Wilkinson, Phillip J.

    2009-04-01

    The deviations of foF2 from the monthly median, ΔfoF2, have been calculated for each UT hour of each month for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2006, for 10 ionosondes in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The linear correlation coefficients between simultaneous (same UT) values of ΔfoF2 for 45 station pairs have then been calculated for each hour for the 48 months. Since mixing up magnetically quiet and disturbed days can lead to deceptive correlations that correspond to neither quiet nor disturbed days, most of the analysis has been restricted to magnetically quiet days, defined as Ap < 25. On a monthly basis, it is found that the correlation coefficients are significantly lower for months with no magnetically disturbed days. In general, the correlation coefficients decrease with decreasing solar activity, from 2002/2003 to 2006. It is inferred that the deviations that lead to the observed correlation coefficients are due to changes in the solar wind, and the consequent effects on neutral winds, electric fields, temperature, and composition. The magnitudes of the measured correlation coefficients have implications for the F2 region correlation lengths used in global ionospheric models. For the Australian ionosondes and for quiet days, the inferred north-south correlation length would be ˜1000 km, while the east-west correlation length would be ˜1500 km, with somewhat lower values for winter and low solar activity. The lower limit is not well defined because the shortest station separation is 857 km. Shorter station separations are considered in a companion paper.

  8. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Frank E.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sara; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002-2003 and 2010-2011. During 2010-2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002-2003 compared to 2010-2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as -10.6 g C m-2 d-1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (-2.9 g C m-2 d-1). CH4 fluxes during 2010-2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m-2 d-1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m-2 d-1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010-2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010-2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m-2 yr-1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  9. Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) reproduction and seedling colonization after Hurricane Charley: Comparisons of Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proffitt, C.E.; Milbrandt, E.C.; Travis, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive aspects of life history are known to be important in recovery following disturbance in many plant species although this has not been well studied in mangroves. Hurricane Charley devastated large areas of mangroves in Charlotte Harbor, Florida, in August 2004. We surveyed 6 forests in Charlotte Harbor (2002, 2003, and 2005) and 16 in Tampa Bay, Florida (2001, 2002, 2003, and 2005) for total numbers of reproducing trees and trees heterozygotic for albinism that produce both normal and albino propagules. Tree size (estimated height and diameter at breast height) was also recorded for sentinel heterozygotic trees. Total number of reproducing trees km-1 was used as an index of reproductive output of the population, and deviation from the 3:1 (normal:albino propagules) ratio on heterozygotic trees expected with 100% selfing was used to estimate outcrossing. Numbers of Rhizophora mangle reproducing trees km-1 of shoreline in Charlotte Harbor were reduced by an order of magnitude following Hurricane Charley, while numbers of reproducing trees in Tampa Bay were similar to those of previous years. Reduced reproduction in Charlotte Harbor was accompanied by fewer new recruits in plots on Sanibel and Captiva Islands. Numbers of new recruits after the storm also tended to be fewer in plots where canopy loss was greater. More new recruits occurred in sites that had higher densities of pre-storm Rhizophora seedlings and greater relative dominance by Rhizophora. Outcrossing of sentinel trees was 2.5 times greater in Charlotte Harbor (mean site-1 = 33.6 ?? 6.7%; with 17% of forest sites completely selfing) than in Tampa Bay (mean site-1 = 13.4 ?? 4.7%; with 40% of sites completely selfing), although the implications for seedling recruitment of this difference are not known. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  10. Transfert radiatif numerique pour un code SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viau, Joseph Edmour Serge

    2001-03-01

    Le besoin de reproduire la formation d'etoiles par simulations numeriques s'est fait de plus en plus present au cours des 30 dernieres annees. Depuis Larson (1968), les codes de simulations n'ont eu de cesse de s'ameliorer. D'ailleurs, en 1977, Lucy introduit une autre methode de calcul venant concurrencer la methode par grille. Cette nouvelle facon de calculer utilise en effet des points a defaut d'utiliser des grilles, ce qui est une bien meilleure adaptation aux calculs d'un effondrement gravitationnel. Il restait cependant le probleme d'ajouter le transfert radiatif a un tel code. Malgre la proposition de Brookshaw (1984), qui nous montre une formule permettant d'ajouter le transfert radiatif sous la forme SPH tout en evitant la double sommation genante qu'elle implique, aucun code SPH a ce jour ne contient un transfert radiatif satisfaisant. Cette these presente pour la premiere fois un code SPH muni d'un transfert radiatif adequat. Toutes les difficultes ont pu etre surmontees afin d'obtenir finalement le transfert radiatif "vrai" qui survient dans l'effondrement d'un nuage moleculaire. Pour verifier l'integrite de nos resultats, une comparaison avec le nonisothermal test case de Boss & Myhill (1993) nous revele un resultat fort satisfaisant. En plus de suivre fidelement la courbe de l'evolution de la temperature centrale en fonction de la densite centrale, notre code est exempt de toutes les anomalies rencontrees par les codes par grille. Le test du cas de la conduction thermique nous a lui aussi servit a verifier la fiabilite de notre code. La aussi les resultats sont fort satisfaisants. Faisant suite a ces resultats, le code fut utilise dans deux situations reelles de recherche, ce qui nous a permis de demontrer les nombreuses possibilites que nous donne notre nouveau code. Dans un premier temps, nous avons tudie le comportement de la temperature dans un disque d'accretion durant son evolution. Ensuite nous avons refait en partie une experience de Bonnell

  11. Sur la nature des absorbeurs dans l'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sebastien

    L'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique est l'une des plus recentes propositions de description des phenomenes du microcosme. En accord avec les predictions de la mecanique quantique standard, l'interpretation transactionnelle propose une alternative a celle de Copenhague. Son principal avantage est qu'elle permet de visualiser les mecanismes sous-jacents a l'echange d'energie, de quantite de mouvement ou d'autres quantites quantiques entre un emetteur et un absorbeur. Ces echanges sont le resultat, a l'instar de la theorie de l'absorbeur de Wheeler et Feynman, de l'utilisation autant d'ondes avancees que retardees. Bien que l'interpretation transactionnelle n'ait pas attire la plus grande attention scientifique, plusieurs critiques lui ont ete adressees. Dans les annees 1990, differentes experiences a mesure sans interaction ont ete concues. Depuis, il a ete avance que la version originale de l'interpretation transactionnelle pouvait difficilement rendre compte de ce type d'experience et meme qu'elle n'est pas compatible avec le concept d'univers quadridimensionnel. La recherche de ce memoire par article consiste a montrer que lorsque l'on utilise systematiquement l'interpretation transactionnelle en considerant la configuration totale des absorbeurs (incluant l'absorbeur universel), il n'est pas necessaire de faire appel a une hierarchie de transactions comme certains l'ont propose.

