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Sample records for chironomidae diptera nematocera

  1. Chironomidae (Diptera, Nematocera) fauna in three small streams of Skania, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Janssens de Bisthoven, L; Gerhardt, A

    2003-03-01

    Two unpolluted streams and one chemically and thermally polluted stream in Skania, Sweden, were investigated in summer 1995 for their temporary chironomid fauna and the occurrence of buccal deformities. The unpolluted streams 'Ovedsan' and 'Skäralidbäcken' each contained, respectively, 13 and 16 taxa, with a dominance of Microtendipes pedellus group and Micropsectra spp., respectively. Most taxa were found in the pebbles and the submerged vegetation. Deformities were insignificant. The degraded stream Ybbarpsan in Perstorp contained 5 taxa, dominated by Procladius choreus. This species had 14% deformed larvae, interpreted as an effect of the chemical pollution. Shannon H and equitability J reflected the differences in chironomid community structure between the two unpolluted and the polluted sites. The Belgian Biotic Index scored maximally '10' in Skäralid, however only '6' in Oved and '5' in Perstorp. The combination of rapid assessment of macrobenthos and description of communities of Chironomidae, with mention of deformed larvae, adds a bonus of information about the temporary state of a stream.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dixella aestivalis (Diptera: Nematocera: Dixidae).

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Sivell, Duncan; Harbach, Ralph E

    2017-01-01

    Dixidae, meniscus midges, belong to the suborder Nematocera of the order Diptera. The family includes 197 known species classified in nine genera. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Dixella aestivalis (Meigen) from the United Kingdom is reported here, along with its annotation and comparison with the genome of an unidentified species of Dixella from China. The circular genome consists of 16 465 bp and has a gene content consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding, A + T-rich, control region. The mitochondrial genome of D. aestivalis can be used to identify genetic markers for species identification, and will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the genus, family Dixidae and suborder Nematocera.

  3. Origin and development of the tergotrochanteral muscle in Chironomus (Diptera: Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Lebart-Pedebas, M C

    1992-01-01

    The origin and the development of the tubular tergo-trochanteral muscle (TTD) was studied by light and electron microscopy in Chironomus (Diptera: Nematocera). Unlike the flight muscles, the TTD was found to develop from myoblasts located around a larval axon, without contribution from a larval muscle. The myoblasts fuse together to form myotubes. Innervation of the TTD arises from the larval axon. The myotubes send out sarcoplasmic extensions towards the axon branches issued from the larval axon. The first differentiated synapses are described. The TTD begins to grow later than the flight muscles. The implications of this developmental lag are discussed.

  4. Comparative Mt Genomics of the Tipuloidea (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha) and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of the Tipulomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Meng; Li, Xuankun; Cameron, Stephen L.; de Jong, Herman; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    A traditionally controversial taxon, the Tipulomorpha has been frequently discussed with respect to both its familial composition and relationships with other Nematocera. The interpretation of internal relationships within the Tipuloidea, which include the Tipulidae sensu stricto, Cylindrotomidae, Pediciidae and Limoniidae, is also problematic. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Symplecta hybrida (Meigen, 1804), which belongs to the subfamily Chioneinae of family Limoniidae, and another five nearly complete mt genomes from the Tipuloidea. We did a comparative analysis of these mt genomics and used them, along with some other representatives of the Nematocera to construct phylogenetic trees. Trees inferred by Bayesian methods strongly support a sister-group relationship between Trichoceridae and Tipuloidea. Tipulomorpha are not supported as the earliest branch of the Diptera. Furthermore, phylogenetic trees indicate that the family Limoniidae is a paraphyletic group. PMID:27341029

  5. Comparative Mt Genomics of the Tipuloidea (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha) and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of the Tipulomorpha.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Kang, Zehui; Mao, Meng; Li, Xuankun; Cameron, Stephen L; Jong, Herman de; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    A traditionally controversial taxon, the Tipulomorpha has been frequently discussed with respect to both its familial composition and relationships with other Nematocera. The interpretation of internal relationships within the Tipuloidea, which include the Tipulidae sensu stricto, Cylindrotomidae, Pediciidae and Limoniidae, is also problematic. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Symplecta hybrida (Meigen, 1804), which belongs to the subfamily Chioneinae of family Limoniidae, and another five nearly complete mt genomes from the Tipuloidea. We did a comparative analysis of these mt genomics and used them, along with some other representatives of the Nematocera to construct phylogenetic trees. Trees inferred by Bayesian methods strongly support a sister-group relationship between Trichoceridae and Tipuloidea. Tipulomorpha are not supported as the earliest branch of the Diptera. Furthermore, phylogenetic trees indicate that the family Limoniidae is a paraphyletic group.

  6. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  7. Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from madicolous habitat in Southeast Brazil: new species and new records.

    PubMed

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Shimabukuro, Erika Mayumi

    2017-05-23

    Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) collected from madicolous habitats in Brazil are analyzed, and three new species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp are described and illustrated: T. angelae sp. n. and T. alaidae sp. n. as adult male and T. alienus sp. n. as male and female. New records of another Brazilian Tanytarsus species are also presented, and immature stages of Paratanytarsus silentii Trivinho-Strixino are described.

  8. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and spinosad on adult emergence of the non-biting midges Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagadic, Laurent; Lagneau, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    To optimize their efficacy, some insecticides used for mosquito control are introduced into aquatic ecosystems where mosquito larvae develop (marshes, ponds, sanitation devices) and cannot escape from the treated water. However, this raises the question of possible effects of mosquito larvicides on non-target aquatic species. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), which is well-known for its selectivity for Nematocera dipterans, is widely used for mosquito control all over the world. Spinosad, a mixture of spinosyns A and D known as fermentation products of a soil actinomycete (Saccharopolyspora spinosa), is a biological neurotoxic insecticide with a broader action spectrum. It is a candidate larvicide for mosquito control, but some studies showed that it may be toxic to beneficial or non-target species, including non-biting midges. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the impact of Bti and spinosad on natural populations of Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in field enclosures implemented in Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Unlike Bti, spinosad had a strong lethal effect on P. nubifer and seems to affect T. curticornis at presumed recommended rates for field application. Differences in the sensitivity of these two species to spinosad confirm that population dynamics need to be known for a proper assessment of the risk encountered by chironomids in wetlands where larvicide-based mosquito control occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Origin and development of the dorso-ventral flight muscles in Chironomus (Diptera; Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Lebart-Pedebas, M C

    1990-01-01

    The origin and development of the dorso-ventral flight muscles (DVM) was studied by light and electron microscopy in Chironomus (Diptera; Nematocera). Chironomus was chosen because unlike Drosophila, its flight muscles develop during the last larval instar, before the lytic process of metamorphosis. Ten fibrillar DVM were shown to develop from a larval muscle associated with myoblasts. This muscle is connected to the imaginal leg disc so that its cavity communicates with the adepithelial cells present in the disc; but no migration of myoblasts seems to take place from the imaginal leg disc towards the larval muscle or vice versa. At the beginning of the last larval instar, the myoblasts were always present together with the nerves in the larval muscle. In addition, large larval muscle cells incorporated to the imaginal discs were observed to border on the area occupied by adepithelial cells, and are probably involved in the formation of 4 other fibrillar DVM with adepithelial cells. Three factors seem to determine the number of DVM fibres: the initial number of larval fibres in the Anlage, the fusions of myoblasts with these larval fibres and the number of motor axons in the Anlage. The extrapolation of these observations to Drosophila, a higher dipteran, is discussed.

  10. Mitochondrial genome sequences of Nematocera (lower Diptera): evidence of rearrangement following a complete genome duplication in a winter crane fly.

    PubMed

    Beckenbach, Andrew T

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented.

  11. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.

  12. Distribution and abundance of chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) in an impacted watershed in south-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, M M; Barbosa, F A; Callisto, M

    1999-11-01

    Patterns of abundance and distribution of chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the middle Rio Doce basin were analysed. Human activities (mining, steel processing, and Eucalyptus spp. forestry) contribute to environmental degradation and low water quality in this watershed. Physical and chemical water traits (dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity, electric conductivity, phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations) of 20 sampling points were used in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to establish the best and worst water quality. Sampling points recorded as the most polluted showed low genus richness of Chironomidae, less than five genera from the total 23, and dominance of the genus Chironomus, a bioindicator of environmental stress. Following Chironomus, the second most frequent and abundant genus was Cricotopus, whose distribution could not be related to pollution levels. The Tanypodinae sub-family showed certain sensitivity to low dissolved oxygen concentrations and high nutrients levels, and was not found at points of high pollution levels.

  13. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  14. [A case of urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera)].

    PubMed

    Yenice, Mustafa Gürkan; Demir, Tülin; Babür, Cahit; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2011-07-01

    Myiasis which is a parasitic disease of humans and vertebrates, is caused by dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. Although infestation by fly larvae is much more prevalent in animals, it occurs relatively frequently in humans in rural, tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and America. Myiasis is usually associated with poor general health and hygiene, restricted mobility and ulcerating lesions. The pathophysiology of the human infection differs depending on the fly species and where the larvae are located. It could be external or internal, and the invasion by the maggot could be obligatory, facultative and sometimes acci-dental. Myiasis is a self-limiting infestation with minimal morbidity in the vast majority of cases. Urogenital myiasis, associated with urinary obstruction, poor hygiene of the local site and ulcerating lesions has been infrequently reported. In this report, a case of 29 year-old male patient who presented with genitourinary myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera), was presented. The patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of urinary incontinence of one week duration and presence of small, thin, motile, grayishwhite objects in his urine. Physical examination, blood and urine examination and stool microscopy revealed no pathology. No growth was detected in his urine culture. The examination of discharged larva in urine sample at Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Parasitology Laboratory led to the diagnosis of urogenital myiasis. No risk factor was identified in the patient who had proper hygienic conditions, was living in urban area and was of high socioeconomic status. This case was presented to withdraw attention to myiasis which is frequent in Turkey, however, is usually overlooked.

  15. Cytogenetics of a parthenogenetic Arctic species of Micropsectra (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David L.; Martin, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Micropsectra sedna (Oliver, 1976) is a parthenogenetic midge from the Canadian Arctic. The parthenogenetic mechanism is apomictic thelytoky, with a restitutional division during oogenesis, as found in other parthenogenetic Chironomidae. It is triploid, with two similar chromosome sets, and the third is relatively dissimilar, pairing little with the diploid set. Two karyotypes were observed: a single individual with eight polytene elements in the salivary glands (3n=12), considered standard, while the majority of larvae showed only seven polytene chromosomes (3n=11). Hybrid speciation is considered likely, although chromosomal recombination following the origin of thelytoky has played some part in karyotype evolution. A single morphologically distinct larva was also found, which might be the donor of the haploid chromosome set. The apomictic restitutional system is compared to that of the other, independently derived, parthenogenetic Chironomids to assess the extent of similarity between species. PMID:24260638

  16. Cytogenetics of a parthenogenetic Arctic species of Micropsectra (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Porter, David L; Martin, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Micropsectra sedna (Oliver, 1976) is a parthenogenetic midge from the Canadian Arctic. The parthenogenetic mechanism is apomictic thelytoky, with a restitutional division during oogenesis, as found in other parthenogenetic Chironomidae. It is triploid, with two similar chromosome sets, and the third is relatively dissimilar, pairing little with the diploid set. Two karyotypes were observed: a single individual with eight polytene elements in the salivary glands (3n=12), considered standard, while the majority of larvae showed only seven polytene chromosomes (3n=11). Hybrid speciation is considered likely, although chromosomal recombination following the origin of thelytoky has played some part in karyotype evolution. A single morphologically distinct larva was also found, which might be the donor of the haploid chromosome set. The apomictic restitutional system is compared to that of the other, independently derived, parthenogenetic Chironomids to assess the extent of similarity between species.

  17. The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. Results The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. Conclusions The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex

  18. The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development.

    PubMed

    Martín, Iker; Ruiz, María F; Sánchez, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila

  19. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  20. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as Paleothermometers in the African Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.

    2008-12-01

    Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and

  1. Further characterisation of allergens associated with hypersensitivity to the "green nimitti" midge (Cladotanytarsus lewisi, Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Tee, R D; Cranston, P S; Kay, A B

    1987-01-01

    Chironomid midges are small (2-15 mm) non-biting flies, characteristically seen swarming by water at dusk. Allergens of the "green nimitti" midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi (Freeman) (Diptera: Chironomidae), a cause of widespread hypersensitivity in the Sudan, were isolated and partially characterized by Sephacryl S200 chromatography. The allergenicity of the fractions was identified by "rocket" autoradiography, RAST inhibition, skin "prick" tests, and the immunoblot technique. The fractions were further analysed by isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE. Two major allergens with pI's ranging from 4.3 to 6.0 were identified and had molecular weights of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 daltons, sizes compatible with their being monomeric and dimeric haemoglobins. Since chironomids occur in nuisance numbers worldwide and their haemoglobins have been shown to produce severe hypersensitivity reactions in man, they should be seen as an important potential cause of environmental and occupational allergy.

  2. [Key to chironomid pupal exuviae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of tropical high Andean streams].

    PubMed

    Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo

    2014-12-01

    The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.

  3. Does biodiversity of macroinvertebrates and genome response of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) reflect heavy metal pollution in a small pond?

    PubMed

    Michailova, Paraskeva; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elzbieta; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Kownacki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Bolesław in the Olkusz region with Zn-Pb ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2-8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 μg g( - 1)) and Zn (1,991 μg g( - 1)) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond, 48 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to Oligochaeta and water stages of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Diptera (mainly Chironomidae family) were found. The influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrates diversity was not found. Effect of heavy metal pollution was observed on the appearance of chromosome aberrations in the polytene chromosomes of Chironomidae larvae. It was manifested by two ways: (1) in Kiefferulus tendipediformis and Chironomus sp. chromosome rearrangements in fixed state (tandem fusion and homozygous inversions), indicated intensive process of speciation; (2) in Chironomus sp., K. tendipediformis, Glyptotendipes gripekoveni (Chironomidae) somatic chromosome rearrangements (inversions, deficiencies, specific puffs, polyploidy) affected few cells of every individual. The somatic functional and structural alterations in Chironomidae species are particular suitable as biomarkers-they can be easily identified and used for detecting toxic agents in the environment.

  4. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  5. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  6. Partial characterization of allergens associated with hypersensitivity to the 'green nimitti' midge (Cladotanytarsus lewisi, Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Tee, R D; Cromwell, O; Longbottom, J L; Cranston, P S; Kay, A B

    1984-03-01

    Allergens in extracts of the 'green nimitti' midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae), a cause of widespread hypersensitivity in the Sudan, were isolated and partially characterized by assays which depend on the binding of 125I-anti-IgE to allergen-IgE complexes. These methods included RAST inhibition, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) and rocket radioimmunoelectrophoresis (RRIE). Following Sephadex G100 chromatography the 'major peak' of allergenicity as determined by RAST inhibition, RRIE and SDS-PAGE was associated with molecules of approximately 17 000 daltons. The peak eluting at Vo contained material of molecular weight 66 000 daltons which also bound 125I-anti-IgE, but had only 61% of the activity of the 'major peak' by RAST inhibition. By isoelectric focusing and RRIE of fractions obtained by chromatofocusing with polybuffer exchanger 94, the 'major peak' was associated with multiple bands with a pI range of 3.5-5.5. These results indicate that the major allergens from C. lewisi are a group of closely related acidic peptides.

  7. Toxicity of eight metals to Malaysian freshwater midge larvae Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Umirah, Nur Shahirul; Abas, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Fourth instars larvae of freshwater midge Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae) were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) were calculated. LC(50) increased with the decrease in mean exposure times, for all metals. LC(50)s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al and Mn were 0.17, 0.06, 5.57, 0.72, 5.32, 0.62, 1.43 and 5.27 mg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in C. javanus increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to C. javanus, followed by Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Mn, Zn and Ni (Cd > Cu > Fe > Pb > Al > Mn > Zn > Ni). Comparison of LC(50) values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater midges reveals that C. javanus is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested dipteran.

  8. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  9. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  10. Improving environmental and biodiversity monitoring in the Baltic Sea using DNA barcoding of Chironomidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Brodin, Y; Ejdung, G; Strandberg, J; Lyrholm, T

    2013-11-01

    As for many other regions, environmental and biodiversity monitoring of the brackish Baltic Sea suffers from low species resolution for several taxa. One such case is the benthic larvae of midges Chironomidae (Diptera), which are estimated to constitute about 30% of the macrozoobenthos species of the Baltic Sea and are important indicators of environmental quality. We assessed the usefulness of COI (cytochrome oxidase I) gene barcoding to improve species resolution and its potential for implementation in monitoring programmes. Neighbour-Joining, Maximum parsimony and Bayesian-inference analyses all provided high congruency with morphological analyses of adult males for almost all 42 species studied. Barcoding was helpful to elucidate some cases of taxonomical difficulties, such as synonyms. In contrast to the high identification accuracy when using our local database, there were a number of cases where matching with GenBank and BOLD provided puzzling results. For reliable species identification at least 15-30 specimens from 5-10 well-distributed sites within the geographical range of the species might be needed in a database to adequately cover the intraspecific variability of chironomids. Implementation of DNA barcoding, as applied here, in monitoring would result in an increase from at present less than 10% to more than 90% successful chironomid species identification of Baltic Sea benthic samples, as it also would for many nearby lakes. Routine monitoring of benthic environmental samples based on Next-Generation sequencing techniques would provide a cost effective way to obtain a taxonomically much more complete assessment of environmental quality and biodiversity, as required by EU directives and national legislation.

