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Sample records for chip scale liquid

  1. Towards Chip Scale Liquid Chromatography and High Throughput Immunosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Jing

    2000-09-21

    This work describes several research projects aimed towards developing new instruments and novel methods for high throughput chemical and biological analysis. Approaches are taken in two directions. The first direction takes advantage of well-established semiconductor fabrication techniques and applies them to miniaturize instruments that are workhorses in analytical laboratories. Specifically, the first part of this work focused on the development of micropumps and microvalves for controlled fluid delivery. The mechanism of these micropumps and microvalves relies on the electrochemically-induced surface tension change at a mercury/electrolyte interface. A miniaturized flow injection analysis device was integrated and flow injection analyses were demonstrated. In the second part of this work, microfluidic chips were also designed, fabricated, and tested. Separations of two fluorescent dyes were demonstrated in microfabricated channels, based on an open-tubular liquid chromatography (OT LC) or an electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) format. A reduction in instrument size can potentially increase analysis speed, and allow exceedingly small amounts of sample to be analyzed under diverse separation conditions. The second direction explores the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a signal transduction method for immunoassay analysis. It takes advantage of the improved detection sensitivity as a result of surface enhancement on colloidal gold, the narrow width of Raman band, and the stability of Raman scattering signals to distinguish several different species simultaneously without exploiting spatially-separated addresses on a biochip. By labeling gold nanoparticles with different Raman reporters in conjunction with different detection antibodies, a simultaneous detection of a dual-analyte immunoassay was demonstrated. Using this scheme for quantitative analysis was also studied and preliminary dose-response curves from an immunoassay of a

  2. Chip-scale microscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoan

    2012-08-01

    Chip-scale microscopy imaging platforms are pivotal for improving the efficiency of modern biomedical and bioscience experiments. Their integration with other lab-on-a-chip techniques would allow rapid, reliable and high-throughput sample analysis for applications in diverse disciplines. In typical chip-scale microscopy imaging platforms, the light path can be generalized to the following steps: photons leave the light source, interact with the sample and finally are detected by the sensor. Based on the light path of these platforms, the current review aims to provide some insights on design strategies for chip-scale microscopy. Specifically, we analyze current chip-scale microscopy approaches from three aspects: illumination design, sample manipulation and substrate/imager modification. We also discuss some opportunities for future developments of chip-scale microscopy, such as time multiplexed structured illumination and hydrodynamic focusing for high throughput sample manipulation.

  3. Chip Scale Package Implementation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    The JPL-led MicrotypeBGA Consortium of enterprises representing government agencies and private companies have jointed together to pool in-kind resources for developing the quality and reliability of chip scale packages (CSPs) for a variety of projects. In the process of building the Consortium CSP test vehicles, many challenges were identified regarding various aspects of technology implementation. This paper will present our experience in the areas of technology implementation challenges, including design and building both standard and microvia boards, and assembly of two types of test vehicles. We also discuss the most current package isothermal aging to 2,000 hours at 100 C and 125 C and thermal cycling test results to 1,700 cycles in the range of -30 to 100 C.

  4. Miniaturization of Chip-Scale Photonic Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamek, Steve

    Chip-scale photonic circuits promise to alleviate some fundamental physical barriers encountered in many areas of the life sciences and information technologies. This work investigates routes to miniaturization of chip-scale optical devices. Two new techniques and devices based thereon are introduced for the first time. One technique makes use of integrated metallic mirrors to construct reflectors which are by an order of magnitude smaller than their counterparts. Another technique is based on folding of chip-scale devices to fit long structures into small area on a chip. Although both techniques are demonstrated on some specific examples, the developed toolkit is applicable to a wide range of chip-scale devices including modulators, filters, channel add-drop multiplexers, detectors, and others. The major part of this Thesis focuses on miniaturization of waveguide reflectors and the devices based thereon. Fitting long waveguide Bragg gratings into a small area on a chip is demonstrated based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings; theory and analytical model of such structures is developed. In the second part of the Thesis, integrated metallic mirrors are proposed as reflectors with properties complementary to Bragg gratings - low polarization sensitivity, high reflectivity for different transverse modes, and good manufacturability. The feasibility of the proposed ideas is tested in both simulations and experiments. The demonstrated devices including biochemical sensors, micro-resonators, and inline filters are promising for applications in the life sciences and information technologies.

  5. Chip Scale Vacuum Packaging for Uncooled IRFPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Munehisa; Hata, Hisatoshi; Nakaki, Yoshiyuki; Kosasayama, Yasuhiro; Kimata, Masafumi

    We have developed chip scale vacuum packaging for an uncooled IRFPA and successfully obtained excellent IR images less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. A 160×120 SOI diode uncooled IRFPA with a 25 μm pixel pitch is used as the device chip in this study. The size of the package is 14.5 (L)×13.5 (W)×1.2 (H) mm. The gap between the device chip and the lid is controlled by the thickness of the vacuum sealing material (solder), which is mounted by our original molten solder ejection method. Patterned thin-film getter is formed on the lid wafer. Due to the use of patterned thin-film getter, there is no need to form a cavity on the lid to allow installation of getter or to insert a spacer between the device chip and the lid. The measured pressure of the package is less than 0.5 Pa, which is sufficient for obtaining high thermal isolation. The package also passed 1000 heat cycle tests from -40 to 125°C. In this technique, only the good dies in a wafer are simultaneously packaged in chip scale. Thus, size and cost reduction of the package has been achieved.

  6. On-chip liquid storage and dispensing for lab-on-a-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodén, Roger; Lehto, Marcus; Margell, Joakim; Hjort, Klas; Schweitz, Jan-Åke

    2008-07-01

    This work presents novel components for on-chip storage and dispensing inside a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for applications in immunoassay point-of-care testing (POCT), where incubation and washing steps are essential. It involves easy-to-use on-chip solutions for the sequential thermo-hydraulic actuation of liquids. The novel concept of combining the use of a rubber plug, both as a non-return valve cap and as a liquid injection interface of a sealed reservoir, allows simple filling of a sterilized cavity, as well as the storage and dispensing of reagent and washing buffer liquids. Segmenting the flow with air spacers enables effective rinsing and the use of small volumes of on-chip stored liquids. The chip uses low-resistance resistors as heaters in the paraffin actuator, providing the low-voltage actuation that is preferred for handheld battery driven instruments.

  7. Uncooled IRFPA with chip scale vacuum package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hisatoshi; Nakaki, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Hiromoto; Kosasayama, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Yasuaki; Fukumoto, Hiroshi; Seto, Toshiki; Kama, Keisuke; Takeda, Munehisa; Kimata, Masafumi

    2006-05-01

    We have developed an uncooled IRFPA with a chip scale vacuum package and succeeded in obtaining excellent IR images of less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. The chip in this study is a 160 x 120 SOI diode IRFPA with a 25 μm pixel pitch. The size of the package is 14.5(L) x 13.5(W) x 1.2(H) mm. The gap between the device chip and the lid is controlled by the thickness of the vacuum sealing material. The lid is prepared by a wafer process and diced just before vacuum sealing. We use DLC (diamond like carbon) as the AR coat because of its high IR transmittance and high endurance in the wafer process. DLC films are deposited on both sides of the silicon lid wafer, and then a ring-shaped metal pattern for solder bonding is formed on one side of the lid wafer. Solder is mounted on the metal pattern by a molten solder ejection method. The patterned thin-film getter is formed on the lid wafer. Because of the use of patterned thin-film getter, there is no need to form a cavity on the lid to allow installation of getter or to insert a spacer between the device chip and the lid. Then the lid wafer is diced into individual lids. The device wafer and the lids are set in a vacuum chamber, which has a heater to melt the solder, so as to pair each die and lid. After pumping the chamber, the patterned thin-film getters are activated and then the lids are bonded simultaneously to the device wafer. Finally the device wafer is diced into individual chips. The measured pressure of the package is less than 0.5 Pa which is sufficient for obtaining high thermal isolation. In this technique, only the good dies in a wafer are packaged in chip scale simultaneously. Thus, a reduction in the size and cost of the package has been achieved.

  8. Heat-driven liquid metal cooling device for the thermal management of a computer chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kun-Quan; Liu, Jing

    2007-08-01

    The tremendous heat generated in a computer chip or very large scale integrated circuit raises many challenging issues to be solved. Recently, liquid metal with a low melting point was established as the most conductive coolant for efficiently cooling the computer chip. Here, by making full use of the double merits of the liquid metal, i.e. superior heat transfer performance and electromagnetically drivable ability, we demonstrate for the first time the liquid-cooling concept for the thermal management of a computer chip using waste heat to power the thermoelectric generator (TEG) and thus the flow of the liquid metal. Such a device consumes no external net energy, which warrants it a self-supporting and completely silent liquid-cooling module. Experiments on devices driven by one or two stage TEGs indicate that a dramatic temperature drop on the simulating chip has been realized without the aid of any fans. The higher the heat load, the larger will be the temperature decrease caused by the cooling device. Further, the two TEGs will generate a larger current if a copper plate is sandwiched between them to enhance heat dissipation there. This new method is expected to be significant in future thermal management of a desk or notebook computer, where both efficient cooling and extremely low energy consumption are of major concern.

  9. Continuous transfer of liquid metal droplets across a fluid-fluid interface within an integrated microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Gol, Berrak; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J; Kurdzinski, Michael E; Tang, Shi-Yang; Petersen, Phred; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-06-07

    Micro scale liquid metal droplets have been hailed as the potential key building blocks of future micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). However, most of the current liquid metal enabled systems involve millimeter scale droplets, which are manually injected onto the desired locations of the microchip. Despite its simplicity, this method is impractical for patterning large arrays or complex systems based on micro scale droplets. Here, we present a microfluidic chip, which integrates continuous generation of micro scale galinstan droplets in glycerol, and the hydrodynamic transfer of these droplets into sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Observation via high-speed imaging along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis are utilised to comprehend the lateral migration of droplets from the glycerol to NaOH fluid. This platform is simple, can be readily integrated into other microfluidic systems, and creates flexibility by separating the continuous phase for droplet generation from the eventual target carrier fluid within a monolithic chip.

  10. Nanofluidic chip for liquid TEM cell fabricated by parylene and silicon nitride direct bonding.

    PubMed

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Jonghyun; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Lee, Wonhee

    2017-09-15

    Despite the importance of nanofluidic transmission electron microscope (TEM) chips, a simple fabrication method has yet to be developed due to the difficulty of wafer bonding techniques using a nanoscale thick bonding layer. We present a simple and robust wafer scale bonding technique using parylene as a bonding layer. A nanoscale thick parylene layer was deposited on a silicon nitride (SiN) wafer and patterned to construct nanofluidic channels. The patterned parylene layer was directly bonded to another SiN wafer by thermal surface activation and bonding, with a bonding strength of ∼3 MPa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that carbon-oxygen bonds were generated by thermal activation. We demonstrated TEM imaging of gold nanoparticles suspended in liquid using the fabricated nanofluidic chip.

  11. Nanofluidic chip for liquid TEM cell fabricated by parylene and silicon nitride direct bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Jonghyun; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Lee, Wonhee

    2017-09-01

    Despite the importance of nanofluidic transmission electron microscope (TEM) chips, a simple fabrication method has yet to be developed due to the difficulty of wafer bonding techniques using a nanoscale thick bonding layer. We present a simple and robust wafer scale bonding technique using parylene as a bonding layer. A nanoscale thick parylene layer was deposited on a silicon nitride (SiN) wafer and patterned to construct nanofluidic channels. The patterned parylene layer was directly bonded to another SiN wafer by thermal surface activation and bonding, with a bonding strength of ˜3 MPa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that carbon-oxygen bonds were generated by thermal activation. We demonstrated TEM imaging of gold nanoparticles suspended in liquid using the fabricated nanofluidic chip.

  12. On-chip drop-to-drop liquid microextraction coupled with real-time concentration monitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Wijethunga, Pavithra A L; Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Kunchala, Praveen; Armstrong, Daniel W; Moon, Hyejin

    2011-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel drop-to-drop liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DTD-LLME) device, which is based on an electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidic chip. Droplets of two immiscible liquids, one of which is an ionic liquid, are formed in nanoliter volumes, driven along electrodes, merged and mixed for extraction, and finally separated upon the completion of the extraction process. All the steps are carried out on a microfluidic chip using combined electrowetting and dielectrophoretic forces, which act on the droplet upon the application of electric potential. Specially, the phase separation of two immiscible nanoliter-scale liquid drops was achieved for the first time on an EWOD digital microfluidic chip. To study the on-chip extraction kinetics, an image-based concentration measurement technique with suitable color parameters was studied and compared with the typical UV absorption based technique. Finally, the effect of applied ac voltage frequency on the extraction kinetics was studied. The observations on DTD-LLME, particularly phase separation, are discussed. The image-based method was found to be applicable for precise concentration measurements with the right choice of the color parameter. Results from experiments on finding the frequency dependence on extraction kinetics demonstrate that the application of higher frequencies can be a factor in accelerating the extraction on the proposed microextraction device.

  13. 75 FR 51843 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing the Same... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of... including the following: Freescale Semiconductor Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor Manufacturing...

  14. Components for Batch-Fabricated Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    We describe chip-scale batch-fabricated cesium cells utilizing semiconductor wafer processing, pin transfer of cesium, and silicon/Pyrex anodic ... bonding for cell sealing. Highspeed, single-mode linearly polarized VCSELs emitting at the 133Cs D1 line were fabricated, optimized for low threshold and

  15. Microfluidic chip-based liquid-liquid extraction and preconcentration using a subnanoliter-droplet trapping technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Fang, Qun; Yin, Xue-Feng; Fang, Zhao-Lun

    2005-07-01

    A robust and simple approach for microfluidic liquid-liquid (L-L) extraction at the subnanoliter-scale was developed for on-chip sample pretreatment. Organic solvent droplets of a few hundred pL were trapped within micro recesses fabricated in the channel walls of a microfabricated glass chip. L-L extraction was performed by delivering aqueous samples through the channel, with the sample stream continuously flowing adjacent to the droplets. The analytes in aqueous streams were enriched within the droplet with high preconcentration factors owing to both phase transfer and dissolution of organic solvent into the bypassing aqueous sample. An aqueous solution of butyl rhodamine B (BRB) and 1-hexanol were used, respectively, as sample and extractant to demonstrate the performance of the system. The fluorescence intensity of the dye extracted into the droplet was monitored in situ by LIF. The system proved to be an efficient means for achieving high enrichment factors of over 1000, with sample consumption of a few microL. Quantitative measurement of the extracted analyte was achieved with a linear response in the range 1 x 10(-9)-8 x 10(-7) M BRB. The precision of the measured fluorescence values for a 10(-7) M BRB standard with a 12.5 min preconcentration period was 6.6% RSD (n = 5).

  16. VCSEL polarization control for chip-scale atomic clocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Wendt, Joel Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Keeler, Gordon Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Mytek, LLC have collaborated to develop a monolithically-integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) assembly with controllable polarization states suitable for use in chip-scale atomic clocks. During the course of this work, a robust technique to provide polarization control was modeled and demonstrated. The technique uses deeply-etched surface gratings oriented at several different rotational angles to provide VCSEL polarization stability. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) model was used to optimize the design for high polarization selectivity and fabrication tolerance. The new approach to VCSEL polarization control may be useful in a number of defense and commercial applications, including chip-scale atomic clocks and other low-power atomic sensors.

  17. On-chip infrared sensors: redefining the benefits of scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Derek; Lin, Hongtao; Agarwal, Anu; Yadav, Anupama; Richardson, Kathleen; Luzinov, Igor; Gu, Tian; Hu, Juejun

    2017-03-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is widely recognized as a gold standard technique for chemical and biological analysis. Traditional IR spectroscopy relies on fragile bench-top instruments located in dedicated laboratory settings, and is thus not suitable for emerging field-deployed applications such as in-line industrial process control, environmental monitoring, and point-of-care diagnosis. Recent strides in photonic integration technologies provide a promising route towards enabling miniaturized, rugged platforms for IR spectroscopic analysis. It is therefore attempting to simply replace the bulky discrete optical elements used in conventional IR spectroscopy with their on-chip counterparts. This size down-scaling approach, however, cripples the system performance as both the sensitivity of spectroscopic sensors and spectral resolution of spectrometers scale with optical path length. In light of this challenge, we will discuss two novel photonic device designs uniquely capable of reaping performance benefits from microphotonic scaling. We leverage strong optical and thermal confinement in judiciously designed micro-cavities to circumvent the thermal diffusion and optical diffraction limits in conventional photothermal sensors and achieve a record 104 photothermal sensitivity enhancement. In the second example, an on-chip spectrometer design with the Fellgett's advantage is analyzed. The design enables sub-nm spectral resolution on a millimeter-sized, fully packaged chip without moving parts.

  18. SPIDER: Next Generation Chip Scale Imaging Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Alan; Kendrick, Rick; Thurman, Sam; Wuchenich, Danielle; Scott, Ryan P.; Yoo, S. J. B.; Su, Tiehui; Yu, Runxiang; Ogden, Chad; Proiett, Roberto

    The LM Advanced Technology Center and UC Davis are developing an Electro-Optical (EO) imaging sensor called SPIDER (Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-optical Reconnaissance) that provides a 10x to 100x size, weight, and power (SWaP) reduction alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope and focal plane detector array. The substantial reductions in SWaP would reduce cost and/or provide higher resolution by enabling a larger aperture imager in a constrained volume. The SPIDER concept consists of thousands of direct detection white-light interferometers densely packed onto Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) to measure the amplitude and phase of the visibility function at spatial frequencies that span the full synthetic aperture. In other words, SPIDER would sample the object being imaged in the Fourier domain (i.e., spatial frequency domain), and then digitally reconstruct an image. The conventional approach for imaging interferometers requires complex mechanical delay lines to form the interference fringes. This results in designs that are not traceable to more than a few simultaneous spatial frequency measurements. SPIDER seeks to achieve this traceability by employing micron-=scale optical waveguides and nanophotonic structures fabricated on a PIC with micron-scale packing density to form the necessary interferometers. Prior LM IRAD and DARPA/NASA CRAD-funded SPIDER risk reduction experiments, design trades, and simulations have matured the SPIDER imager concept to a TRL 3 level. Current funding under the DARPA SPIDER Zoom program is maturing the underlying PIC technology for SPIDER to the TRL 4 level. This is done by developing and fabricating a second-generation PIC that is fully traceable to the multiple layers and low-power phase modulators required for higher-dimension waveguide arrays that are needed for higher field-of-view sensors. Our project also seeks to extend the SPIDER concept to add a zoom capability that would provide

  19. Characterization of AGIPD1.0: The full scale chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezza, D.; Allahgholi, A.; Arino-Estrada, G.; Bianco, L.; Delfs, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Goettlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S.; Klanner, R.; Klyuev, A.; Krueger, H.; Marras, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schwandt, J.; Sheviakov, I.; Shi, X.; Trunk, U.; Xia, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) detector is a high frame rate (4.5 MHz) and high dynamic range (up to 104 ·12.4 keV photons) detector with single photon resolution (down to 4 keV taking 5σ as limit and lowest noise settings) developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.0, which is the first full scale version of the chip. The chip is 64×64 pixels and each pixel has a size of 200×200 μm2. Each pixel can store up to 352 images at a rate of 4.5 MHz (corresponding to 220 ns). A detailed characterization of the AGIPD1.0 chip has been performed in order to assess the main performance of the ASIC in terms of gain, noise, speed and dynamic range. From the measurements presented in this paper a good uniformity of the gain, a noise around 320 e- (rms) in standard mode and around 240 e- (rms) in high gain mode has been measured. Furthermore a detailed discussion about the non-linear behavior after the gain switching is presented with both experimental results and simulations.

  20. Nonspecific hybridization scaling of microarray expression estimates: a physicochemical approach for chip-to-chip normalization.

    PubMed

    Binder, Hans; Brücker, Jan; Burden, Conrad J

    2009-03-05

    The problem of inferring accurate quantitative estimates of transcript abundances from gene expression microarray data is addressed. Particular attention is paid to correcting chip-to-chip variations arising mainly as a result of unwanted nonspecific background hybridization to give transcript abundances measured in a common scale. This study verifies and generalizes a model of the mutual dependence between nonspecific background hybridization and the sensitivity of the specific signal using an approach based on the physical chemistry of surface hybridization. We have analyzed GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray data taken from a set of five benchmark experiments including dilution, Latin Square, and "Golden spike" designs. Our analysis concentrates on the important effect of changes in the unwanted nonspecific background inherent in the technology due to changes in total RNA target concentration and/or composition. We find that incremental changes in nonspecific background entail opposite sign incremental changes in the effective specific binding constant. This effect, which we refer to as the "up-down" effect, results from the subtle interplay of competing interactions between the probes and specific and nonspecific targets at the chip surface and in bulk solution. We propose special rules for proper normalization of expression values considering the specifics of the up-down effect. Particularly for normalization one has to level the expression values of invariant expressed probes. Existing heuristic normalization techniques which do not exclude absent probes, level intensities instead of expression values, and/or use low variance criteria for identifying invariant sets of probes lead to biased results. Strengths and pitfalls of selected normalization methods are discussed. We also find that the extent of the up-down effect is modified if RNA targets are replaced by DNA targets, in that microarray sensitivity and specificity are improved via a decrease in

  1. 75 FR 24742 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain large scale integrated circuit... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips or products containing the same that...

  2. The chip-scale atomic clock : prototype evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Mescher, Mark; Varghese, Mathew; Lutwak, Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Tepolt, Gary; Geib, Kent Martin; Leblanc, John; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Rashid, Ahmed

    2007-12-01

    The authors have developed a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) for applications requiring atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applications. At PTTI/FCS 2005, they reported on the demonstration of a prototype CSAC, with an overall size of 10 cm{sup 3}, power consumption > 150 mW, and short-term stability sy(t) < 1 x 10-9t-1/2. Since that report, they have completed the development of the CSAC, including provision for autonomous lock acquisition and a calibrated output at 10.0 MHz, in addition to modifications to the physics package and system architecture to improve performance and manufacturability.

  3. A chip scale electrocaloric effect based cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Haiming; Qian, Xiaoshi; Li, Xinyu; Craven, Brent; Zhu, Wenyi; Cheng, Ailan; Yao, S. C.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2013-03-01

    The recent finding of large electrocaloric effect in several ferroelectric polymers creates unique opportunity for developing compact size solid state cooling cycles beyond the traditional mechanical vapor compression cycles. Here, we show that, by employing regeneration process with solid state regenerators, a chip scale Electrocaloric Oscillatory Refrigeration (ECOR) can be realized. A prototype ECOR is fabricated and characterized. More than 6 K temperature span is obtained near room temperature between the hot and cold sides of a 2 cm long device. Finite volume simulation validates the test results and shows the potential high performance of the ECOR.

  4. Quantitative PCR based expression analysis on a nanoliter scale using polymer nano-well chips.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Andreas; Sultan, Marc; Jung, Alexander; Schwartz, Regine; Lange, Matthias; Steinwand, Michael; Livak, Kenneth J; Lehrach, Hans; Nyarsik, Lajos

    2007-06-01

    The analysis of gene expression is an essential element of functional genomics. Expression analysis is mainly based on DNA microarrays due to highly parallel readout and high throughput. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) based expression profiling is the gold standard for the precise monitoring of selected genes, and therefore used for validation of microarray data. Doing qPCR-based expression analysis in an array-like format can combine the higher sensitivity and accuracy of the qPCR methodology with a high data density at relatively low costs. This paper describes the development of an open-well based miniaturized platform for liquid PCR-based assays on the nanoliter scale using cost-effective polypropylene micro reactors (microPCR Chip). We show the quantification ability and reliability of qPCR in 200 nl with the microPCR chip down to 5 starting target molecules using TaqMan chemistry. An RNA expression analysis of four genes in mouse brain, liver and kidney tissues showed similar results in 200 nl as compared to standard 10 microl assays. The high sensitivity and quantification capability of the microPCR chip platform developed herein makes it a promising technology for performing high-throughput qPCR-based analysis in the nanoliter volume range.

  5. Chip-scale spacecraft swarms: Dynamics, control, and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Lorraine

    Chip-scale spacecraft (chipsats) swarms will open new avenues for space exploration, both near Earth and in interplanetary space. The ability to create distributed sensor networks through swarms of low-cost, low-mass spacecraft shall enable the exploration of asteroids, icy moons, and the Earths magnetosphere become more feasible. This research develops new techniques for analyzing swarm dynamics, both in the limited case of the Kepler problem, and in general gravity environments, investigates several techniques for providing chipsat propulsion, and develops possible mission strategies. This work applies the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) transformation to the stochastic exploration presented by chipsat swarms. The contributions towards understanding swarm dynamics include analytical and numerical study of swarms in the purely Kepler problem as well as in general potential fields. A study of swarm evolution near an asteroid provides an example of the richness of behaviors that can be provided by chip-scale spacecraft swarms. Swarm actuation can be achieved through a number of means. This research presents a novel attitude control and propulsion system for chipsat swarms near Earth using a mutliple electrodynamic tethers. A numerical study of tether configurations for the greatest control authority is also presented. In addition, active solar sails are evaluated for swarm actuation beyond Earth, and a visualization of available control authority is presented. An example mission of swarm deployment near the Earth-Moon Lagrange point highlights the utility of swarm-based exploration. The candidate mission shows that a swarm with minimal actuation and a simple control scheme might provide distributed sensors in the region for a year or more, or dissipate quickly if uncontrolled. Such a chip-spacecraft mission would be a valuable precursor to further space development in these regions.

  6. Liquids on-chip: direct storage and release employing micro-perforated vapor barrier films.

    PubMed

    Czurratis, Daniel; Beyl, Yvonne; Grimm, Alexander; Brettschneider, Thomas; Zinober, Sven; Lärmer, Franz; Zengerle, Roland

    2015-07-07

    Liquids on-chip describes a reagent storage concept for disposable pressure driven Lab-on-Chip (LoC) devices, which enables liquid storage in reservoirs without additional packaging. On-chip storage of liquids can be considered as one of the major challenges for the commercial break through of polymer-based LoC devices. Especially the ability for long-term storage and reagent release on demand are the most important aspects for a fully developed technology. On-chip storage not only replaces manual pipetting, it creates numerous advantages: fully automated processing, ease of use, reduction of contamination and transportation risks. Previous concepts for on-chip storage are based on liquid packaging solutions (e.g. stick packs, blisters, glass ampoules), which implicate manufacturing complexity and additional pick and place processes. That is why we prefer on-chip storage of liquids directly in reservoirs. The liquids are collected in reservoirs, which are made of high barrier polymers or coated by selected barrier layers. Therefore, commonly used polymers for LoC applications as cyclic olefin polymer (COP) and polycarbonate (PC) were investigated in the context of novel polymer composites. To ensure long-term stability the reservoirs are sealed with a commercially available barrier film by hot embossing. The barrier film is structured by pulsed laser ablation, which installs rated break points without affecting the barrier properties. A flexible membrane is actuated through pneumatic pressure for reagent release on demand. The membrane deflection breaks the barrier film and leads to efficient cleaning of the reservoirs in order to provide the liquids for further processing.

  7. Multistep liquid-phase lithography for fast prototyping of microfluidic free-flow-electrophoresis chips.

    PubMed

    Jezierski, Stefan; Gitlin, Leonid; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2011-11-01

    We present a fast and versatile method to produce functional micro free-flow electrophoresis chips. Microfluidic structures were generated between two glass slides applying multistep liquid-phase lithography, omitting troublesome bonding steps or cost-intensive master structures. Utilizing a novel spacer-less approach with the photodefinable polymer polyethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (PEG-DA), microfluidic devices with hydrophilic channels of only 25 μm in height were generated. The microfluidic chips feature ion-permeable segregation walls between the electrode channels and the separation bed and hydrophilic surfaces. The performance of the chip is demonstrated by free-flow electrophoretic separation of fluorescent xanthene dyes and fluorescently labeled amino acids.

  8. The silicon chip: A versatile micro-scale platform for micro- and nano-scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Edward

    Cutting-edge advances in micro- and nano-scale technology require instrumentation to interface with the external world. While technology feature sizes are continually being reduced, the size of experimentalists and their instrumentation do not mirror this trend. Hence there is a need for effective application-specific instrumentation to bridge the gap from the micro and nano-scale phenomena being studied to the comparative macro-scale of the human interfaces. This dissertation puts forward the idea that the silicon CMOS integrated circuit, or microchip in short, serves as an excellent platform to perform this functionality. The electronic interfaces designed for the semiconductor industry are particularly attractive as development platforms, and the reduction in feature sizes that has been a hallmark of the industry suggests that chip-scale instrumentation may be more closely coupled to the phenomena of interest, allowing finer control or improved measurement capabilities. Compatibility with commercial processes will further enable economies of scale through mass production, another welcome feature of this approach. Thus chip-scale instrumentation may replace the bulky, expensive, cumbersome-to-operate macro-scale prototypes currently in use for many of these applications. The dissertation examines four specific applications in which the chip may serve as the ideal instrumentation platform. These are nanorod manipulation, polypyrrole bilayer hinge microactuator control, organic transistor hybrid circuits, and contact fluorescence imaging. The thesis is structured around chapters devoted to each of these projects, in addition to a chapter on preliminary work on an RFID system that serves as a wireless interface model. Each of these chapters contains tools and techniques developed for chip-scale instrumentation, from custom scripts for automated layout and data collection to microfabrication processes. Implementation of these tools to develop systems for the

  9. 76 FR 14688 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain large scale integrated circuit... Semiconductor Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor Manufacturing Site (``Freescale Xiqing'') of China;...

  10. Thermal and mechanical analysis of flip-chips on a liquid cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Hall, P.M. ); Chanchani, R. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, thermal analysis of a three dimensional quarter model of a 156 pad flip-chip on a liquid cooled multichip module with 75 other chips is simulated using COSMOS -- finite element software. Both flip-chip (pad grid array type) and TAB type of interconnections are used for the module. The total power on the board is 67 watts, the flip-chips generating up to 1.5 watts each and the one TAB type generating 12 waits. Each chip can be modeled independently due to the absence of cross-heating by its neighbors. Forced convection liquid cooling using an organic coolant with various flow rates and thus various convection coefficients is used for the study. The temperature rise in the boundary layer of the coolant was 8F[degrees] at the coolant flow rate of 0.08 gallons per minute for the flip-chip with 1.5 watts. The maximum thermal strains calculated were found to be 0.35% (if the temperature of zero strain is assumed to be 0[degrees]F, and Young's modulus of solder is 2 Mpsi). The maximum shears were found in the corner bump, and they differed from the next bump by 20%. Polyimide layers above and below the solder bumps were found to contribute about 80% of the thermal resistance These results are used in a Coffin-Manson analysis to predict adequate life (cycles) for the high lead solder bumps (95%Pb--5%Sn).

  11. Thermal and mechanical analysis of flip-chips on a liquid cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; Hall, P.M.; Chanchani, R.

    1992-12-31

    In this paper, thermal analysis of a three dimensional quarter model of a 156 pad flip-chip on a liquid cooled multichip module with 75 other chips is simulated using COSMOS -- finite element software. Both flip-chip (pad grid array type) and TAB type of interconnections are used for the module. The total power on the board is 67 watts, the flip-chips generating up to 1.5 watts each and the one TAB type generating 12 waits. Each chip can be modeled independently due to the absence of cross-heating by its neighbors. Forced convection liquid cooling using an organic coolant with various flow rates and thus various convection coefficients is used for the study. The temperature rise in the boundary layer of the coolant was 8F{degrees} at the coolant flow rate of 0.08 gallons per minute for the flip-chip with 1.5 watts. The maximum thermal strains calculated were found to be 0.35% (if the temperature of zero strain is assumed to be 0{degrees}F, and Young`s modulus of solder is 2 Mpsi). The maximum shears were found in the corner bump, and they differed from the next bump by 20%. Polyimide layers above and below the solder bumps were found to contribute about 80% of the thermal resistance! These results are used in a Coffin-Manson analysis to predict adequate life (cycles) for the high lead solder bumps (95%Pb--5%Sn).

  12. Thermal and mechanical analysis of flip-chips on a liquid cooled multichip module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, R.; Hall, P. M.; Chanchani, R.

    In this paper, thermal analysis of a three dimensional quarter model of a 156 pad flip-chip on a liquid cooled multichip module with 75 other chips is simulated using COSMOS -- finite element software. Both flip-chip (pad grid array type) and TAB type of interconnections are used for the module. The total power on the board is 67 watts, the flip-chips generating up to 1.5 watts each, and the one TAB type generating 12 watts. Each chip can be modeled independently due to the absence of cross-heating by its neighbors. Forced convection liquid cooling using an organic coolant with various flow rates and thus various convection coefficients are used for the study. The temperature rise in the boundary layer of the coolant was 8 F at the coolant flow rate of 0.08 gallons per minute for the flip-chip with 1.5 watts. The maximum thermal strains calculated were found to be 0.35% (if the temperature of zero strain is assumed to be 0 F, and Young's modulus of solder is 2 Mpsi). The maximum shears were found in the corner bump, and they differed from the next bump by 20%. Polyimide layers above and below the solder bumps were found to contribute about 80% of the thermal resistance] These results are used in a Coffin-Manson analysis to predict adequate life (cycles) for the high lead solder bumps (95%Pb-5%Sn).

  13. Liquidity crises on different time scales.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  14. Liquidity crises on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  15. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

    2006-08-01

    Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of

  16. Magnetoencephalography with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Sander, T. H.; Preusser, J.; Mhaskar, R.; Kitching, J.; Trahms, L.; Knappe, S.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the measurement of somatosensory-evoked and spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer (CSAM) based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms. The uncooled, fiber-coupled CSAM has a sensitive volume of 0.77 mm3 inside a sensor head of volume 1 cm3 and enabled convenient handling, similar to an electroencephalography (EEG) electrode. When positioned over O1 of a healthy human subject, α-oscillations were observed in the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the scalp surface. Furthermore, by stimulation at the right wrist of the subject, somatosensory-evoked fields were measured with the sensors placed over C3. Higher noise levels of the CSAM were partly compensated by higher signal amplitudes due to the shorter distance between CSAM and scalp. PMID:22567591

  17. Magnetoencephalography with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Sander, T H; Preusser, J; Mhaskar, R; Kitching, J; Trahms, L; Knappe, S

    2012-05-01

    We report on the measurement of somatosensory-evoked and spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer (CSAM) based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms. The uncooled, fiber-coupled CSAM has a sensitive volume of 0.77 mm(3) inside a sensor head of volume 1 cm(3) and enabled convenient handling, similar to an electroencephalography (EEG) electrode. When positioned over O1 of a healthy human subject, α-oscillations were observed in the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the scalp surface. Furthermore, by stimulation at the right wrist of the subject, somatosensory-evoked fields were measured with the sensors placed over C3. Higher noise levels of the CSAM were partly compensated by higher signal amplitudes due to the shorter distance between CSAM and scalp.

  18. Chip Scale Package Integrity Assessment by Isothermal Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    Many aspects of chip scale package (CSP) technology, with focus on assembly reliability characteristics, are being investigated by the JPL-led consortia. Three types of test vehicles were considered for evaluation and currently two configurations have been built to optimize attachment processes. These test vehicles use numerous package types. To understand potential failure mechanisms of the packages, particularly solder ball attachment, the grid CSPs were subjected to environmental exposure. Package I/Os ranged from 40 to nearly 300. This paper presents both as assembled, up to 1, 000 hours of isothermal aging shear test results and photo micrographs, and tensile test results before and after 1,500 cycles in the range of -30/100 C for CSPs. Results will be compared to BGAs with the same the same isothermal aging environmental exposures.

  19. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as 3.6 × 1012 Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375 MHz with a threshold power of 174 μW in the air. The demonstrated lithium niobate optomechanical device enables great potential for achieving electro-optic-mechanical hybrid systems for broad applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum physics.

  20. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as 3.6 × 1012 Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375 MHz with a threshold power of 174 μW in the air. The demonstrated lithium niobate optomechanical device enables great potential for achieving electro-optic-mechanical hybrid systems for broad applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum physics. PMID:27841301

  1. A novel monolithic fabrication method for a plastic microfluidic chip with liquid interconnecting ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bong-Kee; Kwon, Tai Hun

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a novel monolithic fabrication method was developed for the manufacturing of a plastic microfluidic chip with liquid interconnecting ports. As the present method can realize both interconnecting ports and through holes, which are essential components for the delivery of working fluids, in the plastic microfluidic chip, no additional processes and external ports are required. Furthermore, the connection of external silicone tubing can be simply achieved by utilizing an elastic deformation of the used tubing. As one representative example, a microinjection molding of a prototype microfluidic chip having two types of interconnecting ports was demonstrated. After obtaining upper and lower plates by the microinjection molding process utilizing mold cores with pin structures, the thermal bonding of the molded plates was carried out, resulting in the prototype plastic microfluidic chip with interconnecting ports. From microfluidic experiments using the fabricated prototype, it was found that the present method could be quite useful in various microfluidic applications.

  2. Formation Characteristics of microbubble in a co-flowing liquid in microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Qin, Hongwei; Jiang, Shengyuan; Li, Peng; Sun, Lixia; Ren, Yukun

    2017-08-01

    Microbubble formation under the surroundings of co-flowing liquid (CFL) in a specially designed microfluidic chip was investigated. A new microfluidic chip utilizing several capillary tubes was fabricated to provide the co-axial flowing conditions. An experiment platform based on high-speed microscopic camera system (HSMCS) was designed and set up. The influences of nitrogen pressure and liquid flow rate on detachment distance and volume variation of target microbubble were studied experimentally. Experimental data and analysis results indicated that the detachment distance of target microbubble decreases substantially as the rate of CFL increases while it is almost independent of nitrogen pressure. Additionally, the volume growth rate of target microbubble almost keeps constant under fixed nitrogen pressure. The present study provides empirical references for studies in microbubble formation in microfluidic chips which contributes to realize the accurate controllability in diameter and size distribution of microbubble.

  3. On chip steady liquid-gas phase separation for flexible generation of dissolved gas concentration gradient.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bi-Yi; Hu, Shan-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Na; Xia, Xing-Hua; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2012-04-07

    In this study, steady liquid-gas phase separation is realized by applying a hydrophobic small microchannel array (SMA) to bridge two large microchannels, one for liquid phase and one for gas phase. In this structure, a capillary pressure difference between that in the SMA and the larger channel results in a steady liquid-gas interface. The generated liquid-gas interface allows for fast gas dissolving speed. By coupling the liquid-gas interface with a one directional fluidic field, a steady dissolved gas concentration gradient (DgCG) is generated. The DgCG distribution is easily designable for linear or exponential modes, providing improved flexibility for gas participated processes on chip. To demonstrate its applicability, a CO(2) DgCG chip is fabricated and applied for screening CaCO(3) crystal growth conditions in the DgCG chip. Crystals with transitional structures are successfully fabricated, which is consistent with the CO(2) DgCG distribution. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Chip-scale hybrid optical sensing systems using digital signal processing.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Yeon; Borah, Deva K

    2009-01-05

    We propose a novel hybrid optical sensing system for standalone, chip-scale sensing applications. The hybrid optical sensing system detects any spectral shift of the microresonator sensor output by estimating the effective refractive index using maximum likelihood estimation. The performance evaluation of the proposed hybrid sensing system in the Gaussian-noise dominant environment shows excellent estimation accuracy. This innovative approach allows fully functional integrated hybrid sensing systems, offering great potential in various chip-scale sensing applications.

  5. High Efficiency Mixing Chip with Liquid Flow Actuators Operated by Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Tsunemasa; Utsumi, Yuichi

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be used as component parts for micro total analysis systems (μTASs), because the structures of these are very simple. We thus fabricated a mixing chip with liquid flow actuators operated only by the SAWs. The chip is mainly consisted of one Y-type flow channel, two pumps and one mixer. The pump is located at each upstream area of merging point of the flow channel, and the mixer is located at its downstream area. Incidentally, the flow actuators have interdigital transducers (IDTs) to generate the SAWs. The IDTs were fabricated by patterning Al/Cr on a LiNbO3 substrate, and the flow channel wall was made of epoxy-based negative resist SU-8. Using the mixing chip, we carried out a mixing experiment of two water solutions with different concentrations by using glycerin, and a chemical reaction experiment of luminol luminescence. Through the experimentations, it was found that the local and rapid mixing of continuous liquid flow was possible by using the SAW actuators, and the availability of our fabricated mixing chip as a reactor was demonstrated.

  6. Semi-autonomous liquid handling via on-chip pneumatic digital logic.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Transon V; Duncan, Philip N; Ahrar, Siavash; Hui, Elliot E

    2012-10-21

    This report presents a liquid-handling chip capable of executing metering, mixing, incubation, and wash procedures largely under the control of on-board pneumatic circuitry. The only required inputs are four static selection lines to choose between the four machine states, and one additional line for power. State selection is simple: constant application of vacuum to an input causes the device to execute one of its four liquid handling operations. Programmed control of 31 valves, including fast coordinated cycling for peristaltic pumping, is accomplished by pneumatic digital logic circuits built out of microfluidic valves and channels rather than electronics, eliminating the need for the off-chip control machinery that is typically required for integrated microfluidics.

  7. Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, Jürgen; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a self-organized cholesteric liquid crystal laser confined between optically clear and elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The formation of a planar helical texture in the cholesteric was supported by microsctructuring of PDMS layer surface, using the nanoembossing technique with glass substrates coated with conventional alignment layers as a template. The potential of combining miniature cholesteric laser sources and microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip applications is discussed.

  8. Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both the quality of the experimental washing protocol and adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. Results We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of the number of washing cycles. For calibration and analysis of the intensity data we make use of the 'hook' method which allows intensity contributions due to non-specific and specific hybridization of perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) probes to be disentangled in a sequence specific manner. On average, washing according to the standard protocol removes about 90% of the non-specific background and about 30-50% and less than 10% of the specific targets from the MM and PM, respectively. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. It depends on the intensity contribution due to specific and non-specific hybridization per probe which can be estimated for each probe using existing methods. The washing function allows probe intensities to be calibrated for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures, especially in the limit of small and large values. Conclusions Washing is among the factors which potentially distort expression measures. The proposed first-order correction method allows direct implementation in existing calibration algorithms for microarray data. We provide an experimental 'washing data set' which might

  9. Multiplexed electrospray scaling for liquid fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, C. Mike; Hanrahan, Brendan; Lee, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    Evaporation and space-charge requirements are evaluated to understand the effect of device scaling and fuel preheating for a liquid fuel injector using a multiplexed electrospray (MES) configuration in compact combustion applications. This work reveals the influence of the droplet diameter, droplet velocity and droplet surface temperature as well as the surrounding gas temperature on the size and performance of microfabricated MES. Measurements from MES devices are used in the model to accurately account for the droplet diameter versus flow rate relationship, the minimum droplet diameter and the relevant droplet velocities. A maximum extractor electrode to ground electrode distance of 3.1 mm required to overcome space-charge forces is found to be independent of voltage or droplet velocity for large levels of multiplexing. This maximum distance also becomes the required evaporation length scale which imposes minimum fuel pre-heating requirements for large flow densities. Required fuel preheating is therefore evaluated for both ethanol and 1-butanol with combustor parameters relevant to fuel reformation, thermoelectric conversion, thermophotovoltaic conversion and thermionic conversion.

  10. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    PubMed

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-07

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  11. Universal scaling laws of diffusion: application to liquid metals.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Alok; Musharaf Ali, Sk; Ghosh, Swapan K

    2005-08-22

    This work focuses on the universal scaling laws, which relate scaled diffusivity to excess entropy in fluids and their mixtures. The derivation of the new scaling law for diffusivity proposed recently [A. Samanta, Sk. M. Ali, and S. K. Ghosh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145901 (2004)] is discussed in details highlighting the nature of approximations involved. Also the applicability of the scaling law is extended to a new class of liquids, viz., liquid metals. The results calculated based on the scaling laws are shown to be in very good agreement with the simulation results for liquid Rb and Cs metals along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve corresponding to a wide variation of temperature and density. The new universal scaling law discussed here is superior to the earlier empirically proposed scaling laws and provides a very simple route to calculate a dynamical quantity such as diffusivity from an equilibrium property such as the radial distribution function.

  12. Continuous-flow submicroliter-scale PCR chip for DNA amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Chen, Shaochen

    2001-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a well-described method for selective identical replication of DNA molecules. In recent years, many micromachined PCR chips have been reported. These miniaturized PCR chips have great advantages such as a significant reduction in reagent costs and vastly reduced reaction time over the conventional PCR devices. In this paper a micro analysis system that will allow submicro-liter scale, continuous-flow PCR to be conducted in a glass chip has been presented. This glass chip is achieved through thermally bonding two pyrex 7740 glass wafers. One pyrex wafer is etched to form a 20-cycle microchannel of 80 micron wide and 30 micron deep. The other pyrex wafer with microheaters is thermally bonded to the microchannel wafer to produce a closed continuous microchannel for PCR. The total length of the microchannel is 0.5 m. The size of this device is 56 mm 'e 24 mm 'e 1 mm. Three reaction temperatures are controlled by three PID controllers. This PCR chip has a significant reagent reduction with a volume of less than 1 micro-liter. With 1 micro-liter reagent, we get total reaction time of 0.5 min to 3 min depending on various flow rates. This analysis chip is fabricated using standard micromachining techniques. The advantages of this chip include small quantities of reagent needed, high throughput, rapid thermal cycling, and batch micro-fabrication resulting in a significant cost reduction.

  13. On-Chip Pressure Generation for Driving Liquid Phase Separations in Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ling; Choi, Chiwoong; Kothekar, Shrinivas C; Dutta, Debashis

    2016-01-05

    In this Article, we describe the generation of pressure gradients on-chip for driving liquid phase separations in submicrometer deep channels. The reported pressure-generation capability was realized by applying an electrical voltage across the interface of two glass channel segments with different depths. A mismatch in the electroosmotic flow rate at this junction led to the generation of pressure-driven flow in our device, a fraction of which was then directed to an analysis channel to carry out the desired separation. Experiments showed the reported strategy to be particularly conducive for miniaturization of pressure-driven separations yielding flow velocities in the separation channel that were nearly unaffected upon scaling down the depth of the entire fluidic network. Moreover, the small dead volume in our system allowed for high dynamic control over this pressure gradient, which otherwise was challenging to accomplish during the sample injection process using external pumps. Pressure-driven velocities up to 3.1 mm/s were realized in separation ducts as shallow as 300 nm using our current design for a maximum applied voltage of 3 kV. The functionality of this integrated device was demonstrated by implementing a pressure-driven ion chromatographic analysis that relied on analyte interaction with the nanochannel surface charges to yield a nonuniform solute concentration across the channel depth. Upon coupling such analyte distribution to the parabolic pressure-driven flow profile in the separation duct, a mixture of amino acids could be resolved. The reported assay yielded a higher separation resolution compared to its electrically driven counterpart in which sample migration was realized using electroosmosis/electrophoresis.

  14. Enhancing lab-on-a-chip performance via tunable parallel liquid mircolens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Zeng, Xuefeng; Dong, Liang; Jiang, Hongrui

    2009-02-01

    Pathogen detection increasingly shows significance not only for hospital laboratories, but also for in-field usage. Nowadays the microfabrication technologies give us the possibility to integrate optical devices for detection and microfluidic channels for fluorescein-labeled pathogen suspension into a single chip (i.e. optofluidics), thus providing simple, sensitive and inexpensive methods of pathogen detection. One interesting optofluidic component is a microlens whose optical axis is parallel to the substrate used. We hereby report an in situ formed tunable liquid microlens array and its applications for dynamic lab-on-a-chip, such as enhancing fluorescence emission in and detection of laminar fluid flows, and characterizing surface reaction. The de-ionized water microlenses are intrinsically formed via liquid-air interfaces of liquid droplets, whose positions are precisely controlled by air/liquid injection and pinned at T-shaped junctions of octadecyltrichlorosilane(OTS) treated polymerized isobornyl acrylate(poly(IBA)) microchannels. By pneumatic manipulation inside the channel, the microlenses can be separately tuned in focal lengths along the microchannels parallel to the substrate. Then via the tunable microlenses, excitation light is dynamically focused onto fluorescent fluidic samples, and thus the fluorescence emission signal for detection is significantly increased compared to the case without the microlenses, as a result of the enhancement of the fluorescence excitation.Meanwhile, in lab-on-a-chip, controlled microfluidic interfaces are also important, and as our microlens array directly faces the cross sections of these interfaces, we have also shown the potential for surface reaction study at such interfaces by the microlens array.

  15. Microfluidics on liquid handling stations (μF-on-LHS): an industry compatible chip interface between microfluidics and automated liquid handling stations.

    PubMed

    Waldbaur, Ansgar; Kittelmann, Jörg; Radtke, Carsten P; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Rapp, Bastian E

    2013-06-21

    We describe a generic microfluidic interface design that allows the connection of microfluidic chips to established industrial liquid handling stations (LHS). A molding tool has been designed that allows fabrication of low-cost disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips with interfaces that provide convenient and reversible connection of the microfluidic chip to industrial LHS. The concept allows complete freedom of design for the microfluidic chip itself. In this setup all peripheral fluidic components (such as valves and pumps) usually required for microfluidic experiments are provided by the LHS. Experiments (including readout) can be carried out fully automated using the hardware and software provided by LHS manufacturer. Our approach uses a chip interface that is compatible with widely used and industrially established LHS which is a significant advancement towards near-industrial experimental design in microfluidics and will greatly facilitate the acceptance and translation of microfluidics technology in industry.

  16. Lab-on-chip for liquid biopsy (LoC-LB) based on dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bobby; Alazzam, Anas; Khashan, Saud; Abutayeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This short communication presents the proof-of-concept of a novel dielectrophoretic lab-on-chip for identifying/separating circulating tumor cells for purposes of liquid biopsy. The device consists of a polydimethylsiloxane layer, containing a microchannel, bonded on a glass substrate that holds two sets of planar interdigitated transducer electrodes. The lab-on-chip is operated at a frequency that enables dielectrophoretic force to sort cells, based on type, along the lateral direction. The operating frequency ensures attraction force toward the electrodes on cancer cells and repulsion force toward the center of the microchannel on other cells. Initial tests for demonstrating proof-of-concept have successfully identified/separated green fluorescent protein-labelled MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from a mixture of the same and regular blood cells suspended in low conductivity sucrose/dextrose medium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbubble movement during its formation in a co-flowing liquid in a microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Qin, Hongwei; Jiang, Weikang; Jiang, Shengyuan; Sun, Lixia; Ren, Yukun; Li, Peng

    2017-08-01

    Microbubble formation surrounded by a co-flowing lqiud (CFL) in a new-designed microfluidic chip was investigated in the present study. The movement of microbubble and the effect of CFL and nitrogen pressure on it during its formation were mainly focused. A new microfluidic chip was fabricated to realize the co-axial flowing condition of liquid. Experimental works were conducted based on the professionally-constucted high-speed microscopic camera system (HSMCS). Two concerned parameters which represent the movement of target microbubble were introduced. Experimental data and analysis results indicated that microbubble moves along the formation direction as time with a quadratic law. Futhermore, both nitrogen presussure and CFL contribute to the formation process drastically but from different aspects. The present study provided empirical references for studies in the movement of microbubble during its formation in CFL which contributes to realize the accurate controllability in diameter and size distribution of microbubbles.

  18. Liquid biopsy on chip: a paradigm shift towards the understanding of cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tadimety, Amogha; Syed, Abeer; Nie, Yuan; Long, Christina R; Kready, Kasia M; Zhang, John X J

    2017-01-23

    This comprehensive review serves as a guide for developing scalable and robust liquid biopsies on chip for capture, detection, and analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Liquid biopsy, the detection of biomarkers from body fluids, has proven challenging because of CTC rarity and the heterogeneity of CTCs shed from tumors. The review starts with the underlying biological mechanisms that make liquid biopsy a challenge before moving into an evaluation of current technological progress. Then, a framework for evaluation of the technologies is presented with special attention to throughput, capture rate, and cell viability for analysis. Technologies for CTC capture, detection, and analysis will be evaluated based on these criteria, with a focus on current approaches, limitations and future directions. The paper provides a critical review for microchip developers as well as clinical investigators to build upon the existing progress towards the goal of designing CTC capture, detection, and analysis platforms.

  19. Vapor pressure of ionic liquids at low temperatures from AC-chip-calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Ahrenberg, Mathias; Beck, Martin; Neise, Christin; Keßler, Olaf; Kragl, Udo; Verevkin, Sergey P; Schick, Christoph

    2016-08-03

    The very low vapor pressure of ionic liquids is challenging to measure. At elevated temperatures the liquids might start to decompose, and at relatively low temperatures the vapor pressure becomes too low to be measured by conventional methods. In this work we developed a highly sensitive method for mass loss determination at temperatures starting from 350 K. This technique is based on an alternating current calorimeter equipped with a chip sensor that consists of a free-standing SiNx-membrane (thickness <1 μm) and a measuring area with lateral dimensions of the order of 1 mm. A small droplet (diameter ca. 600 μm) of an ionic liquid is vaporized isothermally from the chip sensor in a vacuum-chamber. The surface-to-volume-ratio of such a droplet is large and the relative mass loss due to evaporation is therefore easy to monitor by the changing heat capacity (J K(-1)) of the remaining liquid. The vapor pressure is determined from the measured mass loss rates using the Langmuir equation. The method was successfully tested for the determination of the vapor pressure and the vaporization enthalpy of an archetypical ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][NTf2]). The data set created in this way in an extremely broad temperature range from 358 K to 780 K has allowed the estimation of the boiling temperature of [EMIm][NTf2]. The value (1120 ± 50) K should be considered as the first reliable boiling point of the archetypical ionic liquid obtained from experimental vapor pressures measured in the most possible close proximity to the normal boiling temperature.

  20. Micron-Scale Differential Scanning Calorimeter on a Chip

    DOEpatents

    Cavicchi, Richard E; Poirier, Gregory Ernest; Suehle, John S; Gaitan, Michael; Tea, Nim H

    1998-06-30

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter produced on a silicon chip enables microscopic scanning calorimetry measurements of small samples and thin films. The chip may be fabricated using standard CMOS processes. The microcalorimeter includes a reference zone and a sample zone. The reference and sample zones may be at opposite ends of a suspended platform or may reside on separate platforms. An integrated polysilicon heater provides heat to each zone. A thermopile consisting of a succession of thermocouple junctions generates a voltage representing the temperature difference between the reference and sample zones. Temperature differences between the zones provide information about the chemical reactions and phase transitions that occur in a sample placed in the sample zone.

  1. Chip Scale Package Fiber Optic Transceiver Integration for Harsh Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    There is considerable interest in the commercial markets to reduce the power consumption associated with data communications over copper ...speed signals across copper traces. The traditional PCB layout places the optical transceivers near the edge of the PCB, far away from the centrally...signal routing that interconnects the ASICs, OE chips and copper -posts. The carrier is created in a wafer process that creates copper posts

  2. Developing Electrocaloric (EC) Materials with Giant EC Response and Chip-Scale EC Cooling Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiming

    2015-03-01

    The direct and efficient coupling between the electric signals and the elastic, thermal, optical and magnetic signals in ferroelectric based electroactive materials makes them attractive for exploiting a broad range of cross-coupling phenomena which have great promise for new device technologies. This talk will present the recent advances at Penn State in developing electrocaloric materials which may provide alternative cooling technology to replace the century old vapor compression cycle (VCC) based cooling which employs strong greenhouse gases as the refrigerants. Electrocaloric effect (ECE), which is the temperature and entropy change of insulating dielectric materials under electric fields, is attractive to realize efficient cooling devices. However, the relatively small ECE observed in dielectrics in the last century make it unimpressive for any practical applications. Experimental results on the ECE in the relaxor ferroelectric polymers and general theoretical considerations for achieving large ECE will be presented. This talk will also discuss considerations on and present recent works in using nanocomposites to further enhancing the ECE beyond the pure relaxor polymers, on the giant ECE in a class of dielectric liquid, and in bulk ferroelectric ceramics near the invariant critical point. The works related to developing the chip-scale EC cooling devices, exploiting the newly discovered large ECE in ferroelectric materials and featuring high cooling power density and high efficiency, will also be presented. This work has been supported by DoE BES and by ARO.