  12. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Alexandre

    Depuis sa formulation, la theorie de l'information a ete basee, implicitement, sur les lois de la physique classique. Une telle formulation est toutefois incomplete puisqu'elle ne tient pas compte de la realite quantique. Au cours des vingt dernieres annees, l'expansion de la theorie de l'information englobant les effets purement quantiques a connu un interet grandissant. La realisation d'un systeme de traitement de l'information quantique, un ordinateur quantique, presente toutefois de nombreux defis. Dans ce document, on s'interesse a differents aspects concernant ces defis. On commence par presenter des concepts algorithmiques comme l'optimisation de calculs quantiques et le calcul quantique geometrique. Par la suite, on s'interesse au design et a differents aspects de l'utilisation de qubits bases sur les jonctions Josephson. En particulier, un nouveau design de qubit supraconducteur est suggere. On presente aussi une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est tres generale puisqu'elle peut etre appliquee a differents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'interesse a la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le detecteur suggere ici a l'avantage de pouvoir etre decouple du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours.

  13. The origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Microfossil finds have been firmly established at about 3.5 Ga (giga annee=10 9 years), but no rocks older than about 4.0 Ga have been demonstrated, leaving the history of the first 0.6 Ga missing. This gap has been filled by models of the solar system. The origin of the ocean, atmosphere, and much crustal material apparently lies in a heavy rain of comets, subsequent to the catastrophic Moon-forming event. The earliest microfossils are those of the Apex chert in Australia, about 3.5 Ga old. `Prebiotic' simulations of possible biochemistry have made some progress in recent years, but many obstacles remain, and there is no agreement as to the course of development. The `ribose nucleic acid (RNA) World', aboriginal `clay genes', and catalysis on iron-sulfide precipitates are not ruled out. The search for the `last common ancestor' has reached a point between the Bacteria and the Archaea. It is possible that this organism may have been a thermophile, similar to many modern hot spring organisms. But it is likely to have been an autotroph, and a late development after the true origin of life. Even more speculative are suggestions about the origins of metabolic sequences, in particular the origin of the genetic code. Since all modern organisms share this code (and many other things), there had to be a long history of development during the blank period of Earth history.

  14. Modelling the interaction between volcanic sources and fault zones at the Etna Mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Mattia, Mario; Monaco, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    Analytical and numerical modeling techniques are jointly applied to simulate geophysical processes in the Earth's crust. The methods are of a complementary nature. Analytical models have been used traditionally due to the lightness of the request computational resources but they are strongly limited in the ability to quantify observables, to describe multiphysics processes and to use more complicated material rheologies and Earth's topography. All these properties can be achieved by using numerical models even though it requires long time of calculation and the deep knowledge of the studied geophysical system. The 2002-2003 Etna eruptive event involved two different sectors of the volcano providing a big amount of geophysical data. The eruption produced severe fires in the woods, destroyed many tourist infrastructures and interrupted one of the principal roads. It was heralded, accompanied and followed by an intense seismic activity that was culminated with the earthquake (M ~ 4.4) on October 29 that produced severe damages in the S. Venerina village. The eruption was deeply analyzed by analytical (e.g., Aloisi et al., 2003; Aloisi et al., 2006; Bonforte et al., 2007; Currenti et al., 2008a) and numerical modeling (Walter et al., 2005; Currenti et al., 2008b). The numerical models have proved that the medium heterogeneities and the area topography strongly affect the volcano deformation field. The Etna Mount, jointly with a motley lithological setting, is characterized by a complex tectonic scenery that influences the structural evolution of the volcanic edifice. Important fault zones intersect the volcano edifice, perturbing the deformation pattern produced by the volcanic sources. The displacement and stress of blocks are affected by the deformation of discontinuities to a degree (Liu and Zhongkui, 2007), therefore the fault zones can not be neglected in an overall study. In this work, we present a numerical model for the 2002-2003 Etna eruption that kept in

  15. Observations of Atmospheric Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deposition During the Period of Algal Bloom Formation in Northern Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shuijing; Yang, Longyuan; Hu, Weiping

    2009-09-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu occurred at the end of April 2007 and had crucial impacts on the livelihood of millions of people living there. Excessive nutrients may promote bloom formation. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition appears to play an important role in algal bloom formation. Bulk deposition and rain water samples were collected respectively from May 1 to November 30, 2007, the period of optimal algal growth, to measure the bulk atmospheric deposition rate, wet deposition rate, and dry deposition rate for total nitrogen (TN; i.e., all species of nitrogen), and total phosphorus (TP; i.e., all species of phosphorus), in northern Lake Taihu, China. The trends of the bulk atmospheric deposition rate for TN and the wet deposition rate for TN showed double peaks during the observation period and distinct influence with plum rains and typhoons. Meanwhile, monthly bulk atmospheric deposition rates for TP showed little influence of annual precipitation. However, excessive rain may lead to high atmospheric N and P deposition rates. In bulk deposition samples, the average percentage of total dissolved nitrogen accounting for TN was 91.2% and changed little with time. However, the average percentage of total dissolved phosphorus accounting for TP was 65.6% and changed substantially with time. Annual bulk atmospheric deposition rates of TN and TP during 2007 in Lake Taihu were estimated to be 2,976 and 84 kg km-2 a-1, respectively. The results showed decreases of 34.4% and 78.7%, respectively, compared to 2002-2003. Annual bulk deposition load of TN for Lake Taihu was estimated at 6,958 t a-1 in 2007 including 4,642 t a-1 of wet deposition, lower than the values obtained in 2002-2003. This may be due to measures taken to save energy and emission control regulations in the Yangtze River Delta. Nevertheless, high atmospheric N and P deposition loads helped support cyanobacterial blooms in northern Lake Taihu during summer and autumn, the period

  16. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in infants and children: relationship with attendance at a paediatric emergency unit and characteristics of the circulating strains.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, R; Durando, P; Ansaldi, F; Sticchi, L; Banfi, F; Amicizia, D; Panatto, D; Esposito, S; Principi, N; Icardi, G; Crovari, P