  11. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  12. Use of Chironomidae (Diptera) Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae as a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol for Water Bodies.

    PubMed

    Kranzfelder, Petra; Anderson, Alyssa M; Egan, Alexander T; Mazack, Jane E; Bouchard, R William; Rufer, Moriya M; Ferrington, Leonard C

    2015-07-24

    Rapid bioassessment protocols using benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been successfully used to assess human impacts on water quality. Unfortunately, traditional benthic larval sampling methods, such as the dip-net, can be time-consuming and expensive. An alternative protocol involves collection of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE). Chironomidae is a species-rich family of flies (Diptera) whose immature stages typically occur in aquatic habitats. Adult chironomids emerge from the water, leaving their pupal skins, or exuviae, floating on the water's surface. Exuviae often accumulate along banks or behind obstructions by action of the wind or water current, where they can be collected to assess chironomid diversity and richness. Chironomids can be used as important biological indicators, since some species are more tolerant to pollution than others. Therefore, the relative abundance and species composition of collected SFPE reflect changes in water quality. Here, methods associated with field collection, laboratory processing, slide mounting, and identification of chironomid SFPE are described in detail. Advantages of the SFPE method include minimal disturbance at a sampling area, efficient and economical sample collection and laboratory processing, ease of identification, applicability in nearly all aquatic environments, and a potentially more sensitive measure of ecosystem stress. Limitations include the inability to determine larval microhabitat use and inability to identify pupal exuviae to species if they have not been associated with adult males.

  13. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  14. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae…

  16. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae…

  17. Temporal and spatial responses of Chironomidae (Diptera) and other benthic invertebrates to urban stormwater runoff

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Gresens; Kenneth T. Belt; Jamie A. Tang; Daniel C. Gwinn; Patricia A. Banks

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of two streams whose lower reaches received unattenuated urban stormwater runoff, physical disturbance by stormflow was less important than the persistant unidentified chemical impacts of urban stormwater in limiting the distribution of Chironomidae, and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera (EPT). A hierarchical spatial analysis showed that...

  18. Genetic architecture of local adaptation in lunar and diurnal emergence times of the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Heckel, David G

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167-193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95-140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.

  19. Karyotype characteristics, larval morphology and chromosomal polymorphism peculiarities of Glyptotendipes salinus Michailova, 1983 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tambukan Lake, Central Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Karmokov, Mukhamed Kh; Akkizov, Azamat Y

    2016-01-01

    Data on the karyotype characteristics, larval morphology and features of chromosomal polymorphism of a population of Glyptotendipes salinus Michailova, 1983 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tambukan Lake (on the northern macroslope of the central Caucasus) are presented. It was found that diagnostic larval characters of Glyptotendipes salinus from Caucasus in general are similar to those described in previous studies, but with some significant differences. By some morphological characteristics Caucasian larvae appeared to be closer to Glyptotendipes barbipes than to ones provided for European larvae of Glyptotendipes salinus by Contreras-Lichtenberg (1999). Obtained morphological data make possible to conclude that Caucasian population of Glyptotendipes salinus can be a markedly diverged population of the species, probably even subspecies. In the Caucasian population 12 banding sequences were found: two in arms A, B, C, E, and G, and one in arms D and F. Eight of these are already known for this species, and four, salA2, salB2, salEX, and salG3, are described for the first time. Genetic distances between all the previously studied populations of Glyptotendipes salinus were measured using Nei criteria (1972). The population of the central Caucasus occupies a distinct position on the dendrogram compared with populations from Altai and Kazakhstan. All the obtained morphological and cytogenetic data can indicate the plausible relative isolation and complexity of the Caucasus from the viewpoint of microevolution. More researches are required in other parts of Caucasus and other geographically distant regions for more specific allegations.

  20. Karyotype characteristics, larval morphology and chromosomal polymorphism peculiarities of Glyptotendipes salinus Michailova, 1983 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tambukan Lake, Central Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Karmokov, Mukhamed Kh.; Akkizov, Azamat Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on the karyotype characteristics, larval morphology and features of chromosomal polymorphism of a population of Glyptotendipes salinus Michailova, 1983 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tambukan Lake (on the northern macroslope of the central Caucasus) are presented. It was found that diagnostic larval characters of Glyptotendipes salinus from Caucasus in general are similar to those described in previous studies, but with some significant differences. By some morphological characteristics Caucasian larvae appeared to be closer to Glyptotendipes barbipes than to ones provided for European larvae of Glyptotendipes salinus by Contreras-Lichtenberg (1999). Obtained morphological data make possible to conclude that Caucasian population of Glyptotendipes salinus can be a markedly diverged population of the species, probably even subspecies. In the Caucasian population 12 banding sequences were found: two in arms A, B, C, E, and G, and one in arms D and F. Eight of these are already known for this species, and four, salA2, salB2, salEX, and salG3, are described for the first time. Genetic distances between all the previously studied populations of Glyptotendipes salinus were measured using Nei criteria (1972). The population of the central Caucasus occupies a distinct position on the dendrogram compared with populations from Altai and Kazakhstan. All the obtained morphological and cytogenetic data can indicate the plausible relative isolation and complexity of the Caucasus from the viewpoint of microevolution. More researches are required in other parts of Caucasus and other geographically distant regions for more specific allegations. PMID:28123679

  1. Distribution, Abundance and Molecular Analysis of Genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera, Chironomidae) in Tropical, High Altitude Andean Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Ribera, C; Rieradevall, M; Villamarín, C; Acosta, R

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of the genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera: Chironomidae), previously reported from Chile to Bolivia, has extended northwards. Larvae, pupae and pupal exuviae of this genus have been found in the high mountain tropical streams of Peru to 9°22'56″, but are restricted to very high altitude streams (altitudes over 3,278 m asl) compared to the lower altitude streams (below 1,100 m asl) in which the genus is reported in Chile and Argentina. Based on morphological studies, both described species in the genus, Barbadocladius andinus Cranston & Krosch and Barbadocladius limay Cranston & Krosch, have been found in Peru as pupae or pupal exuviae. Morphological analysis of the larvae and pupae revealed no differences between the two described species from Patagonia and Peru, which are of similar size and with a similar armament of hooklets and spines in pupal tergites and sternites. However, molecular analysis of larvae and pupae revealed that in Peru, there are at least two different evolutionary lines, one distributed widely and another restricted to one site. Phylogenetic analysis (using cox1 mitochondrial sequences) of all available sequences of Barbadocladius shows that the Chilean and Argentinean material differs from that of Peru. Therefore, a total of four molecular segregates are identified, although morphologically, neither larvae nor the pupae may be differentiated.

  2. The gene Sex-lethal of the Sciaridae family (order Diptera, suborder Nematocera) and its phylogeny in dipteran insects.

    PubMed

    Serna, Esther; Gorab, Eduardo; Ruiz, M Fernanda; Goday, Clara; Eirín-López, José M; Sánchez, Lucas

    2004-10-01

    This article reports the cloning and characterization of the gene homologous to Sex-lethal (Sxl) of Drosophila melanogaster from Sciara coprophila, Rhynchosciara americana, and Trichosia pubescens. This gene plays the key role in controlling sex determination and dosage compensation in D. melanogaster. The Sxl gene of the three species studied produces a single transcript encoding a single protein in both males and females. Comparison of the Sxl proteins of these Nematocera insects with those of the Brachycera showed their two RNA-binding domains (RBD) to be highly conserved, whereas significant variation was observed in both the N- and C-terminal domains. The great majority of nucleotide changes in the RBDs were synonymous, indicating that purifying selection is acting on them. In both sexes of the three Nematocera insects, the Sxl protein colocalized with transcription-active regions dependent on RNA polymerase II but not on RNA polymerase I. Together, these results indicate that Sxl does not appear to play a discriminatory role in the control of sex determination and dosage compensation in nematocerans. Thus, in the phylogenetic lineage that gave rise to the drosophilids, evolution coopted for the Sxl gene, modified it, and converted it into the key gene controlling sex determination and dosage compensation. At the same time, however, certain properties of the recruited ancestral Sxl gene were beneficial, and these are maintained in the evolved Sxl gene, allowing it to exert its sex-determining and dose compensation functions in Drosophila.

  3. Not drowning, (hand)waving? Molecular phylogenetics, biogeography and evolutionary tempo of the 'Gondwanan' midge Stictocladius Edwards (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Krosch, Matt; Cranston, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    Many insect clades, especially within the Diptera (true flies), have been considered classically 'Gondwanan', with an inference that distributions derive from vicariance of the southern continents. Assessing the role that vicariance has played in the evolution of austral taxa requires testing the location and tempo of diversification and speciation against the well-established predictions of fragmentation of the ancient super-continent. Several early (anecdotal) hypotheses that current austral distributions originate from the breakup of Gondwana derive from studies of taxa within the family Chironomidae (non-biting midges). With the advent of molecular phylogenetics and biogeographic analytical software, these studies have been revisited and expanded to test such conclusions better. Here we studied the midge genus Stictocladius Edwards, from the subfamily Orthocladiinae, which contains austral-distributed clades that match vicariance-based expectations. We resolve several issues of systematic relationships among morphological species and reveal cryptic diversity within many taxa. Time-calibrated phylogenetic relationships among taxa accorded partially with the predicted tempo from geology. For these apparently vagile insects, vicariance-dated patterns persist for South America and Australia. However, as often found, divergence time estimates for New Zealand at c. 50 mya post-date separation of Zealandia from Antarctica and the remainder of Gondwana, but predate the proposed Oligocene 'drowning' of these islands. We detail other such 'anomalous' dates and suggest a single common explanation rather than stochastic processes. This could involve synchronous establishment following recovery from 'drowning' and/or deleteriously warming associated with the mid-Eocene climatic optimum (hence 'waving', which refers to cycles of drowning events) plus new availability of topography providing of cool running waters, or all these factors in combination. Alternatively a

  4. Why on the snow? Winter emergence strategies of snow-active Chironomidae (Diptera) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka; Paasivirta, Lauri; Giłka, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    A long-term study of adult non-biting midges (Chironomidae) active in winter on the snow in mountain areas and lowlands in Poland yielded 35 species. The lowland and mountain communities differed significantly in their specific composition. The mountain assemblage was found to be more diverse and abundant, with a substantial contribution from the subfamily Diamesinae, whereas Orthocladiinae predominated in the lowlands. Orthocladius wetterensis Brundin was the most characteristic and superdominant species in the winter-active chironomid communities in both areas. Only a few specimens and species of snow-active chironomids were recorded in late autumn and early winter. The abundance of chironomids peaked in late February in the mountain and lowland areas with an additional peak in the mountain areas in early April. However, this second peak of activity consisted mainly of Orthocladiinae, as Diamesinae emerged earliest in the season. Most snow-active species emerged in mid- and late winter, but their seasonal patterns differed between the 2 regions as a result of the different species composition and the duration of snow cover in these regions. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests yielded positive results between each season and the number of chironomid individuals recorded in the mountain area. A positive correlation between air temperature, rising to +3.5 °C, and the number of specimens recorded on the snow in the mountain community was statistically significant. The winter emergence and mate-searching strategies of chironomids are discussed in the light of global warming, and a brief compilation of most important published data on the phenomena studied is provided. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. [The mushroom bodies of the lower nematocera: a link between those of the higher Diptera and other mecopteroids].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Nematoceran Diptera are nonuniform in the structure of their mushroom bodies. Members of the more basal families (Ptychopteridae, Pediciidae, and Tipulidae) have bipartite mushroom bodies, characteristic of members of the other mecopteroid complex orders. In members of Bibionomorpha (Bibionidae and Anisopodidae), tripartite mushroom bodies have been found characteristic of Brachycera Orthorrhapha.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of the Culicomorpha inferred from 18S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences. (Diptera:Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Crabtree, M B; Savage, H M

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the evolutionary origins of the mosquito family Culicidae by examination of 18S and 5.8S ribosomal gene sequence divergence. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that within the infraorder Culicomorpha, taxa in the families Corethrellidae, Chaoboridae and Culicidae formed a monophyletic group; there was support for a sister relationship between this lineage and a representative of the Chironomidae. A chaoborid midge was the closest relative of the mosquitoes. Taxa from four genera of mosquitoes formed a monophyletic group; lack of a spacer in the 5.8S gene was unique to members of the Culicidae. A member of the genus Anopheles formed the most basal lineage among the mosquitoes analysed. Phylogenetic relationships were unresolved for representatives in the families Dixidae, Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae.

  7. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as quantitative indicators of past salinity in African lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Heiri, Oliver; Verschuren, Dirk

    2006-08-01

    We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments of 73 low- to mid-elevation lakes in tropical East Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia) to develop inference models for quantitative paleosalinity reconstruction. Using a calibration data set of 67 lakes with surface-water conductivity between 34 and 68,800 μS/cm, trial models based on partial least squares (PLS), weighted-averaging (WA), weighted-averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS), maximum likelihood (ML), and the weighted modern analogue technique (WMAT) produced jack-knifed coefficients of determination ( r2) between 0.83 and 0.87, and root-mean-squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) between 0.27 and 0.31 log 10 conductivity units, values indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past salinity change. The new inference models improve on previous models, which were calibrated with presence-absence data from live collections, by the much greater information content of the calibration data set, and greater probability of finding good modern analogues for fossil assemblages. However, inferences still suffered to a greater (WA, WMAT) or lesser (WA-PLS, PLS and ML) extent from weak correlation between chironomid species distribution and salinity in a broad range of fresh waters, and apparent threshold response of African chironomid communities to salinity change near 3000 μS/cm. To improve model sensitivity in freshwater lakes we expanded the calibration data set with 11 dilute (6-61 μS/cm) high-elevation lakes on Mt. Kenya (Kenya) and the Ruwenzori Mts. (Uganda). This did not appreciably improve models' error statistics, in part because it introduced a secondary environmental gradient to the faunal data, probably temperature. To evaluate whether a chironomid-based salinity inference model calibrated in East African lakes could be meaningfully used for environmental reconstruction elsewhere on the continent, we expanded the calibration data

  8. The response of Vaal River drift and benthos to Simulium (Diptera: Nematocera) control using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14).

    PubMed

    Car, M; De Moor, F C

    1984-09-01

    Two trials to test the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis de Barjac (serotype H-14) against target simuliid and non-target aquatic invertebrates were undertaken in the Vaal River near Warrenton in South Africa. In the 1st trail an application of 1,6 ppm/10 min of B. thuringiensis resulted in a significant (P less than 0,05) reduction of simuliid larvae in rapids 70 m below the treatment point 40 hours after its application. Further downstream the larvicide was ineffectual because the low flow of the river (6 m3/s) allowed the Bacillus pores to settle out in calmer stretches. The 2nd trial was carried out upstream of small rapids with a calculated flow of 0,5 m3/s at a spore concentration of 2,3 ppm/7 min. The effect of B. thuringiensis on the benthic population density and drift activity of the benthos was recorded. A high mortality of simuliid larvae and Ephemeroptera was observed 35 m below the application point 9 hours after the application of the larvicide. The mortality in Ephemeroptera was partially due to the handling of these animals. Population densities of simuliid larvae in the treated rapids decreased 18 hours after application of the larvicide, but small simuliid larvae showed a numerical increase again after 72 hours, indicating rapid recolonization from drifting larvae. Tanytarsine Chironomidae decreased after the application of B. thuringiensis, but most other fauna either increased or did not decrease significantly (P greater than 0,05). Within 43 minutes after treatment of the rapids with the larvicide, simuliid drift increased more than sixtyfold, revealing the immediate irritating effect of the product on the target organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. [Molecular phylogeny and the time of divergence of minges (Chironomidae, Nematocera, Diptera) inferred from a partial nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI)].

    PubMed

    Demin, A G; Polukonova, N V; Miuge, N S

    2011-10-01

    This is the first study to infer the phylogenetic structure of minges of the subfamily Chironominae from the amino acid sequence of cytochrome oxidase I (COI). The subdivision of Chironominae into two tribes, Chironomini and Tanytarsini, has been confirmed. The segregation of the genera Pseudochironomus and Riethia into a separate tribe has not been confirmed. Stenochironomus gibbus forms a branch considerably deviating from the subfamily Chironominae. The genus Micropsectra is formed by a large polyphyletic cluster that also includes the genera Virgotanytharsus, Reotanytharsus, Kenopsectra, and Parapsectra. Tanytarsus is the basal genus of the tribe Tanytarsini. The times of divergence of the main taxa of Chironominae have been estimated. The calculated time of divergence of the genus Chironomus disproves the assumption that it is phylogenetically old.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Development, Cold Tolerance, and Potential Distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a Tip Miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stratman, Karen N.; Overholt, William A.; Cuda, James P.; Mukherjee, A.; Diaz, R.; Netherland, Michael D.; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. PMID:25347841

  11. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. A new record of Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Uzon volcanic caldera (Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia), its karyotype, ecology and biology.