  3. Low Loss Nanostructured Polymers for Chip-scale Waveguide Amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Chen, George F R; Zhao, Xinyu; Sun, Yang; He, Chaobin; Tan, Mei Chee; Tan, Dawn T H

    2017-06-13

    On-chip waveguide amplifiers offer higher gain in small device sizes and better integration with photonic devices than the commonly available fiber amplifiers. However, on-chip amplifiers have yet to make its way into the mainstream due to the limited availability of materials with ideal light guiding and amplification properties. A low-loss nanostructured on-chip channel polymeric waveguide amplifier was designed, characterized, fabricated and its gain experimentally measured at telecommunication wavelength. The active polymeric waveguide core comprises of NaYF4:Yb,Er,Ce core-shell nanocrystals dispersed within a SU8 polymer, where the nanoparticle interfacial characteristics were tailored using hydrolyzed polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) to improve particle dispersion. Both the enhanced IR emission intensity from our nanocrystals using a tri-dopant scheme and the reduced scattering losses from our excellent particle dispersion at a high solid loading of 6.0 vol% contributed to the outstanding optical performance of our polymeric waveguide. We achieved one of the highest reported gain of 6.6 dB/cm using a relatively low coupled pump power of 80 mW. These polymeric waveguide amplifiers offer greater promise for integrated optical circuits due to their processability and integration advantages which will play a key role in the emerging areas of flexible communication and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Natural Convection Cooling of a Three by Three Array of Leadless Chip Carrier Packages in a Dielectric Liquid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-24

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A282 298 UUU1UII1HUL .2 <~o STA~To THESIS NATURAL CONVECTION COOLING OF A THREE BY THREE ARRAY OF...LEADLESS CHIP CARRIER PACKAGES IN A DIELECTRIC LIQUID by Joseph Matthew Bradley March 1994 Thesis Advisor: Yogendra Joshi Approved for public release...1994. Engineer’s Thesis 5. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATURAL CONVECTION COOLING OF A FUNDING NUMBERS THREE-BY-THREE ARRAY OF LEADLESS CHIP CARRIER PACKAGES IN A

  5. Chip-scale Si-photonics optical transceiver for a photonics-electronics convergence system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, K.; Yashiki, K.; Ibusuki, Y.; Fujikata, J.; Kurihara, M.; Hagihara, Y.; Ogura, I.; Nakamura, T.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a chip-scale silicon photonics transceiver using multimode optical wiring to realize low-cost and high-productivity optical interconnection usable for several short-reach applications. We also present hybrid-integrated low-power- consumption chip-scale optical transmitters/receivers called "optical I/O cores." The optical I/O cores provide clear eye opening in a wide range of temperature operation without clock data recovery. We show the design of one such optical I/O core and evaluate its performance for a wide range of temperatures. Finally, we introduce an example of LSI system based on the optical I/O approach.

  6. On-Chip Production of Size-Controllable Liquid Metal Microdroplets Using Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Ayan, Bugra; Nama, Nitesh; Bian, Yusheng; Lata, James P; Guo, Xiasheng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-07-01

    Micro- to nanosized droplets of liquid metals, such as eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) and Galinstan, have been used for developing a variety of applications in flexible electronics, sensors, catalysts, and drug delivery systems. Currently used methods for producing micro- to nanosized droplets of such liquid metals possess one or several drawbacks, including the lack in ability to control the size of the produced droplets, mass produce droplets, produce smaller droplet sizes, and miniaturize the system. Here, a novel method is introduced using acoustic wave-induced forces for on-chip production of EGaIn liquid-metal microdroplets with controllable size. The size distribution of liquid metal microdroplets is tuned by controlling the interfacial tension of the metal using either electrochemistry or electrocapillarity in the acoustic field. The developed platform is then used for heavy metal ion detection utilizing the produced liquid metal microdroplets as the working electrode. It is also demonstrated that a significant enhancement of the sensing performance is achieved by introducing acoustic streaming during the electrochemical experiments. The demonstrated technique can be used for developing liquid-metal-based systems for a wide range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Chip-scale white flip-chip light-emitting diode containing indium phosphide/zinc selenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Bingfeng; Yan, Linchao; Lao, Yuqin; Ma, Yanfei; Chen, Zimin; Ma, Xuejin; Zhuo, Yi; Pei, Yanli; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-01

    A method for preparing a quantum dot (QD)-white light-emitting diode (WLED) is reported. Holes were etched in the SiO2 layer deposited on the sapphire substrate of the flip-chip LED by inductively coupled plasma, and these holes were then filled with QDs. An ultraviolet-curable resin was then spin-coated on top of the QD-containing SiO2 layer, and the resin was cured to act as a protecting layer. The reflective sidewall structure minimized sidelight leakage. The fabrication of the QD-WLED is simple in preparation and compatible with traditional LED processes, which was the minimum size of the WLED chip-scale integrated package. InP/ZnS core-shell QDs were used as the converter in the WLED. A blue light-emitting diode with a flip-chip structure was used as the excitation source. The QD-WLED exhibited color temperatures from 5900 to 6400 K and Commission Internationale De L'Elcairage color coordinates from (0.315, 0.325) to (0.325, 0.317), under drive currents from 100 to 400 mA. The QD-WLED exhibited stable optoelectronic properties.

  8. On-chip definition of picolitre sample injection plugs for miniaturised liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, A P; O'Brien, P; Alderman, J; Hoffman, D; McEnery, M; Murrihy, J; Glennon, J D

    2001-07-27

    The fabrication of components for a miniaturised liquid chromatography system on silicon has recently been reported by our research group [J. Cap. Electrophoresis Microchip Technol. 6 (1999) 33; Analyst 125 (2000) 25]. To date, inlet and outlet connection ports, separation micro-channels (20-200 microm in width, 0.5-10 microm in depth, 15-60 cm in length), and an intersection for picolitre injection have been etched on a silicon wafer and then sealed with a Pyrex cover plate on which platinum electrodes for on-chip detection have been patterned. The platinum electrodes have been used for the amperometric detection of phenol, using 20 nl off-chip injection. In this work we present our latest results obtained with on-chip pressure driven picolitre injection, designed to realize the full capabilities of this micro-LC system. The injection volume is dependent on the micro-channel depth, width, and also on the intersection length, allowing injection in the low nanolitre to picolitre range.

  9. Photonic-crystal lasers on silicon for chip-scale optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Koji; Fujii, Takuro; Shinya, Akihiko; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya; Hasebe, Koichi; Kakitsuka, Takaaki; Matsuo, Shinji

    2016-03-01

    Optical interconnects are expected to reduce the power consumption of ICT instruments. To realize chip-to-chip or chip-scale optical interconnects, it is essential to fabricate semiconductor lasers with a smaller energy cost. In this context, we are developing lambda-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal (LEAP) lasers as light sources for chip-scale optical interconnects. We demonstrated the first continuous-wave (CW) operation of LEAP lasers in 2012 and reported a record low threshold current and energy cost of 4.8 μA and 4.4 fJ/bit at 10 Gbit/s in 2013. We have also integrated photonic crystal photodetectors on the same InP chip and demonstrated waveform transfer along 500-μm-long waveguides. Although LEAP lasers exhibit excellent performance, they have to be integrated on Si wafers for use as light sources for chip-scale optical interconnects. In this paper, we give a brief overview of our LEAP lasers on InP and report our recent progress in fabricating them on Si. We bonded the InP wafers with quantum-well gain layers directly on thermally oxidized Si wafers and performed all process steps on the Si wafer, including high-temperature regrowth. After this process modification, we again achieved CW operation and obtained a threshold current of 57 μA with a maximum output power of more than 3.5 μW at the output waveguides. An output light was successfully guided through 500 × 250-nm InP waveguides.

  10. Fabrication method for chip-scale-vacuum-packages based on a chip-to-wafer-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J.; Weiler, D.; Ruß, M.; Heß, J.; Yang, P.; Voß, J.; Arnold, N.,; Vogt, H.

    2010-10-01

    This paper introduces a simple vacuum packaging method which is based on a Chip-to-Wafer process. The MEMS-device is provided with an electroplated solder frame. A Si-lid with the same solder frame is mounted on each die of the wafer using a flip chip process. The same materials for lid and substrate are used in order to reduce the mechanical stress due to the same thermal coefficients of expansion. The resulting cavity between die and lid can be evacuated and hermetically sealed with an eutectic soldering process. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated with an infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). In this case, the Si-lid acts as an optical window and contains an anti reflective layer for the 8-14 μm wavelength area on both sides. The long-term vacuum stability is supported by a getter film inside the package. This method simplifies the sawing process and has the additional cost benefit that it is possible to package only known good dies.

  11. Design and implementation of an automated liquid-phase microextraction-chip system coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Payán, María D Ramos; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-03-01

    An automated liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) device in a chip format has been developed and coupled directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 10-port 2-position switching valve was used to hyphenate the LPME-chip with the HPLC autosampler, and to collect the extracted analytes, which then were delivered to the HPLC column. The LPME-chip-HPLC system was completely automated and controlled by the software of the HPLC instrument. The performance of this system was demonstrated with five alkaloids i.e. morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine as model analytes. The composition of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) and carrier was optimized in order to achieve reasonable extraction performance of all the five alkaloids. With 1-octanol as SLM solvent and with 25 mM sodium octanoate as anionic carrier, extraction recoveries for the different opium alkaloids ranged between 17% and 45%. The extraction provided high selectivity, and no interfering peaks in the chromatograms were observed when applied to human urine samples spiked with alkaloids. The detection limits using UV-detection were in the range of 1-21 ng/mL for the five opium alkaloids presented in water samples. The repeatability was within 5.0-10.8% (RSD). The membrane liquid in the LPME-chip was regenerated automatically between every third injection. With this procedure the liquid membrane in the LPME-chip was stable in 3-7 days depending on the complexity of sample solutions with continuous operation. With this LPME-chip-HPLC system, series of samples were automatically injected, extracted, separated, and detected without any operator interaction.

  12. Manipulation of liquid-liquid interfaces for tunable optics on a chip in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kam Yan Sindy

    This thesis describes the design and development of optofluidics: a new class of optical components based on dynamic liquid-liquid interfaces between liquids possessing different optical properties in microfluidic systems. Devices with optical interfaces formed by liquids possess characteristics that are quite different from solid-gas and solid-liquid systems commonly used in conventional optics. Advantages of optofluidic systems include the simplicity to reconfigure optical properties and functions in real time. Examples of devices include liquid waveguides, lenses, and multi-color droplet dye laser. Potential applications include biochemical characterization and optical spectroscopy in micro-total analytical systems. Chapter 1 describers the motivation, general configuration and characteristics of devices with optical interfaces formed by liquids in microchannels. Chapter 2 describes the soft lithographic techniques used to make optofluidic devices. Chapter 3 describes the use of co-fabrication to design and fabricate multiple functional components in microfluidic systems in a single step. Chapters 4 to 6 describe the design and operation of three optofluidic devices: waveguides, lenses, and dye lasers.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Bi2Te3-Based Chip-Scale Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, Jane; Chen, Baoxing; Haidar, Samer; Berney, Helen; McGuinness, Pat; Lane, Bill; Gao, Yuan; He, Yifan; Sun, Nian; Dunham, Marc; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Ken; Yuan, Yi; Najafi, Khalil

    2017-05-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesters convert otherwise wasted heat into electrical energy. As a result, they have the potential to play a critical role in the autonomous wireless sensor network signal chain. In this paper, we present work carried out on the development of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric chip-scale energy harvesting devices. Process flow, device demonstration and characterization are highlighted.

  14. Fabrication and design equation of film-type large-scale interdigitated supercapacitor chips.

    PubMed

    Nam, Inho; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Park, Soomin; Park, Junsu; Kim, Nam Dong; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-12-07

    We report large-scale interdigitated supercapacitor chips based on pseudo-capacitive metal oxide electrodes. A novel method is presented, which provides a powerful fabrication technology of interdigitated supercapacitors operated by a pseudo-capacitive reaction. Also, we empirically develop an equation that describes the relationship between capacitance, mass, and sweep rate in an actual supercapacitor system.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Bi2Te3-Based Chip-Scale Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, Jane; Chen, Baoxing; Haidar, Samer; Berney, Helen; McGuinness, Pat; Lane, Bill; Gao, Yuan; He, Yifan; Sun, Nian; Dunham, Marc; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Ken; Yuan, Yi; Najafi, Khalil

    2016-10-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesters convert otherwise wasted heat into electrical energy. As a result, they have the potential to play a critical role in the autonomous wireless sensor network signal chain. In this paper, we present work carried out on the development of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric chip-scale energy harvesting devices. Process flow, device demonstration and characterization are highlighted.

  16. Control of initiation, rate, and routing of spontaneous capillary-driven flow of liquid droplets through microfluidic channels on SlipChip.

    PubMed

    Pompano, Rebecca R; Platt, Carol E; Karymov, Mikhail A; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2012-01-24

    This Article describes the use of capillary pressure to initiate and control the rate of spontaneous liquid-liquid flow through microfluidic channels. In contrast to flow driven by external pressure, flow driven by capillary pressure is dominated by interfacial phenomena and is exquisitely sensitive to the chemical composition and geometry of the fluids and channels. A stepwise change in capillary force was initiated on a hydrophobic SlipChip by slipping a shallow channel containing an aqueous droplet into contact with a slightly deeper channel filled with immiscible oil. This action induced spontaneous flow of the droplet into the deeper channel. A model predicting the rate of spontaneous flow was developed on the basis of the balance of net capillary force with viscous flow resistance, using as inputs the liquid-liquid surface tension, the advancing and receding contact angles at the three-phase aqueous-oil-surface contact line, and the geometry of the devices. The impact of contact angle hysteresis, the presence or absence of a lubricating oil layer, and adsorption of surface-active compounds at liquid-liquid or liquid-solid interfaces were quantified. Two regimes of flow spanning a 10(4)-fold range of flow rates were obtained and modeled quantitatively, with faster (mm/s) flow obtained when oil could escape through connected channels as it was displaced by flowing aqueous solution, and slower (micrometer/s) flow obtained when oil escape was mostly restricted to a micrometer-scale gap between the plates of the SlipChip ("dead-end flow"). Rupture of the lubricating oil layer (reminiscent of a Cassie-Wenzel transition) was proposed as a cause of discrepancy between the model and the experiment. Both dilute salt solutions and complex biological solutions such as human blood plasma could be flowed using this approach. We anticipate that flow driven by capillary pressure will be useful for the design and operation of flow in microfluidic applications that do not

  17. Control of initiation, rate, and routing of spontaneous capillary-driven flow of liquid droplets through microfluidic channels on SlipChip

    PubMed Central

    Pompano, Rebecca R.; Platt, Carol E.; Karymov, Mikhail A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of capillary pressure to initiate and control the rate of spontaneous liquid-liquid flow through microfluidic channels. In contrast to flow driven by external pressure, flow driven by capillary pressure is dominated by interfacial phenomena and is exquisitely sensitive to the chemical composition and geometry of the fluids and channels. A step-wise change in capillary force was initiated on a hydrophobic SlipChip by slipping a shallow channel containing an aqueous droplet into contact with a slightly deeper channel filled with immiscible oil. This action induced spontaneous flow of the droplet into the deeper channel. A model predicting the rate of spontaneous flow was developed based on the balance of net capillary force with viscous flow resistance, using as inputs the liquid-liquid surface tension, the advancing and receding contact angles at the three-phase aqueous-oil-surface contact line, and the geometry of the devices. The impact of contact angle hysteresis, the presence or absence of a lubricating oil layer, and adsorption of surface-active compounds at liquid-liquid or liquid-solid interfaces were quantified. Two regimes of flow spanning a 104-fold range of flow rates were obtained and modeled quantitatively, with faster (mm/s) flow obtained when oil could escape through connected channels as it was displaced by flowing aqueous solution, and slower (micrometer/s) flow obtained when oil escape was mostly restricted to a μm-scale gap between the plates of the SlipChip (“dead-end flow”). Rupture of the lubricating oil layer (reminiscent of a Cassie-Wenzel transition) was proposed as a cause of discrepancy between the model and the experiment. Both dilute salt solutions and complex biological solutions such as human blood plasma could be flowed using this approach. We anticipate that flow driven by capillary pressure will be useful for design and operation of flow in microfluidic applications that do not require external

  18. Scaling results for the liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.

    1989-01-01

    Surface tension forces at the edges of a thin liquid (approx 100 micrometers) sheet flow result in a triangularly shaped sheet. Such a geometry is ideal for an external flow radiator. The experimental investigation of such sheet flows was extended to large sheets (width = 23.5 cm, length = 3.5 m). Experimental L/W results are greater than the calculated results. However, more experimental results are necessary for a complete comparison. The calculated emissivity of a sheet of Dow-Corning 705 silicone oil, which is low temperature (300-400 K) candidate for a liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is greater than 0.8 for sheet thicknesses greater than 100 micrometers.

  19. Scaling results for the liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.

    Surface tension forces at the edges of a thin liquid (approx 100 micrometers) sheet flow result in a triangularly shaped sheet. Such a geometry is ideal for an external flow radiator. The experimental investigation of such sheet flows was extended to large sheets (width = 23.5 cm, length = 3.5 m). Experimental L/W results are greater than the calculated results. However, more experimental results are necessary for a complete comparison. The calculated emissivity of a sheet of Dow-Corning 705 silicone oil, which is low temperature (300-400 K) candidate for a liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is greater than 0.8 for sheet thicknesses greater than 100 micrometers.

  20. Wafer-scale integration of sacrificial nanofluidic chips for detecting and manipulating single DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Nam, Sung-Wook; Cotte, John M.; Jahnes, Christopher V.; Colgan, Evan G.; Bruce, Robert L.; Brink, Markus; Lofaro, Michael F.; Patel, Jyotica V.; Gignac, Lynne M.; Joseph, Eric A.; Rao, Satyavolu Papa; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Polonsky, Stanislav; Lin, Qinghuang

    2017-01-01

    Wafer-scale fabrication of complex nanofluidic systems with integrated electronics is essential to realizing ubiquitous, compact, reliable, high-sensitivity and low-cost biomolecular sensors. Here we report a scalable fabrication strategy capable of producing nanofluidic chips with complex designs and down to single-digit nanometre dimensions over 200 mm wafer scale. Compatible with semiconductor industry standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor logic circuit fabrication processes, this strategy extracts a patterned sacrificial silicon layer through hundreds of millions of nanoscale vent holes on each chip by gas-phase Xenon difluoride etching. Using single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we demonstrate these sacrificial nanofluidic chips can function to controllably and completely stretch lambda DNA in a two-dimensional nanofluidic network comprising channels and pillars. The flexible nanofluidic structure design, wafer-scale fabrication, single-digit nanometre channels, reliable fluidic sealing and low thermal budget make our strategy a potentially universal approach to integrating functional planar nanofluidic systems with logic circuits for lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:28112157

  1. Wafer-scale integration of sacrificial nanofluidic chips for detecting and manipulating single DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Nam, Sung-Wook; Cotte, John M.; Jahnes, Christopher V.; Colgan, Evan G.; Bruce, Robert L.; Brink, Markus; Lofaro, Michael F.; Patel, Jyotica V.; Gignac, Lynne M.; Joseph, Eric A.; Rao, Satyavolu Papa; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Polonsky, Stanislav; Lin, Qinghuang

    2017-01-01

    Wafer-scale fabrication of complex nanofluidic systems with integrated electronics is essential to realizing ubiquitous, compact, reliable, high-sensitivity and low-cost biomolecular sensors. Here we report a scalable fabrication strategy capable of producing nanofluidic chips with complex designs and down to single-digit nanometre dimensions over 200 mm wafer scale. Compatible with semiconductor industry standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor logic circuit fabrication processes, this strategy extracts a patterned sacrificial silicon layer through hundreds of millions of nanoscale vent holes on each chip by gas-phase Xenon difluoride etching. Using single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we demonstrate these sacrificial nanofluidic chips can function to controllably and completely stretch lambda DNA in a two-dimensional nanofluidic network comprising channels and pillars. The flexible nanofluidic structure design, wafer-scale fabrication, single-digit nanometre channels, reliable fluidic sealing and low thermal budget make our strategy a potentially universal approach to integrating functional planar nanofluidic systems with logic circuits for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  2. Terabit/s communications using chip-scale frequency comb sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koos, Christian; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Barry, Liam P.; Dalton, Larry; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Pfeifle, Joerg; Weimann, Claudius; Lauermann, Matthias; Kemal, Juned N.; Palmer, Robert; Koeber, Sebastian; Schindler, Philipp C.; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Watts, Regan T.; Elder, Delwin

    2015-03-01

    High-speed optical interconnects rely on advanced wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) schemes. However, while photonic-electronic interfaces can be efficiently realized on silicon-on-insulator chips, dense integration of the necessary light sources still represents a major challenge. Chip-scale frequency comb sources present an attractive alternative for providing a multitude of optical carriers for WDM transmission. In this paper, we give an overview of our recent progress towards terabit communications with chip-scale frequency comb sources. In a first set of experiments, we demonstrate frequency comb generation based on silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators, enabling line rates up to 1.152 Tbit/s. In a second set of experiments, we use injection locking of a gain-switched laser diode to enerate frequency combs. This approach leads to line rates of more than 2 Tbit/s. A third set of experiments is finally dedicated to using Kerr nonlinearities in integrated nonlinear microcavities for frequency comb generation. We demonstrate coherent communication using Kerr frequency comb sources, thereby achieving line rates up to 1.44 Tbit/s. Our experiments show that frequency comb generation in chip-scale devices represents a viable approach to terabit communications.

  3. Wafer-scale integration of sacrificial nanofluidic chips for detecting and manipulating single DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Nam, Sung-Wook; Cotte, John M; Jahnes, Christopher V; Colgan, Evan G; Bruce, Robert L; Brink, Markus; Lofaro, Michael F; Patel, Jyotica V; Gignac, Lynne M; Joseph, Eric A; Rao, Satyavolu Papa; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Polonsky, Stanislav; Lin, Qinghuang

    2017-01-23

    Wafer-scale fabrication of complex nanofluidic systems with integrated electronics is essential to realizing ubiquitous, compact, reliable, high-sensitivity and low-cost biomolecular sensors. Here we report a scalable fabrication strategy capable of producing nanofluidic chips with complex designs and down to single-digit nanometre dimensions over 200 mm wafer scale. Compatible with semiconductor industry standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor logic circuit fabrication processes, this strategy extracts a patterned sacrificial silicon layer through hundreds of millions of nanoscale vent holes on each chip by gas-phase Xenon difluoride etching. Using single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we demonstrate these sacrificial nanofluidic chips can function to controllably and completely stretch lambda DNA in a two-dimensional nanofluidic network comprising channels and pillars. The flexible nanofluidic structure design, wafer-scale fabrication, single-digit nanometre channels, reliable fluidic sealing and low thermal budget make our strategy a potentially universal approach to integrating functional planar nanofluidic systems with logic circuits for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  4. Silicon nanophotonic devices for chip-scale optical communication applications [Invited].

    PubMed

    Fainman, Y; Nezhad, M P; Tan, D T H; Ikeda, K; Bondarenko, O; Grieco, A

    2013-02-01

    This paper reviews recent work in the area of silicon photonic devices and circuits for monolithic and heterogeneous integration of circuits and systems on a chip. In this context, it presents fabrication results for producing low-loss silicon waveguides without etching. Resonators and add-drop distributed filters utilizing sidewall modulation fabricated in a single lithography and etching step are demonstrated. It also presents an optical pulse compressor that monolithically integrates self-phase modulation and anomalous dispersion compensation devices on a silicon chip. As an example of heterogeneous integration, we demonstrate vertical emitting metallo-dielectric nanolasers integrated onto a silicon platform. Future research directions toward large-scale photonic circuits and systems on a chip also are discussed.

  5. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Runchen; Zhang, Qianyun; Tjugito, Hendro; Gao, Ming; Cheng, Xiang

    Granular impact cratering by liquid drops is a ubiquitous phenomenon, directly relevant to many important natural and industrial processes such as soil erosion, drip irrigation, and dispersion of micro-organisms in soil. Here, by combining the high-speed photography with high precision laser profilometry, we investigate the liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular surfaces and monitor the morphology of resulting craters. Our experiments reveal novel scaling relations between the size of granular impact craters and important control parameters including the impact energy, the size of impinging drops and the degree of liquid saturation in a granular bed. Interestingly, we find that the scaling for liquid-drop impact cratering in dry granular media can be quantitatively described by the Schmidt-Holsapple scaling originally proposed for asteroid impact cratering. On the other hand, the scaling for impact craters in wet granular media can be understood by balancing the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface. Our study sheds light on the mechanism governing liquid-drop impacts on dry/wet granular surfaces and reveals a remarkable analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in granular media.

  6. Generation of Monodisperse Liquid Droplets in a Microfluidic Chip Using a High-Speed Gaseous Microflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirandazi, Pooyan; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few years, microfluidic systems known as Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) have been increasingly developed as essential components for numerous biochemical applications. Droplet microfluidics, however, provides a distinctive attribute for delivering and processing discrete as well as ultrasmall volumes of fluid, which make droplet-based systems more beneficial over their continuous-phase counterparts. Droplet generation in its conventional scheme usually incorporates the injection of a liquid (water) into a continuous immiscible liquid (oil) medium. In this study we demonstrate a novel scheme for controlled generation of monodisperse droplets in confined gas-liquid microflows. We experimentally investigate the manipulation of water droplets in flow-focusing configurations using a high inertial air stream. Different flow regimes are observed by varying the gas and liquid flow rates, among which, the ``dripping regime'' where monodisperse droplets are generated is of great importance. The controlled size and generation rate of droplets in this region provide the capability for precise and contaminant-free delivery of microliter to nanoliter volumes of fluid. Furthermore, the high speed droplets generated in this method represent the basis for a new approach based on droplet pair collisions for fast efficient micromixing which provides a significant development in modern LOC and μTAS devices. This project is currently being supported by an NSF CAREER Award grant CBET-1151091.

  7. Chip scale low dimensional materials: optoelectronics & nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Tingyi

    The CMOS foundry infrastructure enables integration of high density, high performance optical transceivers. We developed integrated devices that assemble resonators, waveguide, tapered couplers, pn junction and electrodes. Not only the volume standard manufacture in silicon foundry is promising to low-lost optical components operating at IR and mid-IR range, it also provides a robust platform for revealing new physical phenomenon. The thesis starts from comparison between photonic crystal and micro-ring resonators based on chip routers, showing photonic crystal switches have small footprint, consume low operation power, but its higher linear loss may require extra energy for signal amplification. Different designs are employed in their implementation in optical signal routing on chip. The second part of chapter 2 reviews the graphene based optoelectronic devices, such as modulators, lasers, switches and detectors, potential for group IV optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC). In chapter 3, the highly efficient thermal optic control could act as on-chip switches and (transmittance) tunable filters. Local temperature tuning compensates the wavelength differences between two resonances, and separate electrode is used for fine tuning of optical pathways between two resonators. In frequency domain, the two cavity system also serves as an optical analogue of Autler-Towns splitting, where the cavity-cavity resonance detuning is controlled by the length of pathway (phase) between them. The high thermal sensitivity of cavity resonance also effectively reflects the heat distribution around the nanoheaters, and thus derives the thermal conductivity in the planar porous suspended silicon membrane. Chapter 4 & 5 analyze graphene-silicon photonic crystal cavities with high Q and small mode volume. With negligible nonlinear response to the milliwatt laser excitation, the monolithic silicon PhC turns into highly nonlinear after transferring the single layer graphene with

  8. User-Loaded SlipChip for Equipment-Free Multiplexed Nanoliter-Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem

    2010-08-04

    This paper describes a microfluidic approach to perform multiplexed nanoliter-scale experiments by combining a sample with multiple different reagents, each at multiple mixing ratios. This approach employs a user-loaded, equipment-free SlipChip. The mixing ratios, characterized by diluting a fluorescent dye, could be controlled by the volume of each of the combined wells. The SlipChip design was validated on an {approx}12 nL scale by screening the conditions for crystallization of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Burkholderia pseudomallei against 48 different reagents; each reagent was tested at 11 different mixing ratios, for a total of 528 crystallization trials. The total consumption of the protein sample was {approx}10 {micro}L. Conditions for crystallization were successfully identified. The crystallization experiments were successfully scaled up in well plates using the conditions identified in the SlipChip. Crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction and provided a protein structure in a different space group and at a higher resolution than the structure obtained by conventional methods. In this work, this user-loaded SlipChip has been shown to reliably handle fluids of diverse physicochemical properties, such as viscosities and surface tensions. Quantitative measurements of fluorescent intensities and high-resolution imaging were straighforward to perform in these glass SlipChips. Surface chemistry was controlled using fluorinated lubricating fluid, analogous to the fluorinated carrier fluid used in plug-based crystallization. Thus, we expect this approach to be valuable in a number of areas beyond protein crystallization, especially those areas where droplet-based microfluidic systems have demonstrated successes, including measurements of enzyme kinetics and blood coagulation, cell-based assays, and chemical reactions.

  9. On the Density Scaling of Liquid Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    units is negligible in the supercooled regime; however, at higher temperature the difference can be substantial, accounting for the purported...since the potential energy and the virial are perfectly correlated only for an IPL. This applicability of the IPL approximation to the supercooled ...relaxation time. The difference between scaling using reduced rather than unreduced units is negligible in the supercooled regime; however,at higher

  10. Prototyping of thermoplastic microfluidic chips and their application in high-performance liquid chromatography separations of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Sam; De Vos, Jelle; Dores-Sousa, José Luís; Wouters, Bert; Desmet, Gert; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2017-06-01

    The present paper discusses practical aspects of prototyping of microfluidic chips using cyclic olefin copolymer as substrate and the application in high-performance liquid chromatography. The developed chips feature a 60mm long straight separation channel with circular cross section (500μm i.d.) that was created using a micromilling robot. To irreversibly seal the top and bottom chip substrates, a solvent-vapor-assisted bonding approach was optimized, allowing to approximate the ideal circular channel geometry. Four different approaches to establish the micro-to-macro interface were pursued. The average burst pressure of the microfluidic chips in combination with an encasing holder was established at 38MPa and the maximum burst pressure was 47MPa, which is believed to be the highest ever report for these polymer-based microfluidic chips. Porous polymer monolithic frits were synthesized in-situ via UV-initiated polymerization and their locations were spatially controlled by the application of a photomask. Next, high-pressure slurry packing was performed to introduce 3μm silica reversed-phase particles as the stationary phase in the separation channel. Finally, the application of the chip technology is demonstrated for the separation of alkyl phenones in gradient mode yielding baseline peak widths of 6s by applying a steep gradient of 1.8min at a flow rate of 10μL/min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Vaden; S. X. Li; B. R. Westphal; K. B. Davies; T. A. Johnson; D. M. Pace

    2008-05-01

    Recovery of uranium and transuranic (TRU) actinides from spent nuclear fuel by an electrorefining process was investigated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. Experiments were performed in a shielded hot cell at the Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory. The goal of these experiments was to collect, by an electrochemical process, kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium into what is called a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). For each experiment, a steel basket loaded with chopped spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II acted as the anode in the electrorefiner. The cathode was a beryllium oxide crucible containing ~26 kg of cadmium metal (the LCC). In the three experiments performed to date, between 1 and 2 kg of heavy metal was collected in the LCC after passing an integrated current between 1.80 and 2.16 MC (500 and 600 A h) from the anode to the cathode. Sample analysis of the processed LCC ingots measured detectable amounts of TRUs and rare earth elements.

  12. Microfabricated chip-scale rubidium plasma light source for miniature atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vinu; Pétremand, Yves; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano; de Rooij, Nico F; Shea, Herbert

    2012-03-01

    We present the microfabrication and characterization of a low-power, chip-scale Rb plasma light source, designed for optical pumping in miniature atomic clocks. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration is used to ignite a Rb plasma in a micro-fabricated Rb vapor cell on which external indium electrodes were deposited. The device is electrically driven at frequencies between 1 and 36 MHz, and emits 140 μW of stable optical power while coupling less than 6 mW of electrical power to the discharge cell. Optical powers of up to 15 and 9 μW are emitted on the Rb D2 and D1 lines, respectively. Continuous operation of the light source for several weeks has been demonstrated, showing its capacity to maintain stable optical excitation of Rb atoms in chip-scale double-resonance atomic clocks.

  13. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James

    2008-01-01

    The objectives are: a) Re-introduce to you the concept of scaling; b) Describe the scaling research conducted in the 1950s and early 1960s, and present some of their conclusions; c) Narrow the focus to scaling for performance of combustion devices for liquid propellant rocket engines; and d) Present some results of subscale to full-scale performance from historical programs. Scaling is "The ability to develop new combustion devices with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with old devices." Scaling can be used to develop combustion devices of any thrust size from any thrust size. Scaling is applied mostly to increase thrust. Objective is to use scaling as a development tool. - Move injector design from an "art" to a "science"

  14. Ultrafast dynamics and stabilization in chip-scale optical frequency combs (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu Wei

    2017-02-01

    Optical frequency comb technology has been the cornerstone for scientific breakthroughs such as precision frequency metrology, re-definition of time, extreme light-matter interaction, and attosecond sciences. Recently emerged Kerr-active microresonators are promising alternatives to the current benchmark femtosecond laser platform. These chip-scale frequency combs, or Kerr combs, are unique in their compact footprints and offer the potential for monolithic electronic and feedback integration, thereby expanding the already remarkable applications of optical frequency combs. In this talk, I will first report the generation and characterization of low-phase-noise Kerr frequency combs. Measurements of the Kerr comb ultrafast dynamics and phase noise will be presented and discussed. Then I will describe novel strategies to fully stabilize Kerr comb line frequencies towards chip-scale optical frequency synthesizers with a relative uncertainty better than 2.7×10-16. I will show that the unique generation physics of Kerr frequency comb can provide an intrinsic self-referenced access to the Kerr comb line frequencies. The strategy improves the optical frequency stability by more than two orders of magnitude, while preserving the Kerr comb's key advantage of low SWaP and potential for chip-scale electronic and photonic integration.

  15. Chip Scale Atomic Resonator Frequency Stabilization System With Ultra-Low Power Consumption for Optoelectronic Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianye; Zhang, Yaolin; Lu, Haoyuan; Hou, Dong; Zhang, Shuangyou; Wang, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    We present a long-term chip scale stabilization scheme for optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) based on a rubidium coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic resonator. By locking a single mode of an OEO to the (85)Rb 3.035-GHz CPT resonance utilizing an improved phase-locked loop (PLL) with a PID regulator, we achieved a chip scale frequency stabilization system for the OEO. The fractional frequency stability of the stabilized OEO by overlapping Allan deviation reaches 6.2 ×10(-11) (1 s) and  ∼ 1.45 ×10 (-11) (1000 s). This scheme avoids a decrease in the extra phase noise performance induced by the electronic connection between the OEO and the microwave reference in common injection locking schemes. The total physical package of the stabilization system is [Formula: see text] and the total power consumption is 400 mW, which provides a chip scale and portable frequency stabilization approach with ultra-low power consumption for OEOs.

  16. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses scaling of combustion and combustion performance in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. In development of new combustors, comparisons are often made between predicted performance in a new combustor and measured performance in another combustor with different geometric and thermodynamic characteristics. Without careful interpretation of some key features, the comparison can be misinterpreted and erroneous information used in the design of the new device. This paper provides a review of this performance comparison, including a brief review of the initial liquid rocket scaling research conducted during the 1950s and 1960s, a review of the typical performance losses encountered and how they scale, a description of the typical scaling procedures used in development programs today, and finally a review of several historical development programs to see what insight they can bring to the questions at hand.

  17. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses scaling of combustion and combustion performance in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. In development of new combustors, comparisons are often made between predicted performance in a new combustor and measured performance in another combustor with different geometric and thermodynamic characteristics. Without careful interpretation of some key features, the comparison can be misinterpreted and erroneous information used in the design of the new device. This paper provides a review of this performance comparison, including a brief review of the initial liquid rocket scaling research conducted during the 1950s and 1960s, a review of the typical performance losses encountered and how they scale, a description of the typical scaling procedures used in development programs today, and finally a review of several historical development programs to see what insight they can bring to the questions at hand.

  18. Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  19. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    PubMed

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  20. Growing length and time scales in glass-forming liquids

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2009-01-01

    The glass transition, whereby liquids transform into amorphous solids at low temperatures, is a subject of intense research despite decades of investigation. Explaining the enormous increase in relaxation times of a liquid upon supercooling is essential for understanding the glass transition. Although many theories, such as the Adam–Gibbs theory, have sought to relate growing relaxation times to length scales associated with spatial correlations in liquid structure or motion of molecules, the role of length scales in glassy dynamics is not well established. Recent studies of spatially correlated rearrangements of molecules leading to structural relaxation, termed “spatially heterogeneous dynamics,” provide fresh impetus in this direction. A powerful approach to extract length scales in critical phenomena is finite-size scaling, wherein a system is studied for sizes traversing the length scales of interest. We perform finite-size scaling for a realistic glass-former, using computer simulations, to evaluate the length scale associated with spatially heterogeneous dynamics, which grows as temperature decreases. However, relaxation times that also grow with decreasing temperature do not exhibit standard finite-size scaling with this length. We show that relaxation times are instead determined, for all studied system sizes and temperatures, by configurational entropy, in accordance with the Adam–Gibbs relation, but in disagreement with theoretical expectations based on spin-glass models that configurational entropy is not relevant at temperatures substantially above the critical temperature of mode-coupling theory. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of glass-forming liquids and pose serious challenges to existing theoretical descriptions. PMID:19234111

  1. Enantioselective reaction monitoring utilizing two-dimensional heart-cut liquid chromatography on an integrated microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Carsten; Poehler, Elisabeth; Heiland, Josef J; Mauritz, Laura; Belder, Detlev

    2016-11-29

    Chip-integrated, two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography is introduced to monitor enantioselective continuous micro-flow synthesis. The herein described development of the first two-dimensional HPLC-chip was realized by the integration of two different columns packed with reversed-phase and chiral stationary phase material on a microfluidic glass chip, coupled to mass spectrometry. Directed steering of the micro-flows at the joining transfer cross enabled a heart-cut operation mode to transfer the chiral compound of interest from the first to the second chromatographic dimension. This allows for an interference-free determination of the enantiomeric excess by seamless hyphenation to electrospray mass spectrometry. The application for rapid reaction optimization at micro-flow conditions is exemplarily shown for the asymmetric organocatalytic continuous micro-flow synthesis of warfarin.

  2. An efficient process for the saccharification of wood chips by combined ionic liquid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Viell, Jörn; Wulfhorst, Helene; Schmidt, Thomas; Commandeur, Ulrich; Fischer, Rainer; Spiess, Antje; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    A process concept combining pretreatment of wood in ionic liquids and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to sugars is herein investigated to identify operating conditions which allow for (i) the processing of larger wood chips of 10 mm length, (ii) low temperature, (iii) high sugar yield, and (iv) short processing time. A careful quantitative study of the interaction of pretreatment and hydrolysis reveals that hydrolysis is most effective if beech chips are first disintegrated in [EMIM][Ac] at 115 °C for 1.5 h. The cellulose conversion varies between 70.5 wt% and 90.2wt% for hydrolysis times between 5 h and 72 h. A complete recovery of cellulose and xylan resulting in a total saccharification of 65 wt% of the wood chips could be demonstrated. It is shown that short pretreatment times are required to enable high sugar yield as well as to limit product degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of acrylamide in potato chips and crisps by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gökmen, Vural; Senyuva, Hamide Z; Acar, Jale; Sarioğlu, Kemal

    2005-09-23

    A simple and rapid method using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC-DAD) was developed for the determination of acrylamide in potato-based foods at low levels. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with methanol, purification with Carrez I and II solutions, evaporation and solvent change to water, and cleanup with a Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The final extract was analyzed by LC-DAD for quantification and by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for confirmation. The chromatographic separations were performed on a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic interaction columns having good retention of acrylamide under 100% aqueous flow conditions (k' 3.67 and 2.54, respectively). The limit of quantitation was estimated to be 4.0 microg/kg based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 recorded at 226 nm. Recoveries of acrylamide from potato chips samples spiked at levels of 250, 500 and 1000 (n = 4 for each level) microg/kg ranged between 92.8 and 96.2% with relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The results of this study revealed that a conventional LC instrument coupled to DAD can also be used accurately and precisely, as an alternative to tandem LC-MS methods for the determination of acrylamide in potato-based foods.

  4. Thermal chip fabrication with arrays of sensors and heaters for micro-scale impingement cooling heat transfer analysis and measurements.

    PubMed

    Shen, C H; Gau, C

    2004-07-30

    The design and fabrication for a thermal chip with an array of temperature sensors and heaters for study of micro-jet impingement cooling heat transfer process are presented. This thermal chip can minimize the heat loss from the system to the ambient and provide a uniform heat flux along the wall, thus local heat transfer processes along the wall can be measured and obtained. The fabrication procedure presented can reach a chip yield of 100%, and every one of the sensors and heaters on the chip is in good condition. In addition, micro-jet impingement cooling experiments are performed to obtain the micro-scale local heat transfer Nusselt number along the wall. Flow visualization for the micro-impinging jet is also made. The experimental results indicate that both the micro-scale impinging jet flow structure and the heat transfer process along the wall is significantly different from the case of large-scale jet impingement cooling process.

  5. Three-dimensional integrated circuits for lab-on-chip dielectrophoresis of nanometer scale particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Samuel J.; Noyola, Arnaldo J.; Levitan, Steven P.; Chiarulli, Donald M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a mixed-technology micro-system for electronically manipulating and optically detecting virusscale particles in fluids that is designed using 3D integrated circuit technology. During the 3D fabrication process, the top-most chip tier is assembled upside down and the substrate material is removed. This places the polysilicon layer, which is used to create geometries with the process' minimum feature size, in close proximity to a fluid channel etched into the top of the stack. By taking advantage of these processing features inherent to "3D chip-stacking" technology, we create electrode arrays that have a gap spacing of 270 nm. Using 3D CMOS technology also provides the ability to densely integrate analog and digital control circuitry for the electrodes by using the additional levels of the chip stack. We show simulations of the system with a physical model of a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus, which has a radius of approximately 125 nm, being dielectrophoretically arranged into striped patterns. We also discuss how these striped patterns of trapped nanometer scale particles create an effective diffraction grating which can then be sensed with macro-scale optical techniques.

  6. Liquid crystals in micron-scale droplets, shells and fibers.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Martin; Reyes, Catherine G; Noh, JungHyun; Sharma, Anshul; Geng, Yong; Subba Rao Jampani, Venkata; Lagerwall, Jan P F

    2017-04-05

    The extraordinary responsiveness and large diversity of self-assembled structures of liquid crystals are well documented and they have been extensively used in devices like displays. For long, this application route strongly influenced academic research, which frequently focused on the performance of liquid crystals in display-like geometries, typically between flat, rigid substrates of glass or similar solids. Today a new trend is clearly visible, where liquid crystals confined within curved, often soft and flexible, interfaces are in focus. Innovation in microfluidic technology has opened for high-throughput production of liquid crystal droplets or shells with exquisite monodispersity, and modern characterization methods allow detailed analysis of complex director arrangements. The introduction of electrospinning in liquid crystal research has enabled encapsulation in optically transparent polymeric cylinders with very small radius, allowing studies of confinement effects that were not easily accessible before. It also opened the prospect of functionalizing textile fibers with liquid crystals in the core, triggering activities that target wearable devices with true textile form factor for seamless integration in clothing. Together, these developments have brought issues center stage that might previously have been considered esoteric, like the interaction of topological defects on spherical surfaces, saddle-splay curvature-induced spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, or the non-trivial shape changes of curved liquid crystal elastomers with non-uniform director fields that undergo a phase transition to an isotropic state. The new research thrusts are motivated equally by the intriguing soft matter physics showcased by liquid crystals in these unconventional geometries, and by the many novel application opportunities that arise when we can reproducibly manufacture these systems on a commercial scale. This review attempts to summarize the current understanding of

  7. Liquid crystals in micron-scale droplets, shells and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, Martin; Reyes, Catherine G.; Noh, JungHyun; Sharma, Anshul; Geng, Yong; Subba Rao Jampani, Venkata; Lagerwall, Jan P. F.

    2017-04-01

    The extraordinary responsiveness and large diversity of self-assembled structures of liquid crystals are well documented and they have been extensively used in devices like displays. For long, this application route strongly influenced academic research, which frequently focused on the performance of liquid crystals in display-like geometries, typically between flat, rigid substrates of glass or similar solids. Today a new trend is clearly visible, where liquid crystals confined within curved, often soft and flexible, interfaces are in focus. Innovation in microfluidic technology has opened for high-throughput production of liquid crystal droplets or shells with exquisite monodispersity, and modern characterization methods allow detailed analysis of complex director arrangements. The introduction of electrospinning in liquid crystal research has enabled encapsulation in optically transparent polymeric cylinders with very small radius, allowing studies of confinement effects that were not easily accessible before. It also opened the prospect of functionalizing textile fibers with liquid crystals in the core, triggering activities that target wearable devices with true textile form factor for seamless integration in clothing. Together, these developments have brought issues center stage that might previously have been considered esoteric, like the interaction of topological defects on spherical surfaces, saddle-splay curvature-induced spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, or the non-trivial shape changes of curved liquid crystal elastomers with non-uniform director fields that undergo a phase transition to an isotropic state. The new research thrusts are motivated equally by the intriguing soft matter physics showcased by liquid crystals in these unconventional geometries, and by the many novel application opportunities that arise when we can reproducibly manufacture these systems on a commercial scale. This review attempts to summarize the current understanding of

  8. Stabilized chip-scale Kerr frequency comb via a high-Q reference photonic microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jinkang; Huang, Shu-Wei; Vinod, Abhinav K.; Mortazavian, Parastou; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-08-01

    We stabilize a chip-scale Si3N4 phase-locked Kerr frequency comb via locking the pump laser to an independent stable high-Q reference microresonator and locking the comb spacing to an external microwave oscillator. In this comb, the pump laser shift induces negligible impact on the comb spacing change. This scheme is a step towards miniaturization of the stabilized Kerr comb system as the microresonator reference can potentially be integrated on-chip. Fractional instability of the optical harmonics of the stabilized comb is limited by the microwave oscillator used for comb spacing lock below 1 s averaging time and coincides with the pump laser drift in the long term.

  9. Stabilized chip-scale Kerr frequency comb via a high-Q reference photonic microresonator.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jinkang; Huang, Shu-Wei; Vinod, Abhinav K; Mortazavian, Parastou; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Matsko, Andrey B; Maleki, Lute; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-08-15

    We stabilize a chip-scale Si3N4 phase-locked Kerr frequency comb via locking the pump laser to an independent stable high-Q reference microresonator and locking the comb spacing to an external microwave oscillator. In this comb, the pump laser shift induces negligible impact on the comb spacing change. This scheme is a step toward miniaturization of the stabilized Kerr comb system as the microresonator reference can potentially be integrated on-chip. Fractional instability of the optical harmonics of the stabilized comb is limited by the microwave oscillator used for a comb spacing lock below 1 s averaging time and coincides with the pump laser drift in the long term.

  10. Segregation of immiscible liquids: From droplet size to plutonic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Wu, B.; Wang, T.; Hui, H.

    2016-12-01

    Silicate liquid immiscibility has been evidenced as discrete glassy droplets in volcanic rocks microscopically. Furthermore, this process has been proposed to have resulted in mafic and felsic fractions on outcrop scale in plutons. However, it is unclear how tiny discrete immiscible liquid droplets could be segregated from a continuous melt (medium) and lead to magmatic differentiation on a chamber scale. The settling of immiscible liquid droplets depends on their sinking (or floating) velocities, which could be described using the Stokes' law. The discrete liquid droplets during settling could collide and coalesce with each other, resulting in larger droplets, which is different from the collision of crystals in the magma. The coalescence can significantly increase the droplet velocities, which are proportional to the square of the droplet radii according to the Stokes' law. In a slow-cooling magma chamber, the exsolution and settling of the discrete liquid droplets may reach "equilibrium", which here we call the steady state. Numerical analyses using population dynamics equations have been carried out to study how physical properties of melts affect the segregation of immiscible liquids at the steady state. Our preliminary results indicate that the residence time (average time it takes for discrete droplets to settle) of discrete melt with viscosity higher than that of the medium could be longer than that of discrete melt with viscosity lower than that of the medium, by even more than one order of magnitude. Furthermore, the residence time is approximately proportional to the square root of the medium viscosity, inversely proportional to the square root of the density difference and inversely proportional to the exsolution rate if the discrete melt is exsolved as initially small droplets ( 10 µm in radius). This study could shed light on understanding the feasibility of formation of plutons through liquid immiscibility in dynamics.

  11. Multiple time scale behaviors and network dynamics in liquid methanol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Chakravarty, Charusita; Milotti, Edoardo

    2008-07-31

    Canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulations of liquid methanol, modeled using a rigid-body, pair-additive potential, are used to compute static distributions and temporal correlations of tagged molecule potential energies as a means of characterizing the liquid state dynamics. The static distribution of tagged molecule potential energies shows a clear multimodal structure with three distinct peaks, similar to those observed previously in water and liquid silica. The multimodality is shown to originate from electrostatic effects, but not from local, hydrogen bond interactions. An interesting outcome of this study is the remarkable similarity in the tagged potential energy power spectra of methanol, water, and silica, despite the differences in the underlying interactions and the dimensionality of the network. All three liquids show a distinct multiple time scale (MTS) regime with a 1/ f (alpha) dependence with a clear positive correlation between the scaling exponent alpha and the diffusivity. The low-frequency limit of the MTS regime is determined by the frequency of crossover to white noise behavior which occurs at approximately 0.1 cm (-1) in the case of methanol under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The power spectral regime above 200 cm (-1) in all three systems is dominated by resonances due to localized vibrations, such as librations. The correlation between alpha and the diffusivity in all three liquids appears to be related to the strength of the coupling between the localized motions and the larger length/time scale network reorganizations. Thus, the time scales associated with network reorganization dynamics appear to be qualitatively similar in these systems, despite the fact that water and silica both display diffusional anomalies but methanol does not.

  12. Experiments of Bouyant Thermocapillary Convection of Large Scale Liquid Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Li; Kang, Qi

    Thermocapillary-driven convection in a large scale liquid bridge was investigated by experiments in this paper. We used 2cst silicone oil (Pr=28.571) ,observed the onset of liquid bridge with different aspect ratio (A=l/d) and volume, analyze the transformation of temperature oscillation frequency and phase , discussed the problems of hydrothermal waves. The column diameter of liquid bridge was 20mm. Due to the limit by gravity, we constructed bridge with 3mm-4.25mm height. With the help of five azimuthal thermocouples inserted in the bridge interior, we discovered that temperature oscillation in flow field occurs at the same time, bridges with different aspect ratio and volume have different flow mode, and with the increase of temperature difference, the frequency approximately increases linearly, oscillation phase of each temperature oscillation curve continuously changes. Bridges with different aspect ratio have different ways to chaos.

  13. On being the right size: scaling effects in designing a human-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M; Leung, Brendan M; Inoue, Mayumi; Chun, Tae-Hwa; Takayama, Shuichi

    2013-09-01

    Developing a human-on-a-chip by connecting multiple model organ systems would provide an intermediate screen for therapeutic efficacy and toxic side effects of drugs prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. However, correctly designing individual organs and scaling them relative to each other to make a functional microscale human analog is challenging, and a generalized approach has yet to be identified. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of rational design of both the individual organ and its relationship with other organs, using a simple two-compartment system simulating insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipose tissues. We demonstrate that inter-organ scaling laws depend on both the number of cells and the spatial arrangement of those cells within the microfabricated construct. We then propose a simple and novel inter-organ 'metabolically supported functional scaling' approach predicated on maintaining in vivo cellular basal metabolic rates by limiting resources available to cells on the chip. This approach leverages findings from allometric scaling models in mammals that limited resources in vivo prompt cells to behave differently than in resource-rich in vitro cultures. Although applying scaling laws directly to tissues can result in systems that would be quite challenging to implement, engineering workarounds may be used to circumvent these scaling issues. Specific workarounds discussed include the limited oxygen carrying capacity of cell culture media when used as a blood substitute and the ability to engineer non-physiological structures to augment organ function, to create the transport-accessible, yet resource-limited environment necessary for cells to mimic in vivo functionality. Furthermore, designing the structure of individual tissues in each organ compartment may be a useful strategy to bypass scaling concerns at the inter-organ level.

  14. Small-scale, self-propagating combustion realized with on-chip porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Piekiel, Nicholas W; Morris, Christopher J

    2015-05-13

    For small-scale energy applications, energetic materials represent a high energy density source that, in certain cases, can be accessed with a very small amount of energy input. Recent advances in microprocessing techniques allow for the implementation of a porous silicon energetic material onto a crystalline silicon wafer at the microscale; however, combustion at a small length scale remains to be fully investigated, particularly with regards to the limitations of increased relative heat loss during combustion. The present study explores the critical dimensions of an on-chip porous silicon energetic material (porous silicon + sodium perchlorate (NaClO4)) required to propagate combustion. We etched ∼97 μm wide and ∼45 μm deep porous silicon channels that burned at a steady rate of 4.6 m/s, remaining steady across 90° changes in direction. In an effort to minimize the potential on-chip footprint for energetic porous silicon, we also explored the minimum spacing between porous silicon channels. We demonstrated independent burning of porous silicon channels at a spacing of <40 μm. Using this spacing, it was possible to have a flame path length of >0.5 m on a chip surface area of 1.65 cm(2). Smaller porous silicon channels of ∼28 μm wide and ∼14 μm deep were also utilized. These samples propagated combustion, but at times, did so unsteadily. This result may suggest that we are approaching a critical length scale for self-propagating combustion in a porous silicon energetic material.

  15. Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, D.; Schenkel, Thomas; Awschalom, David D.

    2010-07-02

    We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length scales. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements facilitate depth profiling of the implanted nitrogen to provide three-dimensional characterization of the NV center spatial distribution. Measurements of NV center coherence with on-chip coplanar waveguides suggest a pathway for incorporating this scalable nanofabrication technique in future quantum applications.

  16. Chip scale mechanical spectrum analyzers based on high quality factor overmoded bulk acouslic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, R. H., III

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop high frequency quality factor (fQ) product acoustic resonators matched to a standard RF impedance of 50 {Omega} using overmoded bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. These resonators are intended to serve as filters in a chip scale mechanical RF spectrum analyzer. Under this program different BAW resonator designs and materials were studied theoretically and experimentally. The effort resulted in a 3 GHz, 50 {Omega}, sapphire overmoded BAW with a fQ product of 8 x 10{sup 13}, among the highest values ever reported for an acoustic resonator.

  17. Crossover and scaling phenomena in a disordered Fermi liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belitz, D.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.

    1989-09-01

    We consider Finkelshtein's model for a disordered Fermi liquid. We show that logarithmic terms at two-loop order suppress the fixed point proposed by Castellani et al. Spin transport slows down dramatically, and in d=2+ɛ a sizable scaling region exists. We show that in the scaling region the apparent conductivity exponent is zero to all orders in a loop expansion. This implies that the charge transport is unaffected by the crossover in the spin system. Experiments compare favorably with this scenario. Further measurements of the Wilson ratio are proposed.

  18. Correlations and scaling properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations in liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogioli, Doriano; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Vailati, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion in liquids is accompanied by nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations spanning all the length scales comprised between the microscopic scale a and the macroscopic size of the system, L . Up to now, theoretical and experimental investigations of nonequilibrium fluctuations have focused mostly on determining their mean-square amplitude as a function of the wave vector. In this work, we investigate the local properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations arising during a stationary diffusion process occurring in a binary liquid mixture in the presence of a uniform concentration gradient, ∇ c0 . We characterize the fluctuations by evaluating statistical features of the system, including the mean-square amplitude of fluctuations and the corrugation of the isoconcentration surfaces; we show that they depend on a single mesoscopic length scale l =√{a L } representing the geometric average between the microscopic and macroscopic length scales. We find that the amplitude of the fluctuations is very small in practical cases and vanishes when the macroscopic length scale increases. The isoconcentration surfaces, or fronts of diffusion, have a self-affine structure with corrugation exponent H =1 /2 . Ideally, the local fractal dimension of the fronts of diffusion would be Dl=d -H , where d is the dimensionality of the space, while the global fractal dimension would be Dg=d -1 . The transition between the local and global regimes occurs at a crossover length scale of the order of the microscopic length scale a . Therefore, notwithstanding the fact that the fronts of diffusion are corrugated, they appear flat at all the length scales probed by experiments, and they do not exhibit a fractal structure.