    2007-09-01

    A study was carried out on 2,696 Italian children, aged 0-14 years. The goals were: (1) to define the age-related impact of acute respiratory infections (ARI), measured as the risk of attendance at the Paediatric Emergency Room, (2) to better define the importance and proportion of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections and (3) to acquire deeper knowledge of the influenza strains circulating in infants and children. A standardised emergency unit attendance risk (EUAR) was calculated, by age group for ARI. Specific EUARs were also calculated for the two pathogens. Pharyngeal swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for influenza and RSVs. Isolation in Madine-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) and Hep cells, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing and HA1 gene sequence analysis were performed for influenza viruses. Most of the patients enrolled were aged 0-5 years, 1,139 (84.6%) and 1,061 (78.5%) in the two seasons, respectively. The most represented age class was that of 1 year olds (331 cases in 2001-2002 and 301 in 2002-2003). The highest EUAR for ARI was in patients aged 0-3 years (16.8 and 12.9 during the two seasons). The same was observed on calculating this risk by specific pathogens: 17.4 and 5.5 for influenza and 13.0 and 12.7 for RSV. Virological analysis was performed on 2,696 samples, 595 of which proved positive (22%). The highest number of isolates (326) came from patients aged 1-3 years. RSVs were more often identified than influenza viruses in infants aged up to 1 year (32 vs. 20 isolates). Of 265 strains isolated in 2001-2002, 103 were RSVs (87 type A, 16 B) and 162 were influenza (90 type A, 72 B). HI showed that influenza B viruses were related to two lineages, B/Victoria/2/87 (32%) and B/Yamagata/16/88 (68%). Of 330 strains isolated in 2002-2003, 102 were RSVs (91 type A, 11 B) and 228 were influenza viruses (220 type A, 8 B). A/H3N2 strains belonged to two clusters, A/Panama/2007/99-like and A/Fujian/411/02-like

  17. Relating seismic swarms and deformation in Long Valley Caldera, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Hill, D. P.; Shelly, D. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Lisowski, M.; Llenos, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake swarm activity in the South Moat Seismic Zone (SMSZ) in Long Valley caldera began increasing following the onset of slow inflation of the resurgent dome in 2011. From 1980 through 1999 the caldera produced recurring earthquake swarms in the SMSZ accompanied by an 80-cm uplift of the resurgent dome. Since 2000, the caldera has been quieter than from 1980 to 1999, but it experienced a gradual 7-cm uplift episode in 2002-2003 and currently the caldera has been gradually uplifting since 2011 at less than half of the peak uplift velocity observed in the late 1990's. Two of the recent swarms in October/November of 2012 and March 2013 have been accompanied by small deformation transients during which caldera uplift paused for about a week despite otherwise steady inflation. To better understand this recent activity, we cross correlate seismic velocity waveforms from individual events recorded by the Long Valley seismic network to identify similar clusters (families) of earthquakes and analyze their temporal recurrence. Then, we use representative waveforms from each family as templates to search the continuous waveforms from the deep borehole seismometers in the Long Valley Exploratory Well (MDH1) for repeating, yet smaller, earthquakes. MDH1 consists of two three-component instruments, located 2592 m and 2263 m below ground level, that provide 6 channels with very low background noise relative to surface seismometers. The cross correlations identify about 25 times more earthquakes with most magnitudes ranging from -1 to +0.5, determined from an empirical relationship between catalog magnitude and observed amplitude on MDH1. We apply an ETAS model to the augmented catalog to detect subtle changes in background earthquake rates that might suggest a change in stressing rate. For comparison with the change in seismicity rates, a geodetically determined stress change is estimated from a simple model of the continuous GPS data. We model the uplift from 2011 to

  18. Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

    2006-09-30

    Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the

  19. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  20. Changes in agricultural cropland areas between a water-surplus year and a water-deficit year impacting food security, determined using MODIS 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques, in the Krishna river basin (India)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Muralikrishna, I.V.; Velpuri, M.N.; Gangadhararao, P.T.; Dheeravath, V.; Biradar, C.M.; Nalan, S.A.; Gaur, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in cropland areas as a result of water availability using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques (SMTs). The study was conducted in the Krishna River basin in India, a very large river basin with an area of 265 752 km2 (26 575 200 ha), comparing a water-surplus year (2000-2001) and a water-deficit year (2002-2003). The MODIS 250 m time-series data and SMTs were found ideal for agricultural cropland change detection over large areas and provided fuzzy classification accuracies of 61-100% for various land-use classes and 61-81% for the rain-fed and irrigated classes. The most mixing change occurred between rain-fed cropland areas and informally irrigated (e.g. groundwater and small reservoir) areas. Hence separation of these two classes was the most difficult. The MODIS 250 m-derived irrigated cropland areas for the districts were highly correlated with the Indian Bureau of Statistics data, with R2-values between 0.82 and 0.86. The change in the net area irrigated was modest, with an irrigated area of 8 669 881 ha during the water-surplus year, as compared with 7 718 900 ha during the water-deficit year. However, this is quite misleading as most of the major changes occurred in cropping intensity, such as changing from higher intensity to lower intensity (e.g. from double crop to single crop). The changes in cropping intensity of the agricultural cropland areas that took place in the water-deficit year (2002-2003) when compared with the water-surplus year (2000-2001) in the Krishna basin were: (a) 1 078 564 ha changed from double crop to single crop, (b) 1 461 177 ha changed from continuous crop to single crop, (c) 704 172 ha changed from irrigated single crop to fallow and (d) 1 314 522 ha changed from minor irrigation (e.g. tanks, small reservoirs) to rain-fed. These are highly significant changes that will have strong impact on food

  1. Incidences and risk factors of first-line HAART discontinuation: a limitation to the success of the "seek, test, treat, and retain" strategy?