    PubMed

    Orel, Oksana V; Lobkova, Ludmila E; Zhirov, Sergey V; Petrova, Ninel A

    2015-07-03

    Morphology, cytology, ecology and biology of Holarctic Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl, 1960 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the geothermal Vosmerka Lake (pH=2.0-2.5). An illustrated redescription of C. acidophilus is given on the basis of adult males reared from field-collected pupae, and of simultaneously collected larvae. Additional larvae belonging to the pseudothummi-complex were identified as C. acidophilus on the basis of their karyotype. The karyotype of C. acidophilus (2n=8) and detailed mapping of the 4 chromosome arms A, E, D and F are provided. The population of C. acidophilus from Kamchatka was found to be karyologically monomorphic. Information on distribution and ecology of C. acidophilus from Vosmerka Lake (total mineralization 1583.5 mg/l) is also given. Chironomus acidophilus is the only species of aquatic insects recorded in this lake. Lack of competition and a richness of food resources contribute to the high abundance (35161 ind./m2) and biomass (11.342 g/m2) of the larvae of C. acidophilus in Vosmerka Lake.

  13. Effects of seasonality and resource limitation on organic matter turnover by Chironomidae (Diptera) in southern Appalachian headwater streams

    Treesearch

    Angela Romito; Susan Eggert; Jeffrey Diez; J. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Despite their high abundance, secondary production, and known reliance on detrital material, the role of chironomids (Diptera) in fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) dynamics has not been well quantified. We conducted field trials using fluorescent pigment markers to estimate seasonal rates of consumption, annual secondary production, assimilation efficiency (AE),...

  14. Expression of heat shock protein and hemoglobin genes in Chironomus tentans (Diptera, chironomidae) larvae exposed to various environmental pollutants: a potential biomarker of freshwater monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon-Mi; Lee, Se-Bum; Park, Chul-Hwi; Choi, Jinhee

    2006-11-01

    To identify a sensitive biomarker of freshwater monitoring, we evaluated pollutant-induced expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and hemoglobins (Hbs) genes in the larvae of the aquatic midge Chironomus tentans (Diptera, Chironomidae). As pollutants, we examined nonylphenol, bisphenol-A, 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, endosulfan, paraquat dichloride, chloropyriphos, fenitrothion, cadmium chloride, lead nitrate, potassium dichromate, benzo[a]pyrene and carbon tetrachloride. We also investigated larval growth as a physiological descriptor by measuring changes in the body fresh weight and dry weight after chemical exposure. The response of the HSPs gene expression by chemical exposure was rapid and sensitive to low chemical concentrations but it was not stressor specific. Interestingly, an increase in the expression of HSPs genes was observed not only in a stress inducible form (HSP70), but also in a constitutively (HSC70) expressed form. The expression of Hb genes showed chemical-specific responses: that is, alkyl phenolic compounds increased the expression of hemoglobin genes, whereas pesticides decreased the expression. As expected, molecular-level markers were more sensitive than physiological endpoints, suggesting that gene expression could be developed as an early warning biomarker in this animal. The overall results suggest that the expression of HSP and Hb genes in Chironomus could give useful information for diagnosing general health conditions in fresh water ecosystem. The expression of Hb genes, in particular, seems to be a promising biomarker, especially in view of the potential of Chironomus larvae as a biomonitoring species and of the physiological particularities of their respiratory pigments.

  15. The Cricotopus (Oliveiriella) (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the High Altitude Andean Streams, with Description of a New Species, C. (O.) rieradevallae.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Paggi, A; Ribera, C; Acosta, R; Ríos-Touma, B; Villamarín, C; Rivera, F; Ossa, P; Rieradevall, M

    2017-09-13

    The genus Oliveiriella (Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) was erected by Wiedenbrug & Fittkau (1997). The adults have characteristic black spots on their wings and other characteristics similar to the genus Cricotopus. Pupal skins are very characteristic with strong short spines in the anal lobe instead of setae, while larvae are distinguishable by the long anal papillae and the intense blue color of their body. However, Andersen et al (2013) consider Oliveiriella as a subgenera of Cricotopus. In this paper, using the sequences of the cox1 gene, we conclude that Oliveiriella should be considered a subgenus within Cricotopus, confirming its status in Andersen et al (2013). Furthermore, we describe Cricotopus (Oliveiriella) rieradevallae Prat & Paggi sp. n. from the Saltana river (Ecuador). The adult males, females, and preimaginal stages of the two species of subgenus Oliveiriella known from South America Cricotopus (O.) almeidai n. comb. from Peru, Brazil, and Argentina and Cricotopus (O.) sanjavieri n. comb. from Argentina are compared with those of Cricotopus (O.) rieradevallae sp. n. from Ecuador. The differences allow the distinction of the three species. The cox1 gene reveals that at least three different undescribed species of the same subgenus are present in the high-altitude tropical Andes. The morphology of the available pupae and pupal exuviae reveals the presence of several morphotypes that are candidates to be described as new species. A key used to distinguish these pupal morphotypes is provided, including the three described species. Additionally, the distribution of the subgenus is discussed.

  16. Laboratory and field investigations of pestiferous Chironomidae (Diptera) in some man-made wetlands in central Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arshad; Leckel, Robert J; Jahan, Nusrad; Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2009-03-01

    A 1-year larval and adult population survey of pestiferous chironomids was conducted in 4 man-made wetlands in a resort area of central Florida, USA. Benthic samples were randomly collected from each wetland at least once every month. Geocoordinates, water depth, and physical composition of substrates at each larval sample location were noted. Adult midge populations were sampled weekly around the wetlands by employing 10 New Jersey light traps permanently placed in the area. Chironominae and Tanypodinae midges occurred in the larval and adult samples; a few Orthocladiinae were also taken. Among Chironominae, Chironomini (mostly Polypedilum spp., Cryptochironomus spp., Glyptotendipes paripes, and Goeldichironomus carus) and Tanytarsini (mostly Tanytarsus spp.), and some other Chironomidae were recorded. Tanypodinae were quantitatively not important. Monthly mean number of total adults per trap-night ranged from 23 in February to 211 in October. Annual mean larval density and range of total chironomids in the study wetlands amounted to 1,128/m2, range: 0-12,332/m2. The total larvae were most abundant in May. Tanytarsus spp. and Polypedilum spp. were numerically the most predominant spatially as well as temporally. Mean water depth at the sampled locations was 1.83 m (range: <1-8.75 m); 47% of the total collected larvae occurred at <1-m water depth and 53% at >1-m-deep water. Of all sampled locations, substrates such as sand, mixed substrates, and muck were respectively encountered at 656, 371, and 299 locations. The predominance of sand and mixed substrates was conducive to supporting the numerically dominant Tanytarsus spp. and Polypedilum spp. In laboratory bioassays, Tanytarsus spp., Polypedilum spp., Glyptotendipes paripes, and Goeldichironomus carus were highly susceptible to temephos, as well as to s-methoprene. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis was most effective against Tanytarsus spp. and least against Goeldichironomus carus.

  17. Germ line transformation and in vivo labeling of nuclei in Diptera: report on Megaselia abdita (Phoridae) and Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Caroti, Francesca; Urbansky, Silvia; Wosch, Maike; Lemke, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    To understand how and when developmental traits of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster originated during the course of insect evolution, similar traits are functionally studied in variably related satellite species. The experimental toolkit available for relevant fly models typically comprises gene expression and loss as well as gain-of-function analyses. Here, we extend the set of available molecular tools to piggyBac-based germ line transformation in two satellite fly models, Megaselia abdita and Chironomus riparius. As proof-of-concept application, we used a Gateway variant of the piggyBac transposon vector pBac{3xP3-eGFPafm} to generate a transgenic line that expresses His2Av-mCherry as fluorescent nuclear reporter ubiquitously in the gastrulating embryo of M. abdita. Our results open two phylogenetically important nodes of the insect order Diptera for advanced developmental evolutionary genetics.

  18. Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.

    PubMed

    Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth

    2015-01-19

    During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera

  19. Quaternary paleoecology of aquatic Diptera in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, with special reference to the Chironomidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Eggermont, Hilde

    2006-08-01

    Chironomid paleoecology in north-temperate regions has made tremendous progress over the past decade, but studies in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions remain relatively scarce. Reasons for this imbalance are (1) incomplete taxonomic knowledge of chironomid faunas outside Europe and North America, (2) a scarcity of ecological data on local species and genera that might confer bio-indicator value to them, and (3) logistic difficulties hampering the lake surveying necessary to develop paleoenvironmental calibration data sets. Thus far, most chironomid paleoecology in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions has relied on an indicator-species approach, combining autecological information on local species of which larval morphology is known with the traditional ecological typology of chironomid genera transferred from the Holarctic region. This paper reviews work accomplished to date in tropical and temperate South America, Australia, Africa, and New Zealand, including studies on various families of non-chironomid Diptera with diagnostic fossils. Research has focused mostly on late-Glacial and Holocene climate reconstruction, less on tracing past human disturbance of aquatic ecosystems and their drainage basins. Quantitative chironomid-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction has so far been done only in Australia and Africa. These studies compensated for the lack of traditional surface-sediment calibration data sets, nowadays often the main source of quantitative information on species ecological optima and tolerances, by maximally exploiting archival species-distribution data based on live collections of adult and/or larval midges. This stimulated efforts to achieve trustworthy species-level identification of fossil chironomid remains, and, as a result, the taxonomic resolution of paleoecological studies in Australia and Africa is higher on average than that achieved in European and North American studies.

  20. Binding of Cyt1Aa and Cry11Aa toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis to brush border membrane vesicles of Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) and subsequent pore formation.

    PubMed

    Oestergaard, Jesko; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo; Martínez-Ramírez, Amparo C; Real, Maria Dolores

    2007-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis) produces four insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) (Cry4A, Cry4B, Cry11A, and Cyt1A). Toxicity of recombinant B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains expressing only one of the toxins was determined with first instars of Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera). Cyt1A was the most toxic protein, whereas Cry4A, Cry4B, and Cry11A were virtually nontoxic. Synergistic effects were recorded when Cry4A and/or Cry4B was combined with Cyt1A but not with Cry11A. The binding and pore formation are key steps in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis ICPs. Binding and pore-forming activity of Cry11Aa, which is the most toxic protein against mosquitoes, and Cyt1Aa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) of T. paludosa were analyzed. Solubilization of Cry11Aa resulted in two fragments, with apparent molecular masses of 32 and 36 kDa. No binding of the 36-kDa fragment to T. paludosa BBMVs was detected, whereas the 32-kDa fragment bound to T. paludosa BBMVs. Only a partial reduction of binding of this fragment was observed in competition experiments, indicating a low specificity of the binding. In contrast to results for mosquitoes, the Cyt1Aa protein bound specifically to the BBMVs of T. paludosa, suggesting an insecticidal mechanism based on a receptor-mediated action, as described for Cry proteins. Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa toxins were both able to produce pores in T. paludosa BBMVs. Protease treatment with trypsin and proteinase K, previously reported to activate Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa toxins, respectively, had the opposite effect. A higher efficiency in pore formation was observed when Cyt1A was proteinase K treated, while the activity of trypsin-treated Cry11Aa was reduced. Results on binding and pore formation are consistent with results on ICP toxicity and synergistic effect with Cyt1Aa in T. paludosa.

  1. The influence of water-level fluctuation on the drift of Simulium chutteri Lewis, 1965 (Diptera, Nematocera) in the Orange River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Car, M

    1983-09-01

    In July 1982, the invertebrate drift at Marksdrift comprised 98, 7% Simulium chutteri; 0, 75% Chironomidae; 0, 3% Ephemeroptera; 0, 15% Copepoda, and 0, 1% Trichoptera. Simuliid eggs were found in only 6 out of 75 samples. A single water-level reduction of 57 cm (54%) resulted in a more than sixfold increase of S. chutteri larvae in the drift and a more than 50% decrease of 1st and 2nd instar larvae in the drift after the water had returned to its original level. Larvae found lying in pools after the water-level had dropped belonged mainly to instars 5-7, 70% of them showing symptoms of starvation after 3 days when the river had risen again. The drift of simuliid head capsules decreased when the larval drift increased, as fewer simuliid larvae moulted when they had been disturbed. The low drift of eggs and the presence of very few pupae and adults indicated that most of the S. chutteri population was in the larval stage and that July was therefore an ideal month for water-level manipulation. Its main effect was achieved by irritating larger larvae and thus preventing them from resettling.

  2. Laboratory and field trials with two Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products for Simulium(Diptera: Nematocera) control in a small polluted river in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Car, M

    1984-06-01

    The effects on Simulium adersi and S. hargreavesi larvae of 2 Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products, the liquid formulation "Teknar" (Sandoz) and a powder formulation produced by the Ben Gurion University, Israel, were compared in the laboratory and in the Pienaars River. This river was heavily polluted with effluent from a nearby sewage works and contained 77 mg/l chloride. In the laboratory S. adersi and S. hargreavesi larvae showed 26; 48; 95 and 100% mortality 6 hours after a 10-minute application of 0,8; 1,6; 3,2 and 16 ppm "Teknar" in rain water. The powder formulation applied at 0,2; 1,0; 2,0 and 30 ppm resulted in a 7; 17; 35 and 100% mortality. In polluted river-water the mortality was 85% with 16 ppm "Teknar" and 80% with 30 ppm B. thuringiensis powder. In the field trials "Teknar" at 1,6 ppm and B. thuringiensis powder at 3 ppm did not cause any larval mortality at flow rates of 3 060 l/min and 2 040 l/min, respectively. However, 24 hours after application of the powder formulation, numbers of S. hargreavesi decreased significantly (P = 0,05) 20 m below the application point. A further 24 hours later, after "Teknar" had been applied, the numbers of S. adersi decreased and those of Chironomidae increased significantly. There was a significant increase in S. hargreavesi 200 m downstream after treatment with "Teknar".

  3. Composition and structure of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream in the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, B F J V; Dias-Silva, M V D; Alves, R G

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the structure of the Chironomidae community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. Samples of bryophytes adhered to rocks along a 100-m stretch of the stream were removed with a metal blade, and 200-mL pots were filled with the samples. The numerical density (individuals per gram of dry weight), Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index, the dominance index (DI), and estimated richness were calculated for each collection period (dry and rainy). Linear regression analysis was employed to test the existence of a correlation between rainfall and the individual's density and richness. The high numerical density and richness of Chironomidae taxa observed are probably related to the peculiar conditions of the bryophyte habitat. The retention of larvae during periods of higher rainfall contributed to the high density and richness of Chironomidae larvae. The rarefaction analysis showed higher richness in the rainy season related to the greater retention of food particles. The data from this study show that bryophytes provide stable habitats for the colonization by and refuge of Chironomidae larvae, mainly under conductions of faster water flow and higher precipitation.

  4. Chironomidae bloodworms larvae as aquatic amphibian food.

    PubMed

    Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Laing, Gijs Du; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Different species of chironomids larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) so-called bloodworms are widely distributed in the sediments of all types of freshwater habitats and considered as an important food source for amphibians. In our study, three species of Chironomidae (Baeotendipes noctivagus, Benthalia dissidens, and Chironomus riparius) were identified in 23 samples of larvae from Belgium, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine provided by a distributor in Belgium. We evaluated the suitability of these samples as amphibian food based on four different aspects: the likelihood of amphibian pathogens spreading, risk of heavy metal accumulation in amphibians, nutritive value, and risk of spreading of zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella, Campylobacter, and ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae). We found neither zoonotic bacteria nor the amphibian pathogens Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in these samples. Our data showed that among the five heavy metals tested (Hg, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn), the excess level of Pb in two samples and low content of Zn in four samples implicated potential risk of Pb accumulation and Zn inadequacy. Proximate nutritional analysis revealed that, chironomidae larvae are consistently high in protein but more variable in lipid content. Accordingly, variations in the lipid: protein ratio can affect the amount and pathway of energy supply to the amphibians. Our study indicated although environmentally-collected chironomids larvae may not be vectors of specific pathogens, they can be associated with nutritional imbalances and may also result in Pb bioaccumulation and Zn inadequacy in amphibians. Chironomidae larvae may thus not be recommended as single diet item for amphibians.

  5. Rapid Recovery of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Little Mill Creek (Kansas, U.S.A.) After the Decommissioning of a Waste Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.

    2005-05-01

    In June 1995 the Lenexa Waste Water Treatment Plant was decommissioned, providing an opportunity to study recovery of Chironomidae community structure in Little Mill Creek. Using pupal exuviae, weekly changes in the species richness and composition of Chironomidae emerging upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall was evaluated from two weeks before decommissioning to eight weeks post-decommissioning. Chironomidae emergence was clearly different between upstream and downstream sites both before and shortly after effluent input ceased. Before decommissioning, sites immediately downstream of the effluent had low species richness and were dominated by Chironomus riparius (Meigen) and other tolerant taxa, with some recovery at sites farther downstream. Two weeks after decommissioning, only sites immediately downstream of the former effluent were clearly impacted, but effects were reduced compared to pre-recovery collections. At five weeks post-decommissioning, species richness was only slightly lower at the sites immediately downstream of the former effluent and the composition of common species (i.e., >5% of relative abundance) was similar between upstream and downstream sites. Rapid recovery of chironomid emergence below the sewage effluent likely resulted from both colonization of drifting larvae from upstream sources and adult dispersal and oviposition, indicating rapid responses in emergence as water quality conditions improved.