  19. On being the right size: scaling effects in designing a human-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M.; Leung, Brendan M.; Inoue, Mayumi; Chun, Tae-Hwa; Takayama, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Developing a human-on-a-chip by connecting multiple model organ systems would provide an intermediate screen for therapeutic efficacy and toxic side effects of drugs prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. However, correctly designing individual organs and scaling them relative to each other to make a functional microscale human analog is challenging, and a generalized approach has yet to be identified. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of rational design of both the individual organ and its relationship with other organs, using a simple two-compartment system simulating insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipose tissues. We demonstrate that inter-organ scaling laws depend on both the number of cells, and on the spatial arrangement of those cells within the microfabricated construct. We then propose a simple and novel inter-organ ‘metabolically-supported functional scaling’ approach predicated on maintaining in vivo cellular basal metabolic rates, by limiting resources available to cells on the chip. This approach leverages findings from allometric scaling models in mammals that limited resources in vivo prompts cells to behave differently than in resource-rich in vitro cultures. Although applying scaling laws directly to tissues can result in systems that would be quite challenging to implement, engineering workarounds may be used to circumvent these scaling issues. Specific workarounds discussed include the limited oxygen carrying capacity of cell culture media when used as a blood substitute and the ability to engineer non-physiological structures to augment organ function, to create the transport-accessible, yet resource-limited environment necessary for cells to mimic in vivo functionality. Furthermore, designing the structure of individual tissues in each organ compartment may be a useful strategy to bypass scaling concerns at the inter-organ level. PMID:23925524

  20. A smartphone-based chip-scale microscope using ambient illumination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ah; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-08-21

    Portable chip-scale microscopy devices can potentially address various imaging needs in mobile healthcare and environmental monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the adaptation of a smartphone's camera to function as a compact lensless microscope. Unlike other chip-scale microscopy schemes, this method uses ambient illumination as its light source and does not require the incorporation of a dedicated light source. The method is based on the shadow imaging technique where the sample is placed on the surface of the image sensor, which captures direct shadow images under illumination. To improve the image resolution beyond the pixel size, we perform pixel super-resolution reconstruction with multiple images at different angles of illumination, which are captured while the user is manually tilting the device around any ambient light source, such as the sun or a lamp. The lensless imaging scheme allows for sub-micron resolution imaging over an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV). Image acquisition and reconstruction are performed on the device using a custom-built Android application, constructing a stand-alone imaging device for field applications. We discuss the construction of the device using a commercial smartphone and demonstrate the imaging capabilities of our system.

  1. The Atomic scale structure of liquid metal-electrolyte interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. M.; Festersen, S.; Magnussen, O. M.

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical interfaces between immiscible liquids have lately received renewed interest, both for gaining fundamental insight as well as for applications in nanomaterial synthesis. In this feature article we demonstrate that the atomic scale structure of these previously inaccessible interfaces nowadays can be explored by in situ synchrotron based X-ray scattering techniques. Exemplary studies of a prototypical electrochemical system - a liquid mercury electrode in pure NaCl solution - reveal that the liquid metal is terminated by a well-defined atomic layer. This layering decays on length scales of 0.5 nm into the Hg bulk and displays a potential and temperature dependent behaviour that can be explained by electrocapillary effects and contributions of the electronic charge distribution on the electrode. In similar studies of nanomaterial growth, performed for the electrochemical deposition of PbFBr, a complex nucleation and growth behaviour is found, involving a crystalline precursor layer prior to the 3D crystal growth. Operando X-ray scattering measurements provide detailed data on the processes of nanoscale film formation.

  2. Topological Properties of Some Integrated Circuits for Very Large Scale Integration Chip Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, S.; Lanzerotti, M.; Vernizzi, G.; Kujawski, J.; Weatherwax, A.

    2015-03-01

    This talk presents topological properties of integrated circuits for Very Large Scale Integration chip designs. These circuits can be implemented in very large scale integrated circuits, such as those in high performance microprocessors. Prior work considered basic combinational logic functions and produced a mathematical framework based on algebraic topology for integrated circuits composed of logic gates. Prior work also produced an historically-equivalent interpretation of Mr. E. F. Rent's work for today's complex circuitry in modern high performance microprocessors, where a heuristic linear relationship was observed between the number of connections and number of logic gates. This talk will examine topological properties and connectivity of more complex functionally-equivalent integrated circuits. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

  3. Efficient large volume electroporation of dendritic cells through micrometer scale manipulation of flow in a disposable polymer chip.

    PubMed

    Selmeczi, David; Hansen, Thomas S; Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie; Larsen, Niels B

    2011-04-01

    We present a hybrid chip of polymer and stainless steel designed for high-throughput continuous electroporation of cells in suspension. The chip is constructed with two parallel stainless steel mesh electrodes oriented perpendicular to the liquid flow. The relatively high hydrodynamic resistance of the micrometer sized holes in the meshes compared to the main channel enforces an almost homogeneous flow velocity between the meshes. Thereby, very uniform electroporation of the cells can be accomplished. Successful electroporation of 20 million human dendritic cells with mRNA is demonstrated. The performance of the chip is similar to that of the traditional electroporation cuvette, but without an upper limit on the number of cells to be electroporated. The device is constructed with two female Luer parts and can easily be integrated with other microfluidic components. Furthermore it is fabricated from injection molded polymer parts and commercially available stainless steel mesh, making it suitable for inexpensive mass production.

  4. Natural Length Scales Shape Liquid Phase Continuity in Unsaturated Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, S.; Lehmann, P. G.; Or, D.

    2015-12-01

    Unsaturated flows supporting soil evaporation and internal drainage play an important role in various hydrologic and climatic processes manifested at a wide range of scales. We study inherent natural length scales that govern these flow processes and constrain the spatial range of their representation by continuum models. These inherent length scales reflect interactions between intrinsic porous medium properties that affect liquid phase continuity, and the interplay among forces that drive and resist unsaturated flow. We have defined an intrinsic length scale for hydraulic continuity based on pore size distribution that controls soil evaporation dynamics (i.e., stage 1 to stage 2 transition). This simple metric may be used to delineate upper bounds for regional evaporative losses or the depth of soil-atmosphere interactions (in the absence of plants). A similar length scale governs the dynamics of internal redistribution towards attainment of field capacity, again through its effect on hydraulic continuity in the draining porous medium. The study provides a framework for guiding numerical and mathematical models for capillary flows across different scales considering the necessary conditions for coexistence of stationarity (REV), hydraulic continuity and intrinsic capillary gradients.

  5. Experimental Protocol for Detecting Cyanobacteria in Liquid and Solid Samples with an Antibody Microarray Chip.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Yolanda; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Parro, Victor

    2017-02-07

    Global warming and eutrophication make some aquatic ecosystems behave as true bioreactors that trigger rapid and massive cyanobacterial growth; this has relevant health and economic consequences. Many cyanobacterial strains are toxin producers, and only a few cells are necessary to induce irreparable damage to the environment. Therefore, water-body authorities and administrations require rapid and efficient early-warning systems providing reliable data to support their preventive or curative decisions. This manuscript reports an experimental protocol for the in-field detection of toxin-producing cyanobacterial strains by using an antibody microarray chip with 17 antibodies (Abs) with taxonomic resolution (CYANOCHIP). Here, a multiplex fluorescent sandwich microarray immunoassay (FSMI) for the simultaneous monitoring of 17 cyanobacterial strains frequently found blooming in freshwater ecosystems, some of them toxin producers, is described. A microarray with multiple identical replicates (up to 24) of the CYANOCHIP was printed onto a single microscope slide to simultaneously test a similar number of samples. Liquid samples can be tested either by direct incubation with the antibodies (Abs) or after cell concentration by filtration through a 1- to 3-μm filter. Solid samples, such as sediments and ground rocks, are first homogenized and dispersed by a hand-held ultrasonicator in an incubation buffer. They are then filtered (5 - 20 μm) to remove the coarse material, and the filtrate is incubated with Abs. Immunoreactions are revealed by a final incubation with a mixture of the 17 fluorescence-labeled Abs and are read by a portable fluorescence detector. The whole process takes around 3 h, most of it corresponding to two 1-h periods of incubation. The output is an image, where bright spots correspond to the positive detection of cyanobacterial markers.

  6. Water-based scintillators for large-scale liquid calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, D.R.; Raftery, D.

    1985-02-01

    We have investigated primary and secondary solvent intermediates in search of a recipe to create a bulk liquid scintillator with water as the bulk solvent and common fluors as the solutes. As we are not concerned with energy resolution below 1 MeV in large-scale experiments, light-output at the 10% level of high-quality organic solvent based scintillators is acceptable. We have found encouraging performance from industrial surfactants as primary solvents for PPO and POPOP. This technique may allow economical and environmentally safe bulk scintillator for kiloton-sized high energy calorimetry.

  7. Development of the Large-Scale Oligonucleotide Chip for the Diagnosis of Plant Viruses and its Practical Use

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Moon; Kim, Jeong-Seon; Lim, Seungmo; Park, Chung Youl; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Su-Heon

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale oligonucleotide (LSON) chip was developed for the detection of the plant viruses with known genetic information. The LSON chip contains two sets of 3,978 probes for 538 species of targets including plant viruses, satellite RNAs and viroids. A hundred forty thousand probes, consisting of isolate-, species- and genus-specific probes respectively, are designed from 20,000 of independent nucleotide sequence of plant viruses. Based on the economic importance, the amount of genome information, and the number of strains and/or isolates, one to fifty-one probes for each target virus are selected and spotted on the chip. The standard and field samples for the analysis of the LSON chip have been prepared and tested by RT-PCR. The probe’s specific and/or nonspecific reaction patterns by LSON chip allow us to diagnose the unidentified viruses. Thus, the LSON chip in this study could be highly useful for the detection of unexpected plant viruses, the monitoring of emerging viruses and the fluctuation of the population of major viruses in each plant. PMID:25288985

  8. Flexible Chip Scale Package and Interconnect for Implantable MEMS Movable Microelectrodes for the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2009-01-01

    We report here a novel approach called MEMS microflex interconnect (MMFI) technology for packaging a new generation of Bio-MEMS devices that involve movable microelectrodes implanted in brain tissue. MMFI addresses the need for (i) operating space for movable parts and (ii) flexible interconnects for mechanical isolation. We fabricated a thin polyimide substrate with embedded bond-pads, vias, and conducting traces for the interconnect with a backside dry etch, so that the flexible substrate can act as a thin-film cap for the MEMS package. A double gold stud bump rivet bonding mechanism was used to form electrical connections to the chip and also to provide a spacing of approximately 15–20 µm for the movable parts. The MMFI approach achieved a chip scale package (CSP) that is lightweight, biocompatible, having flexible interconnects, without an underfill. Reliability tests demonstrated minimal increases of 0.35 mΩ, 0.23 mΩ and 0.15 mΩ in mean contact resistances under high humidity, thermal cycling, and thermal shock conditions respectively. High temperature tests resulted in an increase in resistance of > 90 mΩ when aluminum bond pads were used, but an increase of ~ 4.2 mΩ with gold bond pads. The mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) was estimated to be at least one year under physiological conditions. We conclude that MMFI technology is a feasible and reliable approach for packaging and interconnecting Bio-MEMS devices. PMID:20160981

  9. A novel concept for long-term pre-storage and release of liquids for pressure-driven lab-on-a-chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czurratis, D.; Beyl, Y.; Zinober, S.; Lärmer, F.; Zengerle, R.

    2015-04-01

    On-chip storage of liquids is one of the major challenges of polymer-based lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices. To ensure long-term storage of even highly volatile reagents in polymer disposal LoC cartridges, robust reagent storage concepts are necessary. Tubular bags, so-called stick packs, are widely used in the packaging industry. They offer sufficient vapor barrier properties for liquid storage. Here we present a polymer multilayer LoC-stack with integrated stick packs for the long-term storage of liquid reagents required for diagnostic applications. The storage concept fulfils two main requirements: firstly, the long-term storage of reagents in stick packs without significant losses or interaction with the surroundings and secondly, the on-demand release of liquids, which is realized by the delamination of a stick pack’s peel seam through pneumatic pressure. Furthermore, effects on the opening behavior of stick packs through accelerated aging were investigated after different storage conditions to proof repeatability. This concept enables on-chip storage of liquid reagents at room temperature and allows the implementation in different pressure driven LoC devices or similar applications. Since liquid storage in stick packs is well-established, emerging fields such as lab-on-a-chip combined with novel reagent release mechanisms should be of great interest for the commercialization of life science products.

  10. High-Pressure Open-Channel On-Chip Electroosmotic Pump for Nanoflow High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Here, we construct an open-channel on-chip electroosmotic pump capable of generating pressures up to ∼170 bar and flow rates up to ∼500 nL/min, adequate for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separations. A great feature of this pump is that a number of its basic pump units can be connected in series to enhance its pumping power; the output pressure is directly proportional to the number of pump units connected. This additive nature is excellent and useful, and no other pumps can work in this fashion. We demonstrate the feasibility of using this pump to perform nanoflow HPLC separations; tryptic digests of bovine serum albumin (BSA), transferrin factor (TF), and human immunoglobulins (IgG) are utilized as exemplary samples. We also compare the performance of our electroosmotic (EO)-driven HPLC with Agilent 1200 HPLC; comparable efficiencies, resolutions, and peak capacities are obtained. Since the pump is based on electroosmosis, it has no moving parts. The common material and process also allow this pump to be integrated with other microfabricated functional components. Development of this high-pressure on-chip pump will have a profound impact on the advancement of lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:24495233

  11. Improved liquid chromatography-MS/MS of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides via chip-based pulsed makeup flow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xiang; Leymarie, Nancy; Staples, Gregory O; Yin, Hongfeng; Killeen, Kevin; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Microfluidic chip-based hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is a useful separation system for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in compositional profiling of heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides; however, ions observed using HILIC LC-MS are low in charge. Tandem MS of HS oligosaccharide ions with low charge results in undesirable losses of SO(3) from precursor ions during collision induced dissociation. One solution is to add metal cations to stabilize sulfate groups. Another is to add a nonvolatile, polar compound such as sulfolane, a molecule known to supercharge proteins, to produce a similar effect for oligosaccharides. We demonstrate use of a novel pulsed makeup flow (MUF) HPLC-chip. The chip enables controlled application of additives during specified chromatographic time windows and thus minimizes the extent to which nonvolatile additives build up in the ion source. The pulsed MUF system was applied to LC-MS/MS of HS oligosaccharides. Metal cations and sulfolane were tested as additives. The most promising results were obtained for sulfolane, for which supercharging of the oligosaccharide ions increased their signal strengths relative to controls. Tandem MS of these supercharged precursor ions showed decreased abundances of product ions from sulfate losses yet more abundant product ions from backbone cleavages.

  12. High-pressure open-channel on-chip electroosmotic pump for nanoflow high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Congying; Lynch, Kyle B; Lu, Joann J; Zhang, Zhengyu; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-02-18

    Here, we construct an open-channel on-chip electroosmotic pump capable of generating pressures up to ∼170 bar and flow rates up to ∼500 nL/min, adequate for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separations. A great feature of this pump is that a number of its basic pump units can be connected in series to enhance its pumping power; the output pressure is directly proportional to the number of pump units connected. This additive nature is excellent and useful, and no other pumps can work in this fashion. We demonstrate the feasibility of using this pump to perform nanoflow HPLC separations; tryptic digests of bovine serum albumin (BSA), transferrin factor (TF), and human immunoglobulins (IgG) are utilized as exemplary samples. We also compare the performance of our electroosmotic (EO)-driven HPLC with Agilent 1200 HPLC; comparable efficiencies, resolutions, and peak capacities are obtained. Since the pump is based on electroosmosis, it has no moving parts. The common material and process also allow this pump to be integrated with other microfabricated functional components. Development of this high-pressure on-chip pump will have a profound impact on the advancement of lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G; Peng, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of sub-nanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with width from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of ion solvation in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  14. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-Filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of subnanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with widths from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width-dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of 'ion solvation' in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  15. Microfluidic high performance liquid chromatography-chip hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David P; Blanes, Lucas; Wilson, Alexander B; Wilbanks, Thor; Killeen, Kevin; Grimm, Rudolf; Wenzel, Ross; Major, Derek; Macka, Mirek; Clarke, David; Schmid, Robin; Cole, Nerida; Doble, Philip A

    2017-05-12

    The Agilent Chip Cube Interface is a microfluidic chip-based technology originally designed for nanospray molecular mass spectrometry in which the sample enrichment, nano-column, tubing, connectors and spray tip were integrated into a single biocompatible chip. Here we describe the hyphenation of the Chip Cube Interface to ICP-MS via modification of the standard HPLC chip design and a new total consumption nebuliser suitable for flow rates as low as 300nLmin(-1). The potential of the instrument to eliminate common nanoLC - ICP-MS shortcomings such as leaks, blockages and band-broadening was demonstrated via analysis of cyanocobalamin in equine plasma. The method was linear over three orders of magnitude with an r(2) of 0.9999, the peak area repeatability was 1.9% (n=7), and the detection limit was 14ngmL(-1). This novel configuration of the Chip Cube Interface coupled to ICP-MS is a suitable platform for the analysis of biomolecules associated with trace metals and speciation applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A chip-scale, telecommunications-band frequency conversion interface for quantum emitters.

    PubMed

    Agha, Imad; Ates, Serkan; Davanço, Marcelo; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2013-09-09

    We describe a chip-scale, telecommunications-band frequency conversion interface designed for low-noise operation at wavelengths desirable for common single photon emitters. Four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in silicon nitride waveguides is used to demonstrate frequency upconversion and downconversion between the 980 nm and 1550 nm wavelength regions, with signal-to-background levels > 10 and conversion efficiency of ≈ -60 dB at low continuous wave input pump powers (< 50 mW). Finite element simulations and the split-step Fourier method indicate that increased input powers of ≈ 10 W (produced by amplified nanosecond pulses, for example) will result in a conversion efficiency > 25 % in existing geometries. Finally, we present waveguide designs that can be used to connect shorter wavelength (637 nm to 852 nm) quantum emitters with 1550 nm.

  17. A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Runxiang; Cheung, Stanley; Li, Yuliang; Okamoto, Katsunari; Proietti, Roberto; Yin, Yawei; Yoo, S J B

    2013-12-30

    This paper discusses the architecture and provides performance studies of a silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for scalable interconnect network in high performance computing systems. The proposed switch exploits optical wavelength parallelism and wavelength routing characteristics of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR) to allow contention resolution in the wavelength domain. Simulation results from a cycle-accurate network simulator indicate that, even with only two transmitter/receiver pairs per node, the switch exhibits lower end-to-end latency and higher throughput at high (>90%) input loads compared with electronic switches. On the device integration level, we propose to integrate all the components (ring modulators, photodetectors and AWGR) on a CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform to ensure a compact, energy efficient and cost-effective device. We successfully demonstrate proof-of-concept routing functions on an 8 × 8 prototype fabricated using foundry services provided by OpSIS-IME.

  18. Experimental assessment of on-chip liquid cooling through microchannels with de-ionized water and diluted ethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yonghyun; Kim, Sungdong; Eunkyung Kim, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in Si IC devices, which results in an increase in power density and decrease in device size, poses various thermal challenges owing to high heat dissipation. Therefore, conventional cooling techniques become ineffective and produce a thermal bottleneck. In this study, an on-chip liquid cooling module with microchannels and through Si via (TSV) was fabricated, and cooling characteristics were evaluated by IR measurements. Both the microchannels and TSVs were fabricated in a Si wafer by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the wafer was bonded with a glass wafer by a anodic bonding. The fabricated liquid cooling sample was evaluated using two different coolants (de-ionized water and 70 wt % diluted ethylene glycol), and the effect of coolants on cooling characteristics was investigated.

  19. Local spectral properties of Luttinger liquids: scaling versus nonuniversal energy scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuricht, D.; Andergassen, S.; Meden, V.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent scanning tunneling and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on self-organized gold chains on a germanium surface, we reinvestigate the local single-particle spectral properties of Luttinger liquids. In the first part we use the bosonization approach to exactly compute the local spectral function of a simplified field theoretical low-energy model and take a closer look at scaling properties as a function of the ratio of energy and temperature. Translational-invariant Luttinger liquids as well as those with an open boundary (cut chain geometry) are considered. We explicitly show that the scaling functions of both set-ups have the same analytical form. The scaling behavior suggests a variety of consistency checks which can be performed on measured data to experimentally verify Luttinger liquid behavior. In the second part we approximately compute the local spectral function of a microscopic lattice model—the extended Hubbard model—close to an open boundary using the functional renormalization group. We show that it follows the field theoretical prediction in the low-energy regime as a function of energy and temperature, and point out the importance of nonuniversal energy scales inherent to any microscopic model. The spatial dependence of this spectral function is characterized by oscillatory behavior and an envelope function which follows a power law in accordance with the field theoretical continuum model. Interestingly, for the lattice model we find a phase shift which is proportional to the two-particle interaction and not accounted for in the standard bosonization approach to Luttinger liquids with an open boundary. We briefly comment on the effects of several one-dimensional branches cutting the Fermi energy and Rashba spin-orbit interaction.

  20. Chip-Scale Power Conversion for LED Lighting: Integrated Power Chip Converter for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: Teledyne is developing cost-effective power drivers for energy-efficient LED lights that fit on a compact chip. These power drivers are important because they transmit power throughout the LED device. Traditional LED driver components waste energy and don't last as long as the LED itself. They are also large and bulky, so they must be assembled onto a circuit board separately which increases the overall manufacturing cost of the LED light. Teledyne is shrinking the size and improving the efficiency of its LED driver components by using thin layers of an iron magnetic alloy and new gallium nitride on silicon devices. Smaller, more efficient components will enable the drivers to be integrated on a single chip, reducing costs. The new semiconductors in Teledyne's drivers can also handle higher levels of power and last longer without sacrificing efficiency. Initial applications for Teledyne's LED power drivers include refrigerated grocery display cases and retail lighting.

  1. CMOS VLSI pilot and support chip for a liquid crystal on silicon 8x8 optical cross connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelah, Alan; Vinouze, Bruno; Martel, Gilbert; Perez-Segovia, Tomas; Geoffroy, Philippe; Laval, Jean-Paul; Jayet, Philippe; Senn, Patrice; Gravey, Philippe; Wolffer, Nicole; Lever, Roger; Tan, Antione

    2001-12-01

    With the explosion of Internet and multi-service traffic, telecommunication transport networks today are turning to Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Optical cross-connects (OXCs) allow flexible rerouting of wavelength channels. It has been shown that 2-D free-space beam deflection by nematic liquid crystal gratings provide a good solution for the realization of optical switches in OXCs. Operating in the telecom 1.5 micrometers wavelength region they serve as an active holographic element. Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) combined with VLSI technologies allow the fabrication of large capacity, low cost and low consumption compact free-space switches. An N X N optical switch can be built by cascading two LCOS-based spatial light modulators (SLMs). The first part of the paper describes a circuit that provides the physical support as well as piloting circuitry for such SLMs. It is capable of piloting beams from a linear array of 8 incoming fibers towards a similar array of 8 outgoing fibers. The electrode command voltages are analog while the external interface as well as on-chip memory is digital. The chip has been implemented in a CMOS 0.5 (mu) process with 600,000 transistors while die size is 320 mm2 (80 mm2 active area).

  2. Unconventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies for hybrid-scale lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dogyeong; Hong, Jisoo; Shin, Heungjoo; Kim, Taesung

    2016-11-01

    Micro-/nanofabrication-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies have recently been substantially advanced and have become widely used in various inter-/multidisciplinary research fields, including biological, (bio-)chemical, and biomedical fields. However, such hybrid-scale LOC devices are typically fabricated using microfabrication and nanofabrication processes in series, resulting in increased cost and time and low throughput issues. In this review, after briefly introducing the conventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies, we focus on unconventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies that allow us to produce either in situ micro-/nanoscale structures or master molds for additional replication processes to easily and conveniently create novel LOC devices with micro- or nanofluidic channel networks. In particular, microfabrication methods based on crack-assisted photolithography and carbon-microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) are described in detail because of their superior features from the viewpoint of the throughput, batch fabrication process, and mixed-scale channels/structures. In parallel with previously reported articles on conventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies, our review of unconventional micro-/nanofabrication technologies will provide a useful and practical fabrication guideline for future hybrid-scale LOC devices.

  3. Experiments on Liquid Immersion Natural Convection Cooling of Leadless Chip Carriers Mounted on Ceramic Substrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Tfilm Average dielectric liquid 0C temperature TLC Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Dimensionless Tlid Average package lid temperature c TSE Temperature...the temperature sensitive Thermochromic Liquid Crystal (TLC). For additional thermal response measurement, nine Copper Constantan thermocouples of...heater assembly for Thermochromic Liquid Crystal (TLC) calibration. Approximately 1.27 centimeters diagonally from one of the corners, a 2.95

  4. Thermally triggered phononic gaps in liquids at THz scale

    PubMed Central

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav’yalov, Dmitry; Stoupin, Stanislav; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Cai, Yong Q.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in a diamond anvil cell and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the behavior of phononic excitations in liquid Ar. The spectra calculated using molecular dynamics were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, we observe that, upon temperature increases, a low-frequency transverse phononic gap emerges while high-frequency propagating modes become evanescent at the THz scale. The effect of strong localization of a longitudinal phononic mode in the supercritical phase is observed for the first time. The evidence for the high-frequency transverse phononic gap due to the transition from an oscillatory to a ballistic dynamic regimes of motion is presented and supported by molecular dynamics simulations. This transition takes place across the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit which demarcates compressed liquid and non-compressed fluid domains on the phase diagram and is supported by calculations within the Green-Kubo phenomenological formalism. These results are crucial to advance the development of novel terahertz thermal devices, phononic lenses, mirrors, and other THz metamaterials. PMID:26763899

  5. Thermally triggered phononic gaps in liquids at THz scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zavyalov, Dmitry; Stoupin, Stanislav; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Cai, Yong Q.

    2016-01-14

    In this study we present inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in a diamond anvil cell and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the behavior of phononic excitations in liquid Ar. The spectra calculated using molecular dynamics were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, we observe that, upon temperature increases, a low-frequency transverse phononic gap emerges while high-frequency propagating modes become evanescent at the THz scale. The effect of strong localization of a longitudinal phononic mode in the supercritical phase is observed for the first time. The evidence for the high-frequency transverse phononic gap due to the transition from an oscillatory to a ballistic dynamic regimes of motion is presented and supported by molecular dynamics simulations. This transition takes place across the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit which demarcates compressed liquid and non-compressed fluid domains on the phase diagram and is supported by calculations within the Green-Kubo phenomenological formalism. These results are crucial to advance the development of novel terahertz thermal devices, phononic lenses, mirrors, and other THz metamaterials.

  6. Thermally triggered phononic gaps in liquids at THz scale

    DOE PAGES

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zavyalov, Dmitry; ...

    2016-01-14

    In this study we present inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in a diamond anvil cell and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the behavior of phononic excitations in liquid Ar. The spectra calculated using molecular dynamics were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, we observe that, upon temperature increases, a low-frequency transverse phononic gap emerges while high-frequency propagating modes become evanescent at the THz scale. The effect of strong localization of a longitudinal phononic mode in the supercritical phase is observed for the first time. The evidence for the high-frequency transverse phononic gap due to themore » transition from an oscillatory to a ballistic dynamic regimes of motion is presented and supported by molecular dynamics simulations. This transition takes place across the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit which demarcates compressed liquid and non-compressed fluid domains on the phase diagram and is supported by calculations within the Green-Kubo phenomenological formalism. These results are crucial to advance the development of novel terahertz thermal devices, phononic lenses, mirrors, and other THz metamaterials.« less

  7. Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao Tai; Singh, Vivek; Hu, Juejun; Richardson, Kathleen; Musgraves, J David; Luzinov, Igor; Hensley, Joel; Kimerling, Lionel C; Agarwal, Anu

    2013-06-07

    Towards a future lab-on-a-chip spectrometer, we demonstrate a compact chip-scale air-clad silicon pedestal waveguide as a Mid-Infrared (Mid-IR) sensor capable of in situ monitoring of organic solvents. The sensor is a planar crystalline silicon waveguide, which is highly transparent, between λ = 1.3 and 6.5 μm, so that its operational spectral range covers most characteristic chemical absorption bands due to bonds such as C-H, N-H, O-H, C-C, N-O, C=O, and C≡N, as opposed to conventional UV, Vis, Near-IR sensors, which use weaker overtones of these fundamental bands. To extend light transmission beyond λ = 3.7 μm, a spectral region where a typical silicon dioxide under-clad is absorbing, we fabricate a unique air-clad silicon pedestal waveguide. The sensing mechanism of our Mid-IR waveguide sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption by functional groups of the surrounding chemical molecules, which selectively absorb specific wavelengths in the mid-IR, depending on the nature of their chemical bonds. From a measurement of the waveguide mode intensities, we demonstrate in situ identification of chemical compositions and concentrations of organic solvents. For instance, we show that when testing at λ = 3.55 μm, the Mid-IR sensor can distinguish hexane from the rest of the tested analytes (methanol, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, ethanol and acetone), since hexane has a strong absorption from the aliphatic C-H stretch at λ = 3.55 μm. Analogously, applying the same technique at λ = 3.3 μm, the Mid-IR sensor is able to determine the concentration of toluene dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, because toluene has a strong absorption at λ = 3.3 μm from the aromatic C-H stretch. With our demonstration of an air-clad silicon pedestal waveguide sensor, we move closer towards the ultimate goal of an ultra-compact portable spectrometer-on-a-chip.

  8. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-07

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  9. Scaling and automation of a high-throughput single-cell-derived tumor sphere assay chip.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Heng; Chen, Yu-Chih; Brien, Riley; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-10-07

    Recent research suggests that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are the key subpopulation for tumor relapse and metastasis. Due to cancer plasticity in surface antigen and enzymatic activity markers, functional tumorsphere assays are promising alternatives for CSC identification. To reliably quantify rare CSCs (1-5%), thousands of single-cell suspension cultures are required. While microfluidics is a powerful tool in handling single cells, previous works provide limited throughput and lack automatic data analysis capability required for high-throughput studies. In this study, we present the scaling and automation of high-throughput single-cell-derived tumor sphere assay chips, facilitating the tracking of up to ∼10 000 cells on a chip with ∼76.5% capture rate. The presented cell capture scheme guarantees sampling a representative population from the bulk cells. To analyze thousands of single-cells with a variety of fluorescent intensities, a highly adaptable analysis program was developed for cell/sphere counting and size measurement. Using a Pluronic® F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)) coating on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a suspension culture environment was created to test a controversial hypothesis: whether larger or smaller cells are more stem-like defined by the capability to form single-cell-derived spheres. Different cell lines showed different correlations between sphere formation rate and initial cell size, suggesting heterogeneity in pathway regulation among breast cancer cell lines. More interestingly, by monitoring hundreds of spheres, we identified heterogeneity in sphere growth dynamics, indicating the cellular heterogeneity even within CSCs. These preliminary results highlight the power of unprecedented high-throughput and automation in CSC studies.

  10. Fully automated Liquid Extraction-Based Surface Sampling and Ionization Using a Chip-Based Robotic Nanoelectrospray Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling device utilizing an Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system is reported. Analyses were enabled for discrete spot sampling by using the Advanced User Interface of the current commercial control software. This software interface provided the parameter control necessary for the NanoMate robotic pipettor to both form and withdraw a liquid microjunction for sampling from a surface. The system was tested with three types of analytically important sample surface types, viz., spotted sample arrays on a MALDI plate, dried blood spots on paper, and whole-body thin tissue sections from drug dosed mice. The qualitative and quantitative data were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling techniques. The successful analyses performed here utilized the hardware and software elements already present in the NanoMate system developed to handle and analyze liquid samples. Implementation of an appropriate sample (surface) holder, a solvent reservoir, faster movement of the robotic arm, finer control over solvent flow rate when dispensing and retrieving the solution at the surface, and the ability to select any location on a surface to sample from would improve the analytical performance and utility of the platform.

  11. Immunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins by moving magnetic particles in a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Ho; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we devised a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip (SLP LOC), which was operated by moving solid-phase magnetic particles in the stationary liquid phase. The SLP LOC consisted of a sample chamber to which a sample and reactants were added, a detection chamber containing enzyme substrate solution, and a narrow channel connecting the two chambers and filled with buffer. As a model system, competitive immunoassays of saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin, were conducted in the SLP LOC using protein G-coupled magnetic particles (G-MPs) as the solid phase. Anti-STX antibodies, STX-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, G-MPs, and a STX sample were added to the sample chamber and reacted by shaking. While liquids were in the stationary state, G-MPs were transported from the sample chamber to the detection chamber by moving a magnet below the LOC. After incubation to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur, the absorbance of the detection chamber solution was found to be reciprocally related to the STX concentration of the sample. Thus, the SLP LOC may represent a novel, simple format for point-of-care testing applications of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by eliminating complicated liquid handling steps.

  12. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Analysis of Diels-Alder Reactions of Alkene Gases to Functional Ionic Liquids on Chips.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Hsuan; Chiang, Shu-Jen; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2016-11-15

    We demonstrated here a successful development of the use of functional ionic liquids FIL 1 and FIL 3 for chemoselective detection of alkene gases measured by quartz crystal microbalance. This detection of gaseous alkenes was achieved by the Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloadditions with FIL 1 and FIL 3 thin-coated on quartz chips. Our functional ionic liquids could be prepared by straightforward synthetic chemistry in short steps and are superior in alkene gas detection. The QCM platform developed in this work is chemoselective with fast gas diffusion into ionic liquids, readily applicable to low molecular weight alkene gases and insensitive to moisture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report based upon the Diels-Alder reactions demonstrating sensitive alkene gas detection in ionic liquids on a QCM. This work is a proof-of-concept inspection of the promising use of a QCM-based sensor method for reaction-directed detection of gas samples, which is part of an ongoing program aimed at studying diseases.

  13. Quantitative determination of 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) in human urine using microfluidic chip-based nano-liquid chromatography with on-chip sample enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chan, Shan-An; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2011-04-15

    Urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) (8-isoPGF(2α)) has been reported as an important biomarker to indicate the oxidative stress status in vivo. In order to quantitatively determine the low contents of 8-isoPGF(2α) (in sub- to low ng mL(-1) range) in physiological fluids, a sensitive detection method has become an important issue. In this study, we employed a microfluidic chip-based nano liquid chromatography (chip-nanoLC) with on-chip sample enrichment coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS) for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. This chip-nanoLC unit integrates a microfluidic switch, a chip column design having a pre-column (enrichment column) for sample enrichment prior to an analytical column for separation, as well as a nanospray emitter on a single polyimide chip. The introduction of enrichment column offers the advantages of online sample pre-concentration and reducing matrix influence on MS detection to improve sensitivity. In this study, the chip-nanoLC consisting of Zorbax 300A SB-C18 columns and Agilent QqQ Mass spectrometer were used for determining 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. Gradient elution was employed for effective LC separation and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was utilized for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) (m/z 353→193). We employed liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)/solid-phase extraction (SPE) for extracting analyte and reducing matrix effect from urine sample prior to chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS analysis for determining urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). Good recoveries were found to be in the range of 83.0-85.3%. The linear range was 0.01-2 ng mL(-1) for urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). In addition, the proposed method showed good precision and accuracy for 8-isoPGF(2α) spiked synthetic urine samples. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.8-5.0% and 4.3-5.8%, respectively. The method accuracy for intra-day and inter-day assays ranged from 99.3 to 99.9% and 99.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Due to its

  14. Highly sensitive detection of target ssDNA based on SERS liquid chip using suspended magnetic nanospheres as capturing substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Ju-Mei; Ma, Wan-Fu; You, Li-Jun; Guo, Jia; Hu, Jun; Wang, Chang-Chun

    2013-05-21

    A new approach for sensitive detection of a specific ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) sequence based on the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) liquid chip is demonstrated. In this method, the probe DNA (targeting to one part of target ssDNA) was attached to the nano-SERS-tags (poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid)/(silver nanoparticles)/silica composite nanospheres), and the capture DNA (targeting to the other part of target ssDNA) was attached to the Fe3O4/poly(acrylic acid) core/shell nanospheres. The nano-SERS-tags with probe DNA were first allowed to undergo hybridization with the target ssDNA in solution to achieve the best efficiency. Subsequently, the magnetic composite nanospheres with capture DNA were added as the capturing substrates of the target ssDNA combined with the nano-SERS-tags. Upon attraction with an external magnet, the nanospheres (including the nano-SERS-tags) were deposited together due to the hybridization, and the deposit sediment was then analyzed by SERS. Quantitative detection of target ssDNA was achieved based on the well-defined linear correlation between the SERS signal intensity and the target ssDNA quantity in the range of 10 nM to 10 pM, and the limit of detection was approximately 10 pM. Multiplexed detection of up to three different ssDNA targets in one sample was demonstrated using three different types of nano-SERS-tags under a single excitation laser. The experimental results indicated that the liquid-phase DNA sequencing method, thus named the SERS liquid chip (SLC) method, holds significant promises for specific detection of trace targets of organisms.

  15. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Walker R; Bermel, Peter; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C N; Marton, Christopher H; Jensen, Klavs F; Senkevich, Jay J; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2013-04-02

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system design, which we name the microthermophotovoltaic (μTPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat-to-electricity conversion within a millimeter-scale form factor. Although considerable technological barriers need to be overcome to reach full performance, we have performed a robust experimental demonstration that validates the theoretical framework and the key system components. Even with a much-simplified μTPV system design with theoretical efficiency prediction of 2.7%, we experimentally demonstrate 2.5% efficiency. The μTPV experimental system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an integrated high-temperature photonic crystal selective thermal emitter, four 0.55-eV GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes, and an ultra-high-efficiency maximum power-point tracking power electronics converter. The system was demonstrated to operate up to 800 °C (silicon microcombustor temperature) with an input thermal power of 13.7 W, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm(2) area.

  16. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Walker R.; Bermel, Peter; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Marton, Christopher H.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system design, which we name the microthermophotovoltaic (μTPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat-to-electricity conversion within a millimeter-scale form factor. Although considerable technological barriers need to be overcome to reach full performance, we have performed a robust experimental demonstration that validates the theoretical framework and the key system components. Even with a much-simplified μTPV system design with theoretical efficiency prediction of 2.7%, we experimentally demonstrate 2.5% efficiency. The μTPV experimental system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an integrated high-temperature photonic crystal selective thermal emitter, four 0.55-eV GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes, and an ultra-high-efficiency maximum power-point tracking power electronics converter. The system was demonstrated to operate up to 800 °C (silicon microcombustor temperature) with an input thermal power of 13.7 W, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm2 area. PMID:23440220

  17. Nanolitre-scale crystallization using acoustic liquid-transfer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Villaseñor, Armando G.; Wong, April; Shao, Ada; Garg, Ankur; Donohue, Timothy J.; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Harris, Seth F.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection achieves precise, tipless, non-invasive transfer of diverse aqueous solutions, enabling nanolitre-scale crystallization trials. The rapid and scalable technique demonstrated successful crystal growth with diverse targets in drop volumes as small as 20 nl. Focused acoustic energy allows accurate and precise liquid transfer on scales from picolitre to microlitre volumes. This technology was applied in protein crystallization, successfully transferring a diverse set of proteins as well as hundreds of precipitant solutions from custom and commercial crystallization screens and achieving crystallization in drop volumes as small as 20 nl. Only higher concentrations (>50%) of 2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (MPD) appeared to be systematically problematic in delivery. The acoustic technology was implemented in a workflow, successfully reproducing active crystallization systems and leading to the discovery of crystallization conditions for previously uncharacterized proteins. The technology offers compelling advantages in low-nanolitre crystallization trials by providing significant reagent savings and presenting seamless scalability for those crystals that require larger volume optimization experiments using the same vapor-diffusion format.

  18. Adiabatic shear banding and scaling laws in chip formation with application to cutting of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, A.; Soldani, X.; Miguélez, M. H.

    2013-11-01

    The phenomenon of adiabatic shear banding is analyzed theoretically in the context of metal cutting. The mechanisms of material weakening that are accounted for are (i) thermal softening and (ii) material failure related to a critical value of the accumulated plastic strain. Orthogonal cutting is viewed as a unique configuration where adiabatic shear bands can be experimentally produced under well controlled loading conditions by individually tuning the cutting speed, the feed (uncut chip thickness) and the tool geometry. The role of cutting conditions on adiabatic shear banding and chip serration is investigated by combining finite element calculations and analytical modeling. This leads to the characterization and classification of different regimes of shear banding and the determination of scaling laws which involve dimensionless parameters representative of thermal and inertia effects. The analysis gives new insights into the physical aspects of plastic flow instability in chip formation. The originality with respect to classical works on adiabatic shear banding stems from the various facets of cutting conditions that influence shear banding and from the specific role exercised by convective flow on the evolution of shear bands. Shear bands are generated at the tool tip and propagate towards the chip free surface. They grow within the chip formation region while being convected away by chip flow. It is shown that important changes in the mechanism of shear banding take place when the characteristic time of shear band propagation becomes equal to a characteristic convection time. Application to Ti-6Al-4V titanium are considered and theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data in a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. The fundamental knowledge developed in this work is thought to be useful not only for the understanding of metal cutting processes but also, by analogy, to similar problems where convective flow is also interfering with

  19. Refractive Index-Based Detection of Gradient Elution Liquid Chromatography using Chip-Integrated Microring Resonator Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wade, James H.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as non-destructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with HPLC. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution – a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviating extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of post-column (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also makes it an attractive potential detection technology that could be

  20. Thermodynamic scaling of dynamic properties of liquid crystals: Verifying the scaling parameters using a molecular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2013-08-01

    The thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamic properties of rotation and thermodynamic parameters in a nematic phase was investigated by a molecular dynamic simulation using the Gay-Berne potential. A master curve for the relaxation time of flip-flop motion was obtained using thermodynamic scaling, and the dynamic property could be solely expressed as a function of TV^{γ _τ }, where T and V are the temperature and volume, respectively. The scaling parameter γτ was in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameter Γ, which is the logarithm of the slope of a line plotted for the temperature and volume at constant P2. This line was fairly linear, and as good as the line for p-azoxyanisole or using the highly ordered small cluster model. The equivalence relation between Γ and γτ was compared with results obtained from the highly ordered small cluster model. The possibility of adapting the molecular model for the thermodynamic scaling of other dynamic rotational properties was also explored. The rotational diffusion constant and rotational viscosity coefficients, which were calculated using established theoretical and experimental expressions, were rescaled onto master curves with the same scaling parameters. The simulation illustrates the universal nature of the equivalence relation for liquid crystals.

  1. Thermodynamic scaling of dynamic properties of liquid crystals: verifying the scaling parameters using a molecular model.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2013-08-28

    The thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamic properties of rotation and thermodynamic parameters in a nematic phase was investigated by a molecular dynamic simulation using the Gay-Berne potential. A master curve for the relaxation time of flip-flop motion was obtained using thermodynamic scaling, and the dynamic property could be solely expressed as a function of TV(γτ) , where T and V are the temperature and volume, respectively. The scaling parameter γτ was in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameter Γ, which is the logarithm of the slope of a line plotted for the temperature and volume at constant P2. This line was fairly linear, and as good as the line for p-azoxyanisole or using the highly ordered small cluster model. The equivalence relation between Γ and γ(τ) was compared with results obtained from the highly ordered small cluster model. The possibility of adapting the molecular model for the thermodynamic scaling of other dynamic rotational properties was also explored. The rotational diffusion constant and rotational viscosity coefficients, which were calculated using established theoretical and experimental expressions, were rescaled onto master curves with the same scaling parameters. The simulation illustrates the universal nature of the equivalence relation for liquid crystals.

  2. Lab-on-a-chip bio/chemical sensing system based on the liquid core optical ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Zhu, Hongying; Oveys, Hesam; Brewington, Lee; Gohring, John; Fan, Xudong

    2007-04-01

    The liquid core optical ring resonator (LCORR) sensor is a newly developed capillary-based ring resonator that integrates microfluidics with photonic sensing technology. The circular cross-section of the capillary forms a ring resonator that supports whispering gallery modes (WGM), which interact with the sample as it passes through the capillary. As in previous ring resonator sensor implementations, the interaction between the WGM evanescent field and the sample enables label-free detection. With a prototype of an LCORR sensor, we have achieved a refractive index detection limit of 10-6 RIU and a detection limit for protein of 2 pg/mm2. Several engineering developments have been accomplished as well, including a thermal noise characterization, a thermal stabilization implementation, integration of the LCORR with a planar waveguide array, and electro-kinetic sample delivery. In the near future, the LCORR will be integrated into a dense 2-dimensional sensing array by integrating multiple capillaries with a chip-based waveguide array. This lab-on-a-chip sensing system will have a number of applications, including environmental sensing for defense purposes, disease diagnostics for medical purposes, and as a lab tool for analytical chemistry and molecular analysis.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography on glass chips using precisely defined porous polymer monoliths as particle retaining elements.

    PubMed

    Thurmann, Sebastian; Mauritz, Laura; Heck, Christian; Belder, Detlev

    2014-11-28

    A stable and permanent integration of miniature packed bed separation columns into microfluidic systems is a major issue in nano liquid chromatography. Various approaches like differently shaped retaining elements or the use of key stone effect have been investigated. We show a flexible integration of miniature packed bed separation columns into microfluidic chips utilising common HPLC material achieved by laser-assisted generation of narrow, photopolymerised frits. The generated retaining elements serve as an in- and outlet frits for the columns. An optimised pre-polymeric solution, consisting of butyl acrylates and a porogen, allows a precise fabrication of frit-type structures with lengths of less than 100 m and the capability to withstand common slurry packing pressures of more than 250 bar. The separation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by pressure-driven, reversed-phase chromatography proves the high quality of the created chromatographic column inside a glass chip. Plate heights down to 2.9 were achieved and extremely fast separations with sub-second peak widths were performed in isocratic and gradient elution modes on very short columns (≤ 25 mm). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption kinetics of surfactants at liquid-solid and liquid-vapor interfaces from atomic-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskrenova, Eugeniya K.; Patnaik, Soumya S.

    2012-02-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of pure liquid is a complex process involving different size- and time-scale phenomena. The appearance of the first nanobubble in the liquid at the bottom of a hot pan, the detachment of the bubble from the solid surface, its subsequent coalescence with other bubbles, all represent complex multiscale phenomena. Surfactants added to water increase the complexity of the process by contributing to the dynamic surface tension at the liquid-vapor and liquid-solid interfaces and thus affecting the heat and mass transfer at those interfaces. We apply molecular dynamics simulations to study the adsorption kinetics of anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants at liquid/solid and liquid/vapor interfaces. The all-atom vs. united-atom approaches for the solid and surfactants are surveyed in view of their applicability at near boiling temperatures and a range of model water potentials is assessed for reproducing the thermal properties of water at boiling conditions.

  5. Single-mode vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers for {sup 87}Rb-based chip-scale atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Derebezov, I. A. Haisler, V. A.; Bakarov, A. K.; Kalagin, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Kachanova, M. M.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Semenova, O. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2010-11-15

    The results of numerical simulation and study of lasing characteristics of semiconductor verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers based on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As alloys are presented. Lasers exhibit stable single-mode lasing at a wavelength of 795 nm at low operating currents {approx}1.5 mA and an output power of 350 {mu}W, which offers prospects of their applications in next-generation chip-scale atomic clocks

  6. A microfluidic liquid phase nucleic acid purification chip to selectively isolate DNA or RNA from low copy/single bacterial cells in minute sample volume followed by direct on-chip quantitative PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, Hai-Qing; Zeng, Xudong; Lou, ChaoPing; Sze, ChunChau

    2013-02-05

    Purification of nucleic acids from a low quantity of bacterial cells in minute volume is important in many clinical and biological applications. We developed a novel microfluidic liquid phase nucleic acid purification chip to selectively isolate DNA or RNA from bacterial cells in the range of 5000 down to a single cell in the sample volume of 1 μl or 125 nl, which can be directly put through on-chip quantitative PCR assay. The aqueous phase bacterial lysate was isolated in an array of microwells, after which an immiscible organic (phenol-chloroform) phase was introduced in a headspace channel connecting the microwell array. Continuous flow of the organic phase increases the interfacial contact with the aqueous phase to achieve purification of target nucleic acid through phase partitioning. Significantly enhanced nucleic acid recovery yield, up to 10 fold higher, was achieved using the chip-based liquid phase nucleic acid purification technique compared to that obtained by the conventional column-based solid phase nucleic acid extraction method. One step vacuum-driven microfluidics allowed an on-chip quantitative PCR assay to be carried out in the same microwells within which bacterial nucleic acids were isolated, avoiding sample loss during liquid transfer. Using this nucleic acid purification device set in a two-dimensional (2D) array format of 900 microwells, it was demonstrated for the first time that high-throughput extraction of RNA couple with direct on-chip PCR analysis from single bacterial cells could be achieved. Our microfluidic platform offered a simple and effective solution for nucleic acid preparation, which can be integrated for automated bacterial pathogen detection and high throughput transcriptional profiling.

  7. Long-scale evolution of thin liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Alexander; Davis, Stephen H.; Bankoff, S. George

    1997-07-01

    Macroscopic thin liquid films are entities that are important in biophysics, physics, and engineering, as well as in natural settings. They can be composed of common liquids such as water or oil, rheologically complex materials such as polymers solutions or melts, or complex mixtures of phases or components. When the films are subjected to the action of various mechanical, thermal, or structural factors, they display interesting dynamic phenomena such as wave propagation, wave steepening, and development of chaotic responses. Such films can display rupture phenomena creating holes, spreading of fronts, and the development of fingers. In this review a unified mathematical theory is presented that takes advantage of the disparity of the length scales and is based on the asymptotic procedure of reduction of the full set of governing equations and boundary conditions to a simplified, highly nonlinear, evolution equation or to a set of equations. As a result of this long-wave theory, a mathematical system is obtained that does not have the mathematical complexity of the original free-boundary problem but does preserve many of the important features of its physics. The basics of the long-wave theory are explained. If, in addition, the Reynolds number of the flow is not too large, the analogy with Reynolds's theory of lubrication can be drawn. A general nonlinear evolution equation or equations are then derived and various particular cases are considered. Each case contains a discussion of the linear stability properties of the base-state solutions and of the nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of the interface (and other scalar variables, such as temperature or solute concentration). The cases reducing to a single highly nonlinear evolution equation are first examined. These include: (a) films with constant interfacial shear stress and constant surface tension, (b) films with constant surface tension and gravity only, (c) films with van der Waals (long-range molecular

  8. Design of microwave signal source for CS chip-scale atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ji; Zhi, Meng Hui; Li, Xin Wei; Liang, Tang; Qiao, Dong Hai

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, some countries have already invented chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) based on coherent population trapping (CPT), and it has been applied in every areas. According to its working principle, the microwave signal source is one of the decisive factors affecting its stability. Usually the microwave signal source is a phase-locked loop circuit, it mainly includes a frequency synthesizer, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a loop filter. This paper aims to develop a microwave signal source for Cs CSAC. First, a VCO should be designed, in order to validate the characteristic of the designed VCO, the VCO needs to be tested at high and low temperatures, and the results show that it has good stability of high and low temperatures. Second, for the purpose of verifying that the design and production consistency of the VCO are in good condition, 1000 VCOs are test, respectively. The statistical distribution of the phase noise at 1 kHz offset would be painted a curve. Finally, the designed VCO (PN: 61.01dBc/Hz@1kHz) will be applied in phase-locked loop, the test results show that the phase noise is -83.57dBc/Hz@300Hz, it is much better than -43dBc/Hz@300Hz which is the spec of CSAC. If the microwave signal source would be used in CSAC, its stability would be greatly improved.

  9. Progress toward mid-IR chip-scale integrated-optic TDLAS gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Shankar, Raji; Bulu, Irfan; Frank, Ian; Laderer, Matthew C.; Wainner, Richard T.; Allen, Mark G.; Lončar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We are building prototype chip-scale low-power integrated-optic gas-phase chemical sensors based on mid-infrared (3-5μm) Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). TDLAS is able to sense many gas phase chemicals with high sensitivity and selectivity. Novel gas sensing elements using low-loss resonant photonic crystal cavities or waveguides will permit compact integration of a laser source, sampling elements, and detector in configurations suitable for inexpensive mass production. Recently developed Interband Cascade Lasers (ICLs) that operate at room temperature with low power consumption are expected to serve as monochromatic sources to probe the mid-IR molecular spectral transitions. Practical challenges to fabricating these sensors include: a) selecting and designing the high-Q microresonator sensing element appropriate for the selected analyte; b) coupling laser light into and out of the sensing element; and c) device thermal management, especially stabilizing laser temperature with the precision needed for sensitive spectroscopic detection. This paper describes solutions to these challenges.

  10. Energy Resolution of a Large-Scale Liquid Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kevin; Mishra, Sanjib; LBNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The high granularity and feasibility of large-scale construction makes the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) a suitable technology for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) far detector. Particle identification relies largely on the topology and calorimetric information from the signature left in the detector. The measurements LBNE intends to make depend on accurately distinguishing charged current electron neutrino events from neutral current background events. A neutrino event featuring an electron produced by νe interaction will tag it as signal; although, gammas from π0 decays in neutral current events induce electromagnetic showers that resemble those of an electron. The granularity and high energy resolution of LArTPCs enable dE/dx to be extracted from the beginning of these showers which helps separate gammas from electrons and, ultimately, charged current electron neutrino events from neutral current events. Presented here is an estimation of the technology's energy resolution and a demonstration of its capabilities for separating electrons and gammas using dE/dx. Sanjib works closely with Kevin on the presented material.

  11. Wafer Scale Integration of CMOS Chips for Biomedical Applications via Self-Aligned Masking

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Ashfaque; Milaninia, Kaveh; Chen, Chin-Hsuan; Theogarajan, Luke

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for the integration of small CMOS chips into a large area substrate. A key component of the technique is the CMOS chip based self-aligned masking. This allows for the fabrication of sockets in wafers that are at most 5 µm larger than the chip on each side. The chip and the large area substrate are bonded onto a carrier such that the top surfaces of the two components are flush. The unique features of this technique enable the integration of macroscale components, such as leads and microfluidics. Furthermore, the integration process allows for MEMS micromachining after CMOS die-wafer integration. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed technology, a low-power integrated potentiostat chip for biosensing implemented in the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS technology is integrated in a silicon substrate. The horizontal gap and the vertical displacement between the chip and the large area substrate measured after the integration were 4 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. A number of 104 interconnects are patterned with high-precision alignment. Electrical measurements have shown that the functionality of the chip is not affected by the integration process. PMID:22400126

  12. Hydrogen-bond acidity of ionic liquids: an extended scale.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Kiki A; Lima, Filipa; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-07-15

    One of the main drawbacks comprising an appropriate selection of ionic liquids (ILs) for a target application is related to the lack of an extended and well-established polarity scale for these neoteric fluids. Albeit considerable progress has been made on identifying chemical structures and factors that influence the polarity of ILs, there still exists a high inconsistency in the experimental values reported by different authors. Furthermore, due to the extremely large number of possible ILs that can be synthesized, the experimental characterization of their polarity is a major limitation when envisaging the choice of an IL with a desired polarity. Therefore, it is of crucial relevance to develop correlation schemes and a priori predictive methods able to forecast the polarity of new (or not yet synthesized) fluids. In this context, and aiming at broadening the experimental polarity scale available for ILs, the solvatochromic Kamlet-Taft parameters of a broad range of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-([NTf2](-))-based fluids were determined. The impact of the IL cation structure on the hydrogen-bond donating ability of the fluid was comprehensively addressed. Based on the large amount of novel experimental values obtained, we then evaluated COSMO-RS, COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents, as an alternative tool to estimate the hydrogen-bond acidity of ILs. A three-parameter model based on the cation-anion interaction energies was found to adequately describe the experimental hydrogen-bond acidity or hydrogen-bond donating ability of ILs. The proposed three-parameter model is also shown to present a predictive capacity and to provide novel molecular-level insights into the chemical structure characteristics that influence the acidity of a given IL. It is shown that although the equimolar cation-anion hydrogen-bonding energies (EHB) play the major role, the electrostatic-misfit interactions (EMF) and van der Waals forces (EvdW) also contribute

  13. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, A; Salcedo, J; Barile, D; Bunyatratchata, A; Moreno, F J; Martin-García, I; Clemente, A; Sanz, M L; Ruiz-Matute, A I

    2016-01-08

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8-1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40°C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315mgL(-1) for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251mgL(-1) for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO.