    PubMed

    Keita, Momory; Perbost, Isabelle; Pugliese-Wehrlen, Sylvia; Abel, Sylvie; Pugliese, Pascal; Enel, Patricia; Cuzin, Lise; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of first-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) modifications/interruptions and their causes in a cohort of newly-treated patients by using a competing risk model. In nine centers of the French cohort Dat'AIDS, in 1 year and 2 years of censorship, a competing risk analysis was implemented in HIV1 patients aged 18 years or older first-treated between September 2002 and March 2012. In 4669 patients, 3628 modifications (77.7%) were observed (median: 13.5 months). Cumulative incidence in 1 year: 46.8% [45.4-48.3]; in 2 years: 65.3% [63.8-66.8]. Intolerance (n = 1167; 32.3%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2005, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (24.6%) 2004-2005 (26.1%), 2006-2007 (19.4%), 2008-2009 (18.8%) and 2010-2011 (15.7%). Women, AIDS patients, and those aged 50 years and older had an excess risk. Therapeutic simplification (n = 1037; 28.6%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2003, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (9.0%), 2004-2005 (16.0%), 2006-2007 (11.0%), 2008-2009 (15.7%) and 2010-2011 (10.0%). Conversely to injecting-drug-users and AIDS patients, women and first-treated with non-nucleosides had an excess risk. Therapeutic failure (n = 189; 5.2%): contrary to first-treated between 2002 and 2003 or 2008 and 2009, in 1 year as in 2 years, modifications were not different. In 1 year, 1.9% for 2004-2005, 1.6% for 2006-2007 and 1.2% for 2010-2011. Maximum viral load ≥5.0 log10 copies/ml and CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) had a high probability. The study of first-HAART modifications suggests that in 1-year follow-up, intolerance incidence in the recent calendar year is still as frequent as the previous period which may constitute a limitation to the success of the seek, test, treat, and retain. PMID:24517736

  2. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  3. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  4. Korean Physical Society's Physics Camp for High School Girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-10-01

    The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.

  5. The nepheloid bottom layer and water masses at the shelf break of the western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capello, Marco; Budillon, Giorgio; Cutroneo, Laura; Tucci, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In the austral summers of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 the Italian CLIMA Project carried out two oceanographic cruises along the northwestern margin of the Ross Sea, where the Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Here there is an interaction between the water masses on the sea floor of the outer shelf and slope with a consequent evolution of benthic nepheloid layers and an increase in total particulate matter. We observed three different situations: (a) the presence of triads (bottom structures characterized by a concomitant jump in turbidity, temperature, and salinity data) and high re-suspension phenomena related to the presence of the Circumpolar Deep Water and its mixing with cold, salty shelf waters associated with gravity currents; (b) the absence of triads with high re-suspension, implying that when the gravity currents are no longer active the benthic nepheloid layer may persist until the suspended particles settle to the sea floor, suggesting that the turbidity data can be used to study recent gravity current events; and (c) the absence of turbidity and sediment re-suspension phenomena supports the theory that a steady situation had been re-established and the current interaction no longer occurred or had finished sometime before.

  6. Victim Responses to Violence: The Effect of Alcohol Context on Crime Labeling.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Iain

    2016-03-01

    The labeling of an incident as a crime is an essential precursor to the use of criminal law, but the contextual factors that influence this decision are unknown. One such context that is a frequent setting for violence is the barroom. This study explored how the setting of a violent incident is related to the decision by victims to label it as a crime. It tested the hypothesis that violent incidents that took place in or around a licensed premises were less likely to be regarded as crimes than violence in other settings. The hypothesis was tested using a pooled sample of respondents from successive waves of the British Crime Survey (2002/2003-2010/2011). Logistic regression models controlled for demographic factors, victim behavioral characteristics, and incident-specific factors including the seriousness of the violence. Respondents who were in or around a licensed premises at the time of victimization were less likely to regard that violence as a crime (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = [0.34, 0.67]) than respondents who were victimized in other locations. Despite a disproportionate amount of violence taking place in barrooms, it appears that the criminal nature of violence in these spaces is discounted by victims. The findings emphasize how context affects victim interpretations of crime and suggest a victim-centered reconceptualization of the "moral holiday" hypothesis of alcohol settings.

  7. BALLERINA - Pirouettes in search of gamma burst sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Soeren; Lund, Niels

    1999-12-15

    The cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has now been established with reasonable certainty. Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large variability in properties, which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We are proposing BALLERINA, a small satellite to provide accurate gamma burst positions at a rate an order of magnitude larger than from Beppo-SAX. On the experimental side, it remains a challenge to ensure the earliest detection of the X-ray afterglow. The mission proposed here allows for the first time systematic studies of the soft X-ray emission in the time interval from only a few minutes after the onset of the burst to a few hours later. In addition to positions of GRBs with accuracy better than 1'reported to the ground within a few minutes of the burst, essential for follow-up work, BALLERINA will on its own provide observations in an uncharted region of parameter space. Secondary objectives of the BALLERINA mission includes observations of the earliest phases of the outbursts of X-ray novae and other X-ray transients. BALLERINA is one of four missions currently under study for the Danish Small Satellite Program. The selection will be announced in 1999 for a planned launch in 2002-2003.

  8. Do terrestrial invertebrates experience floodplains as landscape mosaics? Immediate and longer-term effects of flooding on ant assemblages in a floodplain forest.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, Andrea; Lake, P S; Nally, Ralph Mac

    2007-05-01

    Considering the floodplain landscape as a mosaic of habitat patches at different successional stages is useful for understanding (1) the processes associated with individual floods and (2) the legacy of flood history. Here, we investigate the applicability of the mosaic model to opportunistic ant species inhabiting the floodplain. Ground-active ant assemblages in river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) floodplain forest in south-eastern Australia were sampled before and for two years after a major flood in 2000-2001 at 24 sites with different inundation histories. Despite the mobility and opportunistic life history traits of floodplain ants, flood history appeared to impose a persistent mosaic structure on ant assemblages. Increasing duration of inundation of the forest floor was associated with decreasing species richness. beta-diversity was low, with the ant species at the most inundation-prone sites being a subset of those at drier sites. Less extensive flooding occurred in 2002-2003, enabling the consistency of short-term responses to inundation to be assessed. Flooding acts as a resetting mechanism, creating a characteristic ant assemblage. After floodwaters receded, there was little evidence of convergence in the structure of ant assemblages through time between sites flooded for different durations. The persistence of dissimilarities in ant assemblages suggests that succession towards terrestrialization was either not occurring or that it was operating at a rate that was too slow to be detected.