  6. Larva of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Chironomidae, Diptera)-morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), karyotype, and biology in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva

    2016-09-21

    Larvae belonging to the family Chironomidae are difficult to identify. The aim of the present study was to describe the larval morphology of G. (G.) glaucus with the aid of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the karyotype and biology based on materials obtained from laboratory culture. Describing the morphology of larvae, special attention was paid to rarely or never described structures like the maxilla (lacinia and maxillary palp), the long plate situated below the ventromental plate, and plate X situated between lacinia and mentum. The use of SEM allowed also to obtain better images of labrum and ventromental plate. Morphological features of this species have been supplemented by karyotype and biology of larvae in laboratory conditions. Under controlled experimental conditions we found non-synchronous development of G. (G.) glaucus larvae hatched from one egg mass reflected in different lengths of larvae and emerged imagoes.

  7. Late Quaternary Environmental Changes Inferred from the stable Oxygen Isotope Composition of Aquatic Insects (Chironomidae: Diptera) and Stable Hydrogen Isotope Composition of bulk sediments from Idavain Lake, Southwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Finney, B.; Wooller, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Several techniques are available to examine the isotopic composition of historic lake waters, providing data that can subsequently be used to examine environmental changes. Recently-developed techniques are the stable oxygen isotope analysis of subfossil chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) head capsules (mostly chitin) preserved in lake sediments and stable hydrogen isotope analyses directly on bulk sediments. An advantage of using δ18O of chironomids is that the chitinous chironomid headcapsules preserve well in lake sediments, retaining the stable oxygen isotope signature of the lake in which they lived. An advantage of δD analyses of bulk sediments is that a sediment core can be analyzed relatively easily and when the %C (total organic carbon) and %H profiles correlate the data can be used to infer past δD changes of the organics in the sediments. We present results from these analyses of a lake sediment core from Idavain Lake (58°46'N, 155°57'W, 223m above sea level) in southwest Alaska in concert with other paleolimnological proxies, including δ15N, δ13C, LOI, magnetic susceptibility, organic content and opal concentrations for a better understanding of paleolimnological changes since deglaciation for the region. Our preliminilary result shows that downcore shifts of δ18O analyzed from chironomid head capsules coincide well with LOI and pollen changes. The δD of sediments and TOM showed large magnitude changes and reflected the relative lake level changes during the record. This study aim to test the correlation between stable isotope analyese on chiornomid head capsules, lake water, and bulk sediments. In the addition, our study will add to the relatively small database of paleoenvironmental reconstructions from terrestrial sites in Southwest Alaska.

  8. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  9. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 1. Occurrence of massive flights of Tokunagayusurika akamusi].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    Adult Chironomidae (Diptera, particularly Chironomus plumosus and Tokunagayusurika akamusi) emerging from eutrophic lakes or polluted bodies of water in Japan have become intolerable because they pose a severe nuisance and cause economic problems. In the Lake Suwa area, massive flights of adult midges of T. akamusi have occurred frequently, and caused problems in the daily life of local residents or for the tourist business. The author tried to clarify the biological and hygienic problems involved in these massive flights. In order to control adult midges, the distribution of larvae in the lake, the period and quantity of emergence from water, the time of flight, and the dispersal range of T. akamusi midges were studied. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Larvae of T. akamusi are distributed over the whole lake, especially in the east and southeast part with high densities. Mean biomass was about 100 g wet weight/m2 in Lake Suwa. On the shore near these areas, dense swarms of adult midges were found. 2. Emergence of T. akamusi from Lake Suwa was observed at the end of September and lasted till the middle of November. The emergence peaked in the middle of October. The time of flight was mainly at 17: 30-19: 30. 3. The dispersal ranges of adult midges were confirmed with two methods, i.e. the ordinary light trap method and a questionnaire survey of 544 residents. The result obtained with the questionnaire survey was consistent with that of the light trap method and the questionnaire survey made it possible to collect information in a wider area than the usual one. 4. T. akamusi midges reached areas over 3 km from the lake, but more than 90 percent of the midges flew within 500 m of the lake's shoreline. However, even in the more distant places where there was a source of bright light there were many adult midges. 5. The wind (at 18: 30) was the main factor which expanded the dispersal range of adults. We observed that many adults appeared after a strong wind (6

  10. Morphology of the adult male and pupal exuviae of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    PubMed

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dixella sp. (Diptera: Nematocera, Dixidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Zehui; Li, Xuankun; Yang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the family Dixidae is reported. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dixella sp. is a circular molecule of 15,574 bp in length, containing all 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (srRNA and lrRNA), and a long control region. Its gene arrangement is conserved with the ancestral gene order of Drosophila yakuba, which is considered to exhibit the ground pattern of Hexapoda mitochondrial genome. Most PCGs start with standard ATN codons, while COI uses CCG, ND1 uses TTG and ND5 uses GTG as start codons. All PCGs terminate in the common stop codons TAA, except for COII and ND5 which end with a single thymine stop codon. There is a 703 bp of the control region, located between srRNA and tRNA(lle)-tRNA(Gln)-tRNA(Met) (IQM) cluster, without conserved blocks or long tandem repeats.

  12. The localization of ribosomal DNA in Sciaridae (Diptera: Nematocera) reassessed.

    PubMed

    Madalena, Christiane Rodriguez Gutierrez; Amabis, José Mariano; Stocker, Ann Jacob; Gorab, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was studied in polytene and diploid tissues of four sciarid species, Trichosia pubescens, Rhynchosciara americana, R. milleri and Schwenkfeldina sp. While hybridization to mitotic chromosomes showed the existence of a single rDNA locus, ribosomal probes hybridized to more than one polytene chromosome region in all the species analyzed as a result of micronucleolar attachment to specific chromosome sites. Micronucleoli are small, round bodies containing transcriptionally active, probably extrachromosomal rDNA. In T. pubescens the rDNA is predominantly localized in chromosome sections X-10 and X-8. In R. americana the rDNA is frequently found associated with centromeric heterochromatin of the chromosomes X, C, B and A, and also with sections X-1 and B-13. Ribosomal probes in R. milleri hybridized with high frequency to pericentric and telomeric regions of its polytene complement. Schwfenkfeldina sp. displays a remarkably unusual distribution of rDNA in polytene nuclei, characterized by the attachment of micronucleoli to many chromosome regions. The results showed that micronucleoli preferentially associate with intercalary or terminal heterochromatin of all sciarid flies analyzed and, depending on the species, are attached to a few (Trichosia), moderate (Rhynchosciara) or a large (Schwenkfeldina sp.) number of polytene chromosome sites.

  13. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Salmela, Jukka; Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macroceranigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornusetigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophilaharuspica Plassmann is redescribed.

  14. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  15. Colonization by Chironomidae larvae in decomposition leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a lentic system in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations.

  16. Chironomidae of the southeastern United States: a checklist of species and notes on biology, distribution, and habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Caldwell, Broughton A.; Smith, David

    1990-01-01

    We provide a current listing of the species of midges (Diptera:Chironomidae) in the southeastern United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). This checklist should aid research on this group of insects, which have often proved useful in the assessment of water quality. We document each species' distribution and general habitat and provide the best taxonomic reference to facilitate the identification or description of species in that genus. Changes in nomenclature, unique ecological traits, bibliographic sources, or other items of information are summarized in a paragraph on each genus. Of the 10 sub-families currently recognized in the Chironomidae, 7 occur in the Southeast. The chironomid fauna of the six southeastern States now consist of 164 described genera and 479 described species. In addition we have listed 14 genera and 245 species that are tenatively noted as undescribed.

  17. Prevalence of Harpellales from Chironomidae larvae in phytotelmata from punta Lara Forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Siri, Augusto; Marti, Gerardo A; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2008-01-01

    Harpellales (Zygomycota: Trichomycetes) fungi are cosmopolitan obligate inhabitants of the gut of immature insects. A biweekly survey of gut fungi associated with chironomid (Chironomidae: Diptera) larvae living in the impounded water from Eryngium cabrerae (Apiaceae) phytotelmata from Punta Lara forest, Argentina, was done Jan 2003-Dec 2004. Two species of Harpellales were associated with chironomid larvae, Smittium phytotelmatum in the hindgut of Polypedilum sp. and Stachylina lentica in the midgut of both Polypedilum sp. and Metriocnemus eryngiotelmatus. No statistically significant differences were recorded in the prevalence of these Harpellales between seasons. Environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity), impounded water volume, pH and chironomid larval density did not have an effect on the prevalence of the Trichomycetes.

  18. Chironomus calligraphus (Diptera: Chironomidae), a new pest species in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elmer W; Royals, Candace; Epler, John H; Wyatt, Roger D; Brewer, Ben; Noblet, Ray

    2012-09-01

    Chironomid midges are ubiquitous and ecologically important aquatic insects. However, some species can become pests when they occur in extremely high numbers, particularly those that colonize man-made habitats. Chironomus calligraphus is a Neotropical, pan-American species that has recently been found in the Nearctic region. This paper represents the 1st reported occurrence of C. calligraphus in Georgia. Extensive larval populations were found in the leaf sheaths and root masses of cattails and in the firm sandy substrates of a wastewater lake at an industrial site in coastal Georgia. Chironomus calligraphus was causing a significant economic impact at this site.

  19. Review of Dicrotendipes Kieffer from China (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Lin, Xiao-Long; Wang, Xin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The genus Dicrotendipes Kieffer from China, including 8 species, is reviewed. Two new species, Dicrotendipes nudus sp. n. and Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus sp. n. are described and the male imagines are illustrated; the record of Dicrotendipes fusconotatus (Kieffer) is the first for China. A key to the males of Dicrotendipes in China is given. PMID:22573947

  20. Parachironomus lenz from china and Japan (Diptera, chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun-Cai; Yan, Jiao; Jiang, Li; Guo, Qin; Liu, Ting; Ge, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xin-Hua; Pan, Bao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Parachironomus Lenz known from China and Japan are revised, and a key to their male adults is given. Parachironomuspoyangensis sp. n. is described in this life stage. Parachironomusfrequens (Johannsen) and Parachironomusmonochromus (van der Wulp) are recorded from China for the first time, thus are redescribed from Chinese specimens. Parachironomuskamaabeus Sasa & Tanaka and Parachironomustoneabeus Sasa & Tanaka are new junior synonyms of Parachironomusfrequens. Three Chinese or Japanese species formerly placed in Parachironomus are transferred to other genera, resulting in the new combinations Cryptochironomusinafegeus (Sasa, Kitami & Suzuki), Demicryptochironomus (Irmakia) lobus (Yan, Sæther, Jin & Wang), and Microchironomuslacteipennis (Kieffer). Chironomussauteri Kieffer, Parachironomuskisobilobalis Sasa & Kondo and Parachironomuskuramaexpandus Sasa are removed from Parachironomus; the last of these three denotes a valid species of uncertain generic placement, the first two are nomina dubia.

  1. Parachironomus Lenz from China and Japan (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chun-Cai; Yan, Jiao; Jiang, Li; Guo, Qin; Liu, Ting; Ge, Xin-yu; Wang, Xin-Hua; Pan, Bao-ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Members of the genus Parachironomus Lenz known from China and Japan are revised, and a key to their male adults is given. Parachironomus poyangensis sp. n. is described in this life stage. Parachironomus frequens (Johannsen) and Parachironomus monochromus (van der Wulp) are recorded from China for the first time, thus are redescribed from Chinese specimens. Parachironomus kamaabeus Sasa & Tanaka and Parachironomus toneabeus Sasa & Tanaka are new junior synonyms of Parachironomus frequens. Three Chinese or Japanese species formerly placed in Parachironomus are transferred to other genera, resulting in the new combinations Cryptochironomus inafegeus (Sasa, Kitami & Suzuki), Demicryptochironomus (Irmakia) lobus (Yan, Sæther, Jin & Wang), and Microchironomus lacteipennis (Kieffer). Chironomus sauteri Kieffer, Parachironomus kisobilobalis Sasa & Kondo and Parachironomus kuramaexpandus Sasa are removed from Parachironomus; the last of these three denotes a valid species of uncertain generic placement, the first two are nomina dubia. PMID:25901113

  2. New Neotropical Nilothauma Kieffer, 1921 From Brazil (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, H. F.; Andersen, T.

    2005-05-01

    The larvae of Nilothauma Kieffer, 1921 are found in the littoral and sublittoral sediments of both standing and flowing waters. The adults are easily recognized as they have one or several median, setose projections on tergite IX. The genus was recently revised, and 25 species in four species groups are recognized from the Holarctic, Oriental, Australian and Afrotropical regions. Two species from Peru described in Nilothauma, are now considered to belong in Paratendipes Kieffer, 1911, as they both lack any projection on tergite IX. No species of Nilothauma from the Neotropical region have been named so far, although both larvae and pupa exuviae have been recorded repeatedly from Brazil. In the present paper we describe and figure four new species of Nilothauma from Brazil. Three of the species are described on male imagines only, while the fourth species also have associated pupal exuviae. The genus groups with the genera Neelamia Soponis, 1986 and Paranilothauma Soponis, 1986, both of which are restricted to the Neotropical region.

  3. Karyotypes of Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) species from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wülker, Wolfgang F.; Kiknadze, I.I.; Istomina, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The karyotypes of six African Chironomus species (Chironomus alluaudi Kieffer, 1913, Chironomus transvaalensis Kieffer, 1923, Chironomus sp. Nakuru, Chironomus formosipennis Kieffer, 1908, Chironomus prope pulcher Wiedemann, 1830, Chironomus sp. Kisumu) were investigated; four of these karyotypes were described for the first time (Chironomus sp. Nakuru, Chironomus formosipennis, Chironomus prope pulcher, Chironomus sp. Kisumu). Of the six Chironomus karyotypes, three had “pseudothummi” cytocomplex chromosome arms combinations AE CD BF G (Chironomus alluaudi, Chironomus transvaalensis, Chironomus sp. Nakuru), two had “thummi”cytocomplex arms combinations AB CD EF G (Chironomus formosipennis, Chironomus prope pulcher), and one had “parathummi”armcombinations AC BF DE G (Chironomus sp. Kisumu). Thus, three of the ten main cytocomplexes known were detected in Africa. Detailed photomaps of all chromosome arms, with the exception of arms B and G, were prepared for the karyotypes of Chironomus alluaudi, Chironomus transvaalensis, Chironomus sp. Nakuru, Chironomus prope pulcher; the karyotypes of Chironomus formosipennis, Chironomus sp. Kisumucould only be fragmentarily mapped. Endemic African banding sequences were characteristic for most of the chromosomal arms in all species studied. However, basic sequences, which can be present in different Chironomus species on different continents (Wülker, 1980; Kiknadze et al. 2008), were also detected also in several African species (Chironomus alluaudi, Chironomus sp. Nakuru, and Chironomus formosipennis). The banding sequences of African species studied allow discussion of the derivation of modern banding patterns from hypothetical species, living before separation of cytocomplexes and continents. PMID:24260617

  4. Colonization by Chironomidae Larvae in Decomposition Leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a Lentic System in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; da Gama Alves, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations. PMID:23886040

  5. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  6. Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.

    2005-05-01

    As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

  7. Two new species of Paramesosciophilodes (Diptera, Nematocera, Mesosciophilidae) from the Middle Jurassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jiaqi; Shi, Guifeng; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Paramesosciophilodes bellus sp. n. and Paramesosciophilodes rarissima sp. n., from the Jiulongshan Formation at Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China, are described in the extinct family Mesosciophilidae. Altogether seven genera with 21 species of mesosciophilids have been described from the Jurassic of Siberia and Kazakhstan, the Lower Cretaceous of Transbaikalia, and the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia. An emended generic diagnosis of Paramesosciophilodes and a list of known taxa of mesosciophilids are provided. PMID:26257555

  8. [Radiosensitivity curve of different stages of spermatogenesis of Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera:Nematocera)].

    PubMed

    Lecis, A R; Figus, V; Santarini, C

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain a dose-hatchability curve for irradiated spermatogenetic stages of Anopheles atroparvus, we have irradiated with the same dose "4500 r" young fourth larval stages, old fourth larval stages, nymphae and adult males. Those different stages represent different phases of spermatogenesis. The peak of radiosensitivity for embryonic mortality, was found in spermatids, lowest appeared in spermatogonies.

  9. Pool screen PCR for estimating the prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in sandflies (Diptera: Nematocera, Phlebotomidae).