  14. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ortiz, A.; Salcedo, J.; Barile, D.; Bunyatratchata, A.; Moreno, F.J.; Martin-García, I.; Clemente, A.; Sanz, M.L.; Ruiz-Matute, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2–0.6 min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8–1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40 °C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315 mg L−1 for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251 mg L−1 for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  15. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-06-01

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (Rg/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2Rg ˜ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2Rg ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order Rg) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2Rg ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are discussed.

  16. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2015-06-07

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (Rg/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2Rg ∼ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2Rg ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order Rg) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2Rg ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are discussed.

  17. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Schumann, M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2-30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and 7Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ~ 2 × 10-48 cm2 and WIMP masses around 50 GeVṡc-2, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ~ 6 GeVṡc-2 to cross sections above ~ 4 × 10-45cm2. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 1026 y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  18. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-06-07

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (R{sub g}/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2R{sub g} ∼ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2R{sub g} ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order R{sub g}) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2R{sub g} ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are

  19. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  20. ChIP-on-chip significance analysis reveals large-scale binding and regulation by human transcription factor oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Adam A; Palomero, Teresa; Sumazin, Pavel; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2009-01-06

    ChIP-on-chip has emerged as a powerful tool to dissect the complex network of regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their targets. However, most ChIP-on-chip analysis methods use conservative approaches aimed at minimizing false-positive transcription factor targets. We present a model with improved sensitivity in detecting binding events from ChIP-on-chip data. Its application to human T cells, followed by extensive biochemical validation, reveals that 3 oncogenic transcription factors, NOTCH1, MYC, and HES1, bind to several thousand target gene promoters, up to an order of magnitude increase over conventional analysis methods. Gene expression profiling upon NOTCH1 inhibition shows broad-scale functional regulation across the entire range of predicted target genes, establishing a closer link between occupancy and regulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity reveals a combinatorial regulatory program in which MYC cobinds to virtually all NOTCH1-bound promoters. Overall, these results suggest an unappreciated complexity of transcriptional regulatory networks and highlight the fundamental importance of genome-scale analysis to represent transcriptional programs.

  1. InP chip scale integration platform for high performance tunable lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simes, Robert J.; Fish, Gregory A.; Abraham, Patrick; Akulova, Yuliya A.; Coldren, Christopher W.; Focht, Marlin; Hall, Eric M.; Larson, Mike C.; Marchand, Hugues; Kozodoy, Peter; Dahl, Anders; Koh, Ping C.; Strand, T.

    2003-12-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers have been listed in numerous critical technology lists for future optical communication systems. Lasers with full band tuning ranges (C or L) allow reduction of the inventory cost and simplify deployment and operation of existing systems in addition to enabling wavelength agile networking concepts in future systems. Furthermore, monolithic integration of full band tunable lasers with modulators to form complete transmitters offers the most potential for reducing system size, weight, power consumption, and cost. This paper summarizes design, fabrication technology, and performance characteristics of widely tunable CW sources and transmitters based on chip scale integration of a Sampled Grating Distributed Bragg Reflector (SG DBR) laser with a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and Electroabsorption (EA) or Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulator. Widely tunable CW sources based on SG-DBR lasers exhibit high fiber coupled output power (20 mW CW) and side mode suppression ratio (>40 dB), low relative intensity noise (below -140 dB/Hz) and line width (<5 MHz) across a 40 nm C-band tuning range. Characteristics of EA-modulated optical transmitters include fiber-coupled time-averaged powers in excess of 5 dBm, RF extinction ratios > 10 dB, and error-free transmission over 350 km of standard fiber at 2.5 Gb/s across a 40 nm tuning range. Monolithic integration of widely tunable lasers with MZ modulators allow for further extension of bit rate (10 Gb/s and beyond) and transmission distances through precise control of the transient chirp of the transmitter. Systematic investigations of accelerated aging confirm that reliability of these widely-tunable transmitters is sufficient for system deployment.

  2. Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hye-Young

    2005-01-01

    This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed

  3. Excess Entropy Scaling Law for Diffusivity in Liquid Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dynamic properties depend on the structure and thermodynamics in liquids is a long-standing open problem in condensed matter physics. A very simple approach is based on the Dzugutov contribution developed on model fluids in which a universal (i.e. species-independent) connection relates the pair excess entropy of a liquid to its reduced diffusion coefficient. However its application to “real” liquids still remains uncertain due to the ability of a hard sphere (HS) reference fluid used in reducing parameters to describe complex interactions that occur in these liquids. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate both structural and dynamic properties at different temperatures for a wide series of liquid metals including Al, Au, Cu, Li, Ni, Ta, Ti, Zn as well as liquid Si and B. From this analysis, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully if a self-consistent method to determine the packing fraction of the hard sphere reference fluid is used as well as the Carnahan-Starling approach to express the excess entropy.

  4. Excess Entropy Scaling Law for Diffusivity in Liquid Metals

    PubMed Central

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dynamic properties depend on the structure and thermodynamics in liquids is a long-standing open problem in condensed matter physics. A very simple approach is based on the Dzugutov contribution developed on model fluids in which a universal (i.e. species-independent) connection relates the pair excess entropy of a liquid to its reduced diffusion coefficient. However its application to “real” liquids still remains uncertain due to the ability of a hard sphere (HS) reference fluid used in reducing parameters to describe complex interactions that occur in these liquids. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate both structural and dynamic properties at different temperatures for a wide series of liquid metals including Al, Au, Cu, Li, Ni, Ta, Ti, Zn as well as liquid Si and B. From this analysis, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully if a self-consistent method to determine the packing fraction of the hard sphere reference fluid is used as well as the Carnahan-Starling approach to express the excess entropy. PMID:26862002

  5. Characterization and partitioning of the char ash collected after the processing of pine wood chips in a pilot-scale gasification unit

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Hui Pan; Leslie H. Groom; Chi-Leung So

    2011-01-01

    Southern yellow pine wood chips were used as the feedstock for a pilot-scale gasification unit coupled with a 25 kW generator. The pulp-grade wood chips were relatively free of bark and low in ash content. Processing this feedstock yielded a black/sooty by-product that upon combustion in a muffle furnace resulted in an ash content of about 48%. The term "char ash...

  6. On the electric breakdown in liquid argon at centimeter scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Blatter, A.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Janos, S.; Kreslo, I.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Strauss, T.; Weber, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study on the dependence of electric breakdown discharge properties on electrode geometry and the breakdown field in liquid argon near its boiling point. The measurements were performed with a spherical cathode and a planar anode at distances ranging from 0.1 mm to 10.0 mm. A detailed study of the time evolution of the breakdown volt-ampere characteristics was performed for the first time. It revealed a slow streamer development phase in the discharge. The results of a spectroscopic study of the visible light emission of the breakdowns complement the measurements. The light emission from the initial phase of the discharge is attributed to electro-luminescence of liquid argon following a current of drifting electrons. These results contribute to set benchmarks for breakdown-safe design of ionization detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPC).

  7. Nano scale dynamics of bubble nucleation in confined liquid subjected to rapid cooling: Effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Mukut, K. M.; Tamim, Saiful Islam; Faisal, A. H. M.

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on the occurrence of bubble nucleation in a liquid confined in a nano scale confinement and subjected to rapid cooling at one of its wall. Due to the very small size scale of the present problem, we adopt the molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The liquid (Argon) is confined within two solid (Platinum) walls. The temperature of the upper wall of the confinement is maintained at 90 K while the lower wall is being cooled rapidly to 50 K from initial equilibrium temperature of 90 K within 0.1 ns. This results in the nucleation and formation of nanobubbles in the liquid. The pattern of bubble nucleation has been studied for three different conditions of solid-liquid interfacial wettability such as hydrophilic, hydrophobic and neutral. Behavior of bubble nucleation is significantly different in the three case of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. In case of the hydrophobic confinement (weakly adsorbing), the liquid cannot achieve deeper metastability; vapor layers appear immediately on the walls. In case of the neutral confinement (moderately adsorbing), bubble nucleation is promoted by the walls where the nucleation is heterogeneous. In case of the hydrophilic walls (strongly adsorbing) bubbles are developed inside the liquid; that is the nucleation process is homogeneous. The variation in bubble nucleation under different conditions of surface wettability has been studied by the analysis of number density distribution, spatial temperature distribution, spatial number density distribution and heat flux through the upper and lower walls of the confinement. The present study indicates that the variation of heat transfer efficiency due to different surface wettability has significant effect on the size, shape and location of bubble nucleation in case rapid cooling of liquid in nano confinement.

  8. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  9. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  10. Universal scaling laws of diffusion in two-dimensional granular liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Hung; Yu, Szu-Hsuan; Chen, Peilong

    2015-06-01

    We find, in a two-dimensional air table granular system, that the reduced diffusion constant D* and excess entropy S(2) follow two distinct scaling laws: D*∼e(S(2)*) for dense liquids and D∼e(3S(2)*) for dilute ones. The scaling for dense liquids is very similar to that for three-dimensional liquids proposed previously [M. Dzugutov, Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996); A. Samanta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145901 (2004)]. In the dilute regime, a power law [Y. Rosenfeld, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 5415 (1999)] also fits our data reasonably well. In our system, particles experience low air drag dissipation and interact with each others through embedded magnets. These near-conservative many-body interactions are responsible for the measured Gaussian velocity distribution functions and the scaling laws. The dominance of cage relaxations in dense liquids leads to the different scaling laws for dense and dilute regimes.

  11. Evaluation of the composition of vine shoots and oak chips for oenological purposes by superheated liquid extraction and high-resolution liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Delgado de la Torre, M Pilar; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2012-04-04

    Vine shoots are characterized in this research and compared to oak chips, frequently employed in the aging of wine or spirits. For this purpose, liquid chromatography-diode array detection and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) analyses of hydroalcoholic extracts from vine shoots pertaining to 18 different vine varieties and from five varieties of oak chips have been carried out. The concentrations of a representative panel of interesting compounds from an oenological point of view have been compared in the extracts, finding similarity patterns for many of them. The analysis by LC-TOF/MS in high accuracy mode has led to the identification of numerous compounds in the hydroalcoholic extracts. The statistical analysis has enabled identification of the vine-shoot varieties providing extracts with more similar composition to that given by extracts from oak chips. Therefore, these vine-shoots varieties are suitable to be presented as an alternative to the use of oak barrels or oak chips in the aging process of wine and spirits.

  12. Young's Equation for a Two-Liquid System on the Nanometer Scale.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Toledano, J-C; Blake, T D; De Coninck, J

    2017-03-21

    We use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the Lennard-Jones forces acting at the various interfaces of a liquid bridge (liquid 1) between two realistic solid plates on the scale of few nanometers when the two free surfaces are in contact with a second immiscible liquid (liquid 2) with an interfacial tension of γ12. Each plate comprises a regular square planar lattice of atoms arranged in three atomic layers. To maintain rigidity while allowing momentum exchange with the liquid, solid atoms are allowed to vibrate thermally around their initial positions by a strong harmonic potential. By varying the solid-liquid coupling, we investigate a range of nonzero contact angles between the liquid-liquid interface and the solid. We first compute the forces when the plates are stationary (equilibrium case), from the perspectives of both the liquid and the solid. Our results confirm that the normal and tangential components of the computed interfacial forces at each contact line are consistent with Young's equation on this small scale. In particular, we show that the tangential force exerted by the liquid-liquid interface on the plates is given by the difference in the individual works of adhesion of the two liquids and equal to γ12 cos θ1,2(0), where θ1,2(0) is the equilibrium contact angle measured through liquid 1. This result, which differs from that expected for a single liquid, is relevant to the interactions and behavior of two liquid-solid systems in nanotechnology. We then study the forces when the plates are translated at equal speeds in opposite directions over a range of steady velocities (dynamic case) and repeat the measurements of the force exerted by the liquid-liquid interface on the solid. We find that the normal and tangential components of this force are still correctly predicted by the normal and tangential components of the interfacial tension, provided only that the equilibrium contact angle is replaced by its dynamic analogue θ1

  13. Multi-Scale Simulation of High Energy Density Ionic Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-19

    Simulations of Liquid Imidazolium Salts. Mol. Phys. 2001, 99, 801. (4) Margulis, C. J.; Stern, H. A.; Berne, B. J. Computer Simulation of a ’ Green Chemistry ’ Room...Imidazolium Cation. Green Chemistry 2001, 3, 156. (24) Tokuda, H.; Hayamizu, K.; Ishii, K.; Bin Hasan Susan, M. A.; Watanabe, M. Physicochemical Properties

  14. Cellulose extraction from wood chip in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Huiquan; Cao, Yan; Tang, Qing

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl), an ionic liquid (IL), was used to extract cellulose from pine, poplar, Chinese parasol, and catalpa wood chips. Results show that pine is the most suitable wood species for cellulose extraction with ILs. Its cellulose extraction rate can reach as high as 62% under optimized conditions and its cellulose content is as high as 85% when DMSO/water is used as the precipitant. The dissolution process can be clearly observed by hot stage optical microscopy, and the reaction time can be significantly reduced by microwave irradiation. (13)C CP/MAS NMR, FTIR, XRD, and SEM were used to analyze the cellulose-rich extracts of pine. Results show that IL dissolves pine wood by destroying inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonds between lignocelluloses. The major component of pine extract is cellulose with a homogeneous and dense structure. After extraction, AmimCl can be easily recycled and reused. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elastic Waves in Binary Solid Liquid Mixtures, Similarities at Macro and Nono Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavossi, Hasson M.

    2007-04-01

    Stress wave propagation in solid liquid mixtures at ultrasonic frequencies, in some cases, resembles wave propagation behaviors of materials at nanometer or atomic scales. For instance, it can be shown that wave; dispersion, attenuation, and cutoff-frequency effects depend on the same structural parameters as those observed at nano or atomic levels and can have similar interpretations at both scales. It follows that, to investigate theoretical models of wave and matter interactions at nano scale it is more convenient to use, as experimental tools, the readily analyzable models of propagation at macro-scales. Experimental findings on elastic wave propagation in the mixtures of liquid and solid particles will be presented and discussed. Results of wave dispersion, attenuation, band-pass, and cutoff frequency measured for ultrasonic waves in inhomogeneous mixtures of solid and liquid will be presented showing these similarities at the radically different scales.

  16. Constitutive models for linear compressible viscoelastic flows of simple liquids at nanometer length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debadi; Sader, John E.

    2015-05-01

    Simple bulk liquids such as water are commonly assumed to be Newtonian. While this assumption holds widely, the fluid-structure interaction of mechanical devices at nanometer scales can probe the intrinsic molecular relaxation processes in a surrounding liquid. This was recently demonstrated through measurement of the high frequency (20 GHz) linear mechanical vibrations of bipyramidal nanoparticles in simple liquids [Pelton et al., "Viscoelastic flows in simple liquids generated by vibrating nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 244502 (2013)]. In this article, we review and critically assess the available constitutive equations for compressible viscoelastic flows in their linear limits—such models are required for analysis of the above-mentioned measurements. We show that previous models, with the exception of a very recent proposal, do not reproduce the required response at high frequency. We explain the physical origin of this recent model and show that it recovers all required features of a linear viscoelastic flow. This constitutive equation thus provides a rigorous foundation for the analysis of vibrating nanostructures in simple liquids. The utility of this model is demonstrated by solving the fluid-structure interaction of two common problems: (1) a sphere executing radial oscillations in liquid, which depends strongly on the liquid compressibility and (2) the extensional mode vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles in liquid, where the effects of liquid compressibility are negligible. This highlights the importance of shear and compressional relaxation processes, as a function of flow geometry, and the impact of the shear and bulk viscosities on nanometer scale flows.

  17. Scaling results for the Liquid Sheet Radiator (LSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.

    1989-01-01

    Surface tension forces at the edges of a thin liquid (approx. 100 micrometers) sheet flow result in a triangularly shaped sheet. Such a geometry is ideal for an external flow radiator. The experimental investigation of such sheet flows was extended to large sheets (width = W = 23.5 cm, length = L approx. = 3.5 m). Experimental L/W results are greater than the calculated results. However, more experimental results are necessary for a complete comparison. The calculated emissivity of a sheet of Dow-Corning 705 silicone oil, which is a low temperature (300 to 400K) candidate for a liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is greater than .8 for sheet thicknesses greater than 100 micrometers.

  18. Breakdown Voltage Scaling in Gas Bubbles Immersed in Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucker, Sarah; Sommers, Bradley; Foster, John

    2013-09-01

    Radicals produced by the interaction of plasma with liquid water have the capacity to rapidly oxidize organic contaminants. This interaction is currently being investigated as a means to purify water. Direct plasma creation in water typically requires very high voltages to achieve breakdown. Igniting plasma in individual gas bubbles in liquid water on the other hand requires much less voltage. Furthermore, the use of an electrode-less plasma initiation in such bubbles is attractive in that it eliminates electrode erosion thereby circumventing the contamination issue. The breakdown physics of isolated bubbles in liquid water is still poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the relationship between applied voltage for breakdown and the associated pd. This is achieved by locating the breakdown voltage over a range of bubble sizes. This approach allows for the generation of a Paschen-type breakdown curve for isolated bubbles. Such a relationship yields insight into breakdown mechanics and even streamer propagation through water. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET 1033141) and the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 0718128.

  19. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10−16 relative uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H.; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs—coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations—have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb’s two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of 3.6mHz/τ. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10−16, heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography. PMID:27152341

  20. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10(-16) relative uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-04-01

    Optical frequency combs-coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations-have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb's two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of [Formula: see text]. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10(-16), heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography.

  1. Submission of the first full scale prototype chip for upgraded ATLAS pixel detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; Dube, Sourabh; Elledge, David; Fleury, Julien; Fougeron, Denis; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gensolen, Fabrice; Gnani, Dario; Gromov, Vladimir; Jensen, Frank; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Kluit, Ruud; Kruth, Andre; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Menouni, Mohsine; Schipper, Jan David; Wermes, Norbert; Zivkovic, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 0.25 μm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80×336 pixels, each 50×250 μm2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences between the FE-I4A IC and the final FE-I4 as envisioned for IBL.

  2. Chip Scale Ultra-Stable Clocks: Miniaturized Phonon Trap Timing Units for PNT of CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Zadeh, Mina; Altunc, Serhat; Hunter, Roger C.; Petro, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The Chip Scale Ultra-Stable Clocks (CSUSC) project aims to provide a superior alternative to current solutions for low size, weight, and power timing devices. Currently available quartz-based clocks have problems adjusting to the high temperature and extreme acceleration found in space applications, especially when scaled down to match small spacecraft size, weight, and power requirements. The CSUSC project aims to utilize dual-mode resonators on an ovenized platform to achieve the exceptional temperature stability required for these systems. The dual-mode architecture utilizes a temperature sensitive and temperature stable mode simultaneously driven on the same device volume to eliminate ovenization error while maintaining extremely high performance. Using this technology it is possible to achieve parts-per-billion (ppb) levels of temperature stability with multiple orders of magnitude smaller size, weight, and power.

  3. Scanning calorimeter for nanoliter-scale liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Kwan, A. T.; Lai, S.; Petrova, V.; Schiettekatte, F.; Warren, J. T.; Zhang, M.; Allen, L. H.

    2000-10-01

    We introduce a scanning calorimeter for use with a single solid or liquid sample with a volume down to a few nanoliters. Its use is demonstrated with the melting of 52 nL of indium, using heating rates from 100 to 1000 K/s. The heat of fusion was measured to within 5% of the bulk value, and the sensitivity of the measurement was ±7 μW. The heat of vaporization of water was measured in the scanning mode to be within ±23% of the bulk value by actively vaporizing water droplets from 2 to 100 nL in volume. Results within 25% were obtained for the heat of vaporization by using the calorimeter in a heat-conductive mode and measuring the passive evaporation of water. Temperature measurements over a period of 10 h had a standard deviation of 3 mK.

  4. Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) of hydrophobic TLC plates coupled to chip-based nanoelectrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Direct identification and structural characterization of analyte spots on TLC plates have always been of great interest and the development of interfaces that allow TLC to be combined with MS is making steady progress. The recently introduced liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) approach has the potential to hyphenate TLC with MS. A mixture of lipid standards was separated on HPTLC RP-18 glass plates using chloroform:methanol :acetonitrile 2:1:1 (v:v:v) as mobile phase. After visualization with primuline dye (0.02% in acetone:water 8:2 (v:v)), LESA was performed, followed by a chip-based nanoflow infusion in combination with FTICRMS. The optimized extraction solvent composition was methanol:chloroform:water:formic acid 52:24:24:0.2 (v:v:v:v). A nanoelectrospray voltage of 1.6 kV and a gas pressure of 0.2 psi were applied in all experiments. All phospholipids were extracted successfully and detected unambiguously using the optimized TLC-LESA-FTICRMS procedure. Sampling the tricaprylin spot gave the most intense signals and also tricaprin was detected. Three other triacylglycerols of higher molecular mass have logP values between 15.5 and 21.6, which are the highest among all investigated compounds and are not detected from their corresponding spots, due to the fact that the solubility of very apolar lipids is not high enough in the extraction solvent. It was demonstrated that TLC can be elegantly combined with mass spectrometry based on the LESA approach. In general, apart from the analysis of lipids, TLC-LESA-MS has a high potential for medium-polar compounds separated on reversed-phase TLC plates, but limitations are present when very apolar compounds have to be extracted.

  5. Scale effect of slip boundary condition at solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Gyoko; Matsumoto, Takenori; Fukushima, Kohei; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    2017-03-03

    Rapid advances in microelectromechanical systems have stimulated the development of compact devices, which require effective cooling technologies (e.g., microchannel cooling). However, the inconsistencies between experimental and classical theoretical predictions for the liquid flow in microchannel remain unclarified. Given the larger surface/volume ratio of microchannel, the surface effects increase as channel scale decreases. Here we show the scale effect of the boundary condition at the solid-liquid interface on single-phase convective heat transfer characteristics in microchannels. We demonstrate that the deviation from classical theory with a reduction in hydraulic diameters is due to the breakdown of the continuum solid-liquid boundary condition. The forced convective heat transfer characteristics of single-phase laminar flow in a parallel-plate microchannel are investigated. Using the theoretical Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers derived under the slip boundary condition at the solid-liquid interface, we estimate the slip length and thermal slip length at the interface.

  6. Scale effect of slip boundary condition at solid–liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Gyoko; Matsumoto, Takenori; Fukushima, Kohei; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    2017-03-01

    Rapid advances in microelectromechanical systems have stimulated the development of compact devices, which require effective cooling technologies (e.g., microchannel cooling). However, the inconsistencies between experimental and classical theoretical predictions for the liquid flow in microchannel remain unclarified. Given the larger surface/volume ratio of microchannel, the surface effects increase as channel scale decreases. Here we show the scale effect of the boundary condition at the solid–liquid interface on single-phase convective heat transfer characteristics in microchannels. We demonstrate that the deviation from classical theory with a reduction in hydraulic diameters is due to the breakdown of the continuum solid–liquid boundary condition. The forced convective heat transfer characteristics of single-phase laminar flow in a parallel-plate microchannel are investigated. Using the theoretical Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers derived under the slip boundary condition at the solid–liquid interface, we estimate the slip length and thermal slip length at the interface.

  7. Scale effect of slip boundary condition at solid–liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Gyoko; Matsumoto, Takenori; Fukushima, Kohei; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    2017-01-01

    Rapid advances in microelectromechanical systems have stimulated the development of compact devices, which require effective cooling technologies (e.g., microchannel cooling). However, the inconsistencies between experimental and classical theoretical predictions for the liquid flow in microchannel remain unclarified. Given the larger surface/volume ratio of microchannel, the surface effects increase as channel scale decreases. Here we show the scale effect of the boundary condition at the solid–liquid interface on single-phase convective heat transfer characteristics in microchannels. We demonstrate that the deviation from classical theory with a reduction in hydraulic diameters is due to the breakdown of the continuum solid–liquid boundary condition. The forced convective heat transfer characteristics of single-phase laminar flow in a parallel-plate microchannel are investigated. Using the theoretical Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers derived under the slip boundary condition at the solid–liquid interface, we estimate the slip length and thermal slip length at the interface. PMID:28256536

  8. Scaling analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jinho

    1993-01-01

    A scaling analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern in microgravity, based on the dominant physical mechanism, was carried out with the goal of predicting the gas-liquid two-phase flow regime in a pipe under conditions of microgravity. The results demonstrated the effect of inlet geometry on the flow regime transition. A comparison of the predictions with existing experimental data showed good agreement.

  9. Development and psychometric properties of the Carer – Head Injury Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (C-HINAS) and the Carer – Head Injury Participation Scale (C-HIPS): patient and family determined outcome scales

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Shoumitro; Bryant, Eleanor; Morris, Paul G; Prior, Lindsay; Lewis, Glyn; Haque, Sayeed

    2007-01-01

    Objective Develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Carer – Head Injury Participation Scale (C-HIPS) and its biggest factor the Carer – Head Injury Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (C-HINAS). Furthermore, the aim was to examine the inter-informant reliability by comparing the self reports of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the carer reports on the C-HIPS and the C-HINAS. Method Thirty-two TBI individuals and 27 carers took part in in-depth qualitative interviews exploring the consequences of the TBI. Interview transcripts were analysed and key themes and concepts were used to construct a 49-item and 58-item patient (Patient – Head Injury Participation Scale [P-HIPS]) and carer outcome measure (C-HIPS) respectively, of which 49 were parallel items and nine additional items were used to assess carer burden. Postal versions of the P-HIPS, C-HIPS, Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-3 (MPAI-3), and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) were completed by a cohort of 113 TBI individuals and 80 carers. Data from a sub-group of 66 patient/carer pairs were used to compare inter-informant reliability between the P-HIPS and the C-HIPS, and the P-HINAS and the C-HINAS respectively. Results All individual 49 items of the C-HIPS and their total score showed good test-retest reliability (0.95) and internal consistency (0.95). Comparisons with the MPAI-3 and GOSE found a good correlation with the MPAI-3 (0.7) and a moderate negative correlation with the GOSE (−0.6). Factor analysis of these items extracted a 4-factor structure which represented the domains ‘Emotion/Behavior’ (C-HINAS), ‘Independence/Community Living’, ‘Cognition’, and ‘Physical’. The C-HINAS showed good internal consistency (0.92), test-retest reliability (0.93), and concurrent validity with one MPAI subscale (0.7). Assessment of inter-informant reliability revealed good correspondence between the reports of the patients and the carers for both the C-HIPS

  10. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  11. Molecular-scale remnants of the liquid-gas transition in supercritical polar fluids.

    PubMed

    Sokhan, V P; Jones, A; Cipcigan, F S; Crain, J; Martyna, G J

    2015-09-11

    An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of nonpercolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend farther, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquidlike and gaslike state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models, suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase.

  12. Molecular-Scale Remnants of the Liquid-Gas Transition in Supercritical Polar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhan, V. P.; Jones, A.; Cipcigan, F. S.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.

    2015-09-01

    An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of nonpercolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend farther, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquidlike and gaslike state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models, suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase.

  13. Reduction in the surface energy of liquid interfaces at short length scales

    PubMed

    Fradin; Braslau; Luzet; Smilgies; Alba; Boudet; Mecke; Daillant

    2000-02-24

    Liquid-vapour interfaces, particularly those involving water, are common in both natural and artificial environments. They were first described as regions of continuous variation of density, caused by density fluctuations within the bulk phases. In contrast, the more recent capillary-wave models assumes a step-like local density profile across the liquid-vapour interface, whose width is the result of the propagation of thermally excited capillary waves. The model has been validated for length scales of tenths of micrometres and larger, but the structure of liquid surfaces on submicrometre length scales--where the capillary theory is expected to break down--remains poorly understood. Here we report grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments that allow for a complete determination of the free surface structure and surface energy for water and a range of organic liquids. We observe a large decrease of up to 75% in the surface energy of submicrometre waves that cannot be explained by capillary theory, but is in accord with the effects arising from the non-locality of attractive intermolecule interactions as predicted by a recent density functional theory. Our data, and the results of comparable measurements on liquid solutions, metallic alloys, surfactants, lipids and wetting films should thus provide a stringent test for any new theories that attempt to describe the structure of liquid interfaces with nanometre-scale resolution.

  14. Ising universality class for the liquid-liquid critical point of a one component fluid: a finite-size scaling test.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Paola; Sciortino, Francesco

    2012-10-26

    We present a finite-size scaling study of the liquid-liquid critical point in the Jagla model, a prototype model for liquids that present the same thermodynamic anomalies which characterize liquid water. Performing successive umbrella sampling grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate an accurate density of states for different system sizes and determine the size-dependent critical parameters. Extrapolation to infinite size provides estimates of the bulk critical values for this model. The finite-size study allows us to establish that critical fluctuations are consistent with the Ising universality class and to provide definitive evidence for the existence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the Jagla potential. This finding supports the possibility of the existence of a genuine liquid-liquid critical point in anomalous one-component liquids like water.

  15. Tensile Strength of Liquids: Equivalence of Temporal and Spatial Scales in Cavitation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Huang, J Y; Wu, H A; Zhu, M H; Goddard, W A; Luo, S N

    2016-03-03

    It is well known that strain rate and size effects are both important in material failure, but the relationships between them are poorly understood. To establish this connection, we carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of cavitation in Lennard-Jones and Cu liquids over a very broad range of size and strain rate. These studies confirm that temporal and spatial scales play equivalent roles in the tensile strengths of these two liquids. Predictions based on smallest-scale MD simulations of Cu for larger temporal and spatial scales are consistent with independent simulations, and comparable to experiments on liquid metals. We analyze these results in terms of classical nucleation theory and show that the equivalence arises from the role of both size and strain rate in the nucleation of a daughter phase. Such equivalence is expected to hold for a wide range of materials and processes and to be useful as a predictive bridging tool in multiscale studies.

  16. Nature-inspired interconnects for self-assembled large-scale network-on-chip designs.

    PubMed

    Teuscher, Christof

    2007-06-01

    Future nanoscale electronics built up from an Avogadro number of components need efficient, highly scalable, and robust means of communication in order to be competitive with traditional silicon approaches. In recent years, the networks-on-chip (NoC) paradigm emerged as a promising solution to interconnect challenges in silicon-based electronics. Current NoC architectures are either highly regular or fully customized, both of which represent implausible assumptions for emerging bottom-up self-assembled molecular electronics that are generally assumed to have a high degree of irregularity and imperfection. Here, we pragmatically and experimentally investigate important design tradeoffs and properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible three-dimensional (3D) small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, number of switch nodes, and distribution of long- versus short-range connections, and measure the network's relevant communication characteristics. We further explore the robustness against link failures and the ability and efficiency to solve a simple toy problem, the synchronization task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising and disruptive computing paradigm for self-assembled nanoscale electronics and (2) that 3D small-world interconnect fabrics with a power-law decaying distribution of shortcut lengths are physically plausible and have major advantages over local two-dimensional and 3D regular topologies.

  17. Laser-micromachined, chip-scaled ceramic carriers for implantable neurostimulators.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Thomas; Mintri, Apoorv; Lim, William W; Jung, Louis H; Lehmann, Torsten; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2011-01-01

    Hermetic encapsulation of long-term implantable devices using ceramics has been investigated over several decades. Our studies focus on the miniaturization of ceramic encapsulations for large numbers of stimulation channels. Laser-patterning of screen printed platinum (Pt) paste on cofired ceramics has been shown to enable the construction of features comparable in size to classical screen printing. A novel technique for embedding Pt structures into the surface of Al(2)O(3) substrates is shown to produce features with a line width minimum of 20 μm and a pitch of 40 μm. Polishing the ceramic substrates enables flip-chip bonding of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) using gold stud bumps. A new technique for fine tuning of an ASIC stimulator with stud bump bridges is described. The technique eliminates the need for wire bond loops and increases reliability and integration density of the system, which are major requirements used to construct a visual prosthesis or other implantable devices requiring miniaturization. The methods for laser-patterned Pt tracks in alumina for fine pitch structures are described. Feasibility studies for flip-chip bonding and stud bump bridges were undertaken and the results were found to be promising.

  18. Towards chip-scale optical frequency synthesis based on optical heterodyne phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Arafin, Shamsul; Simsek, Arda; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Dwivedi, Sarvagya; Liang, Wei; Eliyahu, Danny; Klamkin, Jonathan; Matsko, Andrey; Johansson, Leif; Maleki, Lute; Rodwell, Mark; Coldren, Larry

    2017-01-23

    An integrated heterodyne optical phase-locked loop was designed and demonstrated with an indium phosphide based photonic integrated circuit and commercial off-the-shelf electronic components. As an input reference, a stable microresonator-based optical frequency comb with a 50-dB span of 25 nm (~3 THz) around 1550 nm, having a spacing of ~26 GHz, was used. A widely-tunable on-chip sampled-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector laser is offset locked across multiple comb lines. An arbitrary frequency synthesis between the comb lines is demonstrated by tuning the RF offset source, and better than 100Hz tuning resolution with ± 5 Hz accuracy is obtained. Frequency switching of the on-chip laser to a point more than two dozen comb lines away (~5.6 nm) and simultaneous locking to the corresponding nearest comb line is also achieved in a time ~200 ns. A low residual phase noise of the optical phase-locking system is successfully achieved, as experimentally verified by the value of -80 dBc/Hz at an offset of as low as 200 Hz.

  19. Small-scale experimental study of vaporization flux of liquid nitrogen released on water.

    PubMed

    Gopalaswami, Nirupama; Olewski, Tomasz; Véchot, Luc N; Mannan, M Sam

    2015-10-30

    A small-scale experimental study was conducted using liquid nitrogen to investigate the convective heat transfer behavior of cryogenic liquids released on water. The experiment was performed by spilling five different amounts of liquid nitrogen at different release rates and initial water temperatures. The vaporization mass fluxes of liquid nitrogen were determined directly from the mass loss measured during the experiment. A variation of initial vaporization fluxes and a subsequent shift in heat transfer mechanism were observed with changes in initial water temperature. The initial vaporization fluxes were directly dependent on the liquid nitrogen spill rate. The heat flux from water to liquid nitrogen determined from experimental data was validated with two theoretical correlations for convective boiling. It was also observed from validation with correlations that liquid nitrogen was found to be predominantly in the film boiling regime. The substantial results provide a suitable procedure for predicting the heat flux from water to cryogenic liquids that is required for source term modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-Dimensional Architecture at Chip Level for Large-Scale-Integration of Superconducting Quantum Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göppl, Martin; Kurpiers, Philipp; Wallraff, Andreas

    We propose a novel way to realize three-dimensional circuit QED systems at chip level. System components such as qubits, transmission lines, capacitors, inductors or cross-overs can be implemented as suspended, electromagnetically shielded and optionally, as hermetically sealed structures. Compared to known state-of-the-art devices, volumes of dielectrics penetrated by electromagnetic fields can be drastically reduced. Our intention is to harness process technologies for very-large-scale-integration, reliably applied and improved over decades in micro-sensor- and semiconductor industry, for the realization of highly integrated circuit QED systems. Process capabilities are demonstrated by fabricating first exploratory devices using the back-end-of-line part of a commercial 180 nm CMOS foundry process in conjunction with HF vapor phase release etching.

  1. Severity factor coefficients for subcritical liquid hot water pretreatment of hardwood chips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Kreke, Thomas; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Single stage and multi-stage liquid hot water pretreatments of mixed hardwood pinchips were investigated at various severities (log R0  = 3.65-4.81) to assess the efficiencies of the pretreatments with respect to achieving high pentose sugar yields and improved enzymatic digestibility of pretreated cellulose. We investigate the effect of pretreatment parameters that is, temperature, and time, as expressed in the severity factor, on the recovery of sugars and hydrolyzability of pretreated cellulose. We find the severity factor, in its widely used form, is an incomplete measure for evaluating the pretreatment efficiencies and predicting overall sugar yields when pretreatment temperatures above 200°C are used. Corrections to the severity factor and its correlation to the measured pretreatment responses (% xylan solubilization, xylan recovery as fermentable sugars, cellulose enzymatic digestibility) indicate a greater influence of temperature on the pretreatment efficiencies than predicted by the commonly used severity factor. A low temperature, long residence time is preferred for hemicellulose dissolution during the pretreatment since the condition favors oligosaccharide and monomeric sugar formation over sugar degradation. On the contrary, high cellulose hydrolyzability is achieved with a high temperature (>200°C), high severity pretreatment when pretreatment is followed by enzyme hydrolysis. In multi-stage pretreatment, the first low-severity pretreatment is optimized for solubilizing fast-hydrolyzing hemicellulose while minimizing formation of furans. The subsequent pretreatment is carried out at over 200°C to recover the difficult-to-hydrolyze hemicellulose fraction as well as to increase susceptibility of pretreated cellulose to enzymes. High recovery (>92%) of hemicellulose-derived pentose sugars and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated cellulose (where >80% glucose yield results with 20 FPU = 32 mg protein/g glucan or 10-13 mg/g initial

  2. Multi-scale symbolic time reverse analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongmei; Zhai, Lusheng; Jin, Ningde; Wang, Youchen

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows are widely encountered in production processes of petroleum and chemical industry. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of multi-scale gas-liquid two-phase flow structures is of great significance for the optimization of production process and the measurement of flow parameters. In this paper, we propose a method of multi-scale symbolic time reverse (MSTR) analysis for gas-liquid two-phase flows. First, through extracting four time reverse asymmetry measures (TRAMs), i.e. Euclidean distance, difference entropy, percentage of constant words and percentage of reversible words, the time reverse asymmetry (TRA) behaviors of typical nonlinear systems are investigated from the perspective of multi-scale analysis, and the results show that the TRAMs are sensitive to the changing of dynamic characteristics underlying the complex nonlinear systems. Then, the MSTR analysis is used to study the conductance signals from gas-liquid two-phase flows. It is found that the multi-scale TRA analysis can effectively reveal the multi-scale structure characteristics and nonlinear evolution properties of the flow structures.

  3. Thermal Stress Assessment for Transient Liquid-Phase Bonded Si Chips in High-Power Modules Using Experimental and Numerical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Adrian; Kicin, Slavo; Brem, Franziska; Leinenbach, Christian

    2017-02-01

    The potential of transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonding for chip packaging applications has been evaluated, focusing on three interlayer arrangements (Ag-Sn-Ag, Ni-Sn-Ni, and Ag-Sn-Ni). Shear tests on TLP-bonded components provided the interlayer-dependent mechanical strength as well as failure mode and position. Critical local stresses, i.e., failure criteria, within the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer were derived by replicating the shear test conditions with finite-element methods. The missing coefficient of thermal expansion for Ag3Sn IMC was obtained by producing small IMC bulk samples and subjecting them to dilatometric measurements. The experimental results were implemented into a finite-element model of a representative power module architecture to provide first predictions on thermally induced residual stresses that could be classified into fail/safe, as successfully validated by TLP chip bonding experiments. A numerical parameter study then assessed thermal stresses, including failure prediction and design optimization for TLP-bonded Si chips, considering the influence of process temperature, service conditions, TLP interlayer system, and metallization layers within the TLP joint. The presented procedure serves as a guideline to choose an appropriate TLP interlayer system for predefined boundary conditions, or vice versa.

  4. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH’s above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  5. Silicon microring-based signal modulation for chip-scale optical interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Yunchu; Song, Muping; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Beausoleil, Raymond G.; Willner, Alan E.

    2009-06-01

    Electro-optic modulation plays a critical role in implementing space-, power- and spectrally efficient optical interconnection for high-capacity computing systems. Microring resonators exhibit a great potential to achieve compact, low power-consumption and high-speed modulators. In this paper, we briefly review our efforts on designing and analyzing the microring modulators. Three types of single-ring modulators are discussed, from device behavior to possible system impact. We then present two novel double-ring modulators in which a passive ring resonator is added, enabling higher operation speed and lower power consumption. We also describe an opportunity of introducing phase modulation data formats into the on-chip communication environment. In this paper, our emphasis is placed on linking the devices’ physics to their system performance and providing potential technical solutions to physical-layer challenges of optical interconnection.

  6. Droplet crystallisation in large scale direct molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous vapor-to-liquid nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemand, J.; Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H.; Angelil, R.

    2014-12-01

    We use large scale direct (NVE and NVT) molecular dynamics simulations to study phase transitions. Typical runs contain one billion atoms and run for up to 100 million time-steps. This corresponds to scales of micrometers and microseconds and allows us to resolve similar nucleation rates as probed in some laboratory experiments. In homogeneous vapor-to-liquid nucleation simulations using Lennard-Jones atoms (Diemand et al. JCP 2013) and various water models (ongoing work) we observe a second phase transition form liquid-to-solid in some of the lower temperature runs (see Tanaka et al. JCP 2011 for one such case). Here we will describe the crystallisation of these supercooled liquid-like nano-clusters in detail. We will present crystal structure, nucleation and growth rates for a range of temperatures, droplet sizes and interaction potentials and compare with model predictions. Since our liquid nano-droplets are condensing naturally out of the vapour phase, as in clouds and some experiments and industrial processes, we can address some specific questions relevant in these contexts: How does the droplet size, structure and especially its surface affect the freezing process? To what extend does the latent heat from the ongoing condensation onto the droplets surface delay and alter crystallisation? Can frozen nano-clusters grow by direct de-sublimation from the vapour, or is there always a liquid-like surface? And can they form directly without going through a liquid-like proto-cluster stage?

  7. Atomic-scale structural signature of dynamic heterogeneities in metallic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasturel, Alain; Jakse, Noel

    2017-08-01

    With sufficiently high cooling rates, liquids will cross their equilibrium melting temperatures and can be maintained in a metastable undercooled state before solidifying. Studies of undercooled liquids reveal several intriguing dynamic phenomena and because explicit connections between liquid structure and liquids dynamics are difficult to identify, it remains a major challenge to capture the underlying structural link to these phenomena. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations are yet especially powerful in providing atomic-scale details otherwise not accessible in experiments. Through the AIMD-based study of Cr additions in Al-based liquids, we evidence for the first time a close relationship between the decoupling of component diffusion and the emergence of dynamic heterogeneities in the undercooling regime. In addition, we demonstrate that the origin of both phenomena is related to a structural heterogeneity caused by a strong interplay between chemical short-range order (CSRO) and local fivefold topology (ISRO) at the short-range scale in the liquid phase that develops into an icosahedral-based medium-range order (IMRO) upon undercooling. Finally, our findings reveal that this structural signature is also captured in the temperature dependence of partial pair-distribution functions which opens up the route to more elaborated experimental studies.

  8. Evaluation of liquid-fed ceramic melter scale-up correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the parameters governing factors of scale for liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) in order to design full-scale melters using smaller-scale melter data. Results of melter experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are presented for two feed compositions and five different liquid-fed ceramic melters. The melter performance data including nominal feed rate and glass melt rate are correlated as a function of melter surface area. Comparisons are made between the actual melt rate data and melt rates predicted by a cold cap heat transfer model. The heat transfer model could be used in scale-up calculations, but insufficient data are available on the cold cap characteristics. Experiments specifically designed to determine heat transfer parameters are needed to further develop the model. 17 refs.

  9. Bicontinuity and multiple length scale ordering in triphilic hydrogen-bonding ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Hettige, Jeevapani J; Araque, Juan Carlos; Margulis, Claudio J

    2014-11-06

    Triphilic ionic liquids (containing polar, apolar, and fluorinated components) that can hydrogen bond present a new paradigm in ionic liquid structural morphology. In this study we show that butylammonium pentadecafluorooctanoate and its nonfluorinated analogue butylammonium octanoate form disordered bicontinuous phases where a network of charge alternating hydrogen bonds continuously percolate through the whole liquid. These systems show order on multiple length scales, the largest length scale given by the percolating network. Separation between filaments in the network gives rise to a prepeak or first sharp diffraction peak. In the case of the fluorinated system, shorter range order occurs due to apolar-fluorinated alternation that decorates the surface of each individual filament. The backbone of the filaments is the product of the shortest organized length scale, namely, charge alternating hydrogen bonds. Liquid structure obtained via molecular dynamics simulations is used to compute coherent X-ray scattering intensities, and a full picture of the liquid landscape is developed. A careful mathematical analysis of the simulation data proposed here reveals individual molecular correlations that importantly contribute to each feature of the experimental structure function.

  10. Experimental Study on Scale-Up of Solid-Liquid Stirred Tank with an Intermig Impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Lifeng; Yin, Pan

    2017-02-01

    The scale-up of a solid-liquid stirred tank with an Intermig impeller was characterized via experiments. Solid concentration, impeller just-off-bottom speed and power consumption were measured in stirred tanks of different scales. The scale-up criteria for achieving the same effect of solid suspension in small-scale and large-scale vessels were evaluated. The solids distribution improves if the operating conditions are held constant as the tank is scaled-up. The results of impeller just-off-bottom speed gave X = 0.868 in the scale-up relationship ND X = constant. Based on this criterion, the stirring power per unit volume obviously decreased at N = N js, and the power number ( N P) was approximately equal to 0.3 when the solids are uniformly distributed in the vessels.

  11. Online Peptide Fractionation Using a Multiphasic Microfluidic Liquid Chromatography Chip Improves Reproducibility and Detection Limits for Quantitation in Discovery and Targeted Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Krisp, Christoph; Yang, Hao; van Soest, Remco; Molloy, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive proteomic profiling of biological specimens usually requires multidimensional chromatographic peptide fractionation prior to mass spectrometry. However, this approach can suffer from poor reproducibility because of the lack of standardization and automation of the entire workflow, thus compromising performance of quantitative proteomic investigations. To address these variables we developed an online peptide fractionation system comprising a multiphasic liquid chromatography (LC) chip that integrates reversed phase and strong cation exchange chromatography upstream of the mass spectrometer (MS). We showed superiority of this system for standardizing discovery and targeted proteomic workflows using cancer cell lysates and nondepleted human plasma. Five-step multiphase chip LC MS/MS acquisition showed clear advantages over analyses of unfractionated samples by identifying more peptides, consuming less sample and often improving the lower limits of quantitation, all in highly reproducible, automated, online configuration. We further showed that multiphase chip LC fractionation provided a facile means to detect many N- and C-terminal peptides (including acetylated N terminus) that are challenging to identify in complex tryptic peptide matrices because of less favorable ionization characteristics. Given as much as 95% of peptides were detected in only a single salt fraction from cell lysates we exploited this high reproducibility and coupled it with multiple reaction monitoring on a high-resolution MS instrument (MRM-HR). This approach increased target analyte peak area and improved lower limits of quantitation without negatively influencing variance or bias. Further, we showed a strategy to use multiphase LC chip fractionation LC-MS/MS for ion library generation to integrate with SWATHTM data-independent acquisition quantitative workflows. All MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001464. PMID:25850434

  12. Thermodynamic scaling of glassy dynamics and dynamic heterogeneities in metallic glass-forming liquid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan-Chao; Shang, Bao-Shuang; Guan, Peng-Fei; Yang, Yong; Bai, Hai-Yang; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2016-09-14

    A ternary metallic glass-forming liquid is found to be not strongly correlating thermodynamically, but its average dynamics, dynamic heterogeneities including the high order dynamic correlation length, and static structure are still well described by thermodynamic scaling with the same scaling exponent γ. This may indicate that the metallic liquid could be treated as a single-parameter liquid. As an intrinsic material constant stemming from the fundamental interatomic interactions, γ is theoretically predicted from the thermodynamic fluctuations of the potential energy and the virial. Although γ is conventionally understood merely from the repulsive part of the inter-particle potentials, the strong correlation between γ and the Grüneisen parameter up to the accuracy of the Dulong-Petit approximation demonstrates the important roles of anharmonicity and attractive force of the interatomic potential in governing glass transition of metallic glassformers. These findings may shed light on how to understand metallic glass formation from the fundamental interatomic interactions.

  13. Reference Gauging System for a Small-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Siegwarth, James D.

    2003-01-01

    A system to accurately weigh the fluid contents of a small-scale liquid hydrogen test tank has been experimentally verified. It is intended for use as a reference or benchmark system when testing lowgravity liquid quantity gauging concepts in the terrestrial environment. The reference gauging system has shown a repeatable measurement accuracy of better than 0.5 percent of the full tank liquid weight. With further refinement, the system accuracy can be improved to within 0.10 percent of full scale. This report describes the weighing system design, calibration, and operational results. Suggestions are given for further refinement of the system. An example is given to illustrate additional sources of uncertainty when mass measurements are converted to volume equivalents. Specifications of the companion test tank and its multi-layer insulation system are provided.

  14. Universal scaling laws of diffusion in two-dimensional granular liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen-Hung; Yu, Szu-Hsuan; Chen, Peilong

    2015-06-01

    We find, in a two-dimensional air table granular system, that the reduced diffusion constant D* and excess entropy S2* follow two distinct scaling laws: D*˜eS2* for dense liquids and D*˜e3 S2* for dilute ones. The scaling for dense liquids is very similar to that for three-dimensional liquids proposed previously [M. Dzugutov, Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996), 10.1038/381137a0; A. Samanta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145901 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.145901]. In the dilute regime, a power law [Y. Rosenfeld, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 5415 (1999), 10.1088/0953-8984/11/28/303] also fits our data reasonably well. In our system, particles experience low air drag dissipation and interact with each others through embedded magnets. These near-conservative many-body interactions are responsible for the measured Gaussian velocity distribution functions and the scaling laws. The dominance of cage relaxations in dense liquids leads to the different scaling laws for dense and dilute regimes.

  15. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial† unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  16. Dynamics and Stability of Capillary Surfaces: Liquid Switches at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Paul H.; Bhandar, Anand; Vogel, Michael J.; Hirsa, Amir H.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics and stability of systems of interfaces is central to a range of technologies related to the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS). Our premise is that dramatic shape changes can be manipulated to advantage with minimal input, if the system is near instability. The primary objective is to develop the science base to allow novel approaches to liquid management in low-gravity based on this premise. HEDS requires efficient, reliable and lightweight technologies. Our poster will highlight our progress toward this goal using the capillary switch as an example. A capillary surface is a liquid/liquid or liquid/gas interface whose shape is determined by surface tension. For typical liquids (e.g., water) against gas on earth, capillary surfaces occur on the millimeterscale and smaller where shape deformation due to gravity is unimportant. In low gravity, they can occur on the centimeter scale. Capillary surfaces can be combined to make a switch a system with multiple stable states. A capillary switch can generate motion or effect force. To be practical, the energy barriers of such a switch must be tunable, its switching time (kinetics) short and its triggering mechanism reliable. We illustrate these features with a capillary switch that consists of two droplets, coupled by common pressure. As long as contact lines remained pinned, motions are inviscid, even at sub-millimeter scales, with consequent promise of low-power consumption at the device level. Predictions of theory are compared to experiment on i) a soap-film prototype at centimeter scale and ii) a liquid droplet switch at millimeter-scale.

  17. Chip-based nLC-TOF-MS is a highly stable technology for large-scale high-throughput analyses.

    PubMed

    Ruhaak, L Renee; Taylor, Sandra L; Miyamoto, Suzanne; Kelly, Karen; Leiserowitz, Gary S; Gandara, David; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Kim, Kyoungmi

    2013-05-01

    Many studies focused on the discovery of novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of disease states are facilitated by mass spectrometry-based technology. HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry is widely used; miniaturization of this technique using nano-liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) usually results in better sensitivity, but is associated with limited repeatability. The recent introduction of chip-based technology has significantly improved the stability of nano-LC-MS, but no substantial studies to verify this have been performed. To evaluate the temporal repeatability of chip-based nano-LC-MS analyses, N-glycans released from a serum sample were repeatedly analyzed using nLC-PGC-chip-TOF-MS on three non-consecutive days. With an average inter-day coefficient of variation of 4 %, determined on log10-transformed integrals, the repeatability of the system is very high. Overall, chip-based nano-LC-MS appears to be a highly stable technology, which is suitable for the profiling of large numbers of clinical samples for biomarker discovery.

  18. On-chip actuation transmitter for enhancing the dynamic response of cell manipulation using a macro-scale pump

    PubMed Central

    Monzawa, Takumi; Kaneko, Makoto; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Sakuma, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    An on-chip actuation transmitter for achieving fast and accurate cell manipulation is proposed. Instead of manipulating cell position by a directly connected macro-scale pump, polydimethylsiloxane deformation is used as a medium to transmit the actuation generated from the pump to control the cell position. This actuation transmitter has three main advantages. First, the dynamic response of cell manipulation is faster than the conventional method with direct flow control based on both the theoretical modeling and experimental results. The cell can be manipulated in a simple harmonic motion up to 130 Hz by the proposed actuation transmitter as opposed to 90 Hz by direct flow control. Second, there is no need to fill the syringe pump with the sample solution because the actuation transmitter physically separates the fluids between the pump and the cell flow, and consequently, only a very small quantity of the sample is required (<1 μl). In addition, such fluid separation makes it easy to keep the experiment platform sterilized because there is no direct fluid exchange between the sample and fluid inside the pump. Third, the fabrication process is simple because of the single-layer design, making it convenient to implement the actuation transmitter in different microfluidic applications. The proposed actuation transmitter is implemented in a lab-on-a-chip system for red blood cell (RBC) evaluation, where the extensibility of red blood cells is evaluated by manipulating the cells through a constriction channel at a constant velocity. The application shows a successful example of implementing the proposed transmitter. PMID:25713696

  19. Evaporation of Liquid Droplet in Nano and Micro Scales from Statistical Rate Theory.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; He, Bin; Wei, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The statistical rate theory (SRT) is applied to predict the average evaporation flux of liquid droplet after the approach is validated in the sessile droplet experiments of the water and heavy water. The steady-state experiments show a temperature discontinuity at the evaporating interface. The average evaporation flux is evaluated by individually changing the measurement at a liquid-vapor interface, including the interfacial liquid temperature, the interfacial vapor temperature, the vapor-phase pressure, and the droplet size. The parameter study shows that a higher temperature jump would reduce the average evaporation flux. The average evaporation flux can significantly be influenced by the interfacial liquid temperature and the vapor-phase pressure. The variation can switch the evaporation into condensation. The evaporation flux is found to remain relative constant if the droplet is larger than a micro scale, while the smaller diameters in nano scale can produce a much higher evaporation flux. In addition, a smaller diameter of droplets with the same liquid volume has a larger surface area. It is suggested that the evaporation rate increases dramatically as the droplet shrinks into nano size.

  20. Transport coefficients and entropy-scaling law in liquid iron up to Earth-core pressures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-Long; Wang, Pan-Pan; Huang, Duo-Hui; Yang, Jun-Sheng; Wan, Ming-Jie; Wang, Fan-Hou

    2014-03-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to study the structural and transport properties, including the pair distribution function, the structure factor, the pair correlation entropy, self-diffusion coefficient, and viscosity, of liquid iron under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Our calculated results reproduced experimentally determined structure factors of liquid iron, and the calculated self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity agree well with previous simulation results. We show that there is a moderate increase of self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity along the melting curve up to the Earth-core pressure. Furthermore, the temperature dependencies of the pair correlation entropy, self-diffusion, and viscosity under high pressure condition have been investigated. Our results suggest that the temperature dependence of the pair correlation entropy is well described by T(-1) scaling, while the Arrhenius law well describes the temperature dependencies of self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity under high pressure. In particular, we find that the entropy-scaling laws, proposed by Rosenfeld [Phys. Rev. A 15, 2545 (1977)] and Dzugutov [Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996)] for self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity in liquid metals under ambient pressure, still hold well for liquid iron under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Using the entropy-scaling laws, we can obtain transport properties from structural properties under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The results provide a useful ingredient in understanding transport properties of planet's cores.