  9. Seasonal persistence and population characteristics of Escherichia coli and entercocci in deep backshore sand of two freshwater beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Ting, W.T.E.; Tseng, C.C.; Nevers, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the shoreward and seasonal distribution of E. coli and enterococci in sand (at the water table) at two southern Lake Michigan beaches - Dunbar and West Beach (in Indiana). Deep, backshore sand (??? 20 m inland) was regularly sampled for 15 months during 2002-2003. E. coli counts were not significantly different in samples taken at 5-m intervals from 0-40 M inland (P = 0.25). Neither E. coli nor enterococci mean counts showed any correlation or differences between the two beaches studied. In laboratory experiments, E. coli readily grew in sand supplemented with lake plankton, suggesting that in situ E. coli growth may occur when temperature and natural organic sources are adequate. Of the 114 sand enterococci isolates tested, positive species identification was obtained for only 52 (46%), with E. faecium representing the most dominant species (92%). Genetic characterization by ribotyping revealed no distinct genotypic pattern (s) for E. coli, suggesting that the sand population was rather a mixture of numerous strains (genotypes). These findings indicate that E. coli and enterococci can occur and persist for extended periods in backshore sand at the groundwater table. Although this study was limited to two beaches of southern Lake Michigan, similar findings can be expected at other temperate freshwater beaches. The long-term persistence of these bacteria, perhaps independent of pollution events, complicates their use as indicator organisms. Further, backshore sand at the water table may act as a reservoir for these bacteria and potentially for human pathogens. ?? IWA Publishing 2006.

  10. Association of arsenic exposure during pregnancy with fetal loss and infant death: a cohort study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Vahter, Marie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Golam Mustafa, Abu Haider Mohammad; Wahed, Mohammad Abdul; Yunus, Mohammed; Persson, Lars-Ake

    2007-06-15

    The authors evaluated the effect of arsenic exposure on fetal and infant survival in a cohort of 29,134 pregnancies identified by the health and demographic surveillance system in Matlab, Bangladesh, in 1991-2000. Arsenic exposure, reflected by drinking water history and analysis of arsenic concentrations in tube-well water used by women during pregnancy, was assessed in a separate survey conducted in 2002-2003. Data on vital events, including pregnancy outcome and infant mortality, were collected by monthly surveillance at the household level. The risk of fetal loss and infant death in relation to arsenic exposure was estimated by a Cox proportional hazards model. Drinking tube-well water with more than 50 microg of arsenic per liter during pregnancy significantly increased the risks of fetal loss (relative risk = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.25) and infant death (relative risk = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.32). There was a significant dose response of arsenic exposure to risk of infant death (p = 0.02). Women of reproductive age should urgently be prioritized for mitigation activities where drinking water is contaminated by arsenic.

  11. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Quanqi, Li; Yuhai, Chen; Xunbo, Zhou; Songlie, Yu; Changcheng, Guo

    2012-01-01

    In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) capture ratio, grain yield, and the radiation use efficiency (RUE) of summer maize. During the winter wheat growing season, irrigation was applied at the jointing, heading, or milking stage, respectively. The results showed that increased amounts of irrigation and irrigation later in the winter wheat growing season improved SMBS for summer maize. The PAR capture ratio significantly (LSD, P < 0.05) increased with increased SMBS, primarily in the 3 spikes leaves. With improved SMBS, both the grain yield and RUE increased in all the treatments. These results indicate that winter wheat should be irrigated in later stages to achieve reasonable grain yield for both crops. PMID:22654613

  12. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Integration of MODIS-derived metrics to assess interannual variability in snowpack, lake ice, and NDVI in southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.; Budde, M.; Spencer, P.; Miller, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change are expected to result in greater variation in the seasonality of snowpack, lake ice, and vegetation dynamics in southwest Alaska. All have wide-reaching physical and biological ecosystem effects in the region. We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) calibrated radiance, snow cover extent, and vegetation index products for interpreting interannual variation in the duration and extent of snowpack, lake ice, and vegetation dynamics for southwest Alaska. The approach integrates multiple seasonal metrics across large ecological regions. Throughout the observation period (2001-2007), snow cover duration was stable within ecoregions, with variable start and end dates. The start of the lake ice season lagged the snow season by 2 to 3??months. Within a given lake, freeze-up dates varied in timing and duration, while break-up dates were more consistent. Vegetation phenology varied less than snow and ice metrics, with start-of-season dates comparatively consistent across years. The start of growing season and snow melt were related to one another as they are both temperature dependent. Higher than average temperatures during the El Ni??o winter of 2002-2003 were expressed in anomalous ice and snow season patterns. We are developing a consistent, MODIS-based dataset that will be used to monitor temporal trends of each of these seasonal metrics and to map areas of change for the study area.

  14. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Roberto R; Cieślicka, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., "creampuff"). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015).

  15. Will the US economy recover in 2010? A minimal spanning tree study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiting; Lee, Gladys Hui Ting; Wong, Jian Cheng; Kok, Jun Liang; Prusty, Manamohan; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2011-06-01

    We calculated the cross correlations between the half-hourly times series of the ten Dow Jones US economic sectors over the period February 2000 to August 2008, the two-year intervals 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and also over 11 segments within the present financial crisis, to construct minimal spanning trees (MSTs) of the US economy at the sector level. In all MSTs, a core-fringe structure is found, with consumer goods, consumer services, and the industrials consistently making up the core, and basic materials, oil & gas, healthcare, telecommunications, and utilities residing predominantly on the fringe. More importantly, we find that the MSTs can be classified into two distinct, statistically robust, topologies: (i) star-like, with the industrials at the center, associated with low-volatility economic growth; and (ii) chain-like, associated with high-volatility economic crisis. Finally, we present statistical evidence, based on the emergence of a star-like MST in Sep 2009, and the MST staying robustly star-like throughout the Greek Debt Crisis, that the US economy is on track to a recovery.

  16. CAMCAT: an oil spill forecasting system for the Catalan-Balearic Sea based on the MFS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerma, E.; Espino, M.; Salazar, M.; Jerez, F.; Madrigal, R.; Arcilla, A. S.

    2006-10-01

    The Prestige oil spill crisis (2002-2003), one of the worst oil spills that affected the Atlantic Spanish coastal line, pointed out that some management tools are needed in the form of laws, regulations and technical procedures. In particular, the issues are contingency planning and prevention against marine pollution and prediction for a proper response. In that background, the Catalan local government approved the CAMCAT (2004), a Regional contingency plan against marine pollution, to be framed within the (Spanish) National Contingency Plan. The CAMCAT contemplated the implementation of a Regional Forecasting System for the North-Western Mediterranean area, intended to help Catalan Authorities during any pollution emergency. The Laboratory of Maritime Engineering (LIM/UPC) has been responsible for the implementation of this Regional CAMCAT Forecasting System that is based (nested) on existing larger Forecasting Systems/Products, and it integrates several coastal observational data. The present paper is aiming to make an overview of the several scientific and technical activities related to the implementation and validation of the CAMCAT System.

  17. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002-2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations. ?? 2007 NRC.

  18. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    PubMed

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production. PMID:19533217

  19. Renewed inflation of Long Valley Caldera, California (2011 to 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Wicks, C. W.; Cervelli, P. F.; Langbein, J. O.; Svarc, J. L.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Lisowski, M.