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, J; Gállego, M; Barón, S; Castillejo, S; Morillas-Marquez, F

    2006-06-01

    Prevalence studies of infection in the sandfly vector can be used as an indicator of a change in the intensity of Leishmania transmission. However, these studies are difficult to carry out as prevalence in the vector is usually low and its estimation requires a large number of sandflies to be dissected. Our objective was to establish whether a L. infantum-specific PCR-ELISA applied to pools of female sandflies and a previously described algorithm could be useful tools to study the prevalence of infection by this parasite in natural vector populations. We collected sandflies from six collection points in two stable foci of leishmaniasis in southern (N=3) and north-eastern (N=3) Spain, following standard procedures. A fraction of the collected females was dissected and morphologically identified. Another fraction was used for pool screening. In total, 127 pools of 30 females (3810 specimens) were studied by PCR-ELISA and 1764 specimens were individually dissected. The prevalence of infection determined by dissection does not differ from that determined by pool screen PCR. The results suggest that pool screen PCR can be of practical use in the epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in European countries of the western Mediterranean basin, associated with control interventions or global change.

  10. Sperm structure of Limoniidae and their phylogenetic relationship with Tipulidae (Diptera, Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Lombardo, Bianca Maria; Mercati, David; Vanin, Stefano; Lupetti, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The sperm ultrastructure of a few species of Limoniidae (Limonia nigropunctata; L. nubeculosa; Chionea n. sp.; C. alpina; C. lutescens) was studied. The two species of Limonia have a monolayered acrosome with crystallized material, a three-lobed nucleus in cross section, a ring of centriole adjunct material and a flagellum which consists of a 9+9+1 axoneme and a single mitochondrial derivative. The central axonemal tubule is provided with 15 protofilaments in its tubular wall, while the accessory tubules have 13 protofilaments and are flanked by the electron-dense intertubular material. The three species of Chionea share a monolayered acrosome, a nucleus with two longitudinal grooves, a centriole adjunct material which surrounds the centriole and the initial part of the axoneme. The axoneme is of conventional type, with 9+9+2 microtubular pattern, with accessory tubules provided with 13 protofilaments and intertubular material. However, in C. lutescens the accessory tubules start with 15 protofilaments and transform into a tubule with 13 protofilaments. These data are discussed in the light of the phylogenetic relationship between Limoniidae and Tipulidae. For this purpose, the sperm ultrastructure of Nephrotoma appendiculata was also considered comparatively.

  11. Revision of the genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 (Diptera, Nematocera, Protopleciidae) with five new species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuqin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    The genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 of Protopleciidae is revised based on five new species, Epimesopleciaplethora sp. n., Epimesopleciaprosoneura sp. n., Epimesopleciastana sp. n., Epimesopleciamacrostrena sp. n., and Epimesopleciaambloneura sp. n., described and illustrated from the Jiulongshan Formation of China. These new species, with clearly preserved characters of (1) compound eyes connected in males; (2) antennae, filiform or moniliform, with 16 segments; (3) r-m reaching the middle of the wing; (4) R4+5 ending very close to wing apex; (5) ratio of bRs/dRs ranging from 1.6 to 10.5; (6) M2 more than 3 times as long as dM1+2; (7) legs thin and long, femur slender, almost equal to tibia; (8) tibial spurs minute; and (9) male genitalia (previously unknown), enable us to emend the diagnosis of Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007. In addition, all described species of Epimesoplecia are characterized, their features summarized, and a key to Epimesoplecia species is given.

  12. Two new species of Paramesosciophilodes (Diptera, Nematocera, Mesosciophilidae) from the Middle Jurassic of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiaqi; Shi, Guifeng; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Two new species, Paramesosciophilodesbellus sp. n. and Paramesosciophilodesrarissima sp. n., from the Jiulongshan Formation at Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China, are described in the extinct family Mesosciophilidae. Altogether seven genera with 21 species of mesosciophilids have been described from the Jurassic of Siberia and Kazakhstan, the Lower Cretaceous of Transbaikalia, and the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia. An emended generic diagnosis of Paramesosciophilodes and a list of known taxa of mesosciophilids are provided.

  13. Revision of the genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 (Diptera, Nematocera, Protopleciidae) with five new species

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiuqin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 of Protopleciidae is revised based on five new species, Epimesoplecia plethora sp. n., Epimesoplecia prosoneura sp. n., Epimesoplecia stana sp. n., Epimesoplecia macrostrena sp. n., and Epimesoplecia ambloneura sp. n., described and illustrated from the Jiulongshan Formation of China. These new species, with clearly preserved characters of (1) compound eyes connected in males; (2) antennae, filiform or moniliform, with 16 segments; (3) r-m reaching the middle of the wing; (4) R4+5 ending very close to wing apex; (5) ratio of bRs/dRs ranging from 1.6 to 10.5; (6) M2 more than 3 times as long as dM1+2; (7) legs thin and long, femur slender, almost equal to tibia; (8) tibial spurs minute; and (9) male genitalia (previously unknown), enable us to emend the diagnosis of Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007. In addition, all described species of Epimesoplecia are characterized, their features summarized, and a key to Epimesoplecia species is given. PMID:25878544

  14. Knowledge of diptera in France from the beginning to the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Cambefort, Y

    2008-12-01

    Although insects have been objects of observation in French-speaking countries since the seventeenth century, and were illustrated by Reaumur and other scientists during the eighteenth, specialized dipterology only emerged in the first half of the nineteenth century. The two main divisions of the Order Diptera were defined by French entomologists, namely Nemocera (currently Nematocera) by Latreille in 1817, and Brachocera (currently Brachycera) by Macquart in 1834. Insects as a whole were rarely studied until the late nineteenth century, when the discovery of their role in the transmission of important diseases resulted in the creation of a new discipline: medical entomology. From this time on, medically important groups (mosquitoes, tsetse flies, etc.) have been objects of intense concern and study, especially at the Pasteur Institute and the Paris Faculté de médecine. But the most important French dipterist* in the twentieth century has probably been the Museum specialist Eugène Séguy.

  15. An insight into the sialome of blood-feeding Nematocera.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José M C; Mans, Ben J; Arcà, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Within the Diptera and outside the suborder Brachycera, the blood-feeding habit occurred at least twice, producing the present day sand flies, and the Culicomorpha, including the mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simulidae), biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and frog feeding flies (Corethrellidae). Alternatives to this scenario are also discussed. Successful blood-feeding requires adaptations to antagonize the vertebrate's mechanisms of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, pain and itching, which are triggered by tissue destruction and immune reactions to insect products. Saliva of these insects provides a complex pharmacological armamentarium to block these vertebrate reactions. With the advent of transcriptomics, the sialomes (from the Greek word sialo = saliva) of at least two species of each of these families have been studied (except for the frog feeders), allowing an insight into the diverse pathways leading to today's salivary composition within the Culicomorpha, having the sand flies as an outgroup. This review catalogs 1288 salivary proteins in 10 generic classes comprising over 150 different protein families, most of which we have no functional knowledge. These proteins and many sequence comparisons are displayed in a hyperlinked spreadsheet that hopefully will stimulate and facilitate the task of functional characterization of these proteins, and their possible use as novel pharmacological agents and epidemiological markers of insect vector exposure.

  16. Impact of routine Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) treatment on the availability of flying insects as prey for aerial feeding predators.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Ute; Becker, Norbert

    2017-02-16

    Since 1980, mosquito breeding habitats in the Upper Rhine Valley were routinely treated with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti). Bti is considered to significantly reduce the number of mosquitoes, and - especially when used in higher dosages - to be toxic to other Nematocera species, e.g. Chironomidae, which could be food sources for aerial feeding predators. To investigate direct and indirect effects of routine Bti treatment on food sources for aerial feeding predators, the availability of flying insects in treated and untreated areas was compared. A car trap was used for insect collection, which allowed their exact spatiotemporal assignment. The statistical analysis revealed that insect taxa abundance was influenced differently by the factors season, temperature and time of day. Nematocera (Diptera) were the most frequently collected insects in all areas. Chironomidae were the predominant aquatic Nematocera. The comparison of treated and untreated sites did not show significant differences that would indicate any direct or indirect effect of routine Bti treatment on the availability of flying insects. Additional to food availability, food selection must be considered when investigating food resources for aerial feeding predators. In this study, food selection of Delichon urbicum (House Martin) as an example was investigated with the help of neck ring samples. The preferred prey of the investigated D. urbicum colony consisted of diurnal insects with terrestrial larvae (Aphidina, Brachycera, Coleoptera). Chironomidae were consumed, but not preferred.

  17. Three new species of Polypedilum Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Neotropical region.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Fusari, Lívia Maria; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-04-17

    Three new species of Polypedilum from Brazil, belonging to subgenera Tripodura and Pentapedilum are described and illustrated. P. (Pe.) puri sp. n. and P. (Tr.) guato sp. n. are described based on male adults and P. (Tr.) kadiweu sp. n. on male adult, pupa and larva.

  18. Distribution of chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in polluted rivers of the Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; HassanAhmad, Abu; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the abundance and diversity of chironomids was studied in six rivers with moderate to highly polluted water in the Juru River Basin. The rivers: Ceruk Tok Kun (CTKR) as reference site, and polluted rivers of Pasir (PR), Juru (JR), Permatang Rawa (PRR), Ara (AR) and Kilang Ubi (KUR) were sampled over a period of five months (November 2007-March 2008). Nine chirnomid species: Chironimus kiiensis, C. javanus, Polypedilum trigonus, Microchironomus sp., Dicrotendipes sp., Tanytarsus formosanus, Clinotanypus sp., Tanypus punctipennis and Fittkauimyia sp. were identified. Assessment of their relationships with several environmental parameters was performed using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tanytarsus formosanus was the most dominant in the relatively clean CTKR and moderately polluted JR with mean densities of 19.66 and 25.32 m(-2), respectively while C. kiiensis was abundant in more polluted rivers. Tanytarsus formosanus, Dicrotendipes sp. and Microchironomus sp. were grouped under moderate to high water temperature, total organic matter (TOM), total suspended solids (TSS), velocity, pH, phosphates and sulphates. However, Tanypus punctipennis, Fittkauimyia sp., and Clinotanypus sp. were associated with high contents of river sediment such as TOM, Zn and Mn and water ammonium-N and nitrate-N and they were associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the water. Chironomus kiiensis, C. javanus and P. trigonus showed positive relationships with TOM, ammonium-N and nitrate-N as well as trace metals of Zn, Cu and Mn. These three species could be considered as tolerant species since they have the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions with low DO and high concentrations of pollutants. Based on the water parameter scores in all rivers, the highest diversity of chironomid larvae was reported in CTKR. With higher concentrations of organic and/or inorganic pollutants as reported in PPR, KUR and AR, the chironomid larval diversity decreased, and the abundance of tolerant species, mainly Chironomus spp., increased.

  19. Review of the genus Harnischia Kieffer from China (Diptera, Chironomidae), with description of one new species

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chun-Cai; Guo, Qin; Liu, Ting; Guo, Wei; Wang, Xin-Hua; Pan, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Harnischia Kieffer, 1921 from China is reviewed and one new species, Harnischia parallela Yan & Wang, sp. n., is described and illustrated as adult male. Harnischia okilurida Sasa is recognized as a new synonym of Harnischia longispuria Wang & Zheng. The pupae of Harnischia fuscimana Kieffer and Harnischia curtilamellata Malloch are redescribed from material collected in China, and an unplaced pupa is described. Key to male adults and pupae of known species of Harnischia from China is given. PMID:27917051

  20. New species and records of Goeldichironomus Fittkau, 1965 from Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-12-22

    One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided.

  1. New species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp (Diptera: Chironomidae) from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanseverino, Angela M; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Tanytarsus lenyae sp. n., T. giovannii sp. n., T. fittkaui sp. n. and T. alfredoi sp. n. from São Paulo State (Brazil) are described and diagnosed, the first as adult male and pupa, and the remaining as male, pupa and larva. The species were collected in areas of Cerrado, at the boundaries of São Carlos city. Complete diagnoses and drawings of the species are given. The imagos can be separated from other species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp mainly by differences in the antennal ratio, dorsomedian extension of the eyes, the thorax and wing setation, the shape of anal tergal bands, the anal point armament and the shape of superior volsella, digitus and median volsella. The pupae are characterized by the thoracic horn armament, the arrangement of the precorneals, the shape of anal comb and the abdominal setation. The larvae can be separated by differences in the antennal pedestal, the sclerotization of the second antennal segment, the size of Lauterborn organ pedicels, the shape of the clypeal seta S3 and the sclerotization of the mentum. Apparently, the four new species are not closely related, and the anal point armament alone would be enough to separate one species from the other.

  2. A new species of Dicrotendipes (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Florida.

    PubMed

    Epler, J H

    2016-12-14

    A new species of Dicrotendipes is described in all life stages from Florida. Adults of this new species are nearly identical to D. modestus (Say); pupae are similar to D. modestus, D. neomodestus (Malloch) and D. tritomus (Kieffer); while the larvae are unique and were keyed by Epler (1992, 1995, 2001) as Dicrotendipes sp. A. The taxonomic status of D. modestus and D. pulsus (Walker) is discussed.

  3. Fossil midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as palaeoclimatic indicators for the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Stephen J.

    2006-08-01

    Chironomids (non-biting midges) have been used in palaeoenvironmental studies in Eurasia since the 1920s. Initially changes in chironomid assemblages were largely interpreted as a response to changes in trophic status or water depth. It was only with the advent of chironomid-temperature inference models in the early 1990s that their potential as palaeoclimatic indicators was fully exploited. This paper provides a brief review of the pioneering studies but focuses on the most recent advances. Better taxonomic resolution of fossil midges, expansion of modern training sets, use of air temperature data derived from meteorological stations rather than surface-water temperature data, and Bayesian statistical approaches have lead to improvements in the performance of chironomid-temperature transfer functions. Applications of these transfer functions to derive chironomid-inferred temperature estimates from Lateglacial (ca 15,000-11,200 cal. yr BP) and Holocene (11,200 cal. yr BP to Present) sequences from throughout Eurasia are reviewed in this paper. Chironomid-inferred Lateglacial reconstructions closely reflect oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores. Holocene reconstructions are less consistent. Some closely follow instrumental records or corroborate other proxy data, while other reconstructions are less successful. As a result of soil development during the Holocene, changes in pH, nutrients, DO and DOC had a greater influence than temperature on the composition of some midge assemblages. One way to mitigate this is through consensus temperature reconstructions from several sites in the same region. The challenge for future workers is for further improvement in taxonomic resolution of sub-fossil chironomid larvae, to improve further the performance of chironomid-temperature inference models, to develop training sets for southern Europe and Russia and to improve our understanding of the ecological responses of chironomids.

  4. A generic guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Tanytarsini, (Chironomidae:diptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiner, J.W.; Doughman, J.S.; Moore, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Larvae of the tribe Tanytarsini occur in nearly every aquatic habitat in North America where they act as primary consumers in the food chain. This new taxonomic guide overcomes some deficiencies in existing keys to this tribe and the reviewed and updated taxonomy enables identification of the larvae that may be useful as ecological indicators. Over 2,000 specimens from 26 states were examined, identified and measured in this study. The following genera were included: Stempellinell, Zavrelia, Stempellina, Constempellina, Corynocera, Cladotanytarsus,.. Paratanytarsus, Rheotanytarsus,. Micropsectra, Lauterbornia, Nimbocera, Tanytarsus and Neozavrelia. Photographs illustrate mature larvae of these genera with the exception of Zavrelia and Neozavrelia which are not known to exist in North America. The morphological data, Which are summarized in a table of distinctive characteristics and the dichotomous key, enable identification to genus. Notes on range, habitat and food preference are included, and species identifications are presented where applicable.

  5. Polypedilum nubifer, a Chironomid Midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) new to Florida that has nuisance potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, R.E.; Perry, S.A.

    2007-03-15

    We document the first record of Polypedilum nubifer in Pan-America. This eurytopic species often reaches severe nuisance population sizes in Australia, Asia, and Hawaii in warm, shallow, eutrophic waters subject to drying. A large population was discovered in newly-constructed infiltration basins and neighboring marshes along the eastern boundary of Everglades National Park. Presently, this population appears minimally invasive to Park marshes and is far removed from urban areas. However, we anticipate this species could disperse and attain nuisance population sizes in suitable urban and agricultural habitats in south Florida. (author)

  6. Evolutionary consequences of historical metal contamination for natural populations of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, João; Campos, Diana; Cocchiararo, Berardino; Nowak, Carsten; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos; L T Pestana, João

    2017-05-01

    Populations inhabiting metal-impacted freshwater systems located nearby industrial and urban areas may be under intense selection. The present study aims to address two fundamental microevolutionary aspects of metal contamination in the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen): Are populations inhabiting historically metal contaminated sites genetically adapted to metals? And, are populations from these sites genetically eroded? To answer these questions, C. riparius populations were sampled from three sites with well-known histories of metal contamination and three nearby-located references. Genetic adaptation to metals was investigated through acute and chronic exposures to cadmium (Cd), after rearing all populations for at least six generations under laboratory clean conditions. Genetic diversity was estimated based on the allelic variation of seven microsatellite markers. Results showed higher acute tolerance to Cd in populations originating from metal contaminated sites compared to their respective references and significant differences in two out of three pairwise comparisons. However, there was a mismatch between acute and chronic tolerance to Cd with results of the partial life-cycle tests suggesting fitness costs under control clean conditions in two metal-adapted populations. Despite no evidences of genetic erosion in populations sampled from metal contaminated sites, our results suggest genetically inherited tolerance to Cd in populations inhabiting historically contaminated sites. These findings lend support to the use of C. riparius as a model organism in evolutionary toxicology and highlight the importance of coupling measures of neutral genetic diversity with assessments of chemical tolerance of populations for a better understanding of contaminant-induced adaptation and evolutionary processes.