  1. Activation volume of selected liquid crystals in the density scaling regime

    PubMed Central

    Grzybowski, A.; Urban, S.; Mroz, S.; Paluch, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate and thoroughly analyze the activation volumetric properties of selected liquid crystals in the nematic and crystalline E phases in comparison with those reported for glass-forming liquids. In the analysis, we have employed and evaluated two entropic models (based on either total or configurational entropies) to describe the longitudinal relaxation times of the liquid crystals in the density scaling regime. In this study, we have also exploited two equations of state: volumetric and activation volumetric ones. As a result, we have established that the activation volumetric properties of the selected liquid crystals are quite opposite to such typical properties of glass-forming materials, i.e., the activation volume decreases and the isothermal bulk modulus increases when a liquid crystal is isothermally compressed. Using the model based on the configurational entropy, we suggest that the increasing pressure dependences of the activation volume in isothermal conditions and the negative curvature of the pressure dependences of isothermal longitudinal relaxation times can be related to the formation of antiparallel doublets in the examined liquid crystals. A similar pressure effect on relaxation dynamics may be also observed for other material groups in case of systems, the molecules of which form some supramolecular structures. PMID:28181530

  2. Thermodynamics and dynamics of the two-scale spherically symmetric Jagla ramp model of anomalous liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Angell, C. Austen; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2006-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the Jagla model of a liquid which consists of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric two-scale potential with both repulsive and attractive ramps. This potential displays anomalies similar to those found in liquid water, namely expansion upon cooling and an increase of diffusivity upon compression, as well as a liquid-liquid (LL) phase transition in the region of the phase diagram accessible to simulations. The LL coexistence line, unlike in tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, has a positive slope, because of the Clapeyron relation, corresponding to the fact that the high density phase (HDL) is more ordered than low density phase (LDL). When we cool the system at constant pressure above the critical pressure, the thermodynamic properties rapidly change from those of LDL-like to those of HDL-like upon crossing the Widom line. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity also changes rapidly in the vicinity of the Widom line, namely the slope of the Arrhenius plot sharply increases upon entering the HDL domain. The properties of the glass transition are different in the two phases, suggesting that the less ordered phase is fragile, while the more ordered phase is strong, which is consistent with the behavior of tetrahedrally coordinated liquids such as water silica, silicon, and BeF2 .

  3. Activation volume of selected liquid crystals in the density scaling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, A.; Urban, S.; Mroz, S.; Paluch, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate and thoroughly analyze the activation volumetric properties of selected liquid crystals in the nematic and crystalline E phases in comparison with those reported for glass-forming liquids. In the analysis, we have employed and evaluated two entropic models (based on either total or configurational entropies) to describe the longitudinal relaxation times of the liquid crystals in the density scaling regime. In this study, we have also exploited two equations of state: volumetric and activation volumetric ones. As a result, we have established that the activation volumetric properties of the selected liquid crystals are quite opposite to such typical properties of glass-forming materials, i.e., the activation volume decreases and the isothermal bulk modulus increases when a liquid crystal is isothermally compressed. Using the model based on the configurational entropy, we suggest that the increasing pressure dependences of the activation volume in isothermal conditions and the negative curvature of the pressure dependences of isothermal longitudinal relaxation times can be related to the formation of antiparallel doublets in the examined liquid crystals. A similar pressure effect on relaxation dynamics may be also observed for other material groups in case of systems, the molecules of which form some supramolecular structures.

  4. The ArDM, a ton-scale liquid argon experiment for direct dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otyugova, P.; Ar DM Collaboration

    2008-07-01

    The ArDM project aims at developing and operating large noble liquid detectors to search for direct evidence of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) as Dark Matter in the Universe. The initial goal is to design, assemble and operate an approximately 1 ton liquid argon prototype based on the double-phase detection principle to demonstrate the feasibility of a ton-scale experiment with the required performance to efficiently detect and sufficiently discriminate backgrounds for a successful WIMP detection. The detector will independently measure the primary scintillation light and the ionization charge. This paper will mainly describe the concept, R&D results and status of the charge read out system.

  5. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E

    2011-02-14

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  6. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-03-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  7. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  8. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed.

  9. Development of a microfluidic-chip system for liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents for the extraction and preconcentration of some hormonal drugs.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, an on-chip liquid phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was introduced for the analysis of levonorgestrel (Levo), dydrogesterone (Dydo) and medroxyprogesterone (Medo) as the model analytes in biological samples. The chip-based LPME set-up was composed of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates with microfabricated channels and a microporous membrane sandwiched between them to separate the sample solution and acceptor phase. These channels were used as a flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase, respectively. In this system, two immiscible organic solvents were used as supported liquid membrane (SLM) and acceptor phase, respectively. During extraction, the model analytes in the sample solution were transported through the SLM (n-dodecane) into the acceptor organic solvent (methanol). The new set-up provided effective and reproducible extractions using low volumes of the sample solution. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the new set-up provided good linearity in the range of 5.0-500µgL(-1) for the model analytes with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.9909. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) and limits of detection (LODs) values were less than 6.5% (n=5) and 5.0µgL(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were obtained using 1.0mL of the sample solution and 20.0µL of the acceptor solution higher than 19.9-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the model analytes in urine samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing weight precision of convolutional neural networks towards large-scale on-chip image recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhengping; Ovsiannikov, Ilia; Wang, Yibing; Shi, Lilong; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we develop a server-client quantization scheme to reduce bit resolution of deep learning architecture, i.e., Convolutional Neural Networks, for image recognition tasks. Low bit resolution is an important factor in bringing the deep learning neural network into hardware implementation, which directly determines the cost and power consumption. We aim to reduce the bit resolution of the network without sacrificing its performance. To this end, we design a new quantization algorithm called supervised iterative quantization to reduce the bit resolution of learned network weights. In the training stage, the supervised iterative quantization is conducted via two steps on server - apply k-means based adaptive quantization on learned network weights and retrain the network based on quantized weights. These two steps are alternated until the convergence criterion is met. In this testing stage, the network configuration and low-bit weights are loaded to the client hardware device to recognize coming input in real time, where optimized but expensive quantization becomes infeasible. Considering this, we adopt a uniform quantization for the inputs and internal network responses (called feature maps) to maintain low on-chip expenses. The Convolutional Neural Network with reduced weight and input/response precision is demonstrated in recognizing two types of images: one is hand-written digit images and the other is real-life images in office scenarios. Both results show that the new network is able to achieve the performance of the neural network with full bit resolution, even though in the new network the bit resolution of both weight and input are significantly reduced, e.g., from 64 bits to 4-5 bits.

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an efficient and sensitive method for determining of acrylamide in potato chips samples.

    PubMed

    Zokaei, Maryam; Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Shojaee-Aliababadi, Saeedeh; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2017-11-01

    In this research, for the first time, we successfully developed ultrasonic-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a new, fast and highly sensitive method for determining of acrylamide in potato chips samples. Xanthydrol was used as a derivatization reagent and parameters affecting in the derivatization and microextraction steps were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed high levels of linearity (R(2)>0.9993) for acrylamide in the range of 2-500ngmL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the seven analyses was 6.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.6ngg(-1) and 2ngg(-1), respectively. The UAE-DLLME-GC-MS method demonstrated high sensitivity, good linearity, recovery, and enrichment factor. The performance of the new proposed method was evaluated for the determination of acrylamide in various types of chips samples and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-Scale Modeling of Liquid Phase Sintering Affected by Gravity: Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olevsky, Eugene; German, Randall M.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-scale simulation concept taking into account impact of gravity on liquid phase sintering is described. The gravity influence can be included at both the micro- and macro-scales. At the micro-scale, the diffusion mass-transport is directionally modified in the framework of kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations to include the impact of gravity. The micro-scale simulations can provide the values of the constitutive parameters for macroscopic sintering simulations. At the macro-scale, we are attempting to embed a continuum model of sintering into a finite-element framework that includes the gravity forces and substrate friction. If successful, the finite elements analysis will enable predictions relevant to space-based processing, including size and shape and property predictions. Model experiments are underway to support the models via extraction of viscosity moduli versus composition, particle size, heating rate, temperature and time.

  13. Design and Use of a Large-Scale Liquid Helium Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, P. N.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale liquid helium (LHe) to high-pressure (HP) gas conversion system has been implemented at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helium is used by the Space Shuttle, Titan, Atlas, and Delta programs for prelaunch processing, during launch count-down, and for postlaunch securing. The first phase of modifications to the Compressor Converter Facility (CCF), operational in April 1998, allowed the facility to accept bulk liquid helium from tanker containers and to off-load the helium at super-critical pressures. The second phase of modifications, planned to be operational by January 2001, will implement a 227-cubic-meter (m(sup 3)) on-site liquid helium storage system. This paper describes the design and operation of the current system and discusses the design and implementation for the second phase system.

  14. Shape and Effective Spring Constant of Liquid Interfaces Probed at the Nanometer Scale: Finite Size Effects.

    PubMed

    Dupré de Baubigny, Julien; Benzaquen, Michael; Fabié, Laure; Delmas, Mathieu; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Legros, Marc; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the shape and mechanical properties of liquid interfaces down to nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with in situ micromanipulation techniques. In both cases, the interface is probed with a cylindrical nanofiber with radius R of the order of 25-100 nm. The effective spring constant of the nanomeniscus oscillated around its equilibrium position is determined by static and frequency-modulation (FM) AFM modes. In the case of an unbounded meniscus, we find that the effective spring constant k is proportional to the surface tension γ of the liquid through k = (0.51 ± 0.06)γ, regardless of the excitation frequency from quasi-static up to 450 kHz. A model based on the equilibrium shape of the meniscus reproduces well the experimental data. Electron microscopy allowed to visualize the meniscus profile around the fiber with a lateral resolution of the order of 10 nm and confirmed its catenary shape. The influence of a lateral confinement of the interface is also investigated. We showed that the lateral extension L of the meniscus influences the effective spring constant following a logarithmic evolution k ∼ 2πγ/ln(L/R) deduced from the model. This comprehensive study of liquid interface properties over more than 4 orders of magnitude in meniscus size shows that advanced FM-AFM and SEM techniques are promising tools for the investigation of mechanical properties of liquids down to nanometer scale.

  15. Non-Fermi-liquid scaling in U(Cu,Al){sub 5} compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Nakotte, H.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Brueck, E.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    1996-08-01

    We report on the electronic properties of various UCu{sub x}Al{sub 5-x} compounds (2.9{le}x{le}3.5). These compounds crystallize in the hexagonal CaCu{sub 5} structure. For all compounds, we find that the low-temperature specific heat diverges logarithmitically, which may be taken as an indication of non-Fermi-liquid scaling in these materials. Also we find a large magnetic anisotropy in all compounds studied, and we show that the magnetic anisotropy should not be neglected in the analysis of other bulk properties. Though for some of UCu{sub x}Al{sub 5-x} polycrystals non-Fermi-liquid scaling is found also in the magnetic susceptibility, comparison with single-crystal results on UCu{sub 3}Al{sub 2} indicates that any temperature dependence may be due to averaging anisotropic response over all crystallographic directions.

  16. Cooling rate dependence of solidification for liquid aluminium: a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Z Y; Dong, K J; Tian, Z A; Liu, R S; Wang, Z; Wang, J G

    2016-06-29

    The effect of the cooling rate on the solidification process of liquid aluminium is studied using a large-scale molecular dynamics method. It is found that there are various types of short-range order (SRO) structures in the liquid, among which the icosahedral (ICO)-like structures are dominant. These SRO structures are in dynamic fluctuation and transform each other. The effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure is very weak at high temperatures and in supercooled liquids, and it appears only below the liquid-solid transition temperature. Fast cooling rates favour the formation of amorphous structures with ICO-like features, while slow cooling rates favour the formation of FCC crystalline structures. Furthermore, FCC and HCP structures can coexist in crystalline structures. It is also found that nanocrystalline aluminium can be achieved at appropriate cooling rates, and its formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated by tracing the evolution of nanoclusters. The arrangement of FCC and HCP atoms in the nanograins displays various twinned structures as observed using visualization analysis, which is different from the layering or phase separation structures observed in the solidification of Lennard-Jones fluids and some metal liquids.

  17. Effect of vertical stacking dies on flow behavior of epoxy molding compound during encapsulation of stacked-chip scale packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, C. Y.; Abdullah, M. K.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Abdul Mujeebu, M.; Ramdan, D.; Majid, M. F. M. A.; Ariff, Z. M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents three dimensional (3D) simulation of flow visualization in the encapsulation of stacked-chip scales packages (S-CSP), using finite volume method. The S-CSP model is constructed using GAMBIT and simulated using FLUENT CFD software. The epoxy molding compound is Hitachi CEL-9200 XU (LF) and its flow is assumed laminar and incompressible. Cross viscosity model and volume of fluid technique are applied for flow front tracking of the encapsulant. The meshing is performed using tetrahedral elements and the discretization is done by first order upwind scheme. SIMPLE algorithm is selected for solving the governing equations. The top view and 3D view of simulation flow front profiles in the encapsulation process are presented. The percentage of filled volume versus filling time, viscosity versus shear rate and number of voids versus rows of stacked die are plotted. The temperature and pressure distributions within the mold cavity during the encapsulation process are also observed. Further, the possibility and cause of void formation during the encapsulation process are analyzed and discussed in detail. The number of vertical stacking dies and horizontal rows of packages are found to be crucial in the void formation. The numerical results are compared with previous experimental results and found in good conformity.

  18. Stable 85Rb micro vapour cells: fabrication based on anodic bonding and application in chip-scale atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Juan; Deng, Ke; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Geng-Min; Chen, Xu-Zong

    2010-11-01

    We describe the microfabrication of 85Rb vapour cells using a glass-silicon anodic bonding technique and in situ chemical reaction between rubidium chloride and barium azide to produce Rb. Under controlled conditions, the pure metallic Rb drops and buffer gases were obtained in the cells with a few mm3 internal volumes during the cell sealing process. At an ambient temperature of 90 °C the optical absorption resonance of 85Rb D1 transition with proper broadening and the corresponding coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance, with a signal contrast of 1.5% and linewidth of about 1.7 kHz, have been detected. The sealing quality and the stability of the cells have also been demonstrated experimentally by using the helium leaking detection and the after-9-month optoelectronics measurement which shows a similar CPT signal as its original status. In addition, the physics package of chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) based on the cell was realized. The measured frequency stability of the physics package can reach to 2.1 × 10-10 at one second when the cell was heated to 100 °C which proved that the cell has the quality to be used in portable and battery-operated devices.

  19. Thermomechanical Fatigue Performance of Lead-Free Chip Scale Package Assemblies with Fast Cure and Reworkable Capillary Flow Underfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongbin; Tian, Cuihua; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of temperature cycling test for full and partial capillary flow underfilled lead-free chip scale packages (CSPs), the tests were carried out on the basis of JEDEC standard. Two kinds of representative fast cure and reworkable underfill materials are used in this study, and CSPs without underfills were also tested for comparison. The test results show that the two underfill materials reduce the thermomechanical fatigue performance of CSP assemblies. The underfill with high Tg and storage modulus yielded better performance; indeed, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is also very critical to the thermomechanical fatigue performance, but its effects is not so obvious in this study owing to the similar CTEs of the underfills used. In addition, the negative effect of a partial underfill pattern is smaller than that of a full underfill pattern. Failure analysis shows that the dominant failure mode observed is solder cracking near the package and/or printed circuit board pads.

  20. Efficacy of 10% whole Azadirachta indica (neem) chip as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Vennila, K; Elanchezhiyan, S; Ilavarasu, Sugumari

    2016-01-01

    Anti-microbial therapy is essential along with conventional therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Instead of systemic chemical agents, herbal products could be used as antimicrobial agents. Herbal local drug delivery systems are effective alternative for systemic therapy in managing the chronic periodontal disease. In this study, 10% neem oil chip was used as a local drug delivery system to evaluate the efficacy in the periodontal disease management. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with the bilateral periodontal probing depth of 5-6 mm were included in the study. After scaling and root planning (SRP), 10% nonabsorbable neem chip was placed in the pocket in one side of the arch. Other side was done with SRP only. Clinical parameters were recorded on the baseline, 7th day, and 21st day. Plaque samples were obtained for a microbiological study on the baseline and 21st day. Porphyromonas gingivalis strains were seen using quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay. All results were statistically evaluated. Clinical parameters showed statistically improved on the neem chip sites and presence of P. gingivalis strains were significantly reduced on the neem chip sites. Hence, 10% neem oil local delivery system delivers desired effects on P. gingivalis. Further research is needed to evaluate the neem oil efficacy on other periodontal pathogens.

  1. Real-Time Very Large-Scale Integration Recognition System with an On-Chip Adaptive K-Means Learning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zuoxun; Ma, Yitao; Zhu, Hongbo; Zheng, Nanning; Shibata, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    A very large-scale integration (VLSI) recognition system equipped with an on-chip learning capability has been developed for real-time processing applications. This system can work in two functional modes of operation: adaptive K-means learning mode and recognition mode. In the adaptive K-means learning mode, the variance ratio criterion (VRC) has been employed to evaluate the quality of K-means classification results, and the evaluation algorithm has been implemented on the chip. As a result, it has become possible for the system to autonomously determine the optimum number of clusters (K). In the recognition mode, the nearest-neighbor search algorithm is very efficiently carried out by the fully parallel architecture employed in the chip. In both modes of operation, many hardware resources are shared and the functionality is flexibly altered by the system controller designed as a finite-state machine (FSM). The chip is implemented on Altera Cyclone II FPGA with 46K logic cells. Its operating clock is 25 MHz and the processing times for adaptive learning and recognition with 256 64-dimension feature vectors are about 0.42 ms and 4 µs, respectively. Both adaptive K-means learning and recognition functions have been verified by experiments using the image data from the COIL-100 (Columbia University Object Image Library) database.

  2. The geometric mean squared displacement and the Stokes-Einstein scaling in a supercooled liquid.

    PubMed

    Saw, Shibu; Harrowell, Peter

    2015-12-28

    It is proposed that the rate of relaxation in a liquid is better described by the geometric mean of the van Hove distribution function, rather than the standard arithmetic mean used to obtain the mean squared displacement. The difference between the two means is shown to increase significantly with an increase in the non-Gaussian character of the displacement distribution. Preliminary results indicate that the geometric diffusion constant results in a substantial reduction of the deviation from Stokes-Einstein scaling.

  3. Online-calibration for reliable and robust lab-on-a-chip surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy measurement in a liquid/liquid segmented flow.

    PubMed

    März, Anne; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    Concerning the usability of lab-on-a-chip surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (LOC-SERS) for analytical tasks applying chemometric data evalutation, a secure, reproducible, and stable data output independent of inconsistent ambient conditions has to be accomplished. In this contribution, we present a new approach to achieve reliable and robust measurements based on segmented flow LOC-SERS via online-wavenumber calibration.

  4. Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals.

    PubMed

    Carey, Benjamin J; Ou, Jian Zhen; Clark, Rhiannon M; Berean, Kyle J; Zavabeti, Ali; Chesman, Anthony S R; Russo, Salvy P; Lau, Desmond W M; Xu, Zai-Quan; Bao, Qiaoliang; Kevehei, Omid; Gibson, Brant C; Dickey, Michael D; Kaner, Richard B; Daeneke, Torben; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2017-02-17

    A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

  5. Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Benjamin J.; Ou, Jian Zhen; Clark, Rhiannon M.; Berean, Kyle J.; Zavabeti, Ali; Chesman, Anthony S. R.; Russo, Salvy P.; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Xu, Zai-Quan; Bao, Qiaoliang; Kevehei, Omid; Gibson, Brant C.; Dickey, Michael D.; Kaner, Richard B.; Daeneke, Torben; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2017-02-01

    A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (~1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

  6. Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Benjamin J.; Ou, Jian Zhen; Clark, Rhiannon M.; Berean, Kyle J.; Zavabeti, Ali; Chesman, Anthony S. R.; Russo, Salvy P.; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Xu, Zai-Quan; Bao, Qiaoliang; Kavehei, Omid; Gibson, Brant C.; Dickey, Michael D.; Kaner, Richard B.; Daeneke, Torben; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2017-01-01

    A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes. PMID:28211538

  7. Kibble-Zurek Scaling during Defect Formation in a Nematic Liquid Crystal.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Nicholas; Dierking, Dr Ingo

    2017-04-05

    Symmetry-breaking phase transitions are often accompanied by the formation of topological defects, as in cosmological theories of the early universe, superfluids, liquid crystals or solid-state systems. This scenario is described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, which predicts corresponding scaling laws for the defect density ρ. One such scaling law suggests a relation ρ≈τQ(-1/2) with τQ the change of rate of a control parameter. In contrast to the scaling of the defect density during annihilation with ρ≈t(-1) , which is governed by the attraction of defects of the same strength but opposite sign, the defect formation process, which depends on the rate of change of a physical quantity initiating the transition, has only rarely been investigated. Herein, we use nematic liquid crystals as a different system to demonstrate the validity of the predicted scaling relation for defect formation. It is found that the scaling exponent is independent of temperature and material employed, thus universal, as predicted. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cold Flow Testing for Liquid Propellant Rocket Injector Scaling and Throttling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Jeremy R.; Moser, Marlow D.; Hulka, James; Jones, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Scaling and throttling of combustion devices are important capabilities to demonstrate in development of liquid rocket engines for NASA's Space Exploration Mission. Scaling provides the ability to design new injectors and injection elements with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with existing injectors and elements, and could be a key aspect of future development programs. Throttling is the reduction of thrust with fixed designs and is a critical requirement in lunar and other planetary landing missions. A task in the Constellation University Institutes Program (CUIP) has been designed to evaluate spray characteristics when liquid propellant rocket engine injectors are scaled and throttled. The specific objectives of the present study are to characterize injection and primary atomization using cold flow simulations of the reacting sprays. These simulations can provide relevant information because the injection and primary atomization are believed to be the spray processes least affected by the propellant reaction. Cold flow studies also provide acceptable test conditions for a university environment. Three geometric scales - 1/4- scale, 1/2-scale, and full-scale - of two different injector element types - swirl coaxial and shear coaxial - will be designed, fabricated, and tested. A literature review is currently being conducted to revisit and compile the previous scaling documentation. Because it is simple to perform, throttling will also be examined in the present work by measuring primary atomization characteristics as the mass flow rate and pressure drop of the six injector element concepts are reduced, with corresponding changes in chamber backpressure. Simulants will include water and gaseous nitrogen, and an optically accessible chamber will be used for visual and laser-based diagnostics. The chamber will include curtain flow capability to repress recirculation, and additional gas injection to provide independent control of the

  9. Novel on chip-interconnection structures for giga-scale integration VLSI ICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelakuditi, Usha R.; Reddy, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the guidelines of International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) Intel has already designed and manufactured the next generation product of the Itanium family containing 1.72 billion transistors. In each new technology due to scaling, individual transistors are becoming smaller and faster, and are dissipating low power. The main challenge with these systems is wiring of these billion transistors since wire length interconnect scaling increases the distributed resistance-capacitance product. In addition, high clock frequencies necessitate reverse scaling of global and semi-global interconnects so that they satisfy the timing constraints. Hence, the performances of future GSI systems will be severely restricted by interconnect performance. It is therefore essential to look at interconnect design techniques that will reduce the impact of interconnect networks on the power, performance and cost of the entire system. In this paper a new routing technique called Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing similar to Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is discussed. This technique is highly useful for the current high density CMOS VLSI ICs. The major advantages of WPM routing technique are flexible, robust, simple to implement, and realized with low area, low power and performance overhead requirements.

  10. Microfluidic chip-based nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of aflatoxins in peanut products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chan, Shan-An; Lin, Tzuen-Yeuan; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2013-09-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), a group of mycotoxins, are generally produced by fungi Aspergillus species. The naturally occurring AFs including AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 have been clarified as group 1 human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Developing a sensitive analytical method has become an important issue to accurately quantify trace amount of AFs in foodstuffs. In this study, we employed a microfluidic chip-based nano LC (chip-nanoLC) coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS) system for the quantitative determination of AFs in peanuts and related products. Gradient elution and multiple reaction monitoring were utilized for chromatographic separation and MS measurements. Solvent extraction followed by immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction was employed to isolate analytes and reduce matrix effect from sample prior to chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS analysis. Good recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.8%-100.4%. The linear range was 0.048-16 ng g(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1. Limits of detection were estimated as 0.004-0.008 ng g(-1). Good intra-day/inter-day precision (2.3%-9.5%/2.3%-6.6%) and accuracy (96.1%-105.7%/95.5%-104.9%) were obtained. The applicability of this newly developed chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS method was demonstrated by determining the AFs in various peanut products purchased from local markets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Tarnacka, M; Madejczyk, O; Adrjanowicz, K; Pionteck, J; Kaminska, E; Kamiński, K; Paluch, M

    2015-06-14

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dT(g)/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dT(n)/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ(α) = 10(-5) s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T(-1)v(-γ), which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals' properties of itraconazole molecule.

  12. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnacka, M.; Madejczyk, O.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Pionteck, J.; Kaminska, E.; Kamiński, K.; Paluch, M.

    2015-06-01

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dTg/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dTn/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ α = 10-5 s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T-1v-γ, which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals' properties of itraconazole molecule.

  13. Rupture mechanism of liquid crystal thin films realized by large-scale molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Matheson, Michael A.; Brown, W. Michael

    2014-02-01

    The ability of liquid crystal (LC) molecules to respond to changes in their environment makes them an interesting candidate for thin film applications, particularly in bio-sensing, bio-mimicking devices, and optics. Yet the understanding of the (in)stability of this family of thin films has been limited by the inherent challenges encountered by experiment and continuum models. Using unprecedented large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we address the rupture origin of LC thin films wetting a solid substrate at length scales similar to those in experiment. Our simulations show the key signatures of spinodal instability in isotropic and nematic films on top of thermal nucleation, and importantly, for the first time, evidence of a common rupture mechanism independent of initial thickness and LC orientational ordering. We further demonstrate that the primary driving force for rupture is closely related to the tendency of the LC mesogens to recover their local environment in the bulk state. Our study not only provides new insights into the rupture mechanism of liquid crystal films, but also sets the stage for future investigations of thin film systems using peta-scale molecular dynamics simulations.The ability of liquid crystal (LC) molecules to respond to changes in their environment makes them an interesting candidate for thin film applications, particularly in bio-sensing, bio-mimicking devices, and optics. Yet the understanding of the (in)stability of this family of thin films has been limited by the inherent challenges encountered by experiment and continuum models. Using unprecedented large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we address the rupture origin of LC thin films wetting a solid substrate at length scales similar to those in experiment. Our simulations show the key signatures of spinodal instability in isotropic and nematic films on top of thermal nucleation, and importantly, for the first time, evidence of a common rupture mechanism

  14. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; McCabe, Kevin

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  15. Quantum critical scaling at the edge of Fermi liquid stability in a cuprate superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Butch, Nicholas P.; Jin, Kui; Kirshenbaum, Kevin; Greene, Richard L.; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2012-01-01

    In the high-temperature cuprate superconductors, the pervasiveness of anomalous electronic transport properties suggests that violation of conventional Fermi liquid behavior is closely tied to superconductivity. In other classes of unconventional superconductors, atypical transport is well correlated with proximity to a quantum critical point, but the relative importance of quantum criticality in the cuprates remains uncertain. Here, we identify quantum critical scaling in the electron-doped cuprate material La2-xCexCuO4 with a line of quantum critical points that surrounds the superconducting phase as a function of magnetic field and charge doping. This zero-temperature phase boundary, which delineates a metallic Fermi liquid regime from an extended non-Fermi liquid ground state, closely follows the upper critical field of the overdoped superconducting phase and gives rise to an expanse of distinct non-Fermi liquid behavior at finite temperatures. Together with signatures of two distinct flavors of quantum fluctuations, these facts suggest that quantum criticality plays a significant role in shaping the anomalous properties of the cuprate phase diagram. PMID:22573818

  16. Understanding Atomic-Scale Behavior of Liquid Crystals at Aqueous Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Sadati, Monirosadat; Rahimi, Mohammad; Ramirez-Hernandez, Abelardo; Roux, Benoît; de Pablo, Juan J

    2017-01-10

    The ordered environment presented by liquid crystals at interfaces enables a range of novel functionalities that is only now beginning to be exploited in applications ranging from light focusing devices to biosensors. One key feature of liquid crystals is that molecular events occurring at an interface propagate over large distances through the bulk. In spite of their importance, our fundamental understanding of liquid crystal-water and liquid crystal-air interfaces remains limited. In this work, we present results from large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on the organization of the nematic and isotropic phases of the nitrile-containing mesogenic molecule 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) in the vicinity of vacuum and aqueous interfaces. Hybrid boundary conditions are imposed by confining 5CB films between vacuum and an aqueous medium to examine how those two types of interfaces influence the specific structural arrangement and ordering of 5CB. Consistent with experiments, our results indicate that 5CB exhibits homeotropic anchoring at the vacuum interface, and planar alignment at aqueous interfaces. Two-dimensional molecular dynamics potential of mean force calculations and average polarization densities show that the polar nitrile group of 5CB remains hydrated near the aqueous interface, where it modulates the orientation of water molecules. Estimates of the anchoring strength reveal an oscillatory decay and a semilinear decay with distance from the interface in vacuum and water, respectively.

  17. Quantum critical scaling at the edge of Fermi liquid stability in a cuprate superconductor.

    PubMed

    Butch, Nicholas P; Jin, Kui; Kirshenbaum, Kevin; Greene, Richard L; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2012-05-29

    In the high-temperature cuprate superconductors, the pervasiveness of anomalous electronic transport properties suggests that violation of conventional Fermi liquid behavior is closely tied to superconductivity. In other classes of unconventional superconductors, atypical transport is well correlated with proximity to a quantum critical point, but the relative importance of quantum criticality in the cuprates remains uncertain. Here, we identify quantum critical scaling in the electron-doped cuprate material La(2-x)Ce(x)CuO(4) with a line of quantum critical points that surrounds the superconducting phase as a function of magnetic field and charge doping. This zero-temperature phase boundary, which delineates a metallic Fermi liquid regime from an extended non-Fermi liquid ground state, closely follows the upper critical field of the overdoped superconducting phase and gives rise to an expanse of distinct non-Fermi liquid behavior at finite temperatures. Together with signatures of two distinct flavors of quantum fluctuations, these facts suggest that quantum criticality plays a significant role in shaping the anomalous properties of the cuprate phase diagram.

  18. Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Boysen, DA; Ouchi, T; Sadoway, DR

    2013-11-01

    Calcium is an attractive electrode material for use in grid-scale electrochemical energy storage due to its low electronegativity, earth abundance, and low cost. The feasibility of combining a liquid Ca-Bi positive electrode with a molten salt electrolyte for use in liquid metal batteries at 500-700 degrees C was investigated. Exhibiting excellent reversibility up to current densities of 200 mA cm(-2), the calcium bismuth liquid alloy system is a promising positive electrode candidate for liquid metal batteries. The measurement of low self-discharge current suggests that the solubility of calcium metal in molten salt electrolytes can be sufficiently suppressed to yield high coulombic efficiencies >98%. The mechanisms giving rise to Ca-Bi electrode overpotentials were investigated in terms of associated charge transfer and mass transport resistances. The formation of low density Ca11Bi10 intermetallics at the electrode electrolyte interface limited the calcium deposition rate capability of the electrodes; however, the co-deposition of barium into bismuth from barium-containing molten salts suppressed Ca-Bi intermetallic formation thereby improving the discharge capacity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of radioactive liquid effluents by reverse osmosis membranes: From lab-scale to pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Combernoux, Nicolas; Schrive, Luc; Labed, Véronique; Wyart, Yvan; Carretier, Emilie; Moulin, Philippe

    2017-10-15

    The recent use of the reverse osmosis (RO) process at the damaged Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant generated a growing interest in the application of this process for decontamination purposes. This study focused on the development of a robust RO process for decontamination of two kinds of liquid effluents: a contaminated groundwater after a nuclear disaster and a contaminated seawater during a nuclear accident. The SW30 HR membrane was selected among other in this study due to higher retentions (96% for Cs and 98% for Sr) in a true groundwater. Significant fouling and scaling phenomenon, attributed to calcium and strontium precipitation, were evidenced in this work: this underscored the importance of the lab scale experiment in the process. Validation of the separation performances on trace radionuclides concentration was performed with similar retention around 96% between surrogates Cs (inactive) and (137)Cs (radioactive). The scale up to a 2.6 m(2) spiral wound membrane led to equivalent retentions (around 96% for Cs and 99% for Sr) but lower flux values: this underlined that the hydrodynamic parameters (flowrate/cross-flow velocity) should be optimized. This methodology was also applied on the reconstituted seawater effluent: retentions were slightly lower than for the groundwater and the same hydrodynamic effects were observed on the pilot scale. Then, ageing of the membrane through irradiation experiments were performed. Results showed that the membrane active layer composition influenced the membrane resistance towards γ irradiation: the SW30 HR membrane performances (retention and permeability) were better than the Osmonics SE at 1 MGy. Finally, to supplement the scale up approach, the irradiation of a spiral wound membrane revealed a limited effect on the permeability and retention. This indicated that irradiation conditions need to be controlled for a further development of the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

  1. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  2. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in wet granular media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianyun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Runchen; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Combining high-speed photography with laser profilometry, we study the dynamics and the morphology of liquid-drop impact cratering in wet granular media-a ubiquitous phenomenon relevant to many important geological, agricultural, and industrial processes. By systematically investigating important variables such as impact energy, the size of impinging drops, and the degree of liquid saturation in granular beds, we uncover a scaling law for the size of impact craters. We show that this scaling can be explained by considering the balance between the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface. Such a theoretical understanding confirms that the unique energy partition originally proposed for liquid-drop impact cratering in dry granular media also applies for impact cratering in wet granular media. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressive stresses, instead of shear stresses, control the process of granular impact cratering. Our study enriches the picture of generic granular impact cratering and sheds light on the familiar phenomena of raindrop impacts in granular media.

  3. Scaling of the holographic AC conductivity for non-Fermi liquids at criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritsis, Elias; Peña-Benitez, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    The frequency dependence of the AC conductivity is studied in a holographic model of a non-fermi liquid that is amenable to both analytical and numerical computation. In the regime that dissipation dominates the DC conductivity, the AC conductivity is described well in the IR by a Drude peak despite the absence of quasiparticles. In the regime where pair-production-like processes dominate the conductivity there is no Drude peak. A scaling tail is found for the AC conductivity that is independent of the charge density and momentum dissipation. Evidence is given that this scaling tail σ AC ˜ ω m appears generically in quantum critical holographic systems and the associated scaling exponent m is calculated in terms of the Lifshitz and conduction critical exponents.

  4. Small-scale martian polygonal terrain: Implications for liquid surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seibert, N.M.; Kargel, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) through August 1999 were analyzed for the global distribution of small-scale polygonal terrain not clearly resolved in Viking Orbiter imagery. With very few exceptions, small-scale polygonal terrain occurs at middle to high latitudes of the northern and southern hemisphere in Hesperian-age geologic units. The largest concentration of this terrain occurs in the Utopia basin in close association with scalloped depressions (interpreted as thermokarst) and appears to represent an Amazonia event. The morphology and occurence of small polygonal terrain suggest they are either mud desiccation cracks or ice-wedge polygons. Because the small-scale polygons in Utopia and Argyre Planitiae are associated with other cold-climate permafrost or glacial features, an ice-wedge model is preferred for these areas. Both cracking mechanisms work most effectively in water- or ice-rich finegrained material and may imply the seasonal or episodic existence of liquid water at the surface.

  5. Scaling a single element combustor to replicate combustion instability modes of a liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Brian A.

    This research evaluated a method of scaling a single element sub-scale combustor to match the combustion instability modes of a full-scale liquid rocket engine. The experiments used a shear-coaxial injector in an atmospheric chamber using gaseous oxygen and a heated gaseous methane/nitrogen fuel mixture. The flow conditions matched the full-scale equivalence ratio, propellant velocities and propellant volumetric flow rates. The first set of experiments empirically determined the effect of chamber diameter on chamber temperature. The results were used to calculate the dimensions of the sub-scaled combustion chamber that would match the transverse frequencies of the full-scale engine. The scaled chamber was used in two sets of experiments. The stationary tests placed the injector at the center of the chamber and 0.25 in. from the wall. The centered test displayed evidence of coupling between the 1L chamber mode and the injector oxygen post at 885 Hz. Injector coupling was also observed during experiments with the full-scale rocket engine. With the injector 0.25 in. from the wall, the average chamber temperature dropped about 350°C from the centered test. As a consequence, the frequencies of the transverse modes were lower than the full-scale values. No major difference was found in this research between the stable and unstable set points of the full-scale engine. A translating stage was used to evaluate where various chamber modes appear as a function of injector location. The results show that the 1L chamber mode is present at every location and transverse modes appear as the injector moves near the wall.

  6. Fabrication of electron beam deposited tip for atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Izumi, H; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H; Fukuma, T

    2015-03-13

    Recently, possibilities of improving operation speed and force sensitivity in atomic-scale atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid using a small cantilever with an electron beam deposited (EBD) tip have been intensively explored. However, the structure and properties of an EBD tip suitable for such an application have not been well-understood and hence its fabrication process has not been established. In this study, we perform atomic-scale AFM measurements with a small cantilever and clarify two major problems: contaminations from a cantilever and tip surface, and insufficient mechanical strength of an EBD tip having a high aspect ratio. To solve these problems, here we propose a fabrication process of an EBD tip, where we attach a 2 μm silica bead at the cantilever end and fabricate a 500-700 nm EBD tip on the bead. The bead height ensures sufficient cantilever-sample distance and enables to suppress long-range interaction between them even with a short EBD tip having high mechanical strength. After the tip fabrication, we coat the whole cantilever and tip surface with Si (30 nm) to prevent the generation of contamination. We perform atomic-scale AFM imaging and hydration force measurements at a mica-water interface using the fabricated tip and demonstrate its applicability to such an atomic-scale application. With a repeated use of the proposed process, we can reuse a small cantilever for atomic-scale measurements for several times. Therefore, the proposed method solves the two major problems and enables the practical use of a small cantilever in atomic-scale studies on various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena.

  7. Fabrication of electron beam deposited tip for atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, K.; Izumi, H.; Watanabe-Nakayama, T.; Asakawa, H.; Fukuma, T.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, possibilities of improving operation speed and force sensitivity in atomic-scale atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid using a small cantilever with an electron beam deposited (EBD) tip have been intensively explored. However, the structure and properties of an EBD tip suitable for such an application have not been well-understood and hence its fabrication process has not been established. In this study, we perform atomic-scale AFM measurements with a small cantilever and clarify two major problems: contaminations from a cantilever and tip surface, and insufficient mechanical strength of an EBD tip having a high aspect ratio. To solve these problems, here we propose a fabrication process of an EBD tip, where we attach a 2 μm silica bead at the cantilever end and fabricate a 500-700 nm EBD tip on the bead. The bead height ensures sufficient cantilever-sample distance and enables to suppress long-range interaction between them even with a short EBD tip having high mechanical strength. After the tip fabrication, we coat the whole cantilever and tip surface with Si (30 nm) to prevent the generation of contamination. We perform atomic-scale AFM imaging and hydration force measurements at a mica-water interface using the fabricated tip and demonstrate its applicability to such an atomic-scale application. With a repeated use of the proposed process, we can reuse a small cantilever for atomic-scale measurements for several times. Therefore, the proposed method solves the two major problems and enables the practical use of a small cantilever in atomic-scale studies on various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena.

  8. Large-scale liquid immiscibility at the top of the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed study of the top 625 m of the Bushveld Complex has revealed two distinct sections of cumulate rocks, the contact between which occurs over a limited stratigraphic range (< 50 m). The ~300 m-thick lower section consists of magnetite-bearing ferrodiorite with cumulus olivine Fo30, plagioclase An45, clinopyroxene En35 and several intercolated layers of magnetitite and nelsonite (apatite- Fe-Ti oxide rocks). In situ analysis shows that cumulus apatite in the lower section contains relatively low REE concentrations and no chondrite-normalized Eu anomaly. In contrast, overlying ~325 m-thick section consists of ferrodioritie cumulates (olivine Fo12-5, plagioclase An40, clinopyroxene En25-10) but contains much less magnetite, more ilmenite, and cumulus orthoclase and quartz. In addition, cumulus apatite of the upper section displays 3x higher REE concentrations than apatite of the lower section and a strong negative Eu anomaly. To explain the above observations, we propose that large-scale silicate liquid immiscibility resulted in the physical separation of a dense, Fe-rich magma to form the lower part of the sequence and a buoyant Si-rich magma to form the upper part of the sequence. This hypothesis is consistent not only with the change in proportions of cumulus phases but also the abrupt change in apatite REE contents. Liquid-liquid partitioning experiments have shown that during immiscibility the Fe-rich liquid will take up to 3-5 times more REE than the Si-rich liquid (Watson, 1976 Contrib. to Min. and Pet. vol. 56, p. 119-134). Yet the cumulus apatite in the lower section has relatively low REE concentrations and the apatite in the upper section has approximately 3x higher REE. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by the high sensitivity of the apatite-melt DREE to the SiO2 content of the liquid (with low DREE for low SiO2 melts, and high DREE for highly silicic melts) (Watson and Green, 1981 EPSL v. 56, p. 405-421). Applying a low DREE appropriate for

  9. Note: Development of a microfabricated sensor to measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid samples.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Yi, Namwoo; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Dongsik

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a thermal analysis device, which can measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid sample. We employ the three omega method with a microfabricated AC thermal sensor with nanometer width heater. The liquid sample is confined by a micro-well structure fabricated on the sensor surface. The performance of the instrument was verified by measuring the thermal conductivity of 27-picoliter samples of de-ionized (DI) water, ethanol, methanol, and DI water-ethanol mixtures with accuracies better than 3%. Furthermore, another analytical scheme allows real-time thermal conductivity measurement with 5% accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this technique requires the smallest volume of sample to measure thermal property ever.

  10. Two reference time scales for studying the dynamic cavitation of liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Brewe, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Two formulas, one for the characteristic time of filling a void with the vapor of the surrounding liquid, and one of filling the void by diffusion of the dissolved gas in the liquid, are derived. By comparing these time scales with that of the dynamic operation of oil film bearings, it is concluded that the evaporation process is usually fast enough to fill the cavitation bubble with oil vapor; whereas the diffusion process is much too slow for the dissolved air to liberate itself and enter the cavitation bubble. These results imply that the formation of a two phase fluid in dynamically loaded bearings, as often reported in the literature, is caused by air entrainment. They further indicate a way to simplify the treatment of the dynamic problem of bubble evolution.

  11. Note: Development of a microfabricated sensor to measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Yi, Namwoo; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Dongsik

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a thermal analysis device, which can measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid sample. We employ the three omega method with a microfabricated AC thermal sensor with nanometer width heater. The liquid sample is confined by a micro-well structure fabricated on the sensor surface. The performance of the instrument was verified by measuring the thermal conductivity of 27-picoliter samples of de-ionized (DI) water, ethanol, methanol, and DI water-ethanol mixtures with accuracies better than 3%. Furthermore, another analytical scheme allows real-time thermal conductivity measurement with 5% accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this technique requires the smallest volume of sample to measure thermal property ever.

  12. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators - Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit

    2013-12-01

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further.

  13. Scale-up and evaluation of high solid ionic liquid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is receiving significant attention as a potential process that enables fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and produces high yields of fermentable sugars suitable for the production of renewable fuels. However, successful optimization and scale up of IL pretreatment involves challenges, such as high solids loading, biomass handling and transfer, washing of pretreated solids and formation of inhibitors, which are not addressed during the development stages at the small scale in a laboratory environment. As a first in the research community, the Joint BioEnergy Institute, in collaboration with the Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit, a Department of Energy funded facility that supports academic and industrial entities in scaling their novel biofuels enabling technologies, have performed benchmark studies to identify key challenges associated with IL pretreatment using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and subsequent enzymatic saccharification beyond bench scale. Results Using switchgrass as the model feedstock, we have successfully executed 600-fold, relative to the bench scale (6 L vs 0.01 L), scale-up of IL pretreatment at 15% (w/w) biomass loading. Results show that IL pretreatment at 15% biomass generates a product containing 87.5% of glucan, 42.6% of xylan and only 22.8% of lignin relative to the starting material. The pretreated biomass is efficiently converted into monosaccharides during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis at 10% loading over a 150-fold scale of operations (1.5 L vs 0.01 L) with 99.8% fermentable sugar conversion. The yield of glucose and xylose in the liquid streams were 94.8% and 62.2%, respectively, and the hydrolysate generated contains high titers of fermentable sugars (62.1 g/L of glucose and 5.4 g/L cellobiose). The overall glucan and xylan balance from pretreatment and saccharification were 95.0% and 77.1%, respectively. Enzymatic inhibition by [C2mim][OAc] at high solids

  14. Centrifugal scaling of isothermal gas-liquid flows in horizontal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraets, Jacques Joseph Marie

    1986-05-01

    To test the similarity criteria of two-phase gas-liquid flows, arising from the governing equations and boundary conditions, the flow of air and a water-glycerine mixture in a 50 mm diameter horizontal tube is compared with a two-phase flow of helium and water in a 5 mm diameter tube rotating around a parallel vertical axis (the effective gravity is 113 g0). Results emphasize that in general only dimensionless correlations provide meaningful predictions. The homogeneous Dukler case 1 (1964b) correlation, which contains no two-phase information, provides the best fit (the standard deviation is 21%) with the measured pressure drops. For predicting flow pattern the most promising approach is that of Taitel and Dukler (1976). Examples of scaling down large diameter, high pressure pipelines are presented. With a scale factor of 1/30 equality of the Froude number, the gas-liquid density ratio, and either the Reynolds number or the Weber number can be realized. Compressibility and gas viscosity are not properly scaled.

  15. A Portable Liquid Chromatograph with a Battery-operated Compact Electroosmotic Pump and a Microfluidic Chip Device with a Reversed Phase Packed Column.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Akihiko; Fujii, Mitsutaka; Fujimoto, Takehiro; Sasaki, Shunsuke; Yanagisawa, Ichiro; Tani, Hirofumi; Tokeshi, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    A compact and lightweight liquid chromatography system is presented with overall dimensions of 26 cm width × 18 cm length × 21 cm height and weight of 2 kg. This system comprises a battery-operated compact electroosmotic pump, a manual injector, a microfluidic chip device containing a packed column and an electrochemical detector, and a USB bus-powered potentiostat. The pumping system was designed for microfluidic-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography in which an electroosmotically generated water stream pushes the mobile phase via a diaphragm for the output. The flow rate ranged from 0 to 10 μL/min and had a high degree of precision. The pumping system operated continuously for over 24 h with dry batteries. The column formed in the microfluidic device was packed with 3-μm ODS particles with a length of 30 mm and a diameter of 0.8 mm. The results presented herein demonstrate the performance of the pumping system and the column using alkylphenols, catecholamine, catechin, and amino acids.

  16. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrami, S. M. R.; Nakayachi, H.; Watanabe-Nakayama, T.; Asakawa, H.; Fukuma, T.

    2014-11-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods.

  17. Finite-size scaling investigation of the liquid-liquid critical point in ST2 water and its stability with respect to crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselring, T. A.; Lascaris, E.; Franzese, G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Herrmann, H. J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2013-06-01

    The liquid-liquid critical point scenario of water hypothesizes the existence of two metastable liquid phases—low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL)—deep within the supercooled region. The hypothesis originates from computer simulations of the ST2 water model, but the stability of the LDL phase with respect to the crystal is still being debated. We simulate supercooled ST2 water at constant pressure, constant temperature, and constant number of molecules N for N ⩽ 729 and times up to 1 μs. We observe clear differences between the two liquids, both structural and dynamical. Using several methods, including finite-size scaling, we confirm the presence of a liquid-liquid phase transition ending in a critical point. We find that the LDL is stable with respect to the crystal in 98% of our runs (we perform 372 runs for LDL or LDL-like states), and in 100% of our runs for the two largest system sizes (N = 512 and 729, for which we perform 136 runs for LDL or LDL-like states). In all these runs, tiny crystallites grow and then melt within 1 μs. Only for N ⩽ 343 we observe six events (over 236 runs for LDL or LDL-like states) of spontaneous crystallization after crystallites reach an estimated critical size of about 70 ± 10 molecules.

  18. Thick strings, the liquid crystal blue phase, and cosmological large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model based on the liquid crystal blue phase is proposed as a model for a late-time cosmological phase transition. Topological defects, in particular thick strings and/or domain walls, are presented as seeds for structure formation. It is shown that the observed large-scale structure, including quasi-periodic wall structure, can be well fitted in the model without violating the microwave background isotropy bound or the limits from induced gravitational waves and the millisecond pulsar timing. Furthermore, such late-time transitions can produce objects such as quasars at high redshifts. The model appears to work with either cold or hot dark matter.

  19. Hopping Time Scales and the Phonon-Liquid Electron-Crystal Picture in Thermoelectric Copper Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voneshen, D. J.; Walker, H. C.; Refson, K.; Goff, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    The suppression of transverse phonons by liquidlike diffusion in superionic conductors has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials [H. Lui et al. Nat. Mater. 11, 422 (2012), 10.1038/nmat3273]. We have measured the ion transport and lattice dynamics in the original phonon-liquid electron-crystal Cu2Se using neutron spectroscopy. We show that hopping time scales are too slow to significantly affect lattice vibrations and that the transverse phonons persist at all temperatures. Substantial changes to the phonon spectrum occur well below the transition to the superionic phase, and the ultralow thermal conductivity is instead attributed to anharmonicity.

  20. Thick strings, the liquid crystal blue phase, and cosmological large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model based on the liquid crystal blue phase is proposed as a model for a late-time cosmological phase transition. Topological defects, in particular thick strings and/or domain walls, are presented as seeds for structure formation. It is shown that the observed large-scale structure, including quasi-periodic wall structure, can be well fitted in the model without violating the microwave background isotropy bound or the limits from induced gravitational waves and the millisecond pulsar timing. Furthermore, such late-time transitions can produce objects such as quasars at high redshifts. The model appears to work with either cold or hot dark matter.

  1. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of a liquid crystalline droplet with fast multipole implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Lupo, J.; Patnaik, S.S.; McKenney, A.; Pachter, R.

    1999-07-01

    The Fast Multipole Method (FMM) offers an efficient way (order O(N)) to handle long range electrostatic interactions, thus enabling more realistic molecular dynamics simulations of large molecular systems. The performance of the fast molecular dynamics (FMD) code, a parallel MD code being developed in the group, using the three-dimensional fast multipole method, shows a good speedup. The application to the full atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulation of a liquid crystalline droplet of 4-n-pentyl-4{prime}-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) molecules, of size 35,872 atoms, shows strong surface effects on various orientational order parameters.

  2. Growing Static and Dynamic Length Scales in a Glass-Forming Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sausset, François; Tarjus, Gilles

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the characteristic length scales associated with the glass transition phenomenon. By studying an atomic glass-forming liquid in negatively curved space, for which the local order is well identified and the amount of frustration opposing the spatial extension of this order is tunable, we provide insight into the structural origin of the main characteristics of the dynamics leading to glass formation. We find that the structural length and the correlation length characterizing the increasing heterogeneity of the dynamics grow together as temperature decreases. However, the system eventually enters a regime in which the former saturates as a result of frustration whereas dynamic correlations keep building up.

  3. WA105: a large-scale demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonazzo, A.; WA105 Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The physics case for a large underground detector devoted to neutrino oscillation measurements, nucleon decay and astrophysics is compelling. A time projection chamber based on the dual-phase liquid Argon technique is an extremely attractive option, allowing for long drift distances, low energy threshold and high readout granularity. It has been extensively studied in the LAGUNA-LBNO Design Study and is one of the two designs foreseen for the modules of the DUNE detector in the US. The WA105 experiment envisages the construction of a large scale prototype at CERN, to validate technical solutions and perform physics studies with charged particle beams.

  4. Finite-size scaling study of dynamic critical phenomena in a vapor-liquid transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, Jiarul; Das, Subir K.

    2017-01-01

    Via a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis, we study dynamic critical phenomena for the vapor-liquid transition in a three dimensional Lennard-Jones system. The phase behavior of the model has been obtained via the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport properties, viz., the bulk viscosity and the thermal conductivity, are calculated via the Green-Kubo relations, by taking inputs from the MD simulations in the microcanonical ensemble. The critical singularities of these quantities are estimated via the FSS method. The results thus obtained are in nice agreement with the predictions of the dynamic renormalization group and mode-coupling theories.

  5. Finite-size scaling study of dynamic critical phenomena in a vapor-liquid transition.

    PubMed

    Midya, Jiarul; Das, Subir K

    2017-01-28

    Via a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis, we study dynamic critical phenomena for the vapor-liquid transition in a three dimensional Lennard-Jones system. The phase behavior of the model has been obtained via the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport properties, viz., the bulk viscosity and the thermal conductivity, are calculated via the Green-Kubo relations, by taking inputs from the MD simulations in the microcanonical ensemble. The critical singularities of these quantities are estimated via the FSS method. The results thus obtained are in nice agreement with the predictions of the dynamic renormalization group and mode-coupling theories.

  6. Polyurethane foam chips combined with liquid chromatography in the determination of unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons excreted in human urine.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Marina; Pellegrino, Oronzo; Valla, Carla; Rubino, Federico Maria; Verduci, Cinzia; Colombi, Antonio

    2006-09-01

    A method suitable for the determination of unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) excreted at trace levels (ng/L) in human urine for the monitoring of exposure of the general population to PAH contamination was developed. PAHs were determined, after enrichment by solid-phase extraction on polyurethane foam (PUF) chips, by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Different parameters affecting analyte extraction to the PUF, including urine salting-out and organic additives, and optimization of conditions for clean-up and desorption have been investigated. Optimized conditions were 40 mL acidified urine sample, added with magnesium sulfate, tetrahydrofuran and a 2 cm3 PUF chip, and extracted by shaking at 30 rpm for 1 h at ambient temperature. Desorption was performed, after a clean-up step with diluted sodium hydroxide, using a small amount of diethyl ether. The recovery of PAH congeners from spiked urines was >90% in the 2-100 ng/L range; the detection limit was 0.1-0.5 ng/L, depending on the considered PAH congener; day-to-day precision, at 50 ng/L native PAH content, was CV = 10-20%. The proposed technique provides a simple, economical and effective procedure for the determination of trace amounts of unmetabolized PAHs excreted in human urine spot samples.

  7. Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

  8. Development of chip-based photocatalyst-assisted reduction device to couple high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for determination of inorganic selenium species.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ting; Hsu, I-Hsiang; Wu, Jung-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Hsing; Sun, Yuh-Chang

    2013-08-23

    In this study, a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip-based photocatalyst-assisted reduction device (PMMA chip-based PCARD) was developed as a reactor based on its excellent optical properties and ease of fabrication. Its transmittance of ultraviolet light at 365nm (UV365) was found to be as high as 92% using a PMMA of 2mm thickness. To optimize the vaporization efficiency, the effect of varying the depth of the geometry trenched on the PMMA-based chip was investigated. After optimization, it required only 29s of UV365 irradiation to vaporize the selenium (Se) species of interest. The PMMA-based chip was successfully used as an interfacing device for the hyphenation of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Additionally, under the optimized conditions for vaporization, using 1gL(-1) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) at pH 5, we found that Se(IV) and Se(VI) were converted quantitatively into volatile Se products. In addition, the optimized vaporization efficiency of the Se species of interest for the online HPLC/PMMA chip-based PCARD/ICP-MS system enabled us to achieve detection limits for Se(IV) and Se(VI) in the nanogram-per-liter range (based on 3σ). A series of validation experiments indicated that our proposed methods could be applied satisfactorily to the determination of inorganic Se species in environmental water samples.