    2015-07-01

    Slow inflation began at Long Valley Caldera in late 2011, coinciding with renewed swarm seismicity. Ongoing deformation is concentrated within the caldera. We analyze this deformation using a combination of GPS and InSAR (TerraSAR-X) data processed with a persistent scatterer technique. The extension rate of the dome-crossing baseline during this episode (CA99 to KRAC) is 1 cm/yr, similar to past inflation episodes (1990-1995 and 2002-2003), and about a tenth of the peak rate observed during the 1997 unrest. The current deformation is well modeled by the inflation of a prolate spheroidal magma reservoir ˜7 km beneath the resurgent dome, with a volume change of ˜6 × 106 m3/yr from 2011.7 through the end of 2014. The current data cannot resolve a second source, which was required to model the 1997 episode. This source appears to be in the same region as previous inflation episodes, suggesting a persistent reservoir.

  20. Mapping the Sound Speed Structure of the Sun's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciani, A.; Jefferies, S. M.; Finsterle, W.; Giebink, C.; Knox, A.; Rapex, P.; Subrizi, B.; Cesario, L.

    We describe an instrument for seismically probing the acoustic properties of the Sun's lower atmosphere. The instrument, which is based on magneto-optical filter technology, acquires full-disk Dopplergrams simultaneously in the K D1 (770 nm) and Na D2 (589 nm) Fraunhofer lines. The Dopplergrams have a spatial resolution of ~5 arc secs and are recorded at a cadence of one frame every 10 seconds, average from 16 frames per second. These data allow us to use acoustic waves with frequencies beyond the cut-off frequency for the solar atmosphere (~5mHz) to map the spatial and temporal changes in the vertical wave travel time between the mid-chromosphere and the low-photosphere. These types of maps will provide a strong constraint for models of the solar atmosphere and possibly study early warnings for explosive phenomena. We present some preliminary results from observations made at the geographical South Pole during the 2002/2003 Austral summer. We also discuss our program for the next campaign with instrumental improvements as far as a third level Dopplergram and magnetographic capability. We also consider cloning the instrument for Dome C in order to further minimize atmospheric noise and gaps in the data string due to bad weather.

  1. Self-potential, soil co2 flux, and temperature on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Connor, C.; St-Amand, K.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (<1 to 5.0 x 10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), and temperatures (26 to 80 C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are {le}100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C = -3.3 to -1.1{per_thousand}) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  2. Using anchoring vignettes to assess the comparability of self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Boyle, Michael H

    2012-03-01

    General measures of self-rated health are collected routinely in national health surveys and widely used in the analyses of determinants of health and health care utilization. However, these subjective assessments can be influenced by health expectations (contextualized beliefs about health) that may vary systematically across individuals and be associated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Our objective is to contrast the impact of health expectations associated with respondent characteristics (reporting heterogeneity) on self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression obtained from general population samples in France and Vietnam. Based on self ratings and ratings in response to common anchoring vignettes depicting different levels of depression, we used nationally representative data from the World Health Survey conducted in France (2002) and Vietnam (2002-2003) and a modification of the standard probit model to test and adjust for reporting heterogeneity associated with individual characteristics. We find evidence of reporting heterogeneity within France and Vietnam and across the two countries. In particular we find that, when adjusted for reporting heterogeneity, sex is no longer significantly associated with self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France. Given the absence of clear biological markers in the definitions of depressive disorders and the substantial impact reporting heterogeneity is shown to have, measures of depressive disorders based on self-reports should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Patterns of migration and residency in coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii from two tributaries of the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Zydlewski, J.; Johnson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal cutthroat trout Onchorhynchus clarkii clarkii life-history variants, migration and freshwater residency were monitored using stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag arrays in two tributaries of the Columbia River from 2001 to 2005 (Abernathy Creek, river kilometre, rkm 76) and from 2002 to 2005 (Chinook River, rkm 6). In 2001-2003 and 2002-2003 (Abernathy and Chinook, respectively), 300-500 coastal O. c. clarkii were captured in each tributary by electrofishing and implanted with 23 mm PIT tags. PIT arrays monitored movements from the initiation of tagging through the spring of 2005. Rotary screw traps were also operated on both tributaries. In Abernathy Creek, 28% of tagged individuals were observed through either active capture or passive interrogation. Of these, 32% were identified as migrants and 68% were identified as residents. In the Chinook River, 48% of tagged fish were observed subsequent to tagging; 92% of these fish were migrants and only 8% were resident. In both tributaries, a greater proportion of resident fish were in the upper reaches. The majority of migrants (78-93%) moved the spring following tagging. Migrants leaving at age 2+ years tended to grow faster than those that migrated at age 3+ years or residents. Patterns of growth or growth opportunities may influence both patterns of life-history expression and the timing of migration. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. [Seasonal fluctuations in fluoride content in waters of the Warta oxbow lake in Luboń].

    PubMed

    Jezierska-Madziar, Maria; Pińskwar, Piotr; Golski, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out in 2002-2003 at the Department of Inland Fishing and Aquaculture, Agricultural University of Poznań, on seasonal fluctuations in fluoride content in waters of the Warta oxbow lake in Luboń (52 degrees 19' N, 16 degrees 53' E). This reservoir has been loaded during several decades with fluorine compounds, originating from the deposits of post-crystallization lye of aluminum fluoride and fluorosilicic acid. The greatest amounts of fluorine compounds were deposited in the bottom sediments in the deepest part of the reservoir. On the basis of these two-year observations it was concluded that the concentration of fluoride in water is subject to significant variations (between 1.0 and 6.2 mg F(-)/L). The lowest fluoride concentration in water was recorded during vernal circulation. On the other hand, the highest values were found in the bottom water layer during the summer stagnation. Seasonal fluctuations in fluoride content in waters of the Warta oxbow lake were closely connected with mineralization in the bottom sediment as revealed by oxygen deficiencies in the bottom water layer. PMID:16892585

  5. Flightless and post-molt survival and movements of female mallards molting in Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Mauser, David M.; Yee, Julie L.; Blehert, David S.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Flightless and post-molt survival and movements were studied during August-May, 2001-2002, 2002- 2003 and 2006-2007 for 181 adult female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Birds were radiotagged just before or early in their flightless period on four wetlands that differed in size on Klamath Basin (KB) National Wildlife Refuge complex. Flightless survival varied among years but was higher on two larger than two smaller wetlands; 30-day survival ranged from 11% (SE = 6.5%) on a small wetland in 2006 to 93% (SE = 6.5%) on a large wetland in 2001, and averaged 76.8% (SE = 6.1%). Most flightless mortality was from avian botulism (64%) and predation (26%). Of the 81 radiotagged Mallards that did not die in KB, 80% moved to the Central Valley of California (CVCA) before 31 January, 16% wintered in unknown areas, and 4% remained in KB through 31 January. Mallards departed KB 21 August-13 January (average: 11 Nov 2001, 25 Oct 2002, 19 Nov 2006). Post-molt survival during August-March in KB (20.7%, SE = 6.3%) was lower than in CVCA during this (62.9%, SE = 10.1%) and an earlier study. Survival in KB was consistently high only for females that molted in large permanent marshes, and although the impact of poor survival of molting females on Mallard population dynamics is unknown, KB water management plans should be developed that maintain these habitats.