  7. A Key to the Pupal Exuviae of the Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobsen, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A key has been developed for identifying the pupal exuviae of 132 taxa of chironomid midges collected in Everglades National Park, as well as 18 additional species from freshwater habitats adjacent to the Park. Descriptions and illustrations are based upon voucher specimens from extensive collections of chironomid pupal exuviae for faunal surveys and biomonitoring research conducted in ENP and surrounding freshwater areas from 1998 to 2007. The key includes taxonomic comments for confirming identifications, as well as brief summaries of the distribution and ecology of each species in southern Florida waters. Information is also provided on the morphology of chironomid pupal exuviae, recommended references for identifying pupal exuviae, techniques for making slides, and methods to confirm proper identification.

  8. Phototaxis of Propsilocerus akamusi (Diptera: Chironomidae) From a Shallow Eutrophic Lake in Response to Led Lamps.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kimio; Nagai, Yoshinari; Mushya, Tetsuya; Higashino, Makoto; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2017-06-01

    A study on the attraction of adult Propsilocerus akamusi midges to different-colored light traps was carried out from October 21 to November 15, 2013. The 6 colored lights used in light-emitting diode (LED) lamps were white, green, red, blue, amber, and ultraviolet (UV). The UV lamp attracted the most P. akamusi, followed by green, white, blue, amber, and red. A white pulsed LED light attracted only half the number of midges as did a continuous-emission white LED light. The result indicated that manipulation of light color, considering that the red LED light and/or pulsed LED light are not as attractive as the other colors, may be appropriate for the development of an overall integrated strategy to control nuisance P. akamusi in the Lake Suwa area.

  9. Studies on the chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) of the Nansei Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasa, M

    1990-06-01

    The Nansei Islands are located in the subtropical zone of the western Pacific Ocean between Kyushu and Taiwan, and are composed of the two main island groups, the Amami and the Ryukyu Archipelagoes. This area has been known for the presence of a number of indigenous animal species. Prior to the present studies, collections of the chironomids mainly in the urban areas of the three main islands of the Ryukyus were carried out by Sasa and Hasegawa, and a total of 42 species, including 25 new species, were recorded. Additional collections of the chironomids mainly in the mountainous areas of this region were carried out by the present author during 1988 and 1989, and a total of 26 species (including 12 new species) were recorded from Amami Island, and a total of 27 species (including 10 new species) were recorded from the Ryukyu Islands. Eight species among them, including 3 new species, were common to the two archipelagos.

  10. Genotoxic effects of vinclozolin on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2017-10-05

    Vinclozolin (Vz) is a pollutant found in aquatic environments whose antiandrogenic effects in reproduction are well known in mammals. Although its reproductive effects have been less studied in invertebrates, other effects, including genotoxicity, have been described. Therefore, in this work, we studied the genotoxic effects of Vz in the freshwater benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius. DNA damage was evaluated with the comet assay (tail area, olive moment, tail moment and % DNA in tail), and the transcriptional levels of different genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) and apoptosis (DECAY) were measured by RT-PCR. Fourth instar larvae of C. riparius, were exposed to Vz for 24 h at 20 and 200 μg/L. The Vz exposures affected the DNA integrity in this organism, since a dose-response relationship occurred, with DNA strand breaks significantly increased with increased dose for tail area, olive moment and tail moment parameters. Additionally, the lower concentration of Vz produced a significant induction of the transcripts of three genes under study (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) showing the activation of the cellular repair mechanism. In contrast, the expression of these genes with the highest concentration were downregulated, indicating failure of the cellular repair mechanism, which would explain the higher DNA damage. These data report for the first time the alterations of Vz on gene transcription of an insect and confirm the potential genotoxicity of this compound on freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Limnophyes guarani sp. n., a new hygropetric Orthocladiinae from southern Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Andersen, Trond

    2015-04-20

    A new species of Limnophyes Eaton collected in the Corvo Branco Mountains in Santa Catarina State is described and figured, based on male and female adults, larva and pupa. The species groups with L. griseata (Edwards) and L. bidumus Sæther as the adults have a pronounced humeral pit with lanceolate setae and an additional group of lanceolate setae just posterior to antepronotum. The adults are, however, distinctly smaller, have a lower AR and have more lanceolate setae in the group just posterior to antepronotum than the two other species. The pupa can easily be separated from the pupa of L. bidumus as the anal macroseta is longer than the anal lobe. The larva lives hygropetric on vertical rock surfaces. A key to male adults of Neotropical Limnophyes is given.

  12. Chaudhuriomyia, a new tanypod genus of Macropelopiini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from the Eastern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nilotpol; Mazumdar, Abhijit

    2015-05-06

    A new genus, Chaudhuriomyia in the tribe Macropelopiini belonging to subfamily Tanypodinae is described and illustrated in all life stages. The genus can be distinguished from all the other known Macropelopiini by the presence of a blunt claw on fore leg and a smooth surface of tibial spur in adult male, seminal capsules without proper neck in adult female, round anal lobe in pupa, and slightly inwardly bent inner tooth of ligula in larva. Generic diagnoses for larva, pupa and adult are provided. Taxonomic position and distribution of the genus are discussed along with a new adult key of tribe Macropelopiini. The specimens were collected from a stream in Indo-Bhutan border area of Eastern Himalaya in Indian Subcontinent. A note on the ecology and biology of the new genus is included.

  13. [Septicaemia of chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) promoted by Bacillus cereus and B. thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Khodyrev, V P

    2012-01-01

    Natural factors regulating the population of chironomids were studied. The bacteria Bacillus cereus were isolated from chironomids sampled from Kuyalnitskii Firth after epizooty of Chironomus sp., and bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis (Bti) were isolated from dead larva of Chironomus plumosus sampled in the Sea of Azov (3-m depth). Bti were characterized by high insecticide activity on midges Anopheles messeae Fall., Aedes cireneus Mg., and Culex pipiens pipiens f. pipiens L.

  14. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi Coq. (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Maxwell, Sheri A; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2009-09-01

    As a component of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), the pitcher plant midge Metriocneus knabi has been the subject of various ecological studies. However, very little is known about its characteristics beyond the larval stage, in particular the dispersal ability of adults. This study presents new molecular tools developed for testing of evolutionary and ecological questions in natural populations of this species. We describe a set of 12 microsatellite loci specific to M. knabi that are sufficiently polymorphic to provide insight into population genetic structure and dispersal patterns.

  15. The response of chironomidae (Diptera) to a long-term exclusion of terrestrial organic matter

    Treesearch

    Sally A. Entrekin; J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L. Eggert

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a seven-year detrital exclusion on chironomid assemblages in an Appalachian headwater stream. We hypothesized that litter exclusion would lead to a reduction in all chironomids at both the subfamily and generic levels because organic matter serves as both food and habitat in these headwater streams. Tanytarsini total abundance and biomass...

  16. Notes on Nilothauma Kieffer from Oriental China, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Tang, Hongqu; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Nilothauma Kieffer are described and figured from Oriental China: Nilothauma angustum sp. n. based on the male only, Nilothauma aristatum sp. n. based on the male, pupa and larva, and Nilothauma bilobatum sp. n. based on the male and pupa. In addition, new distribution records are given for Nilothauma japonicum Niitsuma, Nilothauma nojirimaculatum Sasa, Nilothauma hibaratertium Sasa, and Nilothauma acre Adam & Sæther. A key to known males of Nilothauma Kieffer in China is provided. PMID:27110183

  17. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trond; Baranov, Viktor; Hagenlund, Linn Katrine; Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes "Metriocnemini" and "Orthocladiini". Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe "Metriocnemini". Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity.

  18. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  19. Chromosomal organization of the ribosomal RNA genes in the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gunderina, Larisa; Golygina, Veronika; Broshkov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chromosomal localization of ribosomal RNA coding genes has been studied by using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) in 21 species from the genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Analysis of the data has shown intra- and interspecific variation in number and location of 5.8S rDNA hybridization sites in 17 species from the subgenus Chironomus and 4 species from the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1914. In the majority of studied species the location of rDNA sites coincided with the sites where active NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were found. The number of hybridization sites in karyotypes of studied chironomids varied from 1 to 6. More than half of the species possessed only one NOR (12 out of 21). Two rDNA hybridization sites were found in karyotypes of five species, three – in two species, and five and six sites – in one species each. NORs were found in all chromosomal arms of species from the subgenus Chironomus with one of them always located on arm G. On the other hand, no hybridization sites were found on arm G in four studied species from the subgenus Camptochironomus. Two species from the subgenus Chironomus – Chironomus balatonicus Devai, Wuelker & Scholl, 1983 and Chironomus “annularius” sensu Strenzke, 1959 – showed intraspecific variability in the number of hybridization signals. Possible mechanisms of origin of variability in number and location of rRNA genes in the karyotypes of species from the genus Chironomus are discussed. PMID:26140162

  20. Revision of Beardius Reiss et Sublette, 1985 (Diptera: Chironomidae), with the description of twenty new species.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Mendes, Humberto Fonseca; Andersen, Trond

    2013-11-02

    The genus Beardius Reiss et Sublette, 1985 is revised and twenty new species, Beardius abbadi sp. n., B. arawak sp. n., B. bizzoi sp. n., B. bucephalus sp. n., B. curticaudatus sp. n., B. dioi sp. n., B. hirtidorsum sp. n., B. krenak sp. n., B. kumadueni sp. n., B. longicaudatus sp. n., B. mileneae sp. n., B. nebularius sp. n., B. neusae sp. n., B. novoairensis sp. n., B. phoenix sp. n., B. sapiranga sp. n., B. tupinamba sp. n., B. vanessae sp. n., and B. yperoig sp. n. from Brazil and Beardius chapala sp. n. from Mexico are described and figured. Further, the female, pupa and larva of B. urupeatan Pinho, Mendes et Andersen and the female and larva of B. cristhinae Trivinho-Strixino et Siqueira are described, and new records of Brazilian species are provided. Emended diagnoses for all stages and sexes are given. The phylogeny of the genus is outlined and seven tentative species groups, the parcus group, the truncatus group, the tupinamba group, the triangulatus group, the bucephalus group, the xylophilus group, and the roquei group, are proposed. Keys to males, females, pupae and larvae are provided.

  1. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  2. The ultrastructure of the non-neurosecretory components in the brain of the midge, Chironomus riparious Mg. (diptera: nematocera).

    PubMed

    Scales, M D; Credland, P F

    1978-02-24

    The ultrastruct of the neural sheath, glial cells and neurons in the brain of the neoimaginal male Chironomus riparius is described. The neural sheath comprises a neural lamella and underlying perineurium. The neural lamella consists of an amorphous matrix in which fine fibrils occur. The perineurium is composed of two cell types forming a continuous layer around the brain. The subjacent cortical layer, composed of the cell bodies of neurons and glial cells, varies considerably in thickness and surrounds the centrally located neuropiles. Three types of glial cells are distinguished on the basis of their positions and appearances. Five types of neurons are described which differ in size and relative frequency of organelles. Four types of axons, including those of neurosecretory cells, are distinguished by their size and content.

  3. Population variability in Chironomus (Camptochironomus) species (Diptera, Nematocera) with a Holarctic distribution: evidence of mitochondrial gene flow.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Guryev, V; Blinov, A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from mitochondrial (mt) genes (Cytochrome b and Cytochrome oxidase I) and one nuclear gene (globin 2b) was used for the investigation of Nearctic and Palearctic populations representing four Chironomus species of the subgenus Camptochironomus, namely C. biwaprimus, C. pallidivittatus, C. tentans sensu stricto and C. dilutus (the last two species constitute Holarctic C. tentans sensu lato). Phenograms constructed on the basis of mt sequences were not congruent with trees based on nuclear genes, or with morphological and cytological data. The mt tree divided the populations by continental region, rather than by the species groupings recognized by the other data sets. The incongruence is explained by mt gene flow resulting from hybridization between the sympatric species on each continent. Calculation of divergence times, based on the sequence data, suggest that C. tentans (s.l.) and C. pallidivittatus have both been in North America for about 2.5 My.

  4. Optomotor Reactions Reveal Polarization Sensitvity in the Zika Virus Transmitting Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera; Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Bernáth, Balazs; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2016-12-01

    In polarization-sensitive insect species an orthogonal arrangement of photoreceptive microvilli is a characteristic feature. However, mosquito eyes had not revealed this feature, and polarization sensitivity (PS) was considered to be non-existent in them. Recently, however, gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti females were found to possess PS, sequels of which could be demonstrated only in the absence of chemicals emitted by conspecifics. Therefore, PS in Ae. aegypti, unlike that of other aquatic insects, apparently does not play a dominant role in locating water bodies, and is difficult to demonstrate in situations free of chemical cues. Here, we present behavioral evidence with Ae. aegypti females, exposed to large-field optomotor stimuli based solely on polarization contrast. Under conditions with stripes of alternating orthogonal directions of polarization, clear optomotor responses were elicited, no different from those in response to a rotating drum with vertical black and white stripes. Thus, Ae. aegypti is indeed polarization-sensitive; it reacts to vertically-striped contrast patterns with low spatial frequency on the basis of both intensity and polarization differences between the stripes.

  5. Molecular analysis and developmental expression of the Sex-lethal gene of Sciara ocellaris (Diptera order, Nematocera suborder).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M F; Goday, C; González, P; Sánchez, L

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports the cloning and characterization in Sciara ocellaris of the gene homologous to Sex-lethal (Sxl) of Drosophila melanogaster. This gene plays the key role controlling sex determination and dosage compensation in the latter species. The Sciara Sxl gene produces a single transcript encoding a single protein in both males and females. This protein, found inside the nucleus, is expressed in all tissues. Both Sciara and Drosophila Sxl proteins are highly conserved at their two RNA-binding domains. In both Sciara sexes, the Sxl protein co-localizes with transcription-active regions dependent on RNA polymerase II but not on RNA polymerase I. It would appear that in Sciara, Sxl does not appear to play the key discriminative role in controlling sex determination and dosage compensation that it plays in Drosophila.

  6. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution.

    PubMed

    Direni Mancini, José Manuel; Veggiani-Aybar, Cecilia Adriana; Fuenzalida, Ana Denise; Lizarralde de Grosso, Mercedes Sara; Quintana, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06%) followed by Forcipomyia (26.94%) and Atrichopogon (13.61%). Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%), while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  7. The control of Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera) in South African rivers by modification of the water flow volume.

    PubMed

    Howell, C J; Begemann, G J; Muir, R W; Louw, P

    1981-03-01

    It was found that the build-up of simuliid numbers subsequent to the construction of dams in the Vaal and Orange Rivers could be successfully prevented by periodic, artificially controlled reductions in the water-levels in these rivers.

  8. Differentiation and diversification of follicular cells in polytrophic ovaries of crane flies (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha and Trichoceridae).

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Marta; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

    2005-10-01

    To gain insight into the evolution of differentiation pathways that are involved in the follicular cells' morphogenesis in dipteran ovaries we have undertaken the comparative morphological analysis of the follicular cell behavior in crane flies, representatives of more ancestral nematocerous flies. This analysis revealed that initially the organization of the follicular epithelium in the species under study shows significant similarities to that reported in the ovaries of true flies (Brachycera), indicating that the ancestors of dipterans must have evolved a common and specific system of the early patterning of their follicular epithelium. On the other hand, in contrast to Drosophila and other advanced brachycerans, the follicular cells in the studied nematoceran ovaries do not exhibit any migratory activity. Instead, they were found to change their relative position but only within the epithelial layer. These "translocations" appeared to depend merely on cell shape changes. Although the "immobility" of the follicular cells in the ovaries of crane flies results in the lower number of their specialized subgroups when compared with the true flies, the functional homology between particular subsets of follicular cells can be postulated. We suggest that the anterior polar cells and the micropyle forming anterior terminal follicular cells in crane fly ovaries have their counterparts in the brachyceran anterior polar cells and border cells, respectively.

  9. Three new species of mesosciophilid gnats from the Middle-Late Jurassic of China (insecta: Diptera: Nematocera: Mesosciophilidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, J F

    2008-11-15

    Three extinct new species from the Callovian or Oxfordian (uppermost Middle Jurassic or lowermost Upper Jurassic) Daohugou beds in Inner Mongolia, China is described as Mesosciophila abstracta sp. n., Mesosciophilodes synchrona sp. n. and Paramesosciophilodes eximia sp. n. (Family Mesosciophilidae). All the records of mesosciophilid gnats are briefly reviewed.