  9. Micron-scale magnetic resonance imaging of both liquids and solids.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eric; Tycko, Robert

    2015-11-01

    We describe and demonstrate a novel apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), suitable for imaging of both liquid and solid samples with micron-scale isotropic resolution. The apparatus includes a solenoidal radio-frequency microcoil with 170 μm inner diameter and a set of planar gradient coils, all wound by hand and supported on a series of stacked sapphire plates. The design ensures efficient heat dissipation during gradient pulses and also facilitates disassembly, sample changes, and reassembly. To demonstrate liquid state (1)H MRI, we present an image of polystyrene beads within CuSO4-doped water, contained within a capillary tube with 100 μm inner diameter, with 5.0 μm isotropic resolution. To demonstrate solid state (1)H MRI, we present an image of NH4Cl particles within the capillary tube, with 8.0 μm isotropic resolution. High-resolution solid state MRI is enabled by frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg decoupling, with an effective rotating frame field amplitude of 289 kHz. At room temperature, pulsed gradients of 4 T/m (i.e., 170 Hz/μm for (1)H MRI) are achievable in all three directions with currents of 10 A or less. The apparatus is contained within a variable-temperature liquid helium cryostat, which will allow future efforts to obtain MRI images at low temperatures with signal enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization.

  10. A robust molecular probe for Ångstrom-scale analytics in liquids.

    PubMed

    Nirmalraj, Peter; Thompson, Damien; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Gotsmann, Bernd; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; Riel, Heike

    2016-08-12

    Traditionally, nanomaterial profiling using a single-molecule-terminated scanning probe is performed at the vacuum-solid interface often at a few Kelvin, but is not a notion immediately associated with liquid-solid interface at room temperature. Here, using a scanning tunnelling probe functionalized with a single C60 molecule stabilized in a high-density liquid, we resolve low-dimensional surface defects, atomic interfaces and capture Ångstrom-level bond-length variations in single-layer graphene and MoS2. Atom-by-atom controllable imaging contrast is demonstrated at room temperature and the electronic structure of the C60-metal probe complex within the encompassing liquid molecules is clarified using density functional theory. Our findings demonstrates that operating a robust single-molecular probe is not restricted to ultra-high vacuum and cryogenic settings. Hence the scope of high-precision analytics can be extended towards resolving sub-molecular features of organic elements and gauging ambient compatibility of emerging layered materials with atomic-scale sensitivity under experimentally less stringent conditions.

  11. Well-posedness of a two-scale model for liquid phase epitaxy with elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutter, Michael; Rohde, Christian; Sändig, Anna-Margarete

    2017-07-01

    Epitaxy, a special form of crystal growth, is a technically relevant process for the production of thin films and layers. It can generate microstructures of different morphologies, such as steps, spirals or pyramids. These microstructures are influenced by elastic effects in the epitaxial layer. There are different epitaxial techniques, one being liquid phase epitaxy. Thereby, single particles are deposited out of a supersaturated liquid solution on a substrate where they contribute to the growth process. This article studies a two-scale model including elasticity, introduced in Eck et al. (Eur Phys J Special Topics 177:5-21, 2009) and extended in Eck et al. (2006). It consists of a macroscopic Navier-Stokes system and a macroscopic convection-diffusion equation for the transport of matter in the liquid, and a microscopic problem that combines a phase field approximation of a Burton-Cabrera-Frank model for the evolution of the epitaxial layer, a Stokes system for the fluid flow near the layer and an elasticity system for the elastic deformation of the solid film. Suitable conditions couple the single parts of the model. As the main result, existence and uniqueness of a solution are proven in suitable function spaces. Furthermore, an iterative solving procedure is proposed, which reflects, on the one hand, the strategy of the proof of the main result via fixed point arguments and, on the other hand, can be the basis for a numerical algorithm.

  12. Micron-scale magnetic resonance imaging of both liquids and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Eric; Tycko, Robert

    2015-11-01

    We describe and demonstrate a novel apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), suitable for imaging of both liquid and solid samples with micron-scale isotropic resolution. The apparatus includes a solenoidal radio-frequency microcoil with 170 μm inner diameter and a set of planar gradient coils, all wound by hand and supported on a series of stacked sapphire plates. The design ensures efficient heat dissipation during gradient pulses and also facilitates disassembly, sample changes, and reassembly. To demonstrate liquid state 1H MRI, we present an image of polystyrene beads within CuSO4-doped water, contained within a capillary tube with 100 μm inner diameter, with 5.0 μm isotropic resolution. To demonstrate solid state 1H MRI, we present an image of NH4Cl particles within the capillary tube, with 8.0 μm isotropic resolution. High-resolution solid state MRI is enabled by frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg decoupling, with an effective rotating frame field amplitude of 289 kHz. At room temperature, pulsed gradients of 4 T/m (i.e., 170 Hz/μm for 1H MRI) are achievable in all three directions with currents of 10 A or less. The apparatus is contained within a variable-temperature liquid helium cryostat, which will allow future efforts to obtain MRI images at low temperatures with signal enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization.

  13. Scaling behaviour and superconducting instability in anisotropic non-Fermi liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Ipsita

    2017-01-01

    We study the scaling behaviour of the optical conductivity (σ) , free energy density (F) and shear viscosity of the quantum critical point associated with spin density wave phase transition for a two-dimensional metallic system with C2 symmetry. A non-Fermi liquid behaviour emerges at two pairs of isolated points on the Fermi surface due to the coupling of a bosonic order parameter to fermionic excitations at those so-called "hot-spots". We find that near the hot-spots, σ and F obey the scalings expected for such an anisotropic system, and the direction-dependent viscosity to entropy density ratio is not a universal number due to the anisotropy. Lastly, we also estimate the effect of the fermion-boson coupling at the hot-spots on superconducting instabilities.

  14. Scaling-up and ionic liquid-based extraction of pectinases from Aspergillus flavipes cultures.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Márquez, Vicente E; Martínez-Trujillo, M Aurora; Aguilar Osorio, Guillermo; Patiño, Faustino; Álvarez, María S; Rodríguez, Ana; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Deive, Francisco J

    2017-02-01

    The viability of the scaling-up of pectinases production by Aspergillus flavipes at 5L-bioreactor scale has been demonstrated by keeping constant the power input, and a drastic increase in the endo- and exopectinolytic enzyme production was recorded (7- and 40-fold, respectively). The main process variables were modelled by means of logistic and Gompertz equations. In order to overcome the limitations of the conventional downstream strategies, a novel extraction strategy was proposed on the basis of the adequate salting-out potential of two biocompatible cholinium-based ionic liquids (N1112OHCl and N1112OHH2PO4) in aqueous solutions of Tergitol, reaching more than 90% of extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole

    SciTech Connect

    Tarnacka, M. Madejczyk, O.; Kamiński, K.; Paluch, M.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Pionteck, J.; Kaminska, E.

    2015-06-14

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dT{sub g}/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dT{sub n}/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ {sub α} = 10{sup −5} s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T{sup −1}v{sup −γ}, which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals’ properties of itraconazole molecule.

  16. Rupture mechanism of liquid crystal thin films realized by large-scale molecular simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Trung D; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Brown, W Michael; Matheson, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of liquid crystal (LC) molecules to respond to changes in their environment makes them an interesting candidate for thin film applications, particularly in bio-sensing, bio-mimicking devices, and optics. Yet the understanding of the (in)stability of this family of thin films has been limited by the inherent challenges encountered by experiment and continuum models. Using unprecedented largescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we address the rupture origin of LC thin films wetting a solid substrate at length scales similar to those in experiment. Our simulations show the key signatures of spinodal instability in isotropic and nematic films on top of thermal nucleation, and importantly, for the first time, evidence of a common rupture mechanism independent of initial thickness and LC orientational ordering. We further demonstrate that the primary driving force for rupture is closely related to the tendency of the LC mesogens to recover their local environment in the bulk state. Our study not only provides new insights into the rupture mechanism of liquid crystal films, but also sets the stage for future investigations of thin film systems using peta-scale molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Temperature and length scale dependence of solvophobic solvation in a single-site water-like liquid.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, John R; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Stanley, H Eugene; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Rossky, Peter J

    2013-02-14

    The temperature and length scale dependence of solvation properties of spherical hard solvophobic solutes is investigated in the Jagla liquid, a simple liquid that consists of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential combining a hard core repulsion and a longer ranged soft core interaction, yet exhibits water-like anomalies. The results are compared with equivalent calculations for a model of a typical atomic liquid, the Lennard-Jones potential, and with predictions for hydrophobic solvation in water using the cavity equation of state and the extended simple point charge model. We find that the Jagla liquid captures the qualitative thermodynamic behavior of hydrophobic hydration as a function of temperature for both small and large length scale solutes. In particular, for both the Jagla liquid and water, we observe temperature-dependent enthalpy and entropy of solvation for all solute sizes as well as a negative solvation entropy for sufficiently small solutes at low temperature. This feature of water-like solvation is distinct from the strictly positive and temperature independent enthalpy and entropy of cavity solvation observed in the Lennard-Jones fluid. The results suggest that, compared to a simple liquid, it is the presence of a second thermally accessible repulsive energy scale, acting to increasingly favor larger separations for decreasing temperature, that is the essential characteristic of a liquid that favors low-density, open structures, and models hydrophobic hydration, and that it is the presence of this second energy scale that leads to the similarity in the behavior of water and the Jagla liquid. In addition, the Jagla liquid dewets surfaces of large radii of curvature less readily than the Lennard-Jones liquid, reflecting a greater flexibility or elasticity in the Jagla liquid structure than that of a typical liquid, a behavior also similar to that of water's hydrogen bonding network. The implications of the temperature and

  18. A Review of Multidimensional, Multifluid Intermediate-scale Experiments: Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution and Enhanced Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Dane, Jacob H.; Wietsma, Thomas W.

    2006-05-01

    A review is presented of original multidimensional, intermediate-scale experiments involving nonaqueous phase liquids. The experimental approach at this scale can be viewed as an important intermediary between column studies and field trials. The primary advantage of intermediate-scale flow cell experiments is that field-scale processes can be simulated under controlled conditions. The experiments are frequently conducted to provide data sets to test and verify numerical and analytical flow and transport models. The controlled setting and laboratory instrumentation reduces the uncertainty in parameter estimation, allowing comparisons between simulation and experimental results to focus on flow and transport processes. A total of about 120 original contributions were identified and reviewed. Depending on the main topic of NAPL experimental research, the papers were divided into the following sections: (1) Dissolution, (2) Enhanced Remediation, (3) Flow behavior, (4) Quantification, and, (5) Imaging. In this paper, the categories Dissolution and Enhanced Remediation are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. In a companion paper, experimental work related to the other three categories is reviewed. The Dissolution category includes experiments in which NAPL removal occurs due to water flushing. The Enhanced Remediation section contains experimental contributions investigating surfactant flushing, alcohol flushing, surfactant/alcohol combinations, dense brine barrier strategies, oil recovery through pumping, soil vapor extraction, air sparging, steam injection, bioremediation, and other techniques.

  19. Robust and versatile ionic liquid microarrays achieved by microcontact printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Christian A.; Ge, Mengchen; Zhao, Chuan

    2014-04-01

    Lab-on-a-chip and miniaturized systems have gained significant popularity motivated by marked differences in material performance at the micro-to-nano-scale realm. However, to fully exploit micro-to-nano-scale chemistry, solvent volatility and lack of reproducibility need to be overcome. Here, we combine the non-volatile and versatile nature of ionic liquids with microcontact printing in an attempt to establish a facile protocol for high throughput fabrication of open microreactors and microfluidics. The micropatterned ionic liquid droplets have been demonstrated as electrochemical cells and reactors for microfabrication of metals and charge transfer complexes, substrates for immobilization of proteins and as membrane-free high-performance amperometric gas sensor arrays. The results suggest that miniaturized ionic liquid systems can be used to solve the problems of solvent volatility and slow mass transport in viscous ionic liquids in lab-on-a-chip devices, thus providing a versatile platform for a diverse number of applications.

  20. Identifying and characterising the different structural length scales in liquids and glasses: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Philip S; Zeidler, Anita

    2013-10-07

    The structure of several network-forming liquids and glasses is considered, where a focus is placed on the detailed information that is made available by using the method of neutron diffraction with isotope substitution (NDIS). In the case of binary network glass-forming materials with the MX2 stoichiometry (e.g. GeO2, GeSe2, ZnCl2), two different length scales at distances greater than the nearest-neighbour distance manifest themselves by peaks in the measured diffraction patterns. The network properties are influenced by a competition between the ordering on these "intermediate" and "extended" length scales, which can be manipulated by changing the chemical identity of the atomic constituents or by varying state parameters such as the temperature and pressure. The extended-range ordering, which describes the decay of the pair-correlation functions at large-r, can be represented by making a pole analysis of the Ornstein-Zernike equations, an approach that can also be used to describe the large-r behaviour of the pair-correlation functions for liquid and amorphous metals where packing constraints are important. The first applications are then described of the NDIS method to measure the detailed structure of aerodynamically-levitated laser-heated droplets of "fragile" glass-forming liquid oxides (CaAl2O4 and CaSiO3) at high-temperatures (~2000 K) and the structure of a "strong" network-forming glass (GeO2) under pressures ranging from ambient to ~8 GPa. The high-temperature experiments show structural changes on multiple length scales when the oxides are vitrified. The high-pressure experiment offers insight into the density-driven mechanisms of network collapse in GeO2 glass, and parallels are drawn with the high-pressure behaviour of silica glass. Finally, the hydrogen-bonded network of water is considered, where the first application of the method of oxygen NDIS is used to measure the structures of light versus heavy water and a difference of approximately equal

  1. Entropy-scaling laws for diffusion coefficients in liquid metals under high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Qi-Long Shao, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Fan-Hou; Wang, Pan-Pan

    2015-04-07

    Molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid copper and tungsten are used to investigate the empirical entropy-scaling laws D{sup *}=A exp(BS{sub ex}), proposed independently by Rosenfeld and Dzugutov for diffusion coefficient, under high pressure conditions. We show that the scaling laws hold rather well for them under high pressure conditions. Furthermore, both the original diffusion coefficients and the reduced diffusion coefficients exhibit an Arrhenius relationship D{sub M}=D{sub M}{sup 0} exp(−E{sub M}/K{sub B}T), (M=un,R,D) and the activation energy E{sub M} increases with increasing pressure, the diffusion pre-exponential factors (D{sub R}{sup 0} and D{sub D}{sup 0}) are nearly independent of the pressure and element. The pair correlation entropy, S{sub 2}, depends linearly on the reciprocal temperature S{sub 2}=−E{sub S}/T, and the activation energy, E{sub S}, increases with increasing pressure. In particular, the ratios of the activation energies (E{sub un}, E{sub R}, and E{sub D}) obtained from diffusion coefficients to the activation energy, E{sub S}, obtained from the entropy keep constants in the whole pressure range. Therefore, the entropy-scaling laws for the diffusion coefficients and the Arrhenius law are linked via the temperature dependence of entropy.

  2. Extended scale for the hydrogen-bond basicity of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Swift, Lorna; Hallett, Jason P; Welton, Tom; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2014-04-14

    In the past decade, ionic liquids (ILs) have been the focus of intensive research regarding their use as potential and alternative solvents in many chemical applications. Targeting their effectiveness, recent investigations have attempted to establish polarity scales capable of ranking ILs according to their chemical behaviours. However, some major drawbacks have been found since polarity scales only report relative ranks because they depend on the set of probe dyes used, and they are sensitive to measurement conditions, such as purity levels of the ILs and procedures employed. Due to all these difficulties it is of crucial importance to find alternative and/or predictive methods and to evaluate them as a priori approaches capable of providing the chemical properties of ILs. Furthermore, the large number of ILs available makes their experimental characterization, usually achieved by a trial and error methodology, burdensome. In this context, we firstly evaluated COSMO-RS, COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents, as an alternative tool to estimate the hydrogen-bond basicity of ILs. After demonstrating a straight-line correlation between the experimental hydrogen-bond basicity values and the COSMO-RS hydrogen-bonding energies in equimolar cation-anion pairs, an extended scale for the hydrogen-bond accepting ability of IL anions is proposed here. This new ranking of the ILs' chemical properties opens the possibility to pre-screen appropriate ILs (even those not yet synthesized) for a given task or application.

  3. Wafer-Scale Fabrication of Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Arrays by Silver Liquid Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Siyu; Nshimiyimana, Jean Pierre; Deng, Ya; Hou, Gu; Chi, Xiannian; Hu, Xiao; Zhang, Zongzhi; Wu, Pei; Wang, Gongtang; Chu, Weiguo; Sun, Lianfeng

    2017-08-21

    Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have advantages in mechanical resonators and highly sensitive sensors. Large-scale fabrication of suspended SWNTs array devices and uniformity among SWNTs devices remain a great challenge. This study demonstrates an effective, fast, and wafer-scale technique to fabricate suspended SWNT arrays, which is based on a dynamic motion of silver liquid to suspend and align the SWNTs between the prefabricated palladium electrodes in high temperature annealing treatment. Suspended, strained, and aligned SWNTs are synthesized on a 2 × 2 cm(2) substrate with an average density of 10 tubes per micrometer. Under the optimal conditions, almost all SWNTs become suspended. A promising formation model of suspended SWNTs is established. The Kelvin four-terminal resistance measurement shows that these SWNT array devices have extreme low contact resistance. Meanwhile, the suspended SWNT array field effect transistors are fabricated by selective etching of metallic SWNTs using electrical breakdown. This method of large-scale fabrication of suspended architectures pushes the study of nanoscale materials into a new stage related to the electrical physics and industrial applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Determination of the thermodynamic scaling exponent for relaxation in liquids from static ambient-pressure quantities.

    PubMed

    Casalini, R; Roland, C M

    2014-08-22

    An equation is derived that expresses the thermodynamic scaling exponent, γ, which superposes relaxation times τ and other measures of molecular mobility determined over a range of temperatures and densities, in terms of static physical quantities. The latter are available in the literature or can be measured at ambient pressure. We show for 13 materials, both molecular liquids and polymers, that the calculated γ are equivalent to the scaling exponents obtained directly by superpositioning. The assumptions of the analysis are that the glass transition T(g) is isochronal (i.e., τ(α) is constant at T(g), which is true by definition) and that the pressure derivative of the glass temperature is given by the first Ehrenfest relation. The latter, derived assuming continuity of the entropy at the glass transition, has been corroborated for many glass-forming materials at ambient pressure. However, we find that the Ehrenfest relation breaks down at elevated pressure; this limitation is of no consequence herein, since the appeal of the new equation is its applicability to ambient-pressure data. The ability to determine, from ambient-pressure measurements, the scaling exponent describing the high-pressure dynamics extends the applicability of this approach to a broader range of materials. Since γ is linked to the intermolecular potential, the new equation thus provides ready access to information about the forces between molecules.

  5. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  6. Impact of Wettability on Pore-Scale Characteristics of Residual Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Raoush, Riyadh I.

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the impact of wettability of porous media on pore-scale characteristics of residual nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of fractionally wet sand systems with mean grain size of 250 {micro}m. Pore-scale characteristics of NAPL blobs such as volume, lengths, interfacial areas, and sphericity index were computed using three-dimensional image processing algorithms. Four systems comprised of 100, 50, 25, and 0% NAPL-wet mass fractions containing the residual NAPL were imaged and analyzed. Findings indicate that spatial variation in wettability of porous media surfaces has a significant impact on pore-scale characteristics of residual NAPL blobs in saturated porous media systems. As the porous media comprises more water-wet surfaces, residual NAPL blobs increase in size and length due to the entrapment at large pore bodies. NAPL-water interfacial areas tend to increase as the NAPL-wet surface fractions increase in the systems. Overall residual NAPL saturations are less in fractionally wet systems and increase as the systems become more NAPL-wet or water-wet.

  7. Isolating Reactions at the Picoliter Scale: Parallel Control of Reaction Kinetics at the Liquid-Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Phan-Quang, Gia Chuong; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Ling, Xing Yi

    2016-07-11

    Miniaturized liquid-liquid interfacial reactors offer enhanced surface area and rapid confinement of compounds of opposite solubility, yet they are unable to provide in situ reaction monitoring at a molecular level at the interface. A picoreactor operative at the liquid-liquid interface is described, comprising plasmonic colloidosomes containing Ag octahedra strategically assembled at the water-in-decane emulsion interface. The plasmonic colloidosomes isolate ultrasmall amounts of solutions (<200 pL), allowing parallel monitoring of multiple reactions simultaneously. Using the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique, in situ monitoring of the interfacial protonation of dimethyl yellow (p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DY)) is performed, revealing an apparent rate constant of 0.09 min(-1) for the first-order reaction. The presence of isomeric products with similar physical properties is resolved, which would otherwise be indiscernible by other analytical methods.

  8. Sensitive immunoassay-based detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using capture and labeling particles in a stationary liquid phase lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Park, Byunghee; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, a method was developed for detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus based on a stationary liquid phase lab-on-a-chip (SLP LOC). The present SLP LOC comprises a sample chamber, washing chamber, and detection chamber connected by two channels. The method utilizes two types of particles: capture particles (CPs), which are magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with antibody; and labeling particles (LPs), which are silica nanoparticles functionalized with horseradish peroxidase and antibody. Samples were added to the sample chamber with CPs and LPs, forming a CP-bacteria-LP complex, and the complex was transported to the detection chamber containing chromogenic substrate solution. The method allowed the detection of V. parahaemolyticus in the range of 10(1)-10(5)cfu within 45min. Additionally, contamination of oyster samples with V. parahaemolyticus was detected within 2.5h, including 2h of culturing. The present method has the advantage of being highly rapid and facile, and enabling the detection of bacteria with high sensitivity. Moreover, the LOC and LOC processing device used in this method possess simple structures, making the detection process economical and allowing miniaturization. Therefore, the present SLP LOC detection method is potentially useful for in situ determination of food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Meissner effect measurement of single indium particle using a customized on-chip nano-scale superconducting quantum interference device system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Long; Chen, Lei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    As many emergent phenomena of superconductivity appear on a smaller scale and at lower dimension, commercial magnetic property measurement systems (MPMSs) no longer provide the sensitivity necessary to study the Meissner effect of small superconductors. The nano-scale superconducting quantum interference device (nano-SQUID) is considered one of the most sensitive magnetic sensors for the magnetic characterization of mesoscopic or microscopic samples. Here, we develop a customized on-chip nano-SQUID measurement system based on a pulsed current biasing method. The noise performance of our system is approximately 4.6 × 10-17 emu/Hz1/2, representing an improvement of 9 orders of magnitude compared with that of a commercial MPMS (~10-8 emu/Hz1/2). Furthermore, we demonstrate the measurement of the Meissner effect of a single indium (In) particle (of 47 μm in diameter) using our on-chip nano-SQUID system. The system enables the observation of the prompt superconducting transition of the Meissner effect of a single In particle, thereby providing more accurate characterization of the critical field Hc and temperature Tc. In addition, the retrapping field Hre as a function of temperature T of single In particle shows disparate behavior from that of a large ensemble.

  10. Meissner effect measurement of single indium particle using a customized on-chip nano-scale superconducting quantum interference device system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Chen, Lei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen

    2017-04-04

    As many emergent phenomena of superconductivity appear on a smaller scale and at lower dimension, commercial magnetic property measurement systems (MPMSs) no longer provide the sensitivity necessary to study the Meissner effect of small superconductors. The nano-scale superconducting quantum interference device (nano-SQUID) is considered one of the most sensitive magnetic sensors for the magnetic characterization of mesoscopic or microscopic samples. Here, we develop a customized on-chip nano-SQUID measurement system based on a pulsed current biasing method. The noise performance of our system is approximately 4.6 × 10(-17) emu/Hz(1/2), representing an improvement of 9 orders of magnitude compared with that of a commercial MPMS (~10(-8) emu/Hz(1/2)). Furthermore, we demonstrate the measurement of the Meissner effect of a single indium (In) particle (of 47 μm in diameter) using our on-chip nano-SQUID system. The system enables the observation of the prompt superconducting transition of the Meissner effect of a single In particle, thereby providing more accurate characterization of the critical field Hc and temperature Tc. In addition, the retrapping field Hre as a function of temperature T of single In particle shows disparate behavior from that of a large ensemble.

  11. Meissner effect measurement of single indium particle using a customized on-chip nano-scale superconducting quantum interference device system

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Long; Chen, Lei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    As many emergent phenomena of superconductivity appear on a smaller scale and at lower dimension, commercial magnetic property measurement systems (MPMSs) no longer provide the sensitivity necessary to study the Meissner effect of small superconductors. The nano-scale superconducting quantum interference device (nano-SQUID) is considered one of the most sensitive magnetic sensors for the magnetic characterization of mesoscopic or microscopic samples. Here, we develop a customized on-chip nano-SQUID measurement system based on a pulsed current biasing method. The noise performance of our system is approximately 4.6 × 10−17 emu/Hz1/2, representing an improvement of 9 orders of magnitude compared with that of a commercial MPMS (~10−8 emu/Hz1/2). Furthermore, we demonstrate the measurement of the Meissner effect of a single indium (In) particle (of 47 μm in diameter) using our on-chip nano-SQUID system. The system enables the observation of the prompt superconducting transition of the Meissner effect of a single In particle, thereby providing more accurate characterization of the critical field Hc and temperature Tc. In addition, the retrapping field Hre as a function of temperature T of single In particle shows disparate behavior from that of a large ensemble. PMID:28374779

  12. Particle concentrating and sorting under a rotating electric field by direct optical-liquid heating in a microfluidics chip.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a functional rotating electrothermal technique for rapidly concentrating and sorting a large number of particles on a microchip by the combination of particle dielectrophoresis (DEP) and inward rotating electrothermal (RET) flows. Different kinds of particles can be attracted (positive DEP) to or repelled (negative DEP) from electrode edges, and then the n-DEP responsive particles are further concentrated in the heated region by RET flows. The RET flows arise from the spatial inhomogeneous electric properties of fluid caused by direct infrared laser (1470 nm) heating of solution in a rotating electric field. The direction of the RET flows is radially inward to the heated region with a co-field (the same as the rotating electric field) rotation. Moreover, the velocity of the RET flows is proportional to the laser power and the square of the electric field strength. The RET flows are significant over a frequency range from 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The RET flows are generated by the simultaneous application of the infrared laser and the rotating electric field. Therefore, the location of particle concentrating can be controlled within the rotating electric field depending on the position of the laser spot. This multi-field technique can be operated in salt solutions and at higher frequency without external flow pressure, and thus it can avoid electrokinetic phenomena at low frequency to improve the manipulation accuracy for lab-on-chip applications.

  13. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

  14. Atomic-Scale Imaging and Spectroscopy for In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jungjohann, K. L.; Evans, James E.; Aguiar, Jeff; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-06-04

    Observation of growth, synthesis, dynamics and electrochemical reactions in the liquid state is an important yet largely unstudied aspect of nanotechnology. The only techniques that can potentially provide the insights necessary to advance our understanding of these mechanisms is simultaneous atomic-scale imaging and quantitative chemical analysis (through spectroscopy) under environmental conditions in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study we describe the experimental and technical conditions necessary to obtain electron energy loss (EEL) spectra from a nanoparticle in colloidal suspension using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with the environmental liquid stage. At a fluid path length below 400 nm, atomic resolution images can be obtained and simultaneous compositional analysis can be achieved. We show that EEL spectroscopy can be used to quantify the total fluid path length around the nanoparticle, and demonstrate characteristic core-loss signals from the suspended nanoparticles can be resolved and analyzed to provide information on the local interfacial chemistry with the surrounding environment. The combined approach using aberration corrected STEM and EEL spectra with the in situ fluid stage demonstrates a plenary platform for detailed investigations of solution based catalysis and biological research.

  15. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks.

  16. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks. PMID:25408295

  17. A robust molecular probe for Ångstrom-scale analytics in liquids

    PubMed Central

    Nirmalraj, Peter; Thompson, Damien; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Gotsmann, Bernd; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; Riel, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, nanomaterial profiling using a single-molecule-terminated scanning probe is performed at the vacuum–solid interface often at a few Kelvin, but is not a notion immediately associated with liquid–solid interface at room temperature. Here, using a scanning tunnelling probe functionalized with a single C60 molecule stabilized in a high-density liquid, we resolve low-dimensional surface defects, atomic interfaces and capture Ångstrom-level bond-length variations in single-layer graphene and MoS2. Atom-by-atom controllable imaging contrast is demonstrated at room temperature and the electronic structure of the C60–metal probe complex within the encompassing liquid molecules is clarified using density functional theory. Our findings demonstrates that operating a robust single-molecular probe is not restricted to ultra-high vacuum and cryogenic settings. Hence the scope of high-precision analytics can be extended towards resolving sub-molecular features of organic elements and gauging ambient compatibility of emerging layered materials with atomic-scale sensitivity under experimentally less stringent conditions. PMID:27516157

  18. Atomic-scale imaging and spectroscopy for in situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jungjohann, Katherine L; Evans, James E; Aguiar, Jeffery A; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D

    2012-06-01

    Observation of growth, synthesis, dynamics, and electrochemical reactions in the liquid state is an important yet largely unstudied aspect of nanotechnology. The only techniques that can potentially provide the insights necessary to advance our understanding of these mechanisms is simultaneous atomic-scale imaging and quantitative chemical analysis (through spectroscopy) under environmental conditions in the transmission electron microscope. In this study we describe the experimental and technical conditions necessary to obtain electron energy loss (EEL) spectra from a nanoparticle in colloidal suspension using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with the environmental liquid stage. At a fluid path length below 400 nm, atomic resolution images can be obtained and simultaneous compositional analysis can be achieved. We show that EEL spectroscopy can be used to quantify the total fluid path length around the nanoparticle and demonstrate that characteristic core-loss signals from the suspended nanoparticles can be resolved and analyzed to provide information on the local interfacial chemistry with the surrounding environment. The combined approach using aberration-corrected STEM and EEL spectra with the in situ fluid stage demonstrates a plenary platform for detailed investigations of solution-based catalysis.

  19. Properties of liquid clusters in large-scale molecular dynamics nucleation simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-02-21

    We have performed large-scale Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous vapor-to-liquid nucleation, with 10{sup 9} atoms. This large number allows us to resolve extremely low nucleation rates, and also provides excellent statistics for cluster properties over a wide range of cluster sizes. The nucleation rates, cluster growth rates, and size distributions are presented in Diemand et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 74309 (2013)], while this paper analyses the properties of the clusters. We explore the cluster temperatures, density profiles, potential energies, and shapes. A thorough understanding of the properties of the clusters is crucial to the formulation of nucleation models. Significant latent heat is retained by stable clusters, by as much as ΔkT = 0.1ε for clusters with size i = 100. We find that the clusters deviate remarkably from spherical—with ellipsoidal axis ratios for critical cluster sizes typically within b/c = 0.7 ± 0.05 and a/c = 0.5 ± 0.05. We examine cluster spin angular momentum, and find that it plays a negligible role in the cluster dynamics. The interfaces of large, stable clusters are thinner than planar equilibrium interfaces by 10%−30%. At the critical cluster size, the cluster central densities are between 5% and 30% lower than the bulk liquid expectations. These lower densities imply larger-than-expected surface areas, which increase the energy cost to form a surface, which lowers nucleation rates.

  20. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-19

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks.

  1. Actinide Recovery Experiments with Bench-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode in Fission Product-Laden Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    S. X. Li; S. D. Herrmann; R. W. Benedict; K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-02-01

    This article summarizes the observations and analytical results from a series of bench- scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments that recovered transuranic elements together with uranium from a molten electrolyte laden with real fission products. Variable parameters such as the ratio of Pu3+/U3+ in the electrolyte, liquid cadmium cathode voltage, and feed materials were tested in the LCC experiments. Actinide recovery efficiency and Pu/U ratio in the liquid cadmium cathode product under variable conditions are reported in the article. Separation factors for actinides and rare earth elements in the salt/cadmium system are also presented.

  2. Liquid-phase continuity and solute concentration dynamics during evaporation from porous media: Pore-scale processes near vaporization surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, N.; Lehmann, P.; Or, D.

    2010-04-01

    Evaporation from porous media involves complex pore scale transport processes affecting liquid phase distribution and fluxes. Often, the initial evaporation rate is nearly constant and supplied by capillary flow from wetted zones below to the surface. Sustaining constant flow against gravity hinges on an upward capillary gradient and on liquid phase continuity with hydraulic conductivity sufficient for supplying evaporative flux. The pore scale liquid phase adjustments during evaporative displacement necessary for maintaining a constant flux have been postulated but rarely measured. In this study we employed detailed imaging using x-ray synchrotron radiation to study liquid phase distribution and dynamics at the most sensitive domain just below the surface of evaporating sand columns. Three-dimensional images at a resolution of 7 microns were obtained from sand column (mean particle size 0.6 mm) initially saturated with calcium iodide solution (4% by mass) to enhance image contrast. Detailed imaging of near-surface liquid phase distribution during evaporation confirmed phase continuity at micrometric scale and provided quantitative estimates of liquid conductance in agreement with values required to supply evaporative flux. Temporal variations in bulk salt concentrations determined from x-ray attenuation were proportional to evaporative water mass loss. Highly resolved salt concentration images revealed existence of evaporating chimneys that supply the bulk of evaporative demand. Delineated mass loss dynamics and salt distribution measured by the x-ray attenuation were in reasonable agreement with a simplified analytical convection-diffusion model for salt dynamics during evaporation from porous media.

  3. Pilot scale experiments of magnesia hydration under gas-liquid-solid (three-phase) reaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaojia; Lv, Qiwei; Yin, Lin; Nie, Yixing; Jin, Qi; Ji, Yangyuan; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-08-01

    Pilot scale experiments were conducted to prepare magnesium hydroxide by magnesia hydration under gas-liquid-solid (three-phase) reaction system. The effect of reaction pressure, reactivity and particle size of magnesia and the concentration of the pulp on the degree of hydration was investigated. The results indicated that the hydration reaction occurred at the first 30min mainly. During the set reaction condition, degree of hydration of 68% could be obtained at the reaction pressure of 0.2MPa, concentration of pulp of 5%w/w with high reactivity and fine powder. The promotion effect on the degree of hydration caused by the three-phase reaction system was mostly attributed to the exfoliation of steam.

  4. Atomic-Scale Structure of a Liquid Metal-Insulator Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Pontoni, D.; Hofmann, T.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

    2010-04-01

    The structure of the liquid Hg/sapphire interface was measured with angstrom-scale resolution by high-energy X-ray reflectivity. The atomic Hg layering found at the interface is less pronounced than at the Hg/vapor interface, showing a twice-shorter decay length with depth, and a weaker peak/valley density contrast. We also find a near-interface, 8 {+-} 3 {angstrom} thick layer, the density of which, although depth-varying, is enhanced, on average, by 10 {+-} 5% relative to the bulk. The enhancement is assigned to a 0.13 {+-} 0.05 e/atom charge transfer from the Hg to the substrate, somewhat less than theory. The unexplained anomalous temperature dependence previously reported for the mercury/vapor density profile is absent here, implying a nonstructural origin for the anomaly.

  5. Vehicle-scale investigation of a fluorine jet-pump liquid hydrogen tank pressurization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to evaluate the performance of a fluorine-hydrogen jet-pump injector for main tank injection (MTI) pressurization of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. The injector performance during pressurization and LH2 expulsion was determined by a series of seven tests of a full-scale injector and MTI pressure control system in a 28.3 cu m (1000 cu ft) flight-weight LH2 tank. Although the injector did not effectively jet-pump LH2 continuously, it showed improved pressurization performance compared to straight-pipe injectors tested under the same conditions in a previous program. The MTI computer code was modified to allow performance prediction for the jet-pump injector.

  6. A pH Scale for the Protic Ionic Liquid Ethylammonium Nitrate.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Ryo; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi; Watanabe, Hikari; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-17

    To quantify the properties of protic ionic liquids (PILs) as acid-base reaction media, potentiometric titrations were carried out in a neat PIL, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN). A linear relationship was found between the 14 pKa  values of 12 compounds in EAN and in water. In other words, the pKa  value in EAN was found to be roughly one unit greater than that in water regardless of the charge and hydrophobicity of the compounds. It is possible that this could be explained by the stronger acidity of HNO3 in EAN than that of H3 O(+) in water and not by the difference in the solvation state of the ions. The pH value in EAN ranges from -1 to 9 on the pH scale based on the pH value in water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Optical response of Sr2RuO4 reveals universal fermi-liquid scaling and quasiparticles beyond Landau theory.

    PubMed

    Stricker, D; Mravlje, J; Berthod, C; Fittipaldi, R; Vecchione, A; Georges, A; van der Marel, D

    2014-08-22

    We report optical measurements demonstrating that the low-energy relaxation rate (1/τ) of the conduction electrons in Sr(2)RuO(4) obeys scaling relations for its frequency (ω) and temperature (T) dependence in accordance with Fermi-liquid theory. In the thermal relaxation regime, 1/τ ∝ (ħω)(2)+(pπk(B)T)(2) with p = 2, and ω/T scaling applies. Many-body electronic structure calculations using dynamical mean-field theory confirm the low-energy Fermi-liquid scaling and provide quantitative understanding of the deviations from Fermi-liquid behavior at higher energy and temperature. The excess optical spectral weight in this regime provides evidence for strongly dispersing "resilient" quasiparticle excitations above the Fermi energy.

  8. Motion of nanoprobes in complex liquids within the framework of the length-scale dependent viscosity model.

    PubMed

    Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Sozanski, Krzysztof; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Tabaka, Marcin; Hou, Sen; Holyst, Robert

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with the recent phenomenological model of the motion of nanoscopic objects (colloidal particles, proteins, nanoparticles, molecules) in complex liquids. We analysed motion in polymer, micellar, colloidal and protein solutions and the cytoplasm of living cells using the length-scale dependent viscosity model. Viscosity monotonically approaches macroscopic viscosity as the size of the object increases and thus gives a single, coherent picture of motion at the nano and macro scale. The model includes interparticle interactions (solvent-solute), temperature and the internal structure of a complex liquid. The depletion layer ubiquitously occurring in complex liquids is also incorporated into the model. We also discuss the biological aspects of crowding in terms of the length-scale dependent viscosity model.

  9. Critical scaling of icosahedral medium-range order in CuZr metallic glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. W.; Li, F. X.; Huo, C. W.; Li, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, K. X.

    2016-10-01

    The temperature evolution of icosahedral medium-range order formed by interpenetrating icosahedra in CuZr metallic glassforming liquids was investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. Scaling analysis based on percolation theory was employed, and it is found that the size distribution of clusters formed by the central atoms of icosahedra at various temperatures follows a very good scaling law with the cluster number density scaled by S‑τ and the cluster size S scaled by |1 ‑ Tc/T|‑1/σ, respectively. Here Tc is scaling crossover-temperature. τ and σ are scaling exponents. The critical scaling behaviour suggests that there would be a structural phase transition manifested by percolation of locally favoured structures underlying the glass transition, if the liquid could be cooled slowly enough but without crystallization intervening. Furthermore, it is revealed that when icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) extends to medium-range length scale by connection, the atomic configurations of ISROs will be optimized from distorted ones towards more regular ones gradually, which significantly lowers the energies of ISROs and introduces geometric frustration simultaneously. Both factors make key impacts on the drastic dynamic slow-down of supercooled liquids. Our findings provide direct structure-property relationship for understanding the nature of glass transition.

  10. Critical scaling of icosahedral medium-range order in CuZr metallic glass-forming liquids

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Z. W.; Li, F. X.; Huo, C. W.; Li, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, K. X.

    2016-01-01

    The temperature evolution of icosahedral medium-range order formed by interpenetrating icosahedra in CuZr metallic glassforming liquids was investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. Scaling analysis based on percolation theory was employed, and it is found that the size distribution of clusters formed by the central atoms of icosahedra at various temperatures follows a very good scaling law with the cluster number density scaled by S−τ and the cluster size S scaled by |1 − Tc/T|−1/σ, respectively. Here Tc is scaling crossover-temperature. τ and σ are scaling exponents. The critical scaling behaviour suggests that there would be a structural phase transition manifested by percolation of locally favoured structures underlying the glass transition, if the liquid could be cooled slowly enough but without crystallization intervening. Furthermore, it is revealed that when icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) extends to medium-range length scale by connection, the atomic configurations of ISROs will be optimized from distorted ones towards more regular ones gradually, which significantly lowers the energies of ISROs and introduces geometric frustration simultaneously. Both factors make key impacts on the drastic dynamic slow-down of supercooled liquids. Our findings provide direct structure-property relationship for understanding the nature of glass transition. PMID:27779239

  11. COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

    2003-06-01

    This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project

  12. Conductance through a potential barrier embedded in a Luttinger liquid: Nonuniversal scaling at strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, D. N.; Wölfle, P.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate the linear response conductance of electrons in a Luttinger liquid with arbitrary interaction g2 , and subject to a potential barrier of arbitrary strength, as a function of temperature. We map the Hamiltonian in the basis of scattering states into an effective low energy Hamiltonian in current algebra form. First the renormalization group (RG) equation for weak interaction is derived in the current operator language both using the operator product expansion and the equation of motion method. To access the strong coupling regime, two methods of deducing the RG equation from perturbation theory, based on the scaling hypothesis and on the Callan-Symanzik formulation, are discussed. The important role of scale-independent terms is emphasized. The latter depend on the regularization scheme used (length versus temperature cutoff). Analyzing the perturbation theory in the fermionic representation, the diagrams contributing to the renormalization group β -function are identified. A universal part of the β -function is given by a ladder series and summed to all orders in g2 . First nonuniversal corrections beyond the ladder series are discussed and are shown to differ from the exact solutions obtained within conformal field theory which use a different regularization scheme. The RG equation for the temperature-dependent conductance is solved analytically. Our result agrees with known limiting cases.

  13. Testing of Densified Liquid Hydrogen Stratification in a Scale Model Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. D.

    1999-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of a single stage to orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle. The densification of cryogenic propellant through sub-cooling allows more propellant to be stored in a given volume. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would otherwise be possible with conventional, normal boiling point, cryogenic fluids. One critical step in determining the viability of densified propellant technology for launch vehicles is to perform the sequential process necessary to load a propellant tank with densified propellants. This paper describes a test program that was conducted at NASA to demonstrate the ability to load densified LH2 into a sub-scale propellant rank. This work was done through a collaborative effort between NASA Lewis Research Center and the Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems (LMMSS). The tank, is made from composite materials similar to that to be used on X-33, is formed from two lobes with a center seprum. Test results are shown for data that was collected on filling the sub-scale tank with densified liquid hydrogen propellant that was produced at the NASA Plum Brook Station. Data is compared to analytical predictions.

  14. Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S; Cook, J; Juratovac, J; Goodwillie, J; Burke, T

    2011-10-25

    Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities

  15. Gain chip design, power scaling and intra-cavity frequency doubling with LBO of optically pumped red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Hermann; Mateo, Cherry M. N.; Brauch, Uwe; Bek, Roman; Schwarzbäck, Thomas; Jetter, Michael; Graf, Thomas; Michler, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The wide range of applications in biophotonics, television or projectors, spectroscopy and lithography made the optically-pumped semiconductor (OPS) vertical external cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) an important category of power scalable lasers. The possibility of bandgap engineering, inserting frequency selective and converting elements into the open laser cavity and laser emission in the fundamental Gaussian mode leads to ongoing growth of the area of applications for tuneable laser sources. We present an AlGaInP-VECSEL system with a multi quantum well structure consisting of compressively strained GaInP quantum wells in an AlxGa1-xInP separate confinement heterostructure with an emission wavelength around 665 nm. The VECSEL chip with its n-λ cavity is pumped by a 532nm Nd:YAG laser under an angle to the normal incidence of 50°. In comparison, a gain chip design for high absorption values at pump wavelengths around 640nm with the use of quantum dot layers as active material is also presented. Frequency doubling is now realized with an antireflection coated lithium borate crystal, while a birefringent filter, placed inside the laser cavity under Brewster's angle, is used for frequency tuning. Further, power-scaling methods like in-well pumping as well as embedding the active region of a VECSEL between two transparent ic heaspreaders are under investigation.

  16. Lab-on-a-Chip Based Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark J.; Brasseur, Michael M.; Spearing, Scott F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a novel technique with which we will grow protein crystals in very small volumes, utilizing chip-based, microfluidic ("LabChip") technology. This development, which is a collaborative effort between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Caliper Technologies Corporation, promises a breakthrough in the field of protein crystal growth. Our initial results obtained from two model proteins, Lysozyme and Thaumatin, show that it is feasible to dispense and adequately mix protein and precipitant solutions on a nano-liter scale. The mixtures have shown crystal growth in volumes in the range of 10 nanoliters to 5 microliters. In addition, large diffraction quality crystals were obtained by this method. X-ray data from these crystals were shown to be of excellent quality. Our future efforts will include the further development of protein crystal growth with LabChip(trademark) technology for more complex systems. We will initially address the batch growth method, followed by the vapor diffusion method and the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The culmination of these chip developments is to lead to an on orbit protein crystallization facility on the International Space Station. Structural biologists will be invited to utilize the on orbit Iterative Biological Crystallization facility to grow high quality macromolecular crystals in microgravity.

  17. Lab-on-a-Chip Based Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark J.; Brasseur, Michael M.; Spearing, Scott F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a novel technique with which we will grow protein crystals in very small volumes, utilizing chip-based, microfluidic ("LabChip") technology. This development, which is a collaborative effort between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Caliper Technologies Corporation, promises a breakthrough in the field of protein crystal growth. Our initial results obtained from two model proteins, Lysozyme and Thaumatin, show that it is feasible to dispense and adequately mix protein and precipitant solutions on a nano-liter scale. The mixtures have shown crystal growth in volumes in the range of 10 nanoliters to 5 microliters. In addition, large diffraction quality crystals were obtained by this method. X-ray data from these crystals were shown to be of excellent quality. Our future efforts will include the further development of protein crystal growth with LabChip(trademark) technology for more complex systems. We will initially address the batch growth method, followed by the vapor diffusion method and the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The culmination of these chip developments is to lead to an on orbit protein crystallization facility on the International Space Station. Structural biologists will be invited to utilize the on orbit Iterative Biological Crystallization facility to grow high quality macromolecular crystals in microgravity.

  18. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT") demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and is operating at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOWM Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOITM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfdly piloted at a 10 tons-per- day (TPD) rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  19. Molecular dynamic simulation of platinum heater and associated nano-scale liquid argon film evaporation and colloidal adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maroo, Shalabh C; Chung, J N

    2008-12-01

    A novel 'fluid-wall thermal equilibrium model' for the wall-fluid heat transfer boundary condition has been developed in this paper to capture the nano-scale physics of transient phase transition of a thin liquid argon film on a heated platinum surface and the eventual colloidal adsorption phenomenon as the evaporation is diminishing using molecular dynamics. The objective of this work is to provide microscopic characterizations of the dynamic thermal energy transport mechanisms during the liquid film evaporation and also the resulting non-evaporable colloidal adsorbed liquid layer at the end of the evaporation process. A nanochannel is constructed of platinum (Pt) wall atoms with argon as the working fluid. The proposed model is validated by heating liquid argon between two Pt walls and comparing the thermal conductivity and change in internal energy to thermodynamic properties of argon. Later on, phase change process is studied by simulating evaporation of a thin liquid argon film on a Pt wall using the proposed model. Gradual evaporation of the liquid film occurs although the film does not vaporize completely. An ultra-thin layer of liquid argon is noticed to have "adsorbed" on the platinum surface. An analysis similar to the theoretical study by Hamaker (1937) is performed for the non-evaporating film and the value of the Hamaker-type constant falls in the typical range. This analysis is done to quantify the non-evaporating film with an attempt to use molecular dynamics simulation results in continuum mechanics.

  20. Liquid film thickness inside the high pressure swirl injectors: Real scale measurement and evaluation of analytical equations

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Seoksu; Bae, Choongsik; Abo-Serie, Essam

    2010-02-15

    Liquid film thickness inside two swirl injectors for direct injection (DI) gasoline engines was measured at different injection pressure conditions ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 MPa and then previous analytical and empirical equations were examined from the experimental results. Based on the evaluation, a new equation for the liquid film thickness inside the swirl injectors was introduced. A direct photography using two real scale transparent nozzles and a pulsed light source was employed to measure the liquid film thickness inside the swirl injectors. The error in the liquid film thickness measurement, generated from different refractive indices among transparent nozzle, fuel and air, was estimated and corrected based on the geometric optics. Two injectors which have different nozzle diameter and nozzle length were applied to introduce a more general empirical equation for the liquid film thickness inside the pressure swirl injectors. The results showed that the liquid film thickness remains constant at the injection pressures for direct injection gasoline engines while the ratio of nozzle length to nozzle diameter (L/D) shows significant effect on the liquid film thickness. The previously introduced analytical and empirical equations for relatively low injection pressure swirl injectors overestimated the effect of injection pressure at the operating range of high pressure swirl injectors and, in addition, the effect of L/D ratio and swirler geometry was rarely considered. A new empirical equation was suggested based on the experimental results by taking into account the effects of fuel properties, nozzle diameter, nozzle length and swirler geometry. (author)

  1. Measuring diffusivity in supercooled liquid nanoscale films using inert gas permeation. I. Kinetic model and scaling methods.

    PubMed

    Smith, R Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D

    2010-11-07

    We describe in detail a diffusion model used to simulate inert gas transport through supercooled liquid overlayers. In recent work, the transport of the inert gas has been shown to be an effective probe of the diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol in the experimentally challenging regime near the glass transition temperature. The model simulations accurately and quantitatively describe the inert gas permeation desorption spectra. The simulation results are used to validate universal scaling relationships between the diffusivity, overlayer thickness, and the temperature ramp rate for isothermal and temperature programmed desorption. From these scaling relationships we derive simple equations from which the diffusivity can be obtained using the peak desorption time or temperature for an isothermal or set of TPD experiments, respectively, without numerical simulation. The results presented here demonstrate that the permeation of gases through amorphous overlayers has the potential to be a powerful technique to obtain diffusivity data in deeply supercooled liquids.

  2. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per

  3. Scale-up of a liquid static culture process for hyperproduction of ganoderic acid by the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya-Jie; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2003-01-01

    Scale-up of a liquid static culture process was studied for hyperproduction of ganoderic acid (GA) by a famous Chinese traditional medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. Initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) and area of liquid surface per liquid volume (A(s)) were identified as key factors affecting cell growth and GA accumulation in liquid static cultures of G. lucidum, on the basis of which a multilayer static bioreactor was designed. At a low initial K(L)a level of 2.1 h(-1), a thick layer of white mycelia was formed on the liquid surface, and an optimal production of total GA (i.e., GA production in the liquid and on the liquid surface) was obtained. Both the formation of white mycelia and production of GA on the liquid surface were enhanced with an increase of A(s) within the range as investigated (0.24-1.53 cm(2)/mL). At an A(s) value of 0.90 cm(2)/mL, the total GA production reached maximum. A successful scale-up from a 20-mL static T-flask to a 7.5-L three-layer static bioreactor was achieved based on initial K(L)a. The maximum biomass (20.8 +/- 0.1 g DW/L), GA content (4.96 +/- 0.13 mg/100 mg DW), and total GA production (976 +/- 35 mg/L) were attained in static bioreactors. Not only GA content but also its production obtained in this work were the highest ever reported.

  4. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  5. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; ...

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  6. COMMODITY SCALE SYNTHESIS OF 1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuous large-scale preparation of several 1-methylimidazole based ionic liquids was carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Proce...

  7. COMMODITY SCALE SYNTHESIS OF 1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuous large-scale preparation of several 1-methylimidazole based ionic liquids was carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Proce...

  8. Combination of capillary micellar liquid chromatography with on-chip microfluidic chemiluminescence detection for direct analysis of buspirone in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Al Lawati, Haider A J; Kadavilpparampu, Afsal Mohammed; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2014-09-01

    Microfluidic based chemiluminescence (CL) detector having novel channel design for enhanced mixing has been developed and investigated in terms of its applicability with micellar mode of liquid chromatography (MLC). The newly developed detector was found to be highly sensitive and an alternative detection technique to combine with capillary MLC. This combination was successfully employed for direct detection of a model analyte using Ru(III)-peroxydisulphate CL system. The selected analyte, buspirone hydrochloride (BUS), was detected selectively at therapeutic concentration levels in human plasma without any sample pretreatment. By incorporating eight flow split units within the spiral channel of microfluidic chip, an enhancement of 140% in CL emission was observed. We also evaluated the effect of non- ionic surfactant, Brij-35, which used as mobile phase modifier in MLC, on CL emission. The CL signal was improved by 52% compared to aqueous-organic mobile phase combinations. Various parameters influencing the micellar chromatographic performance and the CL emission were optimized. This allowed highly sensitive analysis of BUS with limit of detection (LOD) of 0.27 ng mL(-1) (3σ/s) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.89 ng mL(-1) (10σ/s). The analyte recovery from human plasma at three different concentration level ranges from 88% to 96% (RSD 1.9-5.3%). The direct analysis of BUS in human plasma was achieved within 6 min. Therefore, combining microfluidic CL detection with micellar mode of separation is an efficient, cost-effective and highly sensitive technique that can utilize MLC in its full capacity for various bioanalytical procedures.

  9. Comparison of the human and bovine milk N-glycome via high-performance microfluidic chip liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Charles C; Aldredge, Danielle L; Lee, Hyeyoung; Lerno, Larry A; Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-05-04

    The isolation of whey proteins from human and bovine milks followed by profiling of their entire N-glycan repertoire is described. Whey proteins resulting from centrifugation and ethanol precipitation of milk were treated with PNGase F to release protein-bound N-glycans. Once released, N-glycans were analyzed via nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry following chromatographic separation on a porous graphitized carbon chip. In all, 38 N-glycan compositions were observed in the human milk sample while the bovine milk sample revealed 51 N-glycan compositions. These numbers translate to over a hundred compounds when isomers are considered and point to the complexity of the mixture. High mannose, neutral, and sialylated complex/hybrid glycans were observed in both milk sources. Although NeuAc sialylation was observed in both milk samples, the NeuGc residue was only observed in bovine milk and marks a major difference between human and bovine milks. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first MS based confirmation of NeuGc in milk protein bound glycans as well as the first comprehensive N-glycan profile of bovine milk proteins. Tandem MS was necessary for resolving complications presented by the fact that (NeuGc:Fuc) corresponds to the exact mass of (NeuAc:Hex). Comparison of the relative distribution of the different glycan types in both milk sources was possible via their abundances. While the human milk analysis revealed a 6% high mannose, 57% sialylation, and 75% fucosylation distribution, a 10% high mannose, 68% sialylation, and 31% fucosylation distribution was observed in the bovine milk analysis. Comparison with the free milk oligosaccharides yielded low sialylation and high fucosylation in human, while high sialylation and low fucosylation are found in bovine. The results suggest that high fucosylation is a general trait in human, while high sialylation and low fucosylation are general features of

  10. Multi-scale coarse-graining of non-conservative interactions in molecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Izvekov, Sergei Rice, Betsy M.