  6. Identifying Sources of Configurality in Three Face Processing Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Mestry, Natalie; Menneer, Tamaryn; Wenger, Michael J.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Participants performed three feature-complete face processing tasks involving detection of changes in: (1) feature size and (2) feature identity in successive matching tasks, and (3) feature orientation. In each experiment, information in the top (eyes) and bottom (mouths) parts of faces were manipulated. All tasks were performed with upright and inverted faces. Data were analyzed first using group-based analysis of signal detection measures (sensitivity and bias), and second using analysis of multidimensional measures of sensitivity and bias along with probit regression models in order to draw inferences about independence and separability as defined within general recognition theory (Ashby and Townsend, 1986). The results highlighted different patterns of perceptual and decisional influences across tasks and orientations. There was evidence of orientation specific configural effects (violations of perceptual independence, perceptual seperability and decisional separabilty) in the Feature Orientation Task. For the Feature Identity Task there were orientation specific performance effects and there was evidence of configural effects (violations of decisional separability) in both orientations. Decisional effects are consistent with previous research (Wenger and Ingvalson, 2002, 2003; Richler et al., 2008; Cornes et al., 2011). Crucially, the probit analysis revealed violations of perceptual independence that remain undetected by marginal analysis. PMID:23162505

  7. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish–English and English–Spanish Bilingual Readers

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Roberto R.; Cieślicka, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., “creampuff”). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015). PMID:27065911

  8. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  9. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-10-30

    The 2002-2003 Department of Energy plantings amounted to 164 acres containing 111,520 tree seedlings in eastern and western Kentucky. Data gathered on these trees included an inventory to determine survival of all planted species. A sub-sample of seedlings was selected to assess the height and diameter of individual species of seedlings established. Additional efforts involved collection of soil sample and litter samples, analysis of herbaceous ground cover from vegetation clip plots and leaf area on each tree species, and development of tissue collections. All areas were sampled for penetration resistance, penetration depth (or depth to refusal), and bulk density at various depths. Rain fall events and flow rates were recorded. The water quality of runoff samples involved the determination of total and settleable solids and particle size distribution. A study was initiated that will focus on the colonization of small mammals from forest edges to various areas located on reclaimed surface mines. This effort will provide a better understanding of the role small mammals and birds have in the establishment of plant communities on mine lands that will be useful in developing and improving reclamation techniques.

  10. A 14-year-long Measurement of the Convergence Rate of the Juan de Fuca and North America Plates Offshore Central Oregon using GPS-Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwell, C. D.; Webb, S. C.; Nooner, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motion of the sea floor was measured at a 3000-m-deep site approximately 120 km offshore Central Oregon using the GPS-Acoustic technique in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2014. The GPS-Acoustic derived motion relative to the interior of North America agrees with the geomagnetically-derived value within their measurement uncertainties. The time series from the early 2000's was resurrected using two new innovations. The first innovation, a permanent benchmark that has locating channels and mating pins, allows reoccupation of an established benchmark at any later date using an ROV to replace the transponder on the benchmark. The second innovation: an autonomous platform based on a Waveglider that carries a GPS navigated acoustic transponder interrogation system that is wave and solar powered. This enables measurements to be obtained over a GPSA site without requiring a large ship, greatly reducing the cost of a GPSA measurement. Combining data at this site with data from two other GPS-Acoustic seafloor sites on the Juan de Fuca plate, makes it possible to determine a present-day Euler Pole for the Juan de Fuca - North America plates using GPS-Acoustics seafloor geodesy.

  11. Factors influencing movement probabilities of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Bowen, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated movements of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) roosting in maternity colonies in buildings in Fort Collins, Colorado (USA), during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2005. This behavior can be of public health concern where bats that may carry diseases (e.g., rabies) move among buildings occupied by people. We used passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to mark individual bats and hoop PIT readers at emergence points to passively monitor the use of building roosts by marked adult females on a daily basis during the lactation phase of reproduction. Multi-strata models were used to examine movements among roosts in relation to ambient temperatures and ectoparasite loads. Our results suggest that high ambient temperatures influence movements. Numbers of mites (Steatonyssus occidentalis) did not appear to influence movements of female bats among building roosts. In an urban landscape, periods with unusually hot conditions are accompanied by shifting of bats to different buildings or segments of buildings, and this behavior may increase the potential for contact with people in settings where, in comparison to their more regularly used buildings, the bats may be more likely to be of public concern as nuisances or health risks. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  13. Variation in the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of plant biomass and its relationship to water-use efficiency at the leaf- and ecosystem-scales in a northern Great Plains grassland.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Lawrence B; Farquhar, Graham D

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of the carbon (δ(13) Cm ) and oxygen (δ(18) Om ) isotope composition of C3 plant tissue provide important insights into controls on water-use efficiency. We investigated the causes of seasonal and inter-annual variability in water-use efficiency in a grassland near Lethbridge, Canada using stable isotope (leaf-scale) and eddy covariance measurements (ecosystem-scale). The positive relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values for samples collected during 1998-2001 indicated that variation in stomatal conductance and water stress-induced changes in the degree of stomatal limitation of net photosynthesis were the major controls on variation in δ(13) Cm and biomass production during this time. By comparison, the lack of a significant relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values during 2002, 2003 and 2006 demonstrated that water stress was not a significant limitation on photosynthesis and biomass production in these years. Water-use efficiency was higher in 2000 than 1999, consistent with expectations because of greater stomatal limitation of photosynthesis and lower leaf ci /ca during the drier conditions of 2000. Calculated values of leaf-scale water-use efficiency were 2-3 times higher than ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency, a difference that was likely due to carbon lost in root respiration and water lost during soil evaporation that was not accounted for by the stable isotope measurements. PMID:23862667