  10. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Veggiani-Aybar, Cecilia Adriana; Fuenzalida, Ana Denise; Quintana, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06%) followed by Forcipomyia (26.94%) and Atrichopogon (13.61%). Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%), while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon. PMID:27896023

  11. Chironomidae and Oligochaeta for water quality evaluation in an urban river in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Beatriz Jabour Figueiraujo Vescovi; Rodrigues, Luciana Falci Theza; de Oliveira, Gilmar Simões; da Gama Alves, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Considering the importance of benthic macroinvertebrates for diagnosis of variations in the ecological conditions of aquatic habitats, the aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages along an organic pollution gradient. The fauna specimens were obtained with the use of artificial substrates, and the environmental variables were recorded at five sites of the São Lourenço River, during 12 months. Metrics of the assemblage and detrended correspondence analysis were used to verify the response of the fauna to the pollution gradient. Procrustes analysis was used to verify whether the data on the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages, as well as the taxonomic and numerical resolution of these groups, provide similar results in relation to the pollution gradient. The richness, evenness, and taxonomic composition of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages varied significantly among the collection sites, with distinct conservation conditions. Genera of the subfamilies Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae were associated with the sites upstream of the urban area, where the dissolved oxygen levels are higher. Species of Oligochaeta and the genus Chironomus were associated with more organically polluted sites. No concordance was observed in the response of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages in relation to the environmental variables, indicating the need to use both groups in biomonitoring studies. On the other hand, both the data on composition (presence or absence) and those on the lowest taxonomic resolution (abundance of subfamilies) were effective to diagnose the pollution gradient in the river studied. Therefore, when the environmental conditions along a river's gradient are contrasting, we suggest the use of the lowest taxonomic resolution of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta in biomonitoring. That procedure considerably reduces the assessment time, besides being a method that can be used by people not

  12. A Drosophila heat shock response represents an exception rather than a rule amongst Diptera species.

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Yushenova, I A; Shilova, V; Zelentsova, E S; Shostak, N G; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is the major player that underlies adaptive response to hyperthermia in all organisms studied to date. We investigated patterns of Hsp70 expression in larvae of dipteran species collected from natural populations of species belonging to four families from different evolutionary lineages of the order Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. All investigated species showed a Hsp70 expression pattern that was different from the pattern in Drosophila. In contrast to Drosophila, all of the species in the families studied were characterized by high constitutive levels of Hsp70, which was more stable than that in Drosophila. When Stratiomyidae Hsp70 proteins were expressed in Drosophila cells, they became as short-lived as the endogenous Hsp70. Interestingly, three species of Ceratopogonidae and a cold-water species of Chironomidae exhibited high constitutive levels of Hsp70 mRNA and high basal levels of Hsp70. Furthermore, two species of Tabanidae were characterized by significant constitutive levels of Hsp70 and highly stable Hsp70 mRNA. In most cases, heat-resistant species were characterized by a higher basal level of Hsp70 than more thermosensitive species. These data suggest that different trends were realized during the evolution of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the responses of Hsp70 genes to temperature fluctuations in the studied families. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Chironomidae feeding habits in different habitats from a Neotropical floodplain: exploring patterns in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Train, S; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2016-02-01

    Ecological studies on food webs have considerably increased in recent decades, especially in aquatic communities. Because Chironomidae family are highly specious, occurring in almost all aquatic habitats is considered organisms-key to initiate studies on ecological relationships and trophic webs. We tested the hypothesis that the diversity of the morphospecies diet reflects differences on both the food items available among habitats and the preferences of larval feeding. We analyzed the gut content of the seven most abundant Chironomidae morphospecies of the different habitats from the Upper Paraná River. We categorized the food items found into algae, fungal spores, fragments of plants, algae and animal fragments and sponge spicules. We observed the algae predominance in the gut content of morphospecies from lakes. Considering the different regions from each lake, we registered the highest food abundance in the littoral regions in relation to the central regions. From the variety of feeding habits (number of item kinds), we classified Chironomus strenzkei, Tanytarsus sp.1, Procladius sp.1 as generalist morphospecies. We found a nested pattern between food items and Chironomidae morphospecies, where some items were common to all taxa (e.g., Bacillariophyceae algae, especially), while others were found in specific morphospecies (e.g., animals fragments found in Procladius sp.1). The algae represented the most percentage of gut contents of Chironomidae larvae. This was especially true for the individuals from littoral regions, which is probably due to the major densities of algae associated to macrophytes, which are abundant in these regions. Therefore, the feeding behavior of these morphospecies was generalist and not selective, depending only of the available resources.

  14. Chironomidae feeding habits in different habitats from a Neotropical floodplain: exploring patterns in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Train, S; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2016-01-22

    Ecological studies on food webs have considerably increased in recent decades, especially in aquatic communities. Because Chironomidae family are highly specious, occurring in almost all aquatic habitats is considered organisms-key to initiate studies on ecological relationships and trophic webs. We tested the hypothesis that the diversity of the morphospecies diet reflects differences on both the food items available among habitats and the preferences of larval feeding. We analyzed the gut content of the seven most abundant Chironomidae morphospecies of the different habitats from the Upper Paraná River. We categorized the food items found into algae, fungal spores, fragments of plants, algae and animal fragments and sponge spicules. We observed the algae predominance in the gut content of morphospecies from lakes. Considering the different regions from each lake, we registered the highest food abundance in the littoral regions in relation to the central regions. From the variety of feeding habits (number of item kinds), we classified Chironomus strenzkei, Tanytarsus sp.1, Procladius sp.1 as generalist morphospecies. We found a nested pattern between food items and Chironomidae morphospecies, where some items were common to all taxa (e.g., Bacillariophyceae algae, especially), while others were found in specific morphospecies (e.g., animals fragments found in Procladius sp.1). The algae represented the most percentage of gut contents of Chironomidae larvae. This was especially true for the individuals from littoral regions, which is probably due to the major densities of algae associated to macrophytes, which are abundant in these regions. Therefore, the feeding behavior of these morphospecies was generalist and not selective, depending only of the available resources.

  15. Diel drift of Chironomidae larvae in a pristine Idaho mountain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilley, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Simultaneous hourly net collections in a meadow and canyon reach of a mountain stream determined diel and spatial abundances of drifting Chironomidae larvae. Sixty-one taxa were identified to the lowest practical level, 52 in the meadow and 41 in the canyon. Orthocladiinae was the most abundant subfamily with 32 taxa and a 24 h mean density of 294 individuals 100 m-3 (meadow) and 26 taxa and a mean of 648 individuals 100 m-3 (canyon). Chironominae was the second most abundant subfamily. Nonchironomid invertebrates at both sites and total Chironomidae larvae (meadow) were predominantly night-drifting. Parakiefferiella and Psectrocladius were day-drifting (meadow) whereas 8 other chironomid taxa (meadow) and 2 taxa (canyon) were night-drifting. All others were aperiodic or too rare to test periodicity, Stempellinella cf brevis Edwards exhibited catastrophic drift in the canyon only. The different drift patterns between sites is attributed to greater loss of streambed habitat in the canyon compared to the meadow as streamflow decreased. Consequent crowding of chironomid larvae in the canyon caused catastrophic drift or interfered with drift periodicty. This study adds to knowledge of Chironomidae drift and shows influences on drift of hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. ?? 1989 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  16. Influence of Pools and Riffles on Chironomidae Diversity in Headwater Streams of the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Silveira, L S; Rosa, B F J V; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on mesohabitat scale have been used to shed light on the ecology and distribution of chironomid larvae in small streams. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the diversity and distribution of the Chironomidae assemblage on the mesohabitat scale in three streams located in different preserved areas of southeastern Brazil. In each stream, litter samples were obtained in the dry season of 2010 in ten pools and ten riffles with a Surber sampler (area 0.04 m(2); mesh size 0.21 mm). The abundance was similar among streams and between mesohabitats, while the estimated richness was highest in riffles. There was a difference in the composition of the Chironomidae assemblages between the mesohabitats, although the litter composition was similar between them, indicating the importance of current speed on the distribution of the taxa. The dispersion of the sample units (β-diversity) of riffles and pools was similar, although it was different among the three streams. The results of this study provide further evidence of the importance of habitat heterogeneity within streams as a generator of diversity for Chironomidae in tropical lotic systems.

  17. Evaluating potential sources of variation in Chironomidae catch rates on sticky traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua T.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Sticky traps are a convenient tool for assessing adult aquatic insect population dynamics, but there are many practical questions about how trap sampling artefacts may affect observed results. Utilising study sites on the Colorado River and two smaller streams in northern Arizona, USA, we evaluated whether catch rates and sex ratios of Chironomidae, a ubiquitous aquatic insect, were affected by spraying traps with insecticide, placing traps at different heights above ground, and placing traps at different locations within a terrestrial habitat patch. We also evaluated temporal variation in Chironomidae counts monthly over a 9-month growing season. We found no significant variation in catch rates or sex ratios between traps treated versus untreated with insecticide, nor between traps placed at the upstream or downstream end of a terrestrial habitat patch. Traps placed near ground level did have significantly higher catch rates than traps placed at 1.5 m, although sex ratios were similar across heights. Chironomidae abundance and sex ratios also varied from month-to-month and seemed to be related to climatic conditions. Our results inform future sticky trap studies by demonstrating that trap height, but not insecticide treatment or precise trap placement within a habitat patch, is an important source of variation influencing catch rates.

  18. The larvae of Nymphomyiidae (Diptera, Insecta) - ancestral and highly derived?

    PubMed

    Schneeberg, Katharina; Friedrich, Frank; Courtney, Gregory W; Wipfler, Benjamin; Beutel, Rolf G

    2012-05-01

    Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study.

  19. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama – Trojama Cave in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama—Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes “Metriocnemini” and “Orthocladiini”. Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe “Metriocnemini”. Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  20. Identification of anhydrobiosis-related genes from an expressed sequence tag database in the cryptobiotic midge Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera; Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Cornette, Richard; Kanamori, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Gusev, Oleg; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Shimomura, Michihiko; Mita, Kazuei; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-11-12

    Some organisms are able to survive the loss of almost all their body water content, entering a latent state known as anhydrobiosis. The sleeping chironomid (Polypedilum vanderplanki) lives in the semi-arid regions of Africa, and its larvae can survive desiccation in an anhydrobiotic form during the dry season. To unveil the molecular mechanisms of this resistance to desiccation, an anhydrobiosis-related Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database was obtained from the sequences of three cDNA libraries constructed from P. vanderplanki larvae after 0, 12, and 36 h of desiccation. The database contained 15,056 ESTs distributed into 4,807 UniGene clusters. ESTs were classified according to gene ontology categories, and putative expression patterns were deduced for all clusters on the basis of the number of clones in each library; expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR for selected genes. Among up-regulated genes, antioxidants, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were identified as important groups for anhydrobiosis. Genes related to trehalose metabolism and various transporters were also strongly induced by desiccation. Those results suggest that the oxidative stress response plays a central role in successful anhydrobiosis. Similarly, protein denaturation and aggregation may be prevented by marked up-regulation of Hsps and the anhydrobiosis-specific LEA proteins. A third major feature is the predicted increase in trehalose synthesis and in the expression of various transporter proteins allowing the distribution of trehalose and other solutes to all tissues.

  1. Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Shape Variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) Exposed to Nonylphenol or Lead

    PubMed Central

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid’s body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously. PMID:23133660

  2. Karyotypical characteristics of two allopatric African populations of anhydrobiotic Polypedilum Kieffer, 1912 (Diptera, Chironomidae) originating from Nigeria and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ninel A.; Cornette, Richard; Shimura, Sachiko; Gusev, Oleg A.; Pemba, Dylo; Kikawada, Takahiro; Zhirov, Sergey V.; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The African chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki Hinton, 1951 is the only chironomid able to withstand almost complete desiccation in an ametabolic state known as anhydrobiosis. The karyotypes of two allopatric populations of this anhydrobiotic chironomid, one from Nigeria and another from Malawi, were described according to the polytene giant chromosomes. The karyotype from the Nigerian population was presented as the reference chromosome map for Polypedilum vanderplanki. Both populations, Nigerian and Malawian, showed the same number of chromosomes (2n=8), but important differences were found in the band sequences of polytene chromosomes, and in the number and the arrangement of active regions between the two populations. Such important differences raise the possibility that the Malawian population could constitute a distinct new species of anhydrobiotic chironomid. PMID:26140160

  3. Comparative analysis of karyotypes of Chironomus solitus Linevich & Erbaeva, 1971 and Chironomus anthracinus Zetterstedt, 1860 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from East Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Proviz, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comparative chromosome banding analysis of Chironomus solitus Linevich & Erbaeva, 1971 and Chironomus anthracinus Zetterstedt, 1860 from East Siberia (Lakes Baikal, Gusinoe, Arakhley and Irkutsk Reservoir) showed close similarity of banding sequences. Chironomus solitus differs from Chironomus anthracinus in one species-specific sequence of arm B. Arms C (43%) and D (30%) had inversion banding sequences previously reported in Chironomus anthracinus The similarity of karyotypic features of Chironomus solitus and Chironomus anthracinus in combination with morphological features of larvae provide evidence in favour of including Chironomus solitus in the Chironomus anthracinus group of sibling species long with Chironomus reservatus Shobanov, 1997. PMID:26140165

  4. A guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Diamesinae (Diptera; Chironomidae), the genera Boreoheptagyia, Protanypus, Diamesa, and Pseudokiefferiella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doughman, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subfamily Diamesinae consists of the monogeneric tribes Boreoheptagnini and Parotanypini and the diverse tribe Diamesini with seven genera. These midges are prevalent in clean, cool arctic-alpine waters, but less abundant in the lowlands. Keys and descriptions herein to the known species of these nine genera may prove valuable in the biomonitoring of these cool aquatic habitats. The larvae of Protanypus saetheri Wiederholm is described for the first time. Identification is based upon the absence of other species in the collection area. Examination of a series of larval D. incallida Walker collected in Wyoming and a review of pertinent literature shows that there is considerable variation in the procerus and the labral armature. Because these characters are often used in keys, this variability can lead to misidentification of less recognizable species of Diamesa. (USGS)

  5. Survivorship and longevity of adult Diamesa mendotae Muttkowski, 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) at controlled, sub-freezing temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazack, Jane E.; Kranzfelder, Petra; Anderson, Alyssa M.; Bouchard, William; Perry, James; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.

    2014-01-01

    Diamesa mendotae Muttkowski, 1915 is a winter-active species common in groundwater-buffered streams of Minnesota and Wisconsin. This species is capable of surviving under snow cover for at least 28 days. Field collections of adult D. mendotae were used to determine survivorship under long-term exposure to controlled sub-freezing conditions. Specimens were placed into a controlled temperature chamber at −5 °C, batches removed at weekly intervals, and subsequently held at 6 °C to determine survivorship and longevity. Our results indicate that overall survivorship is negatively related to treatment duration of sub-freezing treatment, individuals can survive sub-freezing temperatures for at least 70 days, with total longevity of 92 days. Additionally, males had a significantly higher rate of survivorship than females within treatments. Total longevity increased with treatment time, suggesting adult D. mendotae may survive long periods of below-freezing temperatures under natural conditions before mating, which may convey population-level advantages.

  6. Histopathological effects of cypermethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on midgut of Chironomus calligraphus larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Lavarías, Sabrina; Arrighetti, Florencia; Siri, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    Pesticides are extensively used for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors, but they also affect non-target organisms. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a synthetic pyrethroid used worldwide. Otherwise, bioinsecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) have received great attention as an environmentally benign and desirable alternative. In order to evaluate the toxicity of those pesticides, Chironomus calligraphus was selected due to its high sensitivity to some toxicants. Third and fourth instars larvae were exposed to serial dilutions of CYP and Bti to determine LC50 values. In order to evaluate the potentially histopathological alterations as biomarkers, after 96-h of exposure, live larvae were fixed for histological analysis of the mid region of digestive tract. The 96-h LC50 values were 0.52 and 1.506μg/L for CYP and Bti, respectively. Midgut histological structure of the control group showed a single layer of cubical cells with microvilli in their apical surface and a big central nucleus. The midgut epithelium of larvae exposed to a low concentration of CYP (0.037μg/L) showed secretion activity and vacuolization while at high concentration (0.3μg/L) cells showed a greater disorganization and a more developed fat body. On the other hand, Bti caused progressive histological damage in this tissue. Chironomus calligraphus is sensitive to Bti and CYP toxicity like other Chironomus species. The histopathological alterations could be a valuable tool to assess toxicity mechanism of different pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacteria Associated with the Ectoperitrophic Space in the Midgut of the Larva of the Midge Xylotopus par (Diptera: Chironomidae) †

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Michael G.; Pankratz, H. Stuart; Klug, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    An ectoperitrophic association of bacteria with the midgut of Xylotopus par larvae was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bacteria attached to the epithelium as a well-defined band in the posterior midgut. They were morphotypically uniform and formed short filaments with endosporelike structures. The consistent presence and well-defined location of the bacteria in a region of the insect digestive tract usually void of microbes indicates a highly evolved symbiotic association, the nature of which is unknown at present. Images PMID:16347026

  8. A new invasive weed-feeding species of Polypedilum (Pentapedilum) Kieffer from South Africa (Diptera: Chironomidae, Chironominae).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trond; González, Orestes C Bello; Baars, Jan-Robert; Earle, William

    2015-08-19

    Polypedilum (Pentapedilum) tuburcinatum Andersen et Bello González sp. n. is described and figured as male, female, pupa and larva based on material collected in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa, imported into quarantine in Ireland and reared in the laboratory. The species feeds on the aquatic weed Lagarosiphon major (Ridl.) Moss ex Wager and is regarded as a promising candidate agent for biological control of this invasive weed.