    2014-03-14

    A new bottom-up procedure for constructing non-conservative (dissipative and stochastic) interactions for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) models is described and applied to perform hierarchical coarse-graining of a polar molecular liquid (nitromethane). The distant-dependent radial and shear frictions in functional-free form are derived consistently with a chosen form for conservative interactions by matching two-body force-velocity and three-body velocity-velocity correlations along the microscopic trajectories of the centroids of Voronoi cells (clusters), which represent the dissipative particles within the DPD description. The Voronoi tessellation is achieved by application of the K-means clustering algorithm at regular time intervals. Consistently with a notion of many-body DPD, the conservative interactions are determined through the multi-scale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method, which naturally implements a pairwise decomposition of the microscopic free energy. A hierarchy of MS-CG/DPD models starting with one molecule per Voronoi cell and up to 64 molecules per cell is derived. The radial contribution to the friction appears to be dominant for all models. As the Voronoi cell sizes increase, the dissipative forces rapidly become confined to the first coordination shell. For Voronoi cells of two and more molecules the time dependence of the velocity autocorrelation function becomes monotonic and well reproduced by the respective MS-CG/DPD models. A comparative analysis of force and velocity correlations in the atomistic and CG ensembles indicates Markovian behavior with as low as two molecules per dissipative particle. The models with one and two molecules per Voronoi cell yield transport properties (diffusion and shear viscosity) that are in good agreement with the atomistic data. The coarser models produce slower dynamics that can be appreciably attributed to unaccounted dissipation introduced by regular Voronoi re-partitioning as well as by larger

  11. Lab-on-chips for manipulation of small-scale organisms to facilitate imaging of neurons and organs.

    PubMed

    Ardeshiri, Ramtin; Rezai, Pouya

    2016-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) are widely-used model organisms for neurological and cardiac studies due to their simple neuronal (302 neurons in C. elegans) and cardiac (simple tubular organ in D. melanogaster) systems. However, their small sizes and continuous mobility impede their precise and timely manipulation, hence, limiting the assays that can be done using conventional manual methods. This has resulted in a need for technologies that allow multidirectional manipulation of model organisms to enable studies on target neurons and organs throughout the body. By integration of rotatable glass capillaries with pneumatic suction into microfluidic devices, we propose novel Lab-on-Chips for multi-directional manipulation and imaging of small organisms. These hybrid Lab-on-Chips can facilitate the processes of animal handling and stimuli control, using modules for single-organism selection, orientation, imaging and chemical stimulation. We show the applications of these hybrid microdevices in manipulating C. elegans for neuronal imaging (neuron-level assay) or D. melanogaster for heart screening (organ level assay). These devices can enhance the throughput of biological assays on whole-organisms and find their applications in drug discovery and toxicology.

  12. Investigation and analysis on the solder ball shear strength of plastic ball grid array, chip scale, and flip chip packages with eutectic lead-tin and lead-free solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingjia

    Area array technology is one of the main themes for IC packaging in the past decade. Ball grid array (BGA), chip scale package (CSP) and flip chip (FC) packages utilize solder ball (bumps) for interconnection overwhelmingly. Nowadays, the solder ball shear test has been widely used as a standard qualification test to evaluate the solder ball attachment strength for BGA, CSP and FC packages. In this thesis, experimental observations of failure mechanisms in the solder ball shear test were performed on PBGA packages with 30-mil eutectic Pb-Sn solder balls at a fixed test condition. Three typical failure modes were identified. During the ball shear test, the solder ball undergoes substantial rigid-body rotation. For Mode I failure (the dominant mode), no crack is observed when the shear force starts to descend. For Mode II failure (the less dominant mode), a crack is initiated at the root of the solder ball at an early stage of the ball shear test. Finite element simulation on the ball shear test shows that Failure Modes I is closely related to the high regions of von Mises stress contours inside the solder. The experimental investigation on effects of shear test conditions on solder ball shear strength for PBGA, CSP and FC packages were performed. A higher shear speed and lower ram height result in a higher solder ball shear strength. The shear strength of Sn-Ag-Cu solder balls is more sensitive to the shear speed than that of eutectic Pb-Sn solder balls. Finite element models were then constructed to simulate the effect of the shear test conditions on the solder ball shear strength for PBGA with 30-mil eutectic Pb-Sn solder balls. With a scale factor (effective thickness), it is feasible to study a 3-D problem with a 2-D finite element model. The results from 2-D modeling are in agreement with the experimental data. For BGA, CSP and FC, the ideal solder ball shear test conditions are recommended to be the cases with a ram height of 10 to 20% of the ball height and a

  13. High-temperature operating 894.6nm-VCSELs with extremely low threshold for Cs-based chip scale atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhang, Jian; Ning, Yongqiang; Qin, Li; Wang, Lijun

    2015-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of 894.6nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with extremely low threshold at high temperatures, for use in chip-scale Cs atomic clocks. A new design method based on the analysis of the threshold gain and the desired carrier density for different active region structures was proposed to gain the low transparent current density. The increase of the threshold current at higher temperatures was successfully suppressed by introducing the large gain-cavity detuning of VCSEL. By detuning the gain-cavity mode to be -11nm, the minimum threshold current of only 0.23mA at 70 °C was achieved. The operating temperature for emitting the wavelength of 894.6nm was 110 °C, with the single mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of more than 25dB and the threshold current of only 0.32mA.

  14. The extended Beer-Lambert theory for ray tracing modeling of LED chip-scaled packaging application with multiple luminescence materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Cadmus C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Optical ray tracing modeling applied Beer-Lambert method in the single luminescence material system to model the white light pattern from blue LED light source. This paper extends such algorithm to a mixed multiple luminescence material system by introducing the equivalent excitation and emission spectrum of individual luminescence materials. The quantum efficiency numbers of individual material and self-absorption of the multiple luminescence material system are considered as well. By this combination, researchers are able to model the luminescence characteristics of LED chip-scaled packaging (CSP), which provides simple process steps and the freedom of the luminescence material geometrical dimension. The method will be first validated by the experimental results. Afterward, a further parametric investigation has been then conducted.

  15. A chip of fiber optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Heming; Hu, Huizhu; Zhang, Lei; Ge, Xiaojia; Shen, Yu

    2016-10-01

    A chip of fiber optical trap paves the way to realize the miniaturization and portability of devices based on dual beam optical trap, without loss of stability. We have designed two types of chip of fiber optical trap according to our theoretical simulation. The first one integrates dual beam optical trap with microfluidic chip, called a chip of semi-sealing fiber optical trap. It is generally used in chemical, biological, medical and other high-throughput experiments. The second one is a chip of full-sealing fiber optical trap. It is used to measure precisely the coefficient of viscosity or the Brownian movement of micro-object's in liquid. This paper focuses on the chip of fiber optical trap. We present two types of chips of fiber optical trap and detail their designs, fabrication and validation. The chip of semi-sealing fiber optical trap is integrated with optical fiber and microfluidic chip made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We have achieved the micro-sized alignment of optical paths and the trapping of micro-sized particles in the chip of semi-sealing fiber optical trap. In addition, it is easy to fabrication and clean. The chip of full-sealing fiber optical trap was based on a cubic micro-cavity made by a rectangular capillary tube and sealed by PDMS. We have achieved micro-sized alignment accuracy, high trapping efficiency and better trapping stability in the chip of full-sealing fiber optical trap as well.

  16. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  17. Multi-Scale Morphological Analysis of Conductance Signals in Vertical Upward Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Enyang; Ren, Yingyu; Han, Yunfeng; Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Zhao, Junying

    2016-11-01

    The multi-scale analysis is an important method for detecting nonlinear systems. In this study, we carry out experiments and measure the fluctuation signals from a rotating electric field conductance sensor with eight electrodes. We first use a recurrence plot to recognise flow patterns in vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase pipe flow from measured signals. Then we apply a multi-scale morphological analysis based on the first-order difference scatter plot to investigate the signals captured from the vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow loop test. We find that the invariant scaling exponent extracted from the multi-scale first-order difference scatter plot with the bisector of the second-fourth quadrant as the reference line is sensitive to the inhomogeneous distribution characteristics of the flow structure, and the variation trend of the exponent is helpful to understand the process of breakup and coalescence of the gas phase. In addition, we explore the dynamic mechanism influencing the inhomogeneous distribution of the gas phase in terms of adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representation. The research indicates that the system energy is a factor influencing the distribution of the gas phase and the multi-scale morphological analysis based on the first-order difference scatter plot is an effective method for indicating the inhomogeneous distribution of the gas phase in gas-liquid two-phase flow.

  18. Direct mapping of local director field of nematic liquid crystals at the nano-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu; Serra, Francesca; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall

    2015-03-01

    The director field in liquid crystals (LCs) has been characterized mainly via polarized optical microscopy, fluorescence confocal microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, all of which are limited by optical wavelengths - from hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers. Since LC orientation cannot be resolved directly by these methods, theory is needed to interpret the local director field of LC alignment. In this work, we introduce a new approach to directly visualize the local director field of a nematic LC (NLC) at the nano-scale using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A new type of NLC monomer bearing crosslinkable groups was designed and synthesized. It can be well-oriented at particle surfaces and patterned polymer substrates, including micron-sized silica colloids, porous membranes, micropillar arrays, and 1D channels. After carefully crosslinking, the molecular orientation of NLCs around the particles or within the patterns could be directly visualized by SEM, showing oriented nanofibers representing LC director from the fractured samples. Here, we could precisely resolve not only the local director field by this approach, but the defect structures of NLCs, including hedgehogs and line defects. The direct mapping of LC directors at the nanoscale using this method will improve our understanding of NLC local director field, and thus their manipulation and applications. More importantly, a theoretical interpretation will no longer be a necessity to resolve a new material system in this field.

  19. Unifying expression scale for peptide hydrophobicity in proteomic reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography experiments.

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, Marine; Shamshurin, Dmitry; Spicer, Victor; Krokhin, Oleg V

    2013-11-19

    As an initial step in our efforts to unify the expression of peptide retention times in proteomic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) experiments, we aligned the chromatographic properties of a number of peptide retention standards against a collection of peptides commonly observed in proteomic experiments. The standard peptide mixtures and tryptic digests of samples of different origins were separated under the identical chromatographic condition most commonly employed in proteomics: 100 Å C18 sorbent with 0.1% formic acid as an ion-pairing modifier. Following our original approach (Krokhin, O. V.; Spicer, V. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 9522-9530) the retention characteristics of these standards and collection of tryptic peptides were mapped into hydrophobicity index (HI) or acetonitrile percentage units. This scale allows for direct visualization of the chromatographic outcome of LC-MS acquisitions, monitors the performance of the gradient LC system, and simplifies method development and interlaboratory data alignment. Wide adoption of this approach would significantly aid understanding the basic principles of gradient peptide RP-HPLC and solidify our collective efforts in acquiring confident peptide retention libraries, a key component in the development of targeted proteomic approaches.

  20. Evidence for non-diverging time-scales in glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Gregory

    2013-03-01

    One perceived important signature of the ``ideal'' glass transition and of the complex fluid nature of glass-forming liquids remains the apparent divergence of the dynamics at temperatures above zero Kelvin. Recently, however, this perception has been increasingly challenged both through experiments and in new theories of the dynamics of glass forming systems. In this presentation we summarize some of the prior evidence suggesting that time scales actually do not diverge in glasses that are aged into equilibrium, perhaps 15 K below the conventional glass transition temperature Tg. We then show new results from an extremely densified glass, 20 Ma old Jamaican amber, in which we were able to obtain the upper bound to the relaxation times through a step-wise temperature scan in which the stress relaxation response of the amber was measured both below and above the fictive temperature TF . We find that in the case of the upper bound responses at T>TF , there is a strong deviation of the response from the Super-Arrhenius Vogel-Fulcher behavior and this persists to the fictive temperature which is some 33.8 K below Tg. The results are compared to the parabolic model of Chandler and co-workers and we find the model to be consistent with our results if the value of Tx in the model is taken to be the calorimetric glass transition temperature. The significance of the results will be discussed. We acknowledge NSF grants DMR-0804438 and DMR-1207070 for support of this work

  1. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films.

  2. The processing technology of PMMA micro-fluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Lili; Rong, Li; Guo, Shuheng; Liu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    In order to enrich the production method of micro-fluidic chip and simplify its processing technology, the paper discussed the double-sided adhesive layer for channel layer, with PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) for fabrication of microfluidic chip with the cover plate and the bottom plate. Taking 40 mm (long) x 20 mm (wide) x 2.2 mm (thick) liquid drop to separate the microfluidic chip as an example, details the design and machining process of the chip. Experiments show that surface quality is high and processing speed is fast when using this technology to process the chip. Thus, it can realize the mass production of micro fluidic chip.

  3. Moderately and strongly supercooled liquids: a temperature-derivative study of the primary relaxation time scale.

    PubMed

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Borges, Pablo D; Sullivan, Neil S

    2005-03-15

    The primary relaxation time scale tau(T) derived from the glass forming supercooled liquids (SCLs) is discussed within ergodic-cluster Gaussian statistics, theoretically justified near and above the glass-transformation temperature T(g). An analysis is given for the temperature-derivative data by Stickel et al. on the steepness and the curvature of tau(T). Near the mode-coupling-theory (MCT) crossover T(c), these derivatives separate by a kink and a jump, respectively, the moderately and strongly SCL states. After accounting for the kink and the jump, the steepness remains a piecewise conitnuous function, a material-independent equation for the three fundamental characteristic temperatures, T(g), T(c), and the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) T(0), is found. Both states are described within the heterostructured model of solidlike clusters parametrized in a self-consistent manner by a minimum set of observable parameters: the fragility index, the MCT slowing-down exponent, and the chemical excess potential of Adam and Gibbs model (AGM). Below the Arrhenius temperature, the dynamically and thermodynamically stabilized clusters emerge with a size of around of seven to nine and two to three molecules above and close to T(g) and T(c), respectively. On cooling, the main transformation of the moderately into the strongly supercooled state is due to rebuilding of the cluster structure, and is attributed to its rigidity, introduced through the cluster compressibility. It is shown that the validity of the dynamic AGM (dynamically equivalent to the standard VFT form) is limited by the strongly supercooled state (T(g) < T < T(c)) where the superrigid cooperative rearranging regions are shown to be well-chosen parametrized solidlike clusters. Extension of the basic parameter set by the observable kinetic and diffusive exponents results in prediction of a subdiffusion relaxation regime in SCLs that is distinct from that established for amorphous polymers.

  4. Lubrication Performance of Ionic Liquids Under Low Load Applications: Small Scale Interfaces (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Jaeger DA, Tucker CE (1989) Diels - Alder reactions in ethylammonium nitrate, a low-melting fused salt. Tetrahedron Lett. 30: 1785–1788 3. Earle MJ...McCormac PB, Seddon KR (1999) Diels - Alder reaction in ionic liquids. Green Chem 1 :23–25 4. Bonhôte P, Dias A-P (1997) Hydrophobic liquid salts, the

  5. Atomic-Scale Characterization of Oxide Thin Films Gated by Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Andrew C.; Sloppy, Jennifer; Ghassemi, H.; Devlin, Robert C.; Sichel-Tissot, Rebecca J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; May, Steven J.; Taheri, Mitra L.

    2014-09-04

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been considered for use in electrostatic gating in complex oxide systems. Understanding the ionic liquid/oxide interface, and any bias-induced electrochemical degradation, is critical for the interpretation of transport phenomena. The integrity of the interface between ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and La1/3Sr2/3FeO3 under various biasing conditions was examined by analytical transmission electron microscopy, and we report film degradation in the form of an irreversible chemical reaction regardless of the applied bias. This results in an intermixing region of 4–6 nm at the IL/oxide interface. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows La and Fe migration into the ionic liquid, resulting in secondary phase formation under negative bias. Our approach can be extended to other ionic liquid/oxide systems in order to better understand the electrochemical stability window of these device structures.

  6. Comparison of the Human and Bovine Milk N-Glycome via High-Performance Microfluidic Chip Liquid Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Charles C.; Aldredge, Danielle L.; Lee, Hyeyoung; Lerno, Larry A.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of whey proteins from human and bovine milks followed by profiling of their entire N-glycan repertoire is described. Whey proteins resulting from centrifugation and ethanol precipitation of milk were treated with PNGase F to release protein-bound N-glycans. Once released, N-glycans were analyzed via nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry following chromatographic separation on a porous graphitized carbon chip. In all, 38 N-glycan compositions were observed in the human milk sample while the bovine milk sample revealed 51 N-glycan compositions. These numbers translate to over a hundred compounds when isomers are considered and point to the complexity of the mixture. High mannose, neutral and sialylated complex/hybrid glycans were observed in both milk sources. Although NeuAc sialylation was observed in both milk samples, the NeuGc residue was only observed in bovine milk and marks a major difference between human and bovine milks. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first MS based confirmation of NeuGc in milk protein bound glycans as well as the first comprehensive N-glycan profile of bovine milk proteins. Tandem MS was necessary for resolving complications presented by the fact that (NeuGc:Fuc) corresponds to the exact mass of (NeuAc:Hex). Comparison of the relative distribution of the different glycan types in both milk sources was possible via their abundances. While the human milk analysis revealed a 6% high mannose, 57% sialylation and 75% fucosylation distribution, a 10% high mannose, 68% sialylation and 31% fucosylation distribution was observed in the bovine milk analysis. Comparison with the free milk oligosaccharides yielded low sialylation and high fucosylation in human, while high sialylation and low fucosylation are found in bovine. The results suggest that high fucosylation is a general trait in human, while high sialylation and low fucosylation are general features of

  7. Large-scale controlled fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures in liquid crystalline phase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chengliang; Xiang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Zenghui; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Junlin; Xuan, Li

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale controllable fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures is demonstrated experimentally via electrodeposition in the liquid crystalline phase. Different sizes of silver flowers are fabricated by adjusting the deposition time and the concentration of the silver nitrate solution. The density of the silver flowers in the sample is also controllable in this work. The flower-like silver nanostructures can serve as effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates because of their local surface plasmon resonance, and they may have applications in photoluminescence and catalysis. This liquid crystalline phase is used as a soft template for fabricating flower-like silver nanostructures for the first time, and this approach is suitable for large-scale uniform fabrication up to several centimetres. PMID:26216669

  8. Permeability of fiber reinforcements for liquid composite molding: Sequential multi-scale investigations into numerical flow modeling on the micro- and meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Timothy John Franklin

    Composites are complex material mixtures, known to have high amounts of variability, with unique properties at the micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. In the context of advanced textile composite reinforcements, micro-scale refers to aligned fibers and toughening agents in a disordered arrangement; meso-scale is the woven, braided, or stitched fabric geometry (which compacts to various volume fractions); and macro-scale is the component or sub-component being produced for a mechanical application. The Darcy-based permeability is an important parameter for modeling and understanding the flow profile and fill times for liquid composite molding. Permeability of composite materials can vary widely from the micro- to macro-scales. For example, geometric factors like compaction and ply layup affect the component permeability at the meso- and macro-scales. On the micro-scale the permeability will be affected by the packing arrangement of the fibers and fiber volume fraction. On any scale, simplifications to the geometry can be made to treat the fiber reinforcement as a porous media. Permeability has been widely studied in both experimental and analytical frameworks, but less attention has focused on the ability of numerical tools to predict the permeability of reinforced composite materials. This work aims at (1) predicting permeability at various scales of interest and (2) developing a sequential, multi-scale, numerical modeling approach on the micro- and meso-scales. First, a micro-scale modeling approach is developed, including a geometry generation tool and a fluids-based numerical permeability solver. This micro-scale model included all physical fibers and derived the empirical permeability constant directly though numerical simulation. This numerical approach was compared with literature results for perfect packing arrangements, and the results were shown to be comparable with previous work. The numerical simulations described here also extended these previous

  9. A vascularized and perfused organ-on-a-chip platform for large-scale drug screening applications.

    PubMed

    Phan, Duc T T; Wang, Xiaolin; Craver, Brianna M; Sobrino, Agua; Zhao, Da; Chen, Jerry C; Lee, Lilian Y N; George, Steven C; Lee, Abraham P; Hughes, Christopher C W

    2017-01-31

    There is a growing awareness that complex 3-dimensional (3D) organs are not well represented by monolayers of a single cell type - the standard format for many drug screens. To address this deficiency, and with the goal of improving screens so that drugs with good efficacy and low toxicity can be identified, microphysiological systems (MPS) are being developed that better capture the complexity of in vivo physiology. We have previously described an organ-on-a-chip platform that incorporates perfused microvessels, such that survival of the surrounding tissue is entirely dependent on delivery of nutrients through the vessels. Here we describe an arrayed version of the platform that incorporates multiple vascularized micro-organs (VMOs) on a 96-well plate. Each VMO is independently-addressable and flow through the micro-organ is driven by hydrostatic pressure. The platform is easy to use, requires no external pumps or valves, and is highly reproducible. As a proof-of-concept we have created arrayed vascularized micro tumors (VMTs) and used these in a blinded screen to assay a small library of compounds, including FDA-approved anti-cancer drugs, and successfully identified both anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor drugs. This 3D platform is suitable for efficacy/toxicity screening against multiple tissues in a more physiological environment than previously possible.

  10. Singlet oxygen generator on a chip for MEMS-based COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, Carol; Hill, Tyrone F.; Velásquez-García, Luis; Wilhite, Benjamin A.; Epstein, Alan H.; Jensen, Klavs; Rawlins, W. Terry; Lee, Seonkyung; Davis, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) offer a promising approach for creating compact, efficient chemical oxygen iodine lasers. In this paper we report the demonstration and characterization of a chip-scale, MEMS-based singlet oxygen generator, or microSOG. The microSOG is a batch-fabricated silicon chip that is micromachined to form reactant inlets and distribution system, an array of microstructured packed bed reaction channels to ensure good mixing between the BHP and the chlorine, a gas-liquid separator that removes liquid from the output stream by capillary effects, integrated heat exchangers to remove the excess heat of reaction, and product outlets. The microSOG has successfully generated singlet delta oxygen, and the resulting singlet delta concentrations were measured in a quartz test cell downstream of the chip using absolutely-calibrated near-infrared emission measurements made by an InGaAs array spectrometer. A kinetics analysis was used to determine the concentration at the chip's outlet from the concentration at the measurement point. Singlet delta yield at the outlet was determined to be about 81% at 150 Torr plenum pressure with a 25 sccm flow of chlorine. The corresponding output flow carries about 1.4 W of power at the chip's outlet.

  11. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This

  12. Two reference time scales for studying the dynamic cavitation of liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Brewe, David E.

    1991-01-01

    Two formulas, one for characteristic time of filling a void with a vapor of the surrounding liquid, and one of filling the void by diffusion of the dissolved gas in the liquid, are derived. Based on this analysis, it is seen that in an oil film bearing operating under dynamic loads, the content of cavitation region should be oil vapor rather than the air liberated from solution, if the oil is free of entrained air.

  13. Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Hjorth, Maibritt; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-09-01

    Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed on the farm. Five different separation treatments were performed (polymer flocculation and drainage; coagulation with iron sulphate addition and polymer flocculation and drainage; ozonation and centrifugation; centrifugation only; and natural sedimentation) on sow and suckling piglet raw slurry. Particle size fractionation was performed on raw slurry and all separation fractions by sequential wet sieving and P, Cu and Zn concentrations were then measured in the particle size classes. Dry matter and total P, Cu and Zn were separated with higher efficiency when chemical pretreatments with flocculants and coagulants were introduced before mechanical separation at both commercial and laboratory scale. When solid fractions are utilized as crop fertilizer (primarily as P fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn to the soils are not markedly different than the loads applied with raw slurry. When liquid fractions are used as crop fertilizer (primarily as N fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn are markedly lower than those supplied with raw slurry. The loads of Cu and Zn introduced to the soil were lowest on application of the liquid fraction produced by optimized separation treatments that included flocculation and coagulation.

  14. Overlay distortions in wafer-scale integration lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.

    1993-08-01

    Wafer scale integration (WSI) lithography is the technique used to fabricate ultra large scale integration (ULSI) integrated circuits significantly greater in size than current products. Applications for WSI lithography include large solid state detector arrays, large area liquid crystal displays, high speed mainframe supercomputers, and large random access memories. The lithography technology required to manufacture these devices is particularly challenging, requiring stringent control of both submicron critical dimensions and accurate alignment of level to level device patterns over large chip areas.

  15. Low-energy recoils and energy scale in liquid xenon detector for direct dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Liquid xenon has been proven to be a great detector medium for the direct search of dark matter. However, in the energy region of below 10 keV, the light yield and charge production are not fully understood due to the convolution of excitation, recombination and quenching. We have already studied a recombination model to explain the physics processes involved in liquid xenon. Work is continued on the average energy expended per electron-ion pair as a function of energy based on the cross sections for different type of scattering processes. In this paper, the results will be discussed in comparison with available experimental data using Birk's Law to understand how scintillation quenching contributes to the non-linear light yield for electron recoils with energy below 10 keV in liquid xenon. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota.

  16. Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping.

    PubMed

    Malouin, Bernard A; Vogel, Michael J; Olles, Joseph D; Cheng, Lili; Hirsa, Amir H

    2011-02-07

    The small scales associated with lab-on-a-chip technologies lend themselves well to capillarity-dominated phenomena. We demonstrate a new capillarity-dominated system where two adjoining ferrofluid droplets can behave as an electronically-controlled oscillator or switch by an appropriate balance of magnetic, capillary, and inertial forces. Their oscillatory motion can be exploited to displace a surrounding liquid (akin to an axial piston pump), forming electromagnetic "liquid pistons." Such ferrofluid pistons can pump a precise volume of liquid via finely tunable amplitudes (cf. pump stroke) or resonant frequencies (cf. pump speed) with no solid moving parts for long-term operation without wear in a small device. Furthermore, the rapid propagation of electromagnetic fields and the favorable scaling of capillary forces with size permit micron sized devices with very fast operating speeds (∼kHz). The pumping dynamics and performance of these liquid pistons is explored, with experimental measurements showing good agreement with a spherical cap model. While these liquid pistons may find numerous applications in micro- and mesoscale fluidic devices (e.g., remotely activated drug delivery), here we demonstrate the use of these liquid pistons in capillarity-dominated systems for chip-level, fast-acting adaptive liquid lenses with nearly perfect spherical interfaces.

  17. Board-Level Solder Joint Reliability of Edge- and Corner-Bonded Lead-Free Chip Scale Package Assemblies Subjected to Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongbin; Tian, Cuihua; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results of thermal cycling test for edge- and corner-bonded lead-free chip scale packages (CSPs), which was carried out on the basis of the IPC-9701 test standard. Six materials were used in this study: four edge-bond adhesives and two corner-bond adhesives. These adhesives were compared with CSPs with full capillary flow underfill (FCFU) and without adhesives. The thermal cycling test results show that corner-bond adhesive has comparable solder joint reliability performance with CSP without adhesive, and is better than edge-bond adhesive, followed by CSPs with FCFU. In addition, the adhesives with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, a high glass transition temperature and a intermediate storage modulus yielded good performance. Results of detailed failure analysis indicate that the dominant failure mode is solder bulk fatigue cracking near package and/or printed circuit board (PCB) pads, and that the location of critical solder joints change from die edges to package corners with the introduction of adhesives.

  18. The feasibility of liquid sample microanalysis using polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chips with in-channel and in-port laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzinger, Anikó; Nagy, Andrea; Gáspár, Attila; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Kovács-Széles, Éva; Galbács, Gábor

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the direct interfacing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chips with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) detection. The changes induced in the PDMS material by nanosecond laser ablation are briefly documented by using optical microscopy and scanning profilometry. The main part of the study focuses on the solution of technical and analytical problems of coupling single-pulse LIBS detection with PDMS microfluidic chips in order to assess the feasibility and performance of the concept of creating a lab-on-a-chip device with LIBS detection (LOC-LIBS). Multiple optical and sample presentation schemes including in-channel and in-port detection were tested, but it was found that LOC-LIBS is only viable and practical with in-port detection outside the chip. It was shown that LOC-LIBS in this configuration is capable of the trace speciation analysis of chromium using as little as 0.5 μL solution volume. The achieved absolute limit of detection was 2 ng.

  19. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  20. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-08-18

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  1. Microcontact Printing of Thiol-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Microarrays for "Membrane-less" and "Spill-less" Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gondosiswanto, Richard; Gunawan, Christian A; Hibbert, David B; Harper, Jason B; Zhao, Chuan

    2016-11-16

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have gained significant interest for both chemical synthesis and assays at the micro-to-nanoscale with a unique set of benefits. However, solvent volatility represents one of the major hurdles to the reliability and reproducibility of the lab-on-a-chip devices for large-scale applications. Here we demonstrate a strategy of combining nonvolatile and functionalized ionic liquids with microcontact printing for fabrication of "wall-less" microreactors and microfluidics with high reproducibility and high throughput. A range of thiol-functionalized ionic liquids have been synthesized and used as inks for microcontact printing of ionic liquid microdroplet arrays onto gold chips. The covalent bonds formed between the thiol-functionalized ionic liquids and the gold substrate offer enhanced stability of the ionic liquid microdroplets, compared to conventional nonfunctionalized ionic liquids, and these microdroplets remain stable in a range of nonpolar and polar solvents, including water. We further demonstrate the use of these open ionic liquid microarrays for fabrication of "membrane-less" and "spill-less" gas sensors with enhanced reproducibility and robustness. Ionic-liquid-based microarray and microfluidics fabricated using the described microcontact printing may provide a versatile platform for a diverse number of applications at scale.

  2. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (.50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in

  3. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the

  4. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-scale self-organization of reconfigurable topological defect networks in nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yuji; Jampani, V.S.R.; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sakane, Shin; Le, Khoa V.; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defects are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-assembly. Usually, spatially and temporally stable defects require geometrical frustration imposed by surfaces; otherwise, the system relaxes because of the high cost of the elastic energy. So far, multiple defects are kept in bulk nematic liquid crystals by top-down lithographic techniques. In this work, we stabilize a large number of umbilical defects by doping with an ionic impurity. This method does not require pre-patterned surfaces. We demonstrate that molecular reorientation controlled by an AC voltage induces periodic density modulation of ions accumulated at an electrically insulating polymer interface, resulting in self-organization of a two-dimensional square array of umbilical defects that is reconfigurable and tunable. PMID:27819290

  6. Emerging Evidences of Mesoscopic-Scale Complexity in Neat Ionic Liquids and Their Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Russina, Olga; Lo Celso, Fabrizio; Plechkova, Natalia V; Triolo, Alessandro

    2017-03-16

    Ionic liquids (ILs) represent a blooming class of continuously developing advanced materials, with the aiming of a green chemical industry. Their appealing physical and chemical properties are largely influenced by their micro- and mesoscopic structure that is known to possess a high degree of hierarchical organization. High-impact application fields are largely affected by the complex morphology of neat ionic liquids and their mixtures. This Perspective highlights new arising research directions that point to an enhanced level of structural complexity in several IL-based systems, including mixtures. The latter represent a change in paradigm in the approach to formulate new, task-specific IL-based media, and the reported phenomenology has the potential to further expand their range of applications by calling for a revisitation of the nature of interactions in these exciting media.

  7. Large-scale self-organization of reconfigurable topological defect networks in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuji; Jampani, V S R; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sakane, Shin; Le, Khoa V; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2016-11-07

    Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defects are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-assembly. Usually, spatially and temporally stable defects require geometrical frustration imposed by surfaces; otherwise, the system relaxes because of the high cost of the elastic energy. So far, multiple defects are kept in bulk nematic liquid crystals by top-down lithographic techniques. In this work, we stabilize a large number of umbilical defects by doping with an ionic impurity. This method does not require pre-patterned surfaces. We demonstrate that molecular reorientation controlled by an AC voltage induces periodic density modulation of ions accumulated at an electrically insulating polymer interface, resulting in self-organization of a two-dimensional square array of umbilical defects that is reconfigurable and tunable.

  8. Mapping Elastic Properties of Heterogeneous Materials in Liquid with Angstrom-Scale Resolution.

    PubMed

    Amo, Carlos A; Perrino, Alma P; Payam, Amir F; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-09-26

    Fast quantitative mapping of mechanical properties with nanoscale spatial resolution represents one of the major goals of force microscopy. This goal becomes more challenging when the characterization needs to be accomplished with subnanometer resolution in a native environment that involves liquid solutions. Here we demonstrate that bimodal atomic force microscopy enables the accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of surfaces in liquid with a spatial resolution of 3 Å. The Young's modulus can be determined with a relative error below 5% over a 5 orders of magnitude range (1 MPa to 100 GPa). This range includes a large variety of materials from proteins to metal-organic frameworks. Numerical simulations validate the accuracy of the method. About 30 s is needed for a Young's modulus map with subnanometer spatial resolution.

  9. Large-scale self-organization of reconfigurable topological defect networks in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yuji; Jampani, V. S. R.; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sakane, Shin; Le, Khoa V.; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defects are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-assembly. Usually, spatially and temporally stable defects require geometrical frustration imposed by surfaces; otherwise, the system relaxes because of the high cost of the elastic energy. So far, multiple defects are kept in bulk nematic liquid crystals by top-down lithographic techniques. In this work, we stabilize a large number of umbilical defects by doping with an ionic impurity. This method does not require pre-patterned surfaces. We demonstrate that molecular reorientation controlled by an AC voltage induces periodic density modulation of ions accumulated at an electrically insulating polymer interface, resulting in self-organization of a two-dimensional square array of umbilical defects that is reconfigurable and tunable.

  10. Multi-scales nuclear spin relaxation of liquids in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(ω) is a rich source of dynamical information for characterizing the molecular dynamics of liquids in confined environments. Varying the magnetic field changes the Larmor frequency ω, and thus the fluctuations to which the nuclear spin relaxation is sensitive. Moreover, this method permits a more complete characterization of the dynamics than the usual measurements as a function of temperature at fixed magnetic field strength, because many common solvent liquids have phase transitions that may alter significantly the character of the dynamics over the temperature range usually studied. Further, the magnetic field dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T(ω), provides a good test of the theories that relate the measurement to the microdynamical behavior of the liquid. This is especially true in spatially confined systems where the effects of reduced dimensionality may force more frequent reencounters of the studied proton spin-bearing molecules with paramagnetic impurities at the pore surfaces that may alter the correlation functions that enter the relaxation equations in a fundamental way. We show by low field NMR relaxation that changing the amount of surface paramagnetic impurities leads to striking different pore-size dependences of the relaxation times T and T of liquids in pores. Here, we focus mainly on high surface area porous materials including calibrated porous silica glasses, granular packings, heterogeneous catalytic materials, cement-based materials and natural porous materials such as clay minerals and rocks. Recent highlights NMR relaxation works are reviewed for these porous materials, like continuous characterization of the evolving microstructure of various cementitious materials and measurement of wettability in reservoir carbonate rocks. Although, the recent applications of 2-dimensional T-T and T-z-store-T correlation experiments for characterization of

  11. Nematic Liquids in Weak Capillary Poiseuille Flow: Structure Scaling Laws and Effective Conductivity Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Poiseuille flow . These studies complement our earlier drag-driven structure simulations and analyses. We use the mesoscopic Doi-Marrucci-Greco model...pressure-driven, capillary Poiseuille flow . These studies complement our earlier drag-driven structure simulations and analyses. We use the mesoscopic Doi... Simulations of liquid crystals in Poiseuille flow ,” Computational and Theoretical Polymer Science 11, 389-395 (2001). [10] Doi, M., Edwards, S.F., The Theory of

  12. Conductivity Scaling Relationships in Nanostructured Membranes based on Protic Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanoja, Gabriel; Lynd, Nathaniel; Segalman, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured membranes based on protic polymerized ionic liquids are of great interest for a variety of electrochemical applications. Understanding the relationship between composition, structure, and ionic conductivity for these materials is essential for designing novel membranes with improved properties. In this work, we explore the effect of volume fraction of ionic liquid on conductivity, σ using a model system composed of poly[isoprene-block-(ethylene oxide-stat-histamine glycidyl ether) diblock copolymers [PI- b - P(EO-stat-HGE)] and the resulting [PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL)] obtained after treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. These materials self-assemble into lamellar structures with volume fractions of ionic liquid ranging from 0.50 to 0.90 as demonstrated by SAXS. PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL) membranes exhibit conductivities up to 4 x 10-3 S/cm at room temperature. In addition, PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL) based membranes have lower water uptake (λ = 8-10) in comparison with most proton conducting membranes reported elsewhere. The low λ in these membranes might translate into a stronger effect of morphology on transport properties. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis.

  13. Self-healing Li-Bi liquid metal battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, XH; Phadke, S; Chung, B; Yin, HY; Burke, P; Sadoway, DR

    2015-02-01

    In an assessment of the performance of a Li vertical bar LiCl-LiF vertical bar Bi liquid metal battery, increasing the current density from 200 to 1250 mA cm(-2) results in a less than 30% loss in specific discharge capacity at 550 degrees C. The charge and discharge voltage profiles exhibit two distinct regions: one corresponding to a Li-Bi liquid alloy and one corresponding to the two-phase mixture of Li-Bi liquid alloy and the intermetallic solid compound, Li3Bi. Full cell prototypes of 0.1 Ah nameplate capacity have been assembled and cycled at 3 C rate for over a 1000 cycles with only 0.004% capacity fade per cycle. This is tantamount to retention of over 85% of original capacity after 10 years of daily cycling. With minimal changes in design, cells of 44.8 Ah and 134 Ah capacity have been fabricated and cycled at C/3 rate. After a hundred cycles and over a month of testing, no capacity fade is observed. The coulombic efficiency of 99% and energy efficiency of 70% validate the ease of scalability of this battery chemistry. Post mortem cross sections of the cells in various states of charge demonstrate the total reversibility of the Li3Bi solid phase formed at high degrees of lithiation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Zero Boil-Off Methods for Large Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multi-layer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  15. Mechanisms, role of vorticity, and time scales for planar liquid sheet breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandian, Arash; Sirignano, William; Hussain, Fazle

    2016-11-01

    The 3D, temporal instabilities on a planar liquid sheet are studied using DNS with level-set and VoF surface tracking methods. λ2 contours relate the vorticity to the surface dynamics. The breakup character depends on the Ohnesorge number (Oh). At high Oh , hairpin vortices form on the braid and overlap with the lobe hairpins, thinning the lobes, which puncture creating holes and bridges. The bridges break, creating ligaments that stretch and break into droplets by capillary action. At low Oh , lobe stretching and thinning is hindered by high surface tension and splitting of the original Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex, preventing early hole formation. Corrugations form on the lobe edges, influenced by the split vortices, and stretch to form ligaments. Both mechanisms are present in a transition region that shifts in Oh values based on the liquid/gas density ratio. Different characteristic times exist for the hole formation and the lobe and ligament stretching, related to surface tension and liquid viscosity, respectively. In the transition region, both times are of the same order. Streamwise vorticity triggers the 3D instabilities. Vorticity stretching and baroclinicity dominate, while the spanwise and cross-flow vorticity tilting are less important early in the breakup.

  16. Measurement of liquid film flow on nuclear rod bundle in micro-scale by using very high speed camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Son; Kawara, Zensaku; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2012-11-01

    Playing important roles in the mass and heat transfer as well as the safety of boiling water reactor, the liquid film flow on nuclear fuel rods has been studied by different measurement techniques such as ultrasonic transmission, conductivity probe, etc. Obtained experimental data of this annular two-phase flow, however, are still not enough to construct the physical model for critical heat flux analysis especially at the micro-scale. Remain problems are mainly caused by complicated geometry of fuel rod bundles, high velocity and very unstable interface behavior of liquid and gas flow. To get over these difficulties, a new approach using a very high speed digital camera system has been introduced in this work. The test section simulating a 3×3 rectangular rod bundle was made of acrylic to allow a full optical observation of the camera. Image data were taken through Cassegrain optical system to maintain the spatiotemporal resolution up to 7 μm and 20 μs. The results included not only the real-time visual information of flow patterns, but also the quantitative data such as liquid film thickness, the droplets' size and speed distributions, and the tilt angle of wavy surfaces. These databases could contribute to the development of a new model for the annular two-phase flow. Partly supported by the Global Center of Excellence (G-COE) program (J-051) of MEXT, Japan.

  17. Container-scale hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic modes in liquid metal rotating convection experiments with and without an imposed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal convection, constrained by rapid rotation and/or large-scale magnetic fields, is observed almost everywhere in the universe: stars, galaxies, and planetary interiors. However, little is known about the essential behaviors of turbulent convection in liquid metals and even less is known about the essential dynamics of planetary cores and stellar convection zones inuenced by background rotation and imposed magnetic fields. To address this decit, we present novel results of a mixed laboratory-numerical investigation of Rayleigh-Benard convection in a cylindrical cavity subject to rotation and/or an imposed magnetic field, using the liquid metal gallium as the working fluid. A broad variety of cell-sized modes are observed experimentally and captured numerically and these modes can be either? steady, oscillatory, or precessing. This work shows that the convection-driven cell-sized modes that can develop in liquid metals are remarkably different from the canonical flows that develop in the fluids used in present day dynamo models.

  18. A Simple Evaporation Method for Large-Scale Production of Liquid Crystalline Lipid Nanoparticles with Various Internal Structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hoon; Lim, Sora; Shim, Jongwon; Song, Ji Eun; Chang, Jong Soo; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Cho, Eun Chul

    2015-09-16

    We present a simple and industrially accessible method of producing liquid crystalline lipid nanoparticles with various internal structures based on phytantriol, Pluronic F127, and vitamin E acetate. Bilayer vesicles were produced when an ethanolic solution dissolving the lipid components was mixed with deionized water. After the evaporation of ethanol from the aqueous mixture, vesicles were transformed into lipid-filled liquid crystalline nanoparticles with well-defined internal structures such as hexagonal lattices (mostly inverted cubic Pn3m), lined or coiled pattern (inverted hexagonal H2), and disordered structure (inverse microemulsion, L2), depending on the compositions. Further studies suggested that their internal structures were also affected by temperature. The internal structures were characterized from cryo-TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering results. Microcalorimetry studies were performed to investigate the degree of molecular ordering/crystallinity of lipid components within the nanostructures. From the comparative studies, we demonstrated the present method could produce the lipid nanoparticles with similar characteristics to those made from a conventional method. More importantly, the production only requires simple tools for mixing and ethanol evaporation and it is possible to produce 10 kg or so per batch of aqueous lipid nanoparticles dispersions, enabling the large-scale production of the liquid crystalline nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.

  19. Industrial lab-on-a-chip: design, applications and scale-up for drug discovery and delivery.

    PubMed

    Vladisavljević, Goran T; Khalid, Nauman; Neves, Marcos A; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Uemura, Kunihiko; Ichikawa, Sosaku; Kobayashi, Isao

    2013-11-01

    Microfluidics is an emerging and promising interdisciplinary technology which offers powerful platforms for precise production of novel functional materials (e.g., emulsion droplets, microcapsules, and nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles- and drug molecules) as well as high-throughput analyses (e.g., bioassays, detection, and diagnostics). In particular, multiphase microfluidics is a rapidly growing technology and has beneficial applications in various fields including biomedicals, chemicals, and foods. In this review, we first describe the fundamentals and latest developments in multiphase microfluidics for producing biocompatible materials that are precisely controlled in size, shape, internal morphology and composition. We next describe some microfluidic applications that synthesize drug molecules, handle biological substances and biological units, and imitate biological organs. We also highlight and discuss design, applications and scale up of droplet- and flow-based microfluidic devices used for drug discovery and delivery. © 2013.

  20. Electronic stopping in liquid water from first principles: An application of large-scale real-time TDDFT simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Kyle; Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke

    Electronic stopping describes the transfer of energy from a highly-energetic charged particle to electrons in a material. This process induces massive electronic excitations via interaction between the material and the highly localized electric field from the charged particle. Understanding this phenomenon in condensed matter systems under proton irradiation has implications in various modern technologies. First-principles simulations, based on our recently-developed large-scale real-time time-dependent density functional theory approach, provide a detailed description of how electrons are excited via a non-equilibrium energy transfer from protons on the attosecond time scale. We apply this computational approach to the important case of liquid water under proton irradiation. Our work reveals several key features of the excitation dynamics at the mesoscopic and molecular levels which support a clearer understanding of the water radiolysis mechanism under proton irradiation. Importantly, we will demonstrate a first-principles determination of the energy transfer rate, (i.e. electronic stopping power) in liquid water, and a comparison to existing empirical models will be presented. We will conclude by discussing how the exchange-correlation approximation influences the calculation of the electronic stopping power.

  1. A disposable microfluidic biochip with on-chip molecularly imprinted biosensors for optical detection of anesthetic propofol.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien-Chong; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hong, Chian-Lang

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a disposable microfluidic biochip with on-chip molecularly imprinted biosensors for optical detection of anesthetic propofol. So far, the methods to detect anesthetic propofol in hospitals are liquid chromatography (LC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). These conventional instruments are bulky, expensive, and not ease of access. In this work, a novel plastic microfluidic biochip with on-chip anesthetic biosensor has been developed and characterized for rapid detection of anesthetic propofol. The template-molecule imprinted polymers were integrated into microfluidic biochips to be used for detecting anesthetic propofol optically at 655 nm wavelength after the reaction of propofol with color reagent. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the microfluidic biochip with on-chip molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) biosensor is 6.47 mV/(ppm mm(2)). The specific binding of MIP to non-imprinted polymer (NIP) is up to 456%. And the detection limit of the microsystem is 0.25 ppm with a linear detection range from 0.25 to 10 ppm. The disposable microfluidic biochip with on-chip anesthetic biosensor using molecularly imprinted polymers presented in this work showed excellent performance in separation and sensing of anesthetic propofol molecules. While compared to large-scale conventional instruments, the developed microfluidic biochips with on-chip MIP biosensors have the advantages of compact size, high sensitivity, high selectivity, low cost, and fast response.

  2. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints in Wafer Level Chip-Scale Packaging (WLCSP) with Continuous and Interrupted Accelerated Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bite; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Four high-strain design wafer level chip scale packages were given accelerated thermal cycling with a 10°C/min ramp rate and 10 min hold times between 0°C and 100°C to examine the effects of continuous and interrupted thermal cycling on the number of cycles to failure. The interruptions given two of the samples were the result of periodic examinations using electron backscattered pattern mapping, leading to room temperature aging of 30 days-2.5 years after increments of about 100 cycles at several stages of the cycling history. The continuous thermal cycling resulted in solder joints with a much larger degree of recrystallization, whereas the interrupted thermal cycling tests led to much less recrystallization, which was more localized near the package side, and the crack was more localized near the interface and had less branching. The failure mode for both conditions was still the same, with cracks nucleating along the high angle grain boundaries formed during recrystallization. In conditions where there were few recrystallized grains, recovery led to formation of subgrains that strengthened the solder, and the higher strength led to a larger driving force for crack growth through the solder, leading to failure after less than half of the cycles in the continuous accelerated thermal cycling condition. This work shows that there is a critical point where sufficient strain energy accumulation will trigger recrystallization, but this point depends on the rate of strain accumulation in each cycle and various recovery processes, which further depends on local crystal orientations, stress state evolution, and specific activated slip and twinning systems.

  4. Multiple length and time scales of dynamic heterogeneities in model glass-forming liquids: a systematic analysis of multi-point and multi-time correlations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang; Saito, Shinji

    2013-03-28

    We report an extensive and systematic investigation of the multi-point and multi-time correlation functions to reveal the spatio-temporal structures of dynamic heterogeneities in glass-forming liquids. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for the supercooled states of various prototype models of glass-forming liquids such as binary Kob-Andersen, Wahnström, soft-sphere, and network-forming liquids. While the first three models act as fragile liquids exhibiting super-Arrhenius temperature dependence in their relaxation times, the last is a strong glass-former exhibiting Arrhenius behavior. First, we quantify the length scale of the dynamic heterogeneities utilizing the four-point correlation function. The growth of the dynamic length scale with decreasing temperature is characterized by various scaling relations that are analogous to the critical phenomena. We also examine how the growth of the length scale depends upon the model employed. Second, the four-point correlation function is extended to a three-time correlation function to characterize the temporal structures of the dynamic heterogeneities based on our previous studies [K. Kim and S. Saito, Phys. Rev. E 79, 060501(R) (2009); and J. Chem. Phys. 133, 044511 (2010)]. We provide comprehensive numerical results obtained from the three-time correlation function for the above models. From these calculations, we examine the time scale of the dynamic heterogeneities and determine the associated lifetime in a consistent and systematic way. Our results indicate that the lifetime of the dynamical heterogeneities becomes much longer than the α-relaxation time determined from a two-point correlation function in fragile liquids. The decoupling between the two time scales is remarkable, particularly in supercooled states, and the time scales differ by more than an order of magnitude in a more fragile liquid. In contrast, the lifetime is shorter than the α-relaxation time in tetrahedral network-forming strong

  5. Large-scale intermittency of liquid-metal channel flow in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Thomas; Krasnov, Dmitry; Thess, André; Zikanov, Oleg

    2008-12-12

    We predict a novel flow regime in liquid metals under the influence of a magnetic field. It is characterized by long periods of nearly steady, two-dimensional flow interrupted by violent three-dimensional bursts. Our prediction has been obtained from direct numerical simulations in a channel geometry at low magnetic Reynolds number and translates into physical parameters which are amenable to experimental verification under laboratory conditions. The new regime occurs in a wide range of parameters and may have implications for metallurgical applications.

  6. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2008-06-01

    Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production.

  7. Removing pinhole shorts during large scale ferroelectric switching through ionic liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Anthony; Herklotz, Andreas; Wisinger, Nina; Rack, Philip; Ward, Thomas

    Ferroelectrics are a classification of materials that spontaneously polarize, accumulating charge at interfaces, and have non-linear hysteretic polarization curves. Switching fields required for ferroelectric materials are often very high, requiring thin insulating layers and high applied voltages. This commonly leads to electric pinholes and limits the areal sizes that can be polarized at a time. Ionic liquids have recently received heavy interest for the formation of electronic double layers which lead to huge electric fields at interfacial regions with low applied biases, and without the thickness constraint associated with conventional capacitors. We will show recent results which demonstrate that ionic liquid gating may offer the ideal solution to switch large regions of a ferroelectric film without limitations associated with pinhole defects. This has great importance to practical applications and fundamental interface studies that require large sample regions to be uniformly polarized. Supported by the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division and under US DOE Grant DE-SC0002136.

  8. Glass microfabricated nebulizer chip for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Ville; Haapala, Markus; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami

    2007-05-01

    A microfluidic nebulizer chip for mass spectrometry is presented. It is an all-glass device which consists of fusion bonded Pyrex wafers with embedded flow channels and a nozzle at the chip edge. A platinum heater is located on the wafer backside. Fabrication of the chip is detailed, especially glass deep etching, wafer bonding, and metal patterning. Various process combinations of bonding and metallization have been considered (anodic bonding vs. fusion bonding; heater inside/outside channel; metallization before/after bonding; platinum lift-off vs. etching). The chip vaporizes the liquid sample (0.1-10 microL min(-1)) and mixes it with a nebulizer gas (ca. 100 sccm N2). Operating temperatures can go up to 500 degrees C ensuring efficient vaporization. Thermal insulation of the glass ensures low temperatures at the far end of the chip, enabling easy interconnections.

  9. Realization of the 3He Vapor-Pressure Temperature Scale and Development of a Liquid-He-Free Calibration Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, T.; Toyoda, K.; Tamura, O.

    2011-12-01

    The 3He vapor-pressure temperature scale was realized using an apparatus based on a continuously operating 3He cryostat at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). The cryostat has two operational modes: a 3He circulation mode and a 1 K pot mode. The 3He circulation mode can be used for 3He vapor-pressure measurements below 1.6 K, and the 1 K pot mode can be used for measurements above 1.3 K. Either mode can be selected for measurements from 1.3 K to 1.6 K. The realization of the 3He vapor-pressure temperature scale in this study fully covers its defined temperature range from 0.65 K to 3.2 K in the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The latest realization results are presented in this article. In addition, a liquid-He-free calibration apparatus was developed. It does not require liquid helium as a cryogen, which usually entails cumbersome handling and periodic refilling. The apparatus was designed for the calibration of capsule-type resistance thermometers from 0.65 K to 24.5561 K (the triple point of neon). The cooling system of the apparatus consists of a commercially available pulse-tube refrigerator and a 3He Joule-Thomson (JT) cooling circuit developed at NMIJ/AIST. The pulse-tube refrigerator is used in a pre-cooling stage and cools the apparatus to approximately 5 K. The 3He JT cooling circuit is used to cool the apparatus from 5 K to below 0.65 K. Since the 3He JT cooling circuit is a closed circuit, the apparatus can run continuously with only simple maintenance required. The basic characteristics of the apparatus are described.

  10. Decoupled length scales for diffusivity and viscosity in glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, H. L.; Voigtmann, Th.

    2016-10-01

    The growth of the characteristic length scales both for diffusion and viscosity is investigated by molecular dynamics utilizing the finite-size effect in a binary Lennard-Jones mixture. For those quantities relevant to the diffusion process (e.g., the hydrodynamic value and the spatial correlation function), a strong system-size dependence is found. In contrast, it is weak or absent for the shear relaxation process. Correlation lengths are estimated from the decay of the spatial correlation functions. We find the length scale for viscosity decouples from the one of diffusivity, featured by a saturated length even in high supercooling. This temperature-independent behavior of the length scale is reminiscent of the unapparent structure change upon supercooling, implying the manifestation of configuration entropy. Whereas for the diffusion process, it is manifested by relaxation dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity. The Stokes-Einstein relation is found to break down at the temperature where the decoupling of these lengths happens.

  11. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-07-25

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.

  12. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-07-25

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermalmore » response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.« less

  13. Liquid Methane Testing With a Large-Scale Spray Bar Thermodynamic Vent System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Flachbart, R. H.; Sisco, J. D.; Schnell. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted liquid methane testing in November 2006 using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed outfitted with a spray bar thermodynamic vent system (TVS). The basic objective was to identify any unusual or unique thermodynamic characteristics associated with densified methane that should be considered in the design of space-based TVSs. Thirteen days of testing were performed with total tank heat loads ranging from 720 to 420 W at a fill level of approximately 90%. It was noted that as the fluid passed through the Joule-Thompson expansion, thermodynamic conditions consistent with the pervasive presence of metastability were indicated. This Technical Publication describes conditions that correspond with metastability and its detrimental effects on TVS performance. The observed conditions were primarily functions of methane densification and helium pressurization; therefore, assurance must be provided that metastable conditions have been circumvented in future applications of thermodynamic venting to in-space methane storage.

  14. Testing of Densified Liquid Hydrogen Stratification in a Scale Model Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Greene, William D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a test program that was conducted at NASA to demonstrate the ability to load densified LH2 into a subscale propellant tank. This work was done through a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center and the Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems (LMMSS). The Multilobe tank, which was made from composite materials similar to that to be used on X-33, was formed from two lobes with a center septum. Test results are shown for data that was collected on filling the subscale tank with densified liquid hydrogen (DLH2) propellant that was produced at the NASA Plum Brook Station. Data is compared to analytical predictions. Data collected for this test series agrees well with analytical predictions of the environmental heat leak into the tank and the thermal stratification characteristics of the hydrogen propellant in the tank as it was filled with DLH2.

  15. Pilot-scale incineration of ballistic missile liquid propellant components. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.; Venkatesh, S.

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recently concluded agreements with the Ukraine and the Russian Federation under which the DoD is committed to providing both former Soviet Union (FSU) states with equipment and other aid for use in eliminating their strategic offensive arms in accordance with schedules negotiated in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. One specific need consists of process equipment to treat or destroy pure ballistic missile liquid propellant components as well as vapor or purge media contaminated by these components. The propellant components are unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) oxidizer. Incineration is one possible treatment process. To supply data to demonstrate that incineration is a safe and effective treatment process, a series of tests was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Incineration Research Facility.

  16. Scaling Laws for liquid and ion transport in nanochannels grafted with polyelectrolyte brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Sinha, Shayandev; Das, Siddhartha; Soft Matter, Interfaces,; Energy Laboratory (Smiel) Team

    Grafting nanochannels with polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes renders tremendous functionality to the nanochannels, making them capable of applications such as ion manipulation, ion sensing, current rectification, nanofluidic diode fabrication, and flow control. PE brush is a special case of polymers at interfaces; such brush-like structure is possible only when the grafting density (σ) is beyond a critical value. In this study, we shall propose scaling laws that identify σ-N(N is the size of the PE molecule) combination that simultaneously ensure that the grafted PE molecules adopt ''brush''-like configuration and the height of the PE brushes are smaller than the nanochannel half height. Secondly, we pinpoint the scaling conditions where the electrostatic effects associated with the PE brushes can be decoupled from the corresponding PE excluded volume and elastic effects; such de-coupling has tremendous connotation in context of modeling of electrostatics and transport at PE-brush-covered interfaces. Thirdly, we provide scaling arguments to quantify the dependence of the flow penetration depth into the PE brush as a function of the σ-N combination. Finally, our scaling estimates pinpoint the conditions where the flow or electric field induced deformation of the grafted nanochannel PE brushes can be neglected while modeling the pressure-driven or electroosmotic transport or ionic current in such nanochannels.