  14. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-11-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

  15. Seasonal and interannual phytoplankton dynamics and forcing mechanisms in the Northern Benguela upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louw, Deon C.; van der Plas, Anja K.; Mohrholz, Volker; Wasmund, Norbert; Junker, Tim; Eggert, Anja

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal phytoplankton blooms are one of the key features of the productive northern Benguela upwelling system (nBUS), however they are not well described thus far. In this study twelve years (2000-2012) of in situ chlorophyll-a data from a monitoring transect off the Namibian coast were analysed to assess the long-term and seasonal variability in chlorophyll-a as a measure of phytoplankton biomass and the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms. On the shelf, low chlorophyll-a concentrations were identified in 2001/2002, 2005/2006, and 2011/2012. The concentrations on the shelf were highest in 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Major phytoplankton blooms defined at chlorophyll-a concentrations > 18 mg m- 3 occurred in five of the 12 years (2002/2003, 2004/2005, 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011) while minor blooms (> 13 mg m- 3) occurred in almost every year. The calculated climatology of the chlorophyll-a time series revealed a clear seasonality. Three chlorophyll-a maxima typically develop inshore over the year: an austral winter peak (August), an early austral summer peak (December) and a late summer/autumn peak (April). The analysis of synoptic hydrographic, nutrient and wind data revealed three different forcing mechanisms that all initiate an influx of nutrients into the surface mixed layer.

  16. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, M.A.; Doretto Jr, L.; Camillo, S.C.A.; Reischak, D.; Ribeiro, S.A.M.; Ramazzoti, A.; Mendonça, A.O.; Spilki, F.R.; Buzinaro, M.G.; Ferreira, H.L.; Arns, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3%) were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI) was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks. PMID:24031503

  17. Does village inequality in modern income harm the psyche? Anger, fear, sadness, and alcohol consumption in a pre-industrial society.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ricardo A; Reyes-García, Victoria; McDade, Thomas; Huanca, Tomás; Leonard, William R; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent

    2006-07-01

    Researchers have found a positive association between income inequality and poor individual health. To explain the link, researchers have hypothesized that income inequality erodes community social capital, which unleashes negative emotions, stress, and stress behaviors that hurt health. Few studies have tested the hypothesized path. Here we estimate the association between (a) village income inequality and social capital, and (b) three distinct negative emotions (anger, fear, sadness) and one stress behavior (alcohol consumption). We use four quarters of panel data (2002-2003) from 655 adults in 13 villages of a foraging-farming society in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). We found that: (1) village income inequality was associated with more negative emotions but with less alcohol consumption, (2) social capital always bore a negative association with outcomes, and (3) results held up after introducing many changes to the main model. We conclude that village income inequality probably affects negative emotions and stress behaviors through other paths besides social capital because we conditioned for social capital. One such path is an innate dislike of inequality, which might have pre-human origins. Our prior research with the Tsimane' suggests that village income inequality bore an insignificant association with individual health. Therefore, village income inequality probably affects negative emotions and stress behaviors before undermining health.

  18. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Zoellner, Jamie M; Lee, Joyce M; Burt, Brian A; Sandretto, Anita M; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I; Lepkowski, James M

    2009-06-01

    A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3-5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002-2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score was computed from recorded height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by national reference age-sex specific BMI: those with an age-sex specific BMI>or=85th, but <95th percentile as overweight and those with BMI>or=95th age-sex specific percentile as obese. The prevalence of overweight was 12.9% in baseline, and increased to 18.7% after 2 years. The prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3 to 20.4% during the same period. Baseline intake of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with baseline BMI z-scores. After adjusting for covariates, additional intake of fruit drinks and all sugar-sweetened beverages at baseline showed significantly higher odds of incidence of overweight over 2 years. Among a longitudinal cohort of African-American preschool children, high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was significantly associated with an increased risk for obesity.

  19. BALLERINA-Pirouettes in search of gamma burst sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1999-12-01

    The cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has now been established with reasonable certainty. Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large variability in properties, which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We are proposing BALLERINA, a small satellite to provide accurate gamma burst positions at a rate an order of magnitude larger than from Beppo-SAX. On the experimental side, it remains a challenge to ensure the earliest detection of the X-ray afterglow. The mission proposed here allows for the first time systematic studies of the soft X-ray emission in the time interval from only a few minutes after the onset of the burst to a few hours later. In addition to positions of GRBs with accuracy better than 1'reported to the ground within a few minutes of the burst, essential for follow-up work, BALLERINA will on its own provide observations in an uncharted region of parameter space. Secondary objectives of the BALLERINA mission includes observations of the earliest phases of the outbursts of X-ray novae and other X-ray transients. BALLERINA is one of four missions currently under study for the Danish Small Satellite Program. The selection will be announced in 1999 for a planned launch in 2002-2003.

  20. Insights into the dynamics of Mt Etna volcano from gravity and DInSar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, C.; Sansosti, E.; Greco, F.; Pepe, A.; Currenti, G.; Solaro, G.; Napoli, R.; Pepe, S.; Pistorio, A.

    2012-04-01

    18-years (September 1994 - October 2011) gravity and ground deformation sequences, recorded at Etna volcano along an East-West trending profile of 19 stations on the southern flank at a quasi-monthly sampling rate, are presented. Over the last two decades, frequent fountaining events and several flank eruptions occurred at Mt Etna. We use the SBAS DInSAR technique to analyze the temporal evolution of surface displacements by inverting a sequence of interferograms to form a deformation time series. Height changes, evaluated by DInSAR data during the entire period, show modest vertical variations unable to produce significant gravity changes. However, the gravity data set was corrected for the small height variations using the experimental free-air gravity gradients measured at two stations of the profile. The residual space-time gravity image displayed some gravity increase/decrease cycles, mostly affecting the central and eastern stations of the East-West profile. We attributed these gravity cycles to mass redistribution processes mainly located at a depth of 2-4 km bsl in a region recognized to be a preferential pathway of magma rising and an intermediate zone of magma storage/withdrawal. In the latter period 2008-2011, when several paroxysmal events occurred from the South East crater, the gravity and height deformation patterns show many similarities with the previous period 1995-2000 encompassing a long series of paroxysmal episodes that preceded the violent and dramatic explosive/effusive eruptions of 2001 and 2002-2003.