  17. Physics-based animation of large-scale splashing liquids, elastoplastic solids, and model-reduced flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerszewski, Daniel James

    Physical simulation has become an essential tool in computer animation. As the use of visual effects increases, the need for simulating real-world materials increases. In this dissertation, we consider three problems in physics-based animation: large-scale splashing liquids, elastoplastic material simulation, and dimensionality reduction techniques for fluid simulation. Fluid simulation has been one of the greatest successes of physics-based animation, generating hundreds of research papers and a great many special effects over the last fifteen years. However, the animation of large-scale, splashing liquids remains challenging. We show that a novel combination of unilateral incompressibility, mass-full FLIP, and blurred boundaries is extremely well-suited to the animation of large-scale, violent, splashing liquids. Materials that incorporate both plastic and elastic deformations, also referred to as elastioplastic materials, are frequently encountered in everyday life. Methods for animating such common real-world materials are useful for effects practitioners and have been successfully employed in films. We describe a point-based method for animating elastoplastic materials. Our primary contribution is a simple method for computing the deformation gradient for each particle in the simulation. Given the deformation gradient, we can apply arbitrary constitutive models and compute the resulting elastic forces. Our method has two primary advantages: we do not store or compare to an initial rest configuration and we work directly with the deformation gradient. The first advantage avoids poor numerical conditioning and the second naturally leads to a multiplicative model of deformation appropriate for finite deformations. One of the most significant drawbacks of physics-based animation is that ever-higher fidelity leads to an explosion in the number of degrees of freedom. This problem leads us to the consideration of dimensionality reduction techniques. We present

  18. Designing 3D Multihierarchical Heteronanostructures for High-Performance On-Chip Hybrid Supercapacitors: Poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene)-Coated Diamond/Silicon Nanowire Electrodes in an Aprotic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Aradilla, David; Gao, Fang; Lewes-Malandrakis, Georgia; Müller-Sebert, Wolfgang; Gentile, Pascal; Boniface, Maxime; Aldakov, Dmitry; Iliev, Boyan; Schubert, Thomas J S; Nebel, Christoph E; Bidan, Gérard

    2016-07-20

    A versatile and robust hierarchically multifunctionalized nanostructured material made of poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated diamond@silicon nanowires has been demonstrated to be an excellent capacitive electrode for supercapacitor devices. Thus, the electrochemical deposition of nanometric PEDOT films on diamond-coated silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrodes using N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ionic liquid displayed a specific capacitance value of 140 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1). The as-grown functionalized electrodes were evaluated in a symmetric planar microsupercapacitor using butyltrimethylammonium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide aprotic ionic liquid as the electrolyte. The device exhibited extraordinary energy and power density values of 26 mJ cm(-2) and 1.3 mW cm(-2) within a large voltage cell of 2.5 V, respectively. In addition, the system was able to retain 80% of its initial capacitance after 15 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 1 mA cm(-2) while maintaining a Coulombic efficiency around 100%. Therefore, this multifunctionalized hybrid device represents one of the best electrochemical performances concerning coated SiNW electrodes for a high-energy advanced on-chip supercapacitor.

  19. Scaled-up bioconversion of fish waste to liquid fertilizer using a 5 L ribbon-type reactor.

    PubMed

    Dao, Van Thingoc; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2011-10-01

    A scaled-up conversion process of fish waste to liquid fertilizer was performed in a 5 L ribbon-type reactor. Biodegradation was performed by inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.84 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of mixed microorganisms for 96 h. As a result, the pH changed from 6.92 to 5.72, the cell number reached 7.28 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1), and approximately 430 g (28.3%) of fish waste was degraded. Analyses indicated that the 96 h culture of inoculated fish waste possessed comparable fertilizing ability to commercial fertilizers in hydroponic culture with amino acid contents of 6.91 g 100 g(-1). Therefore, the scaled-up production achieved a more satisfactory fish waste degradation rate (3.61 g h(-1)) than the flask-scale production (0.24 g h(-1)). The biodegraded broth of fish waste at room temperature did not undergo putrefaction for 6 months due to the addition of 1% lactate.

  20. Features of liquid mixtures separation in large-scale distillation columns with structured packing. New ideas and approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A. N.; Zhukov, V. E.; Pecherkin, N. I.; Li, X.; Sui, H.

    2016-10-01

    Negative vapor stratification along the height of distillation column caused by different density of vapor mixture components and higher temperature at the column bottom, leads to formation of large-scale maldistribution of temperature and mixture composition over the column cross-section even at uniform irrigation of the structured packing. Experimental results concerning the dynamic effect of packing irrigation on separation efficiency of the two-component mixture of R-21 and R-114 are presented in this paper. The structured packing Zulser 350Y was installed in the distillation column with the diameter of 0.9 m. Experiments were carried out on the 10- and 19-layer packing with an overall height of 2.1 and 4 m, respectively. The liquid distributor with independently controlled 126 valves for each irrigation point, developed by the authors, was used for packing irrigation. The experiments showed that the periodic impact of the irrigation system on the large-scale non-uniformity of mixture composition, formed in the packing, could significantly affect the distribution of flow parameters over the cross-section and height of the mass transfer unit. Essentially nonuniform periodic irrigation of the packing can improve the separation efficiency of the column within 20%, if the switching periods are comparable with the times of formation of large-scale non-uniformity.

  1. A functional relation for field-scale nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution developed using a pore network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillard, L.A.; Essaid, H.I.; Blunt, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    A pore network model with cubic chambers and rectangular tubes was used to estimate the nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution rate coefficient, Kdissai, and NAPL/water total specific interfacial area, ai. Kdissai was computed as a function of modified Peclet number (Pe???) for various NAPL saturations (SN) and ai during drainage and imbibition and during dissolution without displacement. The largest contributor to ai was the interfacial area in the water-filled corners of chambers and tubes containing NAPL. When Kdissai was divided by ai, the resulting curves of dissolution coefficient, Kdiss versus Pe??? suggested that an approximate value of Kdiss could be obtained as a weak function of hysteresis or SN. Spatially and temporally variable maps of Kdissai calculated using the network model were used in field-scale simulations of NAPL dissolution. These simulations were compared to simulations using a constant value of Kdissai and the empirical correlation of Powers et al. [Water Resour. Res. 30(2) (1994b) 321]. Overall, a methodology was developed for incorporating pore-scale processes into field-scale prediction of NAPL dissolution. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  2. Radioactivity concentration in liquid and solid phases of scale and sludge generated in the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Paranhos Gazineu, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Andressa Arruda; Brandão, Yana Batista; Hazin, Clovis Abrahão; de O Godoy, José Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production can contain uranium, thorium, radium and other natural radionuclides, which can cause exposure of maintenance personnel. This work shows how the oil content can influence the results of measurements of radionuclide concentration in scale and sludge. Samples were taken from a PETROBRAS unit in Northeast Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E&P unit. The oil was separated from the solids with a Soxhlet extractor by using aguarras at 90+/-5 degrees C as solvent. Concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in the samples were determined before and after oil extraction by using an HPGe gamma spectrometric system. The results showed an increase in the radionuclide concentration in the solid (dry) phase, indicating that the above radionuclides concentrate mostly in the solid material.

  3. Diverging Time Scale in the Dimensional Crossover for Liquids in Strong Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Suvendu; Franosch, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We study a strongly interacting dense hard-sphere system confined between two parallel plates by event-driven molecular dynamics simulations to address the fundamental question of the nature of the 3D to 2D crossover. As the fluid becomes more and more confined the dynamics of the transverse and lateral degrees of freedom decouple, which is accompanied by a diverging time scale separating 2D from 3D behavior. Relying on the time-correlation function of the transversal kinetic energy, the scaling behavior and its density dependence is explored. Surprisingly, our simulations reveal that its time dependence becomes purely exponential such that memory effects can be ignored. We rationalize our findings quantitatively in terms of an analytic theory which becomes exact in the limit of strong confinement.

  4. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons

  5. Cryogen free scanning probe microscope: the solution for atomic scale surface science below 10 Kelvin without liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung; Venegas, Miguel; RHK Team

    We present a cryogen free low temperature scanning probe microscope (LT-SPM) working at 9K on both tip and sample. The performance of the microscope was validated in various conditions such as noisy environment and modulated temperature as well as the long time elapsed measurements. Building on the stability and consistency of the closed cycle refrigerator, time extended measurements are available with this state-of-the-art LT-SPM. Studies can now be performed without interrupting the critical moment of the tip on the surface while refilling the conventional liquid cryogen tank. We will present the time evolution of the dopant induced topographic and spectroscopic properties of some topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. The compact and rigid design of the microscope also allows this instrument to work as a practical variable temperature microscope without the hassle of liquid cryogen consumption. We will present temperature dependent STM/STS results on a TiSe2 surface at the temperature between 10K and 350K. Finally, we will discuss how the cryogen free LT-SPM will make the study of the atomic scale phenomenon at low temperature both economical and easy, opening promising new capabilities to surface scientists and researchers in nanotechnology.

  6. Design and test of tuned liquid mass dampers for attenuation of the wind responses of a full scale building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyung-Won; Kim, Junhee; Kim, Young-Wook

    2014-04-01

    A tuned liquid mass damper (TLMD) is proposed for bi-directional control of the wind responses of a building in orthogonal directions. It is a damper that behaves as a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) and also as a tuned mass damper (TMD) in the orthogonal direction to the TLCD. Therefore, the TLMD provides the control performance of both a TLCD and a TMD. First, experiments are performed for the TLMD installed at angles on a uniaxial shaking table in order to describe bi-directional wind responses. The results reveal that independent TLCD and TMD behaviors are found, leading to the conclusion that the responses are controlled by one TLMD. Finally, a real size TLMD is manufactured and installed on the fifth floor of a full scale five story steel building. A hybrid mass driver (HMD) on the fourth floor is used as an exciter. Three tests are performed for the TLMD placed in the TMD direction, the TLCD direction and the coupled direction by rotating the TLMD by 45°. Independent TMD and TLMD behaviors are observed as found in the shaking table test. Therefore, it is concluded from the experiments that the new TLMD can control the bi-directional wind responses of a building by TLCD and TMD motions.

  7. Insights into large-scale cell-culture reactors: I. Liquid mixing and oxygen supply.

    PubMed

    Sieblist, Christian; Jenzsch, Marco; Pohlscheidt, Michael; Lübbert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, it is state of the art to produce recombinant proteins and antibodies with animal-cell cultures using bioreactors with volumes of up to 20 m(3) . Recent guidelines and position papers for the industry by the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency stress the necessity of mechanistic insights into large-scale bioreactors. A detailed mechanistic view of their practically relevant subsystems is required as well as their mutual interactions, i.e., mixing or homogenization of the culture broth and sufficient mass and heat transfer. In large-scale bioreactors for animal-cell cultures, different agitation systems are employed. Here, we discuss details of the flows induced in stirred tank reactors relevant for animal-cell cultures. In addition, solutions of the governing fluid dynamic equations obtained with the so-called computational fluid dynamics are presented. Experimental data obtained with improved measurement techniques are shown. The results are compared to previous studies and it is found that they support current hypotheses or models. Progress in improving insights requires continuous interactions between more accurate measurements and physical models. The paper aims at promoting the basic mechanistic understanding of transport phenomena that are crucial for large-scale animal-cell culture reactors.

  8. Small- and large-scale characterization and mixing properties in a thermally driven thin liquid film.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Michael; Abel, Markus

    2015-12-01

    We study aqueous, freestanding, thin films stabilized by a surfactant with respect to mixing and dynamical systems properties. With this special setup, a two-dimensional fluid can be realized experimentally. The physics of the system involves a complex interplay of thermal convection and interface and gravitational forces. Methodologically, we characterize the system using two classical dynamical systems properties: Lyapunov exponents and entropies. Our experimental setup produces convection with two stable eddies by applying a temperature gradient in one spot that yields weakly turbulent mixing. From dynamical systems theory, one expects a relation of entropies, Lyapunov exponents, a prediction with little experimental support. We can confirm the corresponding statements experimentally, on different scales using different methods. On the small scale the motion and deformation of fluid filaments of equal size (color imaging velocimetry) are used to compute Lyapunov exponents. On the large scale, entropy is computed by tracking the left-right motion of the center fluid jet at the separatrix between the two convection rolls. We thus combine here dynamical systems methods with a concrete application of mixing in a nanoscale freestanding thin film.

  9. Small- and large-scale characterization and mixing properties in a thermally driven thin liquid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Michael; Abel, Markus

    2015-12-01

    We study aqueous, freestanding, thin films stabilized by a surfactant with respect to mixing and dynamical systems properties. With this special setup, a two-dimensional fluid can be realized experimentally. The physics of the system involves a complex interplay of thermal convection and interface and gravitational forces. Methodologically, we characterize the system using two classical dynamical systems properties: Lyapunov exponents and entropies. Our experimental setup produces convection with two stable eddies by applying a temperature gradient in one spot that yields weakly turbulent mixing. From dynamical systems theory, one expects a relation of entropies, Lyapunov exponents, a prediction with little experimental support. We can confirm the corresponding statements experimentally, on different scales using different methods. On the small scale the motion and deformation of fluid filaments of equal size (color imaging velocimetry) are used to compute Lyapunov exponents. On the large scale, entropy is computed by tracking the left-right motion of the center fluid jet at the separatrix between the two convection rolls. We thus combine here dynamical systems methods with a concrete application of mixing in a nanoscale freestanding thin film.

  10. Phase-field-crystal modeling of glass-forming liquids: spanning time scales during vitrification, aging, and deformation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joel; Grant, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Two essential elements required to generate a glass transition within phase-field-crystal (PFC) models are outlined based on observed freezing behaviors in various models of this class. The central dynamic features of glass formation in simple binary liquids are qualitatively reproduced across 12 orders of magnitude in time by applying a physically motivated time scaling to previous PFC simulation results. New aspects of the equilibrium phase behavior of the same binary model system are also outlined, aging behavior is explored in the moderate and deeply supercooled regimes, and aging exponents are extracted. General features of the elastic and plastic responses of amorphous and crystalline PFC solids under deformation are also compared and contrasted.

  11. The uncertainty analysis on energy scale due to the variation of W value for liquid xenon dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The average energy expended per electron-ion pair, W value, is critical in understanding a liquid xenon detector energy response to low energy recoils. The reduction of scintillation and ionization yield for electronic recoils and nuclear recoils are explained using the scintillation quenching mechanism due to the variation of the average energy expended per electron hole pair, W value, which includes the energy lost to scintillation and phonon generation. We show the theoretical calculation of scintillation efficiency with W value in comparison with experimental data. The impact of variation of W value on the analysis of energy scale is discussed in detail. We conclude that the W value determined with experimental data depends on recoil energy and particle type. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF OIA 1434142, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.

  12. Surface tension of binary liquid-vapor mixtures: A comparison of mean-field and scaling theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahimi, Muhammad; Taylor, Byron N.

    1991-11-01

    We use two different methods to estimate surface tension of binary liquid-vapor mixtures of CO2 and a hydrocarbon near a critical point. The first method is based on the gradient theory, which is essentially a mean-field approximation to the problem that reduces the determination of the interface's structure and the surface tension to a boundary value problem. The theory's input is an equation of state of homogeneous fluid and the influence parameters of inhomogeneous fluid. The Peng-Robinson equation and a modification of it are used as the equation of state of homogeneous fluid. The second method is based on the concept of two-scale-factor universality which can predict the surface tension from the singularity in the thermodynamic properties of the bulk fluid. The inputs of the method are an equation of state and certain universal amplitude ratios near the critical point. As the equation of state, we use a modification of a model first proposed by Leung and Griffiths, and further developed by Moldover, Rainwater, and co-workers. We use the two models to examine in detail CO2+n -butane and CO2+n -decane mixtures. While both models provide accurate estimates of surface tension of CO2+n -butane mixtures, only the gradient theory can predict accurately surface tension of CO2+n -decane mixtures. Moreover, while the gradient theory and the Peng-Robinson equation of state use very few adjustable parameters (at most three parameters), calculation of surface tension based on two-scale-factor universality and the corresponding equation of state requires many adjustable parameters whose number has to be increased dramatically as the fluid mixture becomes more complex. We then use the gradient theory to predict surface tension of binary liquid-vapor mixtures of CO2 and benzene, cyclohexane, and n-hexadecane. In all cases, the predictions of the gradient theory are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  13. Microfluidics without channels: highly-flexible synthesis on a digital-microfluidic chip for production of diverse PET tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Robert Michael

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is used for fundamental studies of living biological organisms and microbial ecosystems in applications ranging from biofuel production to environmental remediation to the study, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of human disease. Routine access to PET imaging, to monitor biochemical reactions in living organisms in real time, could accelerate a broad range of research programs of interest to DOE. Using PET requires access to short-lived radioactive-labeled compounds that specifically probe the desired living processes. The overall aims of this project were to develop a miniature liquid-handling technology platform (called “microfluidics”) that increases the availability of diverse PET probes by reducing the cost and complexity of their production. Based on preliminary experiments showing that microfluidic chips can synthesis such compounds, we aimed to advance this technology to improve its robustness, increase its flexibility for a broad range of probes, and increase its user-friendliness. Through the research activities of this project, numerous advances were made; Tools were developed to enable the visualization of radioactive materials within microfluidic chips; Fundamental advances were made in the microfluidic chip architecture and fabrication process to increase its robustness and reliability; The microfluidic chip technology was shown to produce useful quantities of an example PET probes, and methods to further increase the output were successfully pursued; A “universal” chip was developed that could produce multiple types of PET probes, enabling the possibility of “on demand” synthesis of different probes; and Operation of the chip was automated to ensure minimal radiation exposure to the operator Based on the demonstrations of promising technical feasibility and performance, the microfluidic chip technology is currently being commercialized. It is anticipated that costs of microfluidic chips can be

  14. An overview to nano-scale analytical techniques: Nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    Nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and CEC are microfluidic techniques mainly used for analytical purposes. They have been applied to the separation and analysis of a large number of compounds, e.g., peptides, proteins, drugs, enantiomers, antibiotics, pesticides, nutraceutical, etc. Analytes separation is carried out into capillaries containing selected stationary phase. The mobile phase is moved either by a pump (nano-LC) or by an EOF, respectively. The two tools can offer some advantages over conventional techniques, e.g., high selectivity, separation efficiency, resolution, short analysis time and consumption of low volumes of mobile phase. Flow rates in the range 50-800 nL/min are usually applied. The low flow rate reduces the chromatographic dilution increasing the mass sensitivity. Special attention must be paid in avoiding peak dispersion selecting the appropriate detector, injector and tube connection. Finally due to the low flow rate these microfluidic techniques can be easily coupled with mass spectrometry. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Testing of Variable Density Multilayer Insulation with a Foam Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Hastings, L.

    2001-01-01

    The multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB), with an 18-cu m liquid hydrogen tank, was used to evaluate a combination foam/multilayer combination insulation (MLI) concept. The foam element (Isofoam SS-1171) insulates during ground hold/ascent flight, and allowed a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required. The 45-layer MLI was designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Unique WI features include a variable layer density, larger but fewer double-aluminized Mylar perforations for ascent to orbit venting, and a commercially established roll-wrap installation process that reduced assembly man-hours and resulted in a roust, virtually seamless MLI. Insulation performance was measured during three test series. The spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) successfully prevented purge gas liquefaction within the MLI and resulted in the expected ground hold heat leak of 63 W/sq m. The orbit hold tests resulted in heat leaks of 0.085 and 0.22 W/sq m with warm boundary temperatures of 164 and 305 K, respectively. Compared to the best previously measured performance with a traditional MLI system, a 41-percent heat leak reduction with 25 fewer MLI layers was achieved. The MHTB MLI heat leak is half that calculated for a constant layer density MLI.

  16. What is the best definition of a liquid cluster at the molecular scale?

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Jan; Reguera, David

    2007-10-21

    We investigate the ability of different cluster definitions to serve as a good reaction coordinate in molecular simulations of nucleation. In particular, the most commonly used Stillinger criterion [J. Chem. Phys. 38, 1486 (1963)] is compared with the cluster definition introduced by ten Wolde and Frenkel [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9901 (1998)]. The accuracy of these two different cluster definitions is tested by using molecular dynamics to study the vapor-liquid nucleation of Lennard-Jones argon as a model system. We are able to compare the size of the critical cluster identified by each cluster definition with a completely model-independent value provided by the nucleation theorem, aided by a recently introduced method that accurately extracts the location of the transition state directly from the kinetics. It is found that the Stillinger definition strongly overestimates the size of small molecular clusters by up to a factor of 2. A simple change of the Stillinger radius is unable to rectify this deficiency. On the contrary, the ten Wolde-Frenkel definition, while being only slightly more elaborate than a simple Stillinger criterion, is remarkably successful in identifying the correct molecular excess of the small clusters if the parameters are chosen adequately. The method described here can also be generalized to identify a proper reaction coordinate in other activated processes.

  17. Sustaining Moore's law with 3D chips

    DOE PAGES

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Badaroglu, Mustafa; Chen, An; ...

    2017-08-01

    Here, rather than continue the expensive and time-consuming quest for transistor replacement, the authors argue that 3D chips coupled with new computer architectures can keep Moore's law on its traditional scaling path.

  18. Multiple-channel emulsion chips utilizing pneumatic choppers for biotechnology applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Chen, Cheng-Tso; Huang, Lynn L H; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-12-01

    The formation of micro-scale monodispersed emulsions is crucial for a variety of applications such as cosmetics, food industry and biotechnology. In this study, a new microfluidic chip with a multiple-channel layout for high-throughput emulsions is reported. This chip generated fine-tuned and uniform microdroplets in liquids with a higher throughput for emulsification applications. It employed a combination of multiple hydrodynamic flow focusing and liquid-cutting devices called "active pneumatic choppers." Experimental data indicated that oil-in-water microdroplets with diameters ranging from 6 to 120 microm can be successfully generated with a coefficient of variation less than 3.75%. The size of the droplets can be actively fine-tuned by using two approaches by adjusting relative sheath/sample flow velocity ratios and chopping frequency. Finally, two commonly used biocompatible materials, including collagen and calcium-alginate (Ca-alginate), were used to form microspheres by utilizing the liquid-cutting technique. The developed microfluidic chip is promising in various applications including biotechnology, nano-medicine and cosmetics.

  19. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  20. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOW Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work began on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, methanol product-use test plan. Two of the projects have begun pre-testing of equipment and three other projects have commenced with equipment procurement, Methanol produced from carbon monoxide (CO)- rich syngas at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX has been shipped to four of the project sites in anticipation of the start of testing during the first quarter of calendar year 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for a freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), continued to decline more rapidly than expected. In response to concentrations of arsenic and sulfbr detected on catalyst samples from the LPMEOW Reactor, Eastman replaced both the arsine- and sulfiwremoval material in the Eastman guard bed which treats the primary syngas feed stream (&danced Gas) prior to its introduction into both the Eastman fixed-bed methanol plant and the LPMEOWM Demonstration Unit. After restarting the demonstration unit, the catalyst deactivation rate remained essentially unchanged. Parallel testing in the laboratory using arsine-doped, and subsequently arsine- and SuIfi-doped syngas, ako ftiIed to prove that arsine was responsible for the higher-than-expected rate of

  1. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    he Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOEP Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. The LPMEOHW Demonstration Facility completed its first year of operation on 02 April 1998. The LPMEOW Demonstration Facility also completed the longest continuous operating run (65 days) on 21 April 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), was monitored throughout the reporting period. During a six-week test at a reactor temperature of 225oC and Balanced Gas flowrate of 700 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was steady at 0.29-0.36% per day. During a second one-month test at a reactor temperature of 220oC and a Balanced Gas flowrate of 550-600 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was 0.4% per day, which matched the pefiorrnance at 225"C, as well as the 4-month proof-of-concept run at the LaPorte AFDU in 1988/89. Beginning on 08 May 1998, the LPMEOW Reactor temperature was increased to 235oC, which was the operating temperature tier the December 1997 restart with the fresh charge of catalyst (50'Yo of design loading). The flowrate of the primary syngas feed stream (Balanced Gas) was also increased to 700-750 KSCFH. During two stable operating periods between 08 May and 09 June 1998, the average catalyst deactivation rate was 0.8% per day. Due to the scatter of the statistical analysis of the results, this test was extended to better quanti

  2. Dynamic cross-flow filtration: enhanced continuous small-scale solid-liquid separation.

    PubMed

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, a small-scale dynamic filtration device (SFD) was analyzed and the basic mechanisms governing the filtration process were characterized. The present work aims at improving the device's performance in terms of actual production. Various operation modes were tested in order to increase permeate flow and concentration factors (CF), while maintaining a fully continuous production mode. Both, a vacuum-enhanced and a pulsating operation mode, proved to be superior to the currently implemented open-operation mode. For example, for lactose, an increase of the CF could be achieved from 1.7 in open mode to 7.6 in pulsating operation mode. The investigated operation strategy enables process control systems to rapidly react to fluctuating feeds that may occur due to changes in upstream manufacturing steps. As a result, not only filtration performance in terms of permeate rate but also process flexibility can be significantly increased. Overall, vacuum-enhanced operation was shown to be most promising for integration into an industrial environment. The option to elevate achievable concentration factors, ease of flow monitoring as well as the ability to react to changes in the feed conditions allow for effective and efficient continuous small-scale filtration.

  3. Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution in Porous Media: Multi-Scale Effects of Multi-Component Dissolution Kinetics on Cleanup Time

    SciTech Connect

    McNab, W; Ezzedine, S; Detwiler, R

    2007-02-26

    Industrial organic solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) constitute a principal class of groundwater contaminants. Cleanup of groundwater plume source areas associated with these compounds is problematic, in part, because the compounds often exist in the subsurface as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Ganglia (or 'blobs') of DNAPL serve as persistent sources of contaminants that are difficult to locate and remediate (e.g. Fenwick and Blunt, 1998). Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes associated with dissolution of DNAPLs in the subsurface is incomplete and yet is critical for evaluating long-term behavior of contaminant migration, groundwater cleanup, and the efficacy of source area cleanup technologies. As such, a goal of this project has been to contribute to this critical understanding by investigating the multi-phase, multi-component physics of DNAPL dissolution using state-of-the-art experimental and computational techniques. Through this research, we have explored efficient and accurate conceptual and numerical models for source area contaminant transport that can be used to better inform the modeling of source area contaminants, including those at the LLNL Superfund sites, to re-evaluate existing remediation technologies, and to inspire or develop new remediation strategies. The problem of DNAPL dissolution in natural porous media must be viewed in the context of several scales (Khachikian and Harmon, 2000), including the microscopic level at which capillary forces, viscous forces, and gravity/buoyancy forces are manifested at the scale of individual pores (Wilson and Conrad, 1984; Chatzis et al., 1988), the mesoscale where dissolution rates are strongly influenced by the local hydrodynamics, and the field-scale. Historically, the physico-chemical processes associated with DNAPL dissolution have been addressed through the use of lumped mass transfer coefficients which attempt to quantify the

  4. Design and implementation of a large-scale liquid nitrogen archive.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Mark; Ball, Peter

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank required a cryogenic facility to store, in vapour phase, a minimum of 5 000 000 1.2 ml capacity micro-tubes held in racks of 96 tubes below -180 degrees C for a 20 year period. The archive would be housed in a 900 m(2) industrial unit remote from the main laboratory area that would be generally unmanned and would require a complete cryogenic infrastructure. A commercial supplier was commissioned to provide a complete system including design, project management, supply and installation of all the cryogenic storage requirement including bulk tank, super insulated vacuum lines, Taylor Wharton LABS80K high capacity long-term vapour phase storage vessels with inventory control systems and all the local and remote software. The large-scale storage vessels were selected to give a high storage density, temperature stability and storage in vapour phase.

  5. The effect of entrapped nonaqueous phase liquids on tracer transport in heterogeneous porous media: Laboratory experiments at the intermediate scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, G.R.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Rajaram, H.

    2003-01-01

    This work considers the applicability of conservative tracers for detecting high-saturation nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) entrapment in heterogeneous systems. For this purpose, a series of experiments and simulations was performed using a two-dimensional heterogeneous system (10??1.2 m), which represents an intermediate scale between laboratory and field scales. Tracer tests performed prior to injecting the NAPL provide the baseline response of the heterogeneous porous medium. Two NAPL spill experiments were performed and the entrapped-NAPL saturation distribution measured in detail using a gamma-ray attenuation system. Tracer tests following each of the NAPL spills produced breakthrough curves (BTCs) reflecting the impact of entrapped NAPL on conservative transport. To evaluate significance, the impact of NAPL entrapment on the conservative-tracer breakthrough curves was compared to simulated breakthrough curve variability for different realizations of the heterogeneous distribution. Analysis of the results reveals that the NAPL entrapment has a significant impact on the temporal moments of conservative-tracer breakthrough curves. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tuned Liquid Column Damper based Reduction of Dynamic Responses of Scaled Offshore Platforms in Different Ocean Wave Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Deirdre; Murphy, Jimmy; Desmond, Cian; Jaksic, Vesna; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2017-05-01

    Control of dynamic responses of renewable energy device platforms is important for their performance, safe operation and efficiency over their lifetime under regular and extreme wave conditions. Tuned Liquid Column Dampers (TLCDs) have been recently considered as a viable passive control mechanism in this regard but limited information is available in relation to their experimental performance. This paper compares scaled experiments conducted in two different ocean wave basins where floating offshore platforms were retrofitted with multiple TLCDs (MTLCDs). Performance of such MTLCDs in these scaled ocean wave basins are evaluated and compared considering control of dynamic responses for a specific objective. This paper shows the potential of MTLCDs to reduce motions in offshore platforms for different designs and platforms of MTLCDs and provides a comparison of the levels of reduction of dynamic responses achieved. The performance of MTLCDs in different wave basins create an experimental evidence base behind the potential use of such solutions, the objectives of such use and highlight related challenges and limitations.

  7. Sequential operation droplet array: an automated microfluidic platform for picoliter-scale liquid handling, analysis, and screening.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Long-Fei; Fang, Qun

    2013-07-16

    This contribution describes a sequential operation droplet array (SODA) system, a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic system capable of performing picoliter-scale liquid manipulation, analysis, and screening. The SODA system was built using a tapered capillary-syringe pump module and a two-dimensional (2D) oil-covered droplet array installed on an x-y-z translation stage. With the system, we developed a novel picoliter-scale droplet depositing technique for forming a 2D picoliter-droplet array. On this basis, an automated droplet manipulation method with picoliter precision was established using the programmable combination of the capillary-based liquid aspirating-depositing and the moving of the oil-covered droplet array, the so-called "aspirating-depositing-moving" (ADM) method. Differing from the previously reported droplet systems based on microchips, microcapillaries, or digital microfluidics, this method can achieve complete and flexible droplet manipulations, including droplet assembling, generation, indexing, transferring, splitting, and fusion in the picoliter range, endowing the present system with ultralow sample/reagent consumptions and substantial versatility in analysis and screening for multiple different samples. To demonstrate its feasibility and versatility, we applied the SODA system in multiple experiments required in drug screening, including the screening of inhibitors for capases-1 from a chemical library, the measurement of IC50 values for the identified inhibitors, and the screening of the synergistic effect of multiple inhibitors. In the experiments, the consumptions of samples and reagents are only 60-180 pL for each droplet microreactor, which are commonly 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than those of conventional multiwell plate systems, and 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other droplet-based microfluidic systems for multiple sample screening. The ability of the SODA system in performing complicated and multistep droplet

  8. Large-scale inhomogeneities in solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of liquids: supramolecular structures or nanobubbles?

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Marián; Rak, Dmytro

    2013-02-28

    In textbooks, undersaturated solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of freely miscible liquids are considered as homogeneous at larger length scales exceeding appreciably dimensions of individual molecules. However, growing experimental evidence reveals that it is not the case. Large-scale structures with sizes on the order of 100 nm are present in solutions and mixtures used in everyday life and research practice, especially in aqueous systems. These mesoscale inhomogeneities are long-lived, and (relatively slow) kinetics of their formation can be monitored upon mixing the components. Nevertheless, the nature of these structures and mechanisms behind their formation are not clear yet. Since it was previously suggested that these can be nanobubbles stabilized by adsorbed solute at the gas/solvent interface, we devote the current study to addressing this question. Static and dynamic light scattering was used to investigate solutions and mixtures prepared at ordinary conditions (equilibrated with air at 1 atm), prepared with degassed solvent, and solutions and mixtures degassed after formation of large structures. The behavior of large structures in strong gravitational centrifugal fields was also investigated. Systems from various categories were chosen for this study: aqueous solutions of an inorganic ionic compound (MgSO4), organic ionic compound (citric acid), uncharged organic compound (urea), and a mixture of water with organic solvent freely miscible with water (tert-butyl alcohol). Obtained results show that these structures are not nanobubbles in all cases. Visualization of large-scale structures via nanoparticle tracking analysis is presented. NTA results confirm conclusions from our previous light scattering work.

  9. Design of turbulent tangential micro-mixers that mix liquids on the nanosecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Mitic, Sandra; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan W; van den Berg, Albert; de Vries, Simon

    2015-01-15

    Unravelling (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms and macromolecular folding pathways on the (sub)microsecond time scale is limited by the time resolution of kinetic instruments for mixing reactants and observation of the progress of the reaction. To improve the mixing time resolution, turbulent four- and two-jet tangential micro-mixers were designed and characterized for their mixing and (unwanted) premixing performances employing acid-base reactions monitored by a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. The mixing performances of the micro-mixers were determined after the mixing chamber in a free-flowing jet. The premixing behavior in the vortex chamber was assessed in an optically transparent glass-silicon replica of a previously well-characterized stainless-steel four-jet tangential micro-mixer. At the highest flow rates, complete mixing was achieved in 160ns with only approximately 9% premixing of the reactants. The mixing time of 160ns is at least 50 times shorter than estimated for other fast mixing devices. Key aspects to the design of ultrafast turbulent micro-mixers are discussed. The integration of these micro-mixers with an optical flow cell would enable the study of the very onset of chemical reactions in general and of enzyme catalytic reactions in particular.

  10. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{sup trademark}) process. Third quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH)(TM) demonstration project at King sport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) of methanol is being designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to `demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH(TM) Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four year demonstration period. The LPMEOH(TM) process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfully piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products` LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  11. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Skin flaking; Scaly skin; Papulosquamous disorders ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that can cause scales include: Eczema Fungal infections such as ringworm , tinea versicolor ...

  12. Voltammetry on microfluidic chip platforms

    PubMed

    Wang; Polsky; Tian; Chatrathi

    2000-11-01

    Microfluidic chip devices are shown to be attractive platforms for performing microscale voltammetric analysis and for integrating voltammetric procedures with on-chip chemical reactions and fluid manipulations. Linear-sweep, square-wave, and adsorptive-stripping voltammograms are recorded while electrokinetically "pumping" the sample through the microchannels. The adaptation of voltammetric techniques to microfluidic chip operation requires an assessment of the effect of relevant experimental variables, particularly the high voltage used for driving the electroosmotic flow, upon the background current, potential window, and size or potential of the voltammetric signal. The exact potential window of the chip detector is dependent upon the driving voltage. Manipulation of the electroosmotic flow opens the door to hydrodynamic modulation (stopped-flow) and reversed-flow operations. The modulated analyte velocity permits compensation of the microchip voltammetric background. Reversal of the driving voltage polarity offers extended residence times in the detector compartment. Rapid square-wave voltammetry/flow injection operation allows a detection limit of 2 x 10(-12) mol (i.e., 2 pmol) of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in connection with 47 nL of injected sample. The ability of integrating chemical reactions with voltammetric detection is demonstrated for adsorptive stripping measurements of trace nickel using the nickel-dimethylglyoxime model system. The voltammetric response is characterized using catechol, hydrazine, TNT, and nickel as test species. The ability to perform on-chip voltammertic protocols in advantageous over nanovial voltammetric operations that lack a liquid-handling capability. Coupling the versatility of microfluidic chips with the rich information content of voltammetry thus opens an array of future opportunities.

  13. On-chip integration of organic synthesis and HPLC/MS analysis for monitoring stereoselective transformations at the micro-scale.

    PubMed

    Heiland, Josef J; Warias, Rico; Lotter, Carsten; Mauritz, Laura; Fuchs, Patrick J W; Ohla, Stefan; Zeitler, Kirsten; Belder, Detlev

    2016-12-20

    We present a microfluidic system, seamlessly integrating microflow and microbatch synthesis with a HPLC/nano-ESI-MS functionality on a single glass chip. The microfluidic approach allows to efficiently steer and dispense sample streams down to the nanoliter-range for studying reactions in quasi real-time. In a proof-of-concept study, the system was applied to explore amino-catalyzed reactions, including asymmetric iminium-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylations in microflow and micro confined reaction vessels.

  14. Multiple length and time scales of dynamic heterogeneities in model glass-forming liquids: A systematic analysis of multi-point and multi-time correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kang; Saito, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    We report an extensive and systematic investigation of the multi-point and multi-time correlation functions to reveal the spatio-temporal structures of dynamic heterogeneities in glass-forming liquids. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for the supercooled states of various prototype models of glass-forming liquids such as binary Kob-Andersen, Wahnström, soft-sphere, and network-forming liquids. While the first three models act as fragile liquids exhibiting super-Arrhenius temperature dependence in their relaxation times, the last is a strong glass-former exhibiting Arrhenius behavior. First, we quantify the length scale of the dynamic heterogeneities utilizing the four-point correlation function. The growth of the dynamic length scale with decreasing temperature is characterized by various scaling relations that are analogous to the critical phenomena. We also examine how the growth of the length scale depends upon the model employed. Second, the four-point correlation function is extended to a three-time correlation function to characterize the temporal structures of the dynamic heterogeneities based on our previous studies [K. Kim and S. Saito, Phys. Rev. E 79, 060501-R (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.060501; K. Kim and S. Saito, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 044511 (2010), 10.1063/1.3464331]. We provide comprehensive numerical results obtained from the three-time correlation function for the above models. From these calculations, we examine the time scale of the dynamic heterogeneities and determine the associated lifetime in a consistent and systematic way. Our results indicate that the lifetime of the dynamical heterogeneities becomes much longer than the α-relaxation time determined from a two-point correlation function in fragile liquids. The decoupling between the two time scales is remarkable, particularly in supercooled states, and the time scales differ by more than an order of magnitude in a more fragile liquid. In contrast, the lifetime is shorter

  15. Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Spectroscopy with CHIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Mark V.; Sasseen, T. P.; Sirk, M.; Marchant, W.; McDonald, J.; Thorsness, J.; Lewis, M.; Woods, T.

    2006-12-01

    The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) can be utilized to collect extreme ultraviolet spectra of the full solar disk. CHIPS has been collecting solar spectra since late 2005, although the observation geometry was not standardized until April 2006. Since that time, CHIPS has been accumulating spectra on nearly a daily basis. As for the diffuse emission that CHIPS was designed to observe, the bandpass is about 90 to 260 Å, with a peak resolution (λ/Δλ) of about 100. The instrumental efficiency as a function of wavelength is expected to be stable, but is subject to an overall scale factor that is less certain. We explain how CHIPS can collect these spectra, and present representative results.

  16. Development and Application of Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-TOF MS for Precision Large Scale Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew R; Pearce, Jake T M; Spagou, Konstantina; Green, Martin; Dona, Anthony C; Yuen, Ada H Y; David, Mark; Berry, David J; Chappell, Katie; Horneffer-van der Sluis, Verena; Shaw, Rachel; Lovestone, Simon; Elliott, Paul; Shockcor, John; Lindon, John C; Cloarec, Olivier; Takats, Zoltan; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2016-09-20

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning physiological variation in human populations, metabolic phenotyping approaches are increasingly being applied to studies involving hundreds and thousands of biofluid samples. Hyphenated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) has become a fundamental tool for this purpose. However, the seemingly inevitable need to analyze large studies in multiple analytical batches for UPLC-MS analysis poses a challenge to data quality which has been recognized in the field. Herein, we describe in detail a fit-for-purpose UPLC-MS platform, method set, and sample analysis workflow, capable of sustained analysis on an industrial scale and allowing batch-free operation for large studies. Using complementary reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) together with high resolution orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (oaTOF-MS), exceptional measurement precision is exemplified with independent epidemiological sample sets of approximately 650 and 1000 participant samples. Evaluation of molecular reference targets in repeated injections of pooled quality control (QC) samples distributed throughout each experiment demonstrates a mean retention time relative standard deviation (RSD) of <0.3% across all assays in both studies and a mean peak area RSD of <15% in the raw data. To more globally assess the quality of the profiling data, untargeted feature extraction was performed followed by data filtration according to feature intensity response to QC sample dilution. Analysis of the remaining features within the repeated QC sample measurements demonstrated median peak area RSD values of <20% for the RPC assays and <25% for the HILIC assays. These values represent the quality of the raw data, as no normalization or feature-specific intensity correction was applied. While the data in each experiment was acquired in a single continuous

  17. Micromachined, planar-geometry, atmospheric-pressure, battery-operated microplasma devices (MPDs) on chips for analysis of microsamples of liquids, solids, or gases by optical-emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karanassios, Vassili; Johnson, Kara; Smith, Andrea T

    2007-08-01

    Because of their desirable characteristics, for example small size, lightness, low power and gas consumption, and potential for portability, miniaturized plasma sources are receiving significant attention in the scientific literature. To take advantage of these characteristics we micromachined and fabricated new, planar-geometry, self-igniting, atmospheric-pressure microplasma devices (MPDs) on chips. These microplasmas required such low power for their operation they could be operated from a re-chargeable battery (of the type used in cordless power-tools). Despite their advantages, most miniaturized plasma sources reported in the literature have not performed well with liquid samples; analysis of powders or solids that can be converted to a powder (and processed and used as slurries) is even more difficult. To address these shortcomings we coupled an electrothermal, mini-in-torch vaporization (mini-ITV) "dry" sample-introduction system to the low-power planar microplasma devices we developed. In this preliminary investigation, absolute detection limits obtained from microsamples of single-element liquid standards and optical emission spectrometry with photomultiplier-tube detection and a spectral bandpass similar to that of portable, commercially available fiber-optic spectrometers were in the low-pg to ng range, for example 2 pg (for K) to 25 ng (for Pb). Mini-ITV also enabled (as far as we are aware, for the first time) measurement of analyte emission from microsamples of powdered solids (as slurries). In addition to the 3% H2 in Ar mixtures, the ac-operated microplasmas were sustained by use of a variety of electrode materials and different plasma-support gases (e.g. Ar, He and 3% H2 in He) thus indicating fabrication versatility and operational flexibility. Such flexibility has the potential to enable microplasmas to be tailored to analytical problems, and this is demonstrated by using a He MPD and chlorine emission measurements (837.594 nm) from gaseous

  18. N-Linked Glycan Profiling of Mature Human Milk by High Performance Microfluidic Chip Liquid Chromatography Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Martin, William F.; Strum, John S.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Underwood, Mark A.; Affolter, Michael; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; German, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    N-linked glycans of skim human milk proteins were determined for three mothers. N-linked glycans are linked to immune defense, cell growth, and cell-cell adhesion, but their functions in human milk are undetermined. Protein-bound N-linked glycans were released with Peptidyl N-glycosidase F (PNGase F), enriched by graphitized carbon chromatography and analyzed with Chip-TOF MS. To be defined as N-glycans, compounds were required, in all three procedural replicates, to match, within 6 ppm, against a theoretical human N-glycan library, be at least two-fold higher in abundance in PNGase F-treated than in control samples. Fifty-two N-linked glycan compositions were identified and 24 were confirmed via tandem mass spectra analysis. Twenty-seven compositions have been found previously in human milk and 25 are novel compositions. By abundance, 84% of N-glycans were fucosylated and 47% were sialylated. The majority (70%) of total N-glycan abundance was comprised of N-glycans found in all three milk samples. PMID:21384928

  19. Segment-scale, force-level theory of mesoscopic dynamic localization and entropic elasticity in entangled chain polymer liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Zachary E.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2017-04-01

    We develop a segment-scale, force-based theory for the breakdown of the unentangled Rouse model and subsequent emergence of isotropic mesoscopic localization and entropic elasticity in chain polymer liquids in the absence of ergodicity-restoring anisotropic reptation or activated hopping motion. The theory is formulated in terms of a conformational N-dynamic-order-parameter generalized Langevin equation approach. It is implemented using a universal field-theoretic Gaussian thread model of polymer structure and closed at the level of the chain dynamic second moment matrix. The physical idea is that the isotropic Rouse model fails due to the dynamical emergence, with increasing chain length, of time-persistent intermolecular contacts determined by the combined influence of local uncrossability, long range polymer connectivity, and a self-consistent treatment of chain motion and the dynamic forces that hinder it. For long chain melts, the mesoscopic localization length (identified as the tube diameter) and emergent entropic elasticity predictions are in near quantitative agreement with experiment. Moreover, the onset chain length scales with the semi-dilute crossover concentration with a realistic numerical prefactor. Distinctive novel predictions are made for various off-diagonal correlation functions that quantify the full spatial structure of the dynamically localized polymer conformation. As the local excluded volume constraint and/or intrachain bonding spring are softened to allow chain crossability, the tube diameter is predicted to swell until it reaches the radius-of-gyration at which point mesoscopic localization vanishes in a discontinuous manner. A dynamic phase diagram for such a delocalization transition is constructed, which is qualitatively consistent with simulations and the classical concept of a critical entanglement degree of polymerization.

  20. Segment-scale, force-level theory of mesoscopic dynamic localization and entropic elasticity in entangled chain polymer liquids.

    PubMed

    Dell, Zachary E; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2017-04-07

    We develop a segment-scale, force-based theory for the breakdown of the unentangled Rouse model and subsequent emergence of isotropic mesoscopic localization and entropic elasticity in chain polymer liquids in the absence of ergodicity-restoring anisotropic reptation or activated hopping motion. The theory is formulated in terms of a conformational N-dynamic-order-parameter generalized Langevin equation approach. It is implemented using a universal field-theoretic Gaussian thread model of polymer structure and closed at the level of the chain dynamic second moment matrix. The physical idea is that the isotropic Rouse model fails due to the dynamical emergence, with increasing chain length, of time-persistent intermolecular contacts determined by the combined influence of local uncrossability, long range polymer connectivity, and a self-consistent treatment of chain motion and the dynamic forces that hinder it. For long chain melts, the mesoscopic localization length (identified as the tube diameter) and emergent entropic elasticity predictions are in near quantitative agreement with experiment. Moreover, the onset chain length scales with the semi-dilute crossover concentration with a realistic numerical prefactor. Distinctive novel predictions are made for various off-diagonal correlation functions that quantify the full spatial structure of the dynamically localized polymer conformation. As the local excluded volume constraint and/or intrachain bonding spring are softened to allow chain crossability, the tube diameter is predicted to swell until it reaches the radius-of-gyration at which point mesoscopic localization vanishes in a discontinuous manner. A dynamic phase diagram for such a delocalization transition is constructed, which is qualitatively consistent with simulations and the classical concept of a critical entanglement degree of polymerization.

  1. Pilot-scale production and liquid formulation of Rhodotorula minuta, a potential biocontrol agent of mango anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Vera, M; Jiménez, B; Balderas, K; Ortiz, M; Allende, R; Carrillo, A; Galindo, E

    2005-01-01

    To develop a pilot-plant fermentation process for the production of the yeast Rhodotorula minuta, to be used as a biocontrol agent of mango anthracnose, using a low-cost culture medium. To develop a stable liquid formulation that preserve high viability of the yeast stored at 4 degrees C. Keeping constant the volumetric power input, a fermentation process was scaled-up from shake flasks to a 100 l bioreactor. Preharvest applications of the yeast resulted in postharvest anthracnose severity equal or lower than that observed with a chemical fungicide. Glycerol was added to the formulation as water activity reducer and xanthan gum as a viscosity-enhancing agent. Yeast initial concentration of 10(10) CFU ml(-1) resulted in 4-5 orders of magnitude decrease after 1 month of storage at 4 degrees C, whereas when it was formulated at 10(9) CFU ml(-1), the decrease was of two orders of magnitude in 6 months. The fermentation process was successfully scaled-up using a low-cost culture medium. Postharvest anthracnose severity could be considerably reduced using this yeast. Formulating the yeast at 10(9) CFU ml(-1) and adding glycerol (20%) and xanthan (5 g l(-1)) avoided both contamination and yeast sedimentation and it was able to preserve up to 10(7) CFU ml(-1) after 6 months at 4 degrees C. The yeast R. minuta is reported as a novel antagonistic micro-organism against the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Pilot plant production of this yeast allowed us to conduct field tests in commercial orchards during three harvest seasons. Yeast suspensions applied to mango trees reduced the fruit anthracnose severity in levels similar or better than chemical fungicides.

  2. First-Principles United Atom Force Field for the Ionic Liquid BMIM(+)BF4(-): An Alternative to Charge Scaling.

    PubMed

    Son, Chang Yun; McDaniel, Jesse G; Schmidt, J R; Cui, Qiang; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-04-14

    Molecular dynamics study of ionic liquids (ILs) is a challenging task. While accurate fully polarizable atomistic models exist, they are computationally too demanding for routine use. Most nonpolarizable atomistic models predict diffusion constants that are much lower than experiment. Scaled charge atomistic models are cost-effective and give good results for single component ILs but are in qualitative error for the phase behavior of mixtures, due to inaccurate prediction of the IL cohesive energy. In this work, we present an alternative approach for developing computationally efficient models that importantly preserves both the correct dynamics and cohesive energy of the IL. Employing a "top-down" approach, a hierarchy of coarse-grained models for BMIM(+)BF4(-) are developed by systematically varying the polarization/atomic resolution of the distinct functional groups. Parametrization is based on symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations involving the homomolecular species; all cross interactions are obtained from mixing rules, and there are no adjustable parameters. We find that enhanced dynamics from a united-atom description counteracts the effect of reduced polarization, enabling computationally efficient models that exhibit quantitative agreement with experiment for both static and dynamic properties. We give explicit suggestions for reduced-description models that are computationally more efficient, more accurate, and more fundamentally sound than existing nonpolarizable atomistic models.

  3. Large-scale profiling of diterpenoid glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shafii, Behnaz; Vismeh, Ramin; Beaudry, Randy; Warner, Ryan; Jones, A Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The plant Stevia rebaudiana accumulates a suite of diterpenoid metabolites that are natural sweeteners finding increased use as sugar substitutes. To guide breeding of stevia plants that accumulate substances with desirable flavor in high yield, rapid and accurate methods are needed to profile these substances in plant populations. This report describes an 8-min ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for separation and quantification of seven stevia glycosides including steviolbioside; stevioside; rebaudiosides A, B, and C; rubusoside; and dulcoside as well as aglycones steviol and isosteviol. This negative mode electrospray ionization/multiple reaction monitoring method yielded low limits of detection <1 ng/mL for steviol, 6 ng/mL for isosteviol, and <15 ng/mL for all stevia glycosides. Stevioside and Reb A, B, and C were quantified in more than 1,100 extracts from stevia leaves as part of a large-scale profiling exercise. Leaf tissue levels in this population spanned about two orders of magnitude for stevioside (2-125 mg/g dry weight), Reb A (2.5-164 mg/g), Reb B (0.5-50 mg/g), and Reb C (1.5-125 mg/g), but levels of individual metabolites exhibited independent variation. The wide spread of metabolite levels highlights the utility and importance of performing targeted metabolic profiling for large plant populations.

  4. Steady-shear-enhanced microdiffusion with multiple time scales of confined, mesoscopic, two-dimensional dusty-plasma liquids.

    PubMed

    Io, Chong-Wai; I, Lin

    2009-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the multitime scale diffusion and the spatiotemporal behaviors of the degrees of enhancement for the longitudinal and the transverse diffusions in a confined mesoscopic quasi-two-dimensional dusty-plasma liquid sheared by two parallel counterpropagating laser beams. The steady external drive directly enhances the longitudinal cooperative hopping, associated with the shear bands that have high shear rate near boundaries. It drastically excites the slow hopping modes to high fluctuation level in the outer band region, accompanied by the enhanced superdiffusion. Through cascaded many-body interaction, the excitation flows from the outer region toward the center region, from the longitudinal modes to the transverse mode, and from the slow hopping modes to the fast caging modes, which are in better contact with the thermal bath. It causes the weaker enhancement of fluctuation level, and diffusion for the center region and the fast modes. The boundary confinement further breaks the system symmetry and enhances anisotropy. It has much stronger effect on the suppression of the transverse hopping modes than the longitudinal hopping mode. The degrees of enhancement of the fluctuations by the shear stress are highly anisotropic for the large amplitude slow modes, especially in the outer region but are more isotropic in the inner band.

  5. Ordered liquids and hydrogels from alkenyl succinic ester terminated bola-amphiphiles for large-scale applications.

    PubMed

    Lohmeier, Thomas; Bredol, Michael; Schreiner, Eduard; Hintze-Bruening, Horst

    2014-09-07

    The present study describes an economic and scalable approach to aqueous mesophases from bola-amphiphiles (BA) obtained via nucleophilic addition of dimer fatty acid based α,ω-polyesterdiols (PES) on cyclic acid anhydrides and conversion of the carboxylic end groups into ammonium salts. Novel bola-amphiphilic head groups are introduced using alkenyl succinic anhydrides (ASA). The additional terminal hydrophobic side chains favour the self-assembly of polymeric BA of different molecular weights into nanoscale anisotropic objects, their shape and ordering into nematic or lamellar-like phases being dependent on the length and structural uniformity of the ASA chains. Corresponding diester based on C15 (hydrogenated bisphenol-A, HBA) and C8 (1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, CHDM) spacers have been prepared and the self-assembly of the resulting BA in water has been studied using SAXS, (2)H-NMR and optical polarization microscopy. While the rigid C8 spacer impedes any ordering, ASA capped C15 tends to form ordered hydrogels over extended regions of the phase diagram that resemble mesh phases and L(α)/L(3) polymorphism. Rheological and simulation results confirm the presence of elastically responding bicontinuous morphologies and biased porous assemblies resembling interconnected mesh phases. Both the use of the dimer fatty acid based spacer as well as of ASA head groups open up large-scale applications of ordered liquids (or hydrogels) as a formulation basis for e.g. films, coatings and adhesives.

  6. A primary battery-on-a-chip using monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iost, Rodrigo M.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2016-07-01

    We present here a bottom-up approach for realizing on-chip on-demand batteries starting out with chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene. Single graphene monolayers contacted by electrode lines on a silicon chip serve as electrodes. The anode and cathode are realized by electrodeposition of zinc and copper respectively onto graphene, leading to the realization of a miniature graphene-based Daniell cell on a chip. The electrolyte is housed partly in a gel and partly in liquid form in an on-chip enclosure molded using a 3d printer or made out of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The realized batteries provide a stable voltage (∼1.1 V) for many hours and exhibit capacities as high as 15 μAh, providing enough power to operate a pocket calculator. The realized batteries show promise for deployment as on-chip power sources for autonomous systems in lab-on-a-chip or biomedical applications.

  7. Microfluidic-integrated laser-controlled microactuators with on-chip microscopy imaging functionality

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hee; Han, Chao; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Jinho; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of a novel microfluidic system, integrated with a set of laser-controlled microactuators on an ePetri on-chip microscopy platform, is presented in this paper. In the fully integrated microfluidic system, a set of novel thermally actuated paraffin-based microactuators, precisely controlled by programmed laser optics, was developed to regulate flow and to provide pumping of liquid solutions without external connections. The microfluidic chip was fabricated on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-imaging sensor chip on an ePetri platform; this configuration provided real-time, wide field-of-view, high-resolution imaging using a sub-pixel sweeping microscopy technique. The system of microactuators, which consisted of microvalves and a micropump, operated well in the microfluidic channel with a focused near-infrared laser beam providing the actuation control. As a demonstration, we used our prototype to assess cell–drug interactions, and monitored cell growth directly within an incubator in real time. The powerful combination of the laser-actuated microfluidics and chip-scale microscopy techniques represents a significant step forward in terms of a simple, robust, high-throughput, and highly compact analysis system for biomedical and bioscience applications. PMID:25099225

  8. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integr