  9. A new species of Manoa Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae), with DNA barcodes from Xianju National Park, Oriental China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Wang, Xin-Hua; Andersen, Trond; Lin, Xiao-Long

    2017-02-12

    The genus Manoa and the tribe Pseudochironomini are recorded from the Oriental region for the first time. Manoa xianjuensis Qi & Lin sp. n. from Xianju National Park, Zhejiang, China is described and illustrated as adult male and female, the latter associated with the male by standard DNA barcodes. A neighbor joining tree based on available Pseudochironomini DNA barcodes and keys to the adults in Manoa are given.

  10. Identification of Anhydrobiosis-related Genes from an Expressed Sequence Tag Database in the Cryptobiotic Midge Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera; Chironomidae)*

    PubMed Central

    Cornette, Richard; Kanamori, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Gusev, Oleg; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Shimomura, Michihiko; Mita, Kazuei; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Some organisms are able to survive the loss of almost all their body water content, entering a latent state known as anhydrobiosis. The sleeping chironomid (Polypedilum vanderplanki) lives in the semi-arid regions of Africa, and its larvae can survive desiccation in an anhydrobiotic form during the dry season. To unveil the molecular mechanisms of this resistance to desiccation, an anhydrobiosis-related Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database was obtained from the sequences of three cDNA libraries constructed from P. vanderplanki larvae after 0, 12, and 36 h of desiccation. The database contained 15,056 ESTs distributed into 4,807 UniGene clusters. ESTs were classified according to gene ontology categories, and putative expression patterns were deduced for all clusters on the basis of the number of clones in each library; expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR for selected genes. Among up-regulated genes, antioxidants, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were identified as important groups for anhydrobiosis. Genes related to trehalose metabolism and various transporters were also strongly induced by desiccation. Those results suggest that the oxidative stress response plays a central role in successful anhydrobiosis. Similarly, protein denaturation and aggregation may be prevented by marked up-regulation of Hsps and the anhydrobiosis-specific LEA proteins. A third major feature is the predicted increase in trehalose synthesis and in the expression of various transporter proteins allowing the distribution of trehalose and other solutes to all tissues. PMID:20833722

  11. Effects of exposure to pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and carbamazepine) spiked sediments in the midge, Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Nieto, Elena; Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Hampel, Miriam; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Blasco, Julián

    2017-12-31

    Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and degradation products are continuously introduced into the environment. To date, there is a lack of information about the effects of pharmaceuticals in spiked toxicity tests with non-target organisms. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of exposure to two common pharmaceuticals in the midge Chironomus riparius in spiked sediment experiments. The selected pharmaceuticals are the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID): diclofenac (DF) and the anti-depressant drug carbamazepine (CBZ). In order to assess the effects of the pharmaceuticals, a chronic toxicity test with the midge was carried out. The endpoints survival, growth and developmental stage by means of biomass, were measured after 10days, and emergence rates and sex-ratio (male/female) were measured after 21days of exposure. Significant mortality was observed in organisms at day 10 with a 40% of larvae surviving in the highest exposure concentration of CBZ. DF decreased the emergence ratio with respect to the controls in organisms exposed at concentrations of 34.0μg·g(-1) whereas CBZ reduced the growth of the midges (30,6% with respect to the control) and induced a significant change in sex-ratio at concentrations of 31.4μg·g(-1). The results obtained in the present study indicate possible adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates, which should be taken into account for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical compounds in sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluctuating asymmetry and mentum gaps in populations of the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) from a metal-contaminated River

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendijk, D.; Zeinstra, L.W.M.; Postma, J.F.

    1998-10-01

    The developmental stability of both metal-exposed and nonexposed Chironomus riparius populations from the lowland River Dommel was investigated using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and the incidence of mentum gaps. It was hypothesized that larval development was affected by the influx of Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Pb directly by chemical stress, as well as through inbreeding of metal-adapted and nonadapted specimens. Morphological para/meters were therefore assessed in field-collected larvae and in clean, laboratory-cultured, first-generation (F1) larvae. Fluctuating asymmetry values and mentum gap incidence at contaminated field sites were significantly higher than at clean, upstream locations. Furthermore, FA values of clean, laboratory-cultured F1 larvae generally fell to reference values, indicating the direct effect of metal pollution on developmental aberrations. Mentum gaps were not observed in clean F1 cultures. Slightly elevated FA values were, however, still observed in clean F1 larvae from polluted locations downstream from the metal input. This residual disturbance was thought to reflect genetic stress emerging from interbreeding between metal-adapted and nonadapted specimens. Fluctuating asymmetry and mentum gaps together serve as a useful ecotoxicological marker for metal stress and, when combined with in situ studies and F1 cultures, allow for analysis of the response of animal populations to spatial and temporal gradients in metal exposure.

  13. Morphological description and DNA barcoding of Hydrobaenus majus sp. nov. (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) from the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Makarchenko, Marina A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2015-08-14

    Illustrated descriptions of adult male, pupa and fourth instar larva, as well as DNA barcoding, of Hydrobaenus majus sp. nov. in comparison with the close related species H. sikhotealinensis Makarchenko et Makarchenko from the Russian Far East are provided. The species-specificity of H. majus sp. nov. COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters--molecular markers of H. majus and H. sikhotealinensis.

  14. Biological and molecular responses of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) to herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid).

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Park, Jungan; Kim, Jongkyu; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2010-05-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an agricultural contaminant found in rural ground water. It remains to be determined whether neither 2,4-D poses environmental risks, nor is the mechanism of toxicity known at the molecular level. To evaluate the potential ecological risk of 2,4-D, we assessed the biological parameters including the survival rate, adult sex ratio of emerged adults, and mouthpart deformities in Chironomus riparius after long-term exposure to 2,4-D. The larvae were treated with 0.1, 1 or, 10microgL(-1) of 2,4-D for short- and long-term exposure periods. The sex ratio was changed in C. riparius exposed to only 10microgL(-1) of 2,4-D, whereas mouthpart deformities were observed as significantly higher in C. riparius exposed to 0.1microgL(-1) of 2,4-D. Survival rates were not significantly affected by 2,4-D. Furthermore, we evaluated the molecular and biochemical responses of biomarker genes such as gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), ferritins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in C. riparius exposed to 2,4-D for 24h. The expressions of HSP70, HSP40, HSP90 and GST levels in C. riparius were significantly increased after exposure to a 10microgL(-1) concentration of 2,4-D, whereas ferritin heavy and light chain gene expressions were significantly increased at all concentrations of 2,4-D exposure. Finally, these results may provide an important contribution to our understanding of the toxicology of 2,4-D herbicide in C. riparius. Moreover, the 2,4-D-mediated gene expressions may be generated by 2,4-D is the causative effects on most probable cause of the observed alterations. These biological, molecular and morphological parameters and the measured parameters can be used to monitor 2,4-D toxicity in an aquatic environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes.

  16. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals in Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae) in synthetic sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrahy, E.A.; Clements, W.H.

    1997-02-01

    This research investigated toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Chironomus tentans in synthetic sediment, and compared predicted to measured steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). In a toxicity test, C. tentans were exposed to various dilutions of a base concentration (1.0 X) of a mixture of the four metals (5 {micro}g/g Cd. 10 {micro}g/g Cu. 70 {micro}g/g Pb, and 300 {micro}g/g Zn) in synthetic sediment. Mortality ranged from 17 to 100%. To measure bioaccumulation of the metals, C. tentans were exposed to 0.35 X the base concentration for a period of up to 14 d in two uptake tests. Bioaccumulation of all four metals increased over the 14-d uptake phases. Concentrations of metals in chironomids were significantly correlated with exposure time in the uptake phases. Only concentrations of copper approached background levels after 7 d depuration. Uptake rate coefficients and elimination rate constants were determined for each metal. Bioaccumulation factors were highest for Cd and lowest for Pb. With the exception of Pb, steady-state BAFs were within a factor of about two of those calculated using the first-order kinetic model. The high BAFs calculated may indicate greater bioavailability in synthetic sediment. Studies comparing toxicity and bioaccumulation of natural and synthetic sediments are necessary before the use of synthetic sediments is widely adopted.

  17. Evolutionary ecotoxicology of perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) inferred from multigenerational exposure: a case study with Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Stefani, F; Rusconi, M; Valsecchi, S; Marziali, L

    2014-11-01

    A multigeneration toxicity test on Chironomus riparius was performed with the aim of investigating the evolutionary consequences of exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorobutane sulfonate, PFBS). Six-hundred larvae were bred per treatment and per generation until emergence and egg deposition under a nominal concentration of 10μg/L of contaminants. Newborn larvae were used to start the next generation. Evolution of genetic variability was evaluated along a total of 10 consecutive generations based on 5 microsatellite loci. Analysis of life-history traits (survival, sex ratio and reproduction) was also carried out. Rapid genetic variability reduction was observed in all treatments, including controls, across generations due to the test conditions. Nevertheless, an increased mutation rate determined a stronger conservation of genetic variability in PFOS and, at minor extent, in PFBS exposed populations compared to controls. No significant effects were induced by exposure to PFOA. Direct mutagenicity or induced stress conditions may be at the base of increased mutation rate, indicating the potential risk of mutational load caused by exposure to PFOS and PFBS. The test provided the opportunity to evaluate the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and coalescent approaches in evolutionary ecotoxicology. A weak performance was evidenced for ABC, either in terms of bias or dispersion of effective population sizes and of estimates of mutation rate. On the contrary, coalescent simulations proved the sensitivity of traditional genetic endpoints (i.e. heterozygosity and number of alleles) to the alteration of mutation rate, but not to erosion of genetic effective size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oviposition of Tanytarsus dissimilis (Diptera:Chironomidae) in avoidance trails with coal liquid water-soluble components

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-12-01

    Oviposition site preference (OSP) of the chironomid Tanytarsus dissimilis (Johannsen) was evaluated in avoidance trials with acutely toxic concentrations of a coal liquid water-soluble fraction (WSF). Tests conducted with groups and with single organisms indicated that ovipositing adults had no significant preference (..cap alpha.. = 0.05) for either river water (control) or a coal liquid WSF. Egg strand size was reduced in the coal liquid WSF, suggesting that toxicant detection occurred despite lack of avoidance. The OSP trials conducted with single organisms were advantageous because of lack of independence in group tests and because greater sample size could be obtained with less effort. This type of behavioral study may have an application to hazard evaluation of other toxic substances.

  19. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor-joining analysis reported here describes the application and confirmation of a useful tool that can accelerate identification and bioassesment of chironomid communities.

  20. A revision of chromosome II (CD) mapping in Chironomus plumosus (Linnaeus, 1758) group (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Golygina, Veronika V.; Kiknadze, I. I.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the main and alternative banding sequences in chromosome II (CD) has been made for all 14 species of the Chironomus plumosus (Linnaeus, 1758)group. A new version of mapping has been suggested for 10 out of 18 banding sequences of arm C and 12 out of 22 banding sequences of arm D. Mapping of 7 banding sequences has been done for the first time according to the Keyl-Devai system. Phylogenetic relationships of banding sequences of chromosome II have been discussed. PMID:24260666

  1. Patterns of fluctuating asymmetry and shape variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) exposed to nonylphenol or lead.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid's body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously.

  2. Differences in the relative timing of developmental events during oogenesis in lower dipterans (Nematocera) reveal the autonomy of follicular cells' differentiation program.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta; Jędrzejowska, Izabela; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Although the ovaries of Nematocera are of the same meroistic-polytrophic type, they show significant differences in the activity of germ cells (oocytes, nurse cells) and their relative contribution to ribosome synthesis and storage during oogenesis. These different activities result in the different growth rate of the germ cells and may determine the life span of the nurse cells. Comparative analysis revealed that with reference to germ cell activity, two basic types of oogenesis in Nematocera can be distinguished. In the Tinearia type, the nurse cells grow considerably and are active until advanced stages of oogenesis, whereas the oocyte is transcriptionally inert. Conversely, in the Tipula type of oogenesis, the oocyte nucleus contains transcriptionally active multiple nucleoli, while nurse cells probably do not contribute to ribosome synthesis, remain relatively small and degenerate early in oogenesis. We studied and compared the process of somatic follicular cell differentiation in nematoceran species representing both types of oogenesis. Our observations indicate that morphogenesis of the follicular cells is at least partly independent of the nurse cell activity, while the execution of their differentiation does not require direct contacts between the follicular cells and the oocyte.

  3. An appraisal of current and new techniques intended to protect bulls against Culicoides and other haematophagous nematocera: the case of Schmergow, Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Burkhard; Jandowsky, Anabell; Schein, Eberhard; Mehlitz, Dieter; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2009-08-01

    The outbreak of bluetongue (BTV-8) in many parts of north-western Europe led to efforts to curb the spread of the disease, particularly in farms with valuable livestock, as on a stud bull farm in Schmergow, Brandenburg, Germany. In the abundance of the putative BT vectors, Palaearctic Culicoides species, several vector control methods were applied in the hope for a reduction of the target insect populations. Insecticide-impregnated ear tags and regular treatments at 6-week intervals of all bulls with deltamethrin pour on were expected to achieve the desired control of the biting midges. Additionally, insecticide-treated mosquito fences circumventing much of the pens were tried for the first time against Culicoides. Two suction black-light traps (BioGents(R) sentinel traps) helped to monitor the densities of Culicoides and other haematophagous nematocera during the trial period from July to December 2007. Despite all efforts, the densities of Culicoides were not distinctly reduced. Several thousand midges were repeatedly recorded during one-night catches. Examinations of midges and other haematophagous nematocera (Aedes and Anopheles species) revealed high percentages of successful feedings between 10% and 35% for Culicoides and more than 50% for Aedes and Anopheles species. Since all insects were caught inside the pens, the concept of endophily vs exophily or endophagy vs exophagy for some Culicoides species needs to be revised accordingly. Also, stabling of valuable livestock does not reduce the host-vector interface and, hence, the risk of transmission of BT.

  4. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  5. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  6. Fine structure of the ommatidia and the occurrence of rhabdomeric twist in the dorsal eye of male Bibio marci (Diptera, Nematocera, Bibionidae).

    PubMed

    Altner, I; Burkhardt, D

    1981-01-01

    The ommatidia in the dorsal eye of male Bibio marci (March flies) are comprised of eight retinula cells (R 1--8). In the distal region, the open rhabdomeres of retinula cells 1--6 are arranged in a symmetrically circular pattern with their microvilli directed radially. Immediately beneath the crystalline cone, cell 7 forms a rhabdomere that is about 1 micrometer long and lies in the center of the circle formed by the rhabdomeres of cells 1--6. For the remaining length of an ommatidium it is replaced by the rhabdomere of retinula cell 8. The cell body of this retinula cell almost encloses its own rhabdomere by forming a deep invagination. Consequently, no ommatidial cavity is present. In the left eye rhabdomeres R 3, 5 and 6 first twist clockwise along their longitudinal axes, while rhabdomeres R 1, 2, 4 and 8 twist counterclockwise. Opposite twisting is observed in the right eye. The twist rate varies along the length of the rhabdomeres. In a middle region of 60 micrometers, within which the direction of twist does not change, the maximal twist rates are approximately 2 degrees--5 degrees/micrometers in R 1--6 and even higher in R 8. In a proximal region, the direction of twist is reversed, but the initial orientation of the microvilli not reestablished. Both the cross-sectional shape of the rhabdomeres and their geometric arrangement in the retinula change along with the twisting. It is substantiated that the rhabdomeric twist is not due to artifactual deformation.

  7. A field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a biological control agent for Simulium chutteri (Diptera:Nematocera) in the middle Orange River.

    PubMed

    de Moor, F C; Car, M

    1986-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis de Barjac (Serotype H-14) (B.t.i.) at a concentration of 1.6 ppm/10 min and a toxicity of 1500 AAU/mg was tested against Simulium chutteri Lewis larvae in the Orange River near Prieska, South Africa. Samples of benthic fauna from the stones-in-current biotope were collected before application of the product and at various intervals up to 80 h afterwards at 4 stations from 200 m to 11 km downstream of the application site. Fauna drift increased slightly after the arrival of the Bacillus at 2 stations 1.4 and 6 km respectively downstream of the application site. Large numerical decreases in benthic simuliid larval numbers after the application of B.t.i. in the Orange River were not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). This indicated that the size of replicated samples that showed significant decreases (P less than 0.05) of simuliid numbers in the Vaal River was not adequate to show statistical differences in the Orange River. The quantity of dead larvae on stones collected from rapids after application of the B.t.i., and the numerical decreases found by comparing median values of larval counts on stones indicated that B.t.i. effectively killed simuliid larvae. Three days after application of the Bacillus, recruitment of small simuliid larvae on stones 1.4 km downstream of the application site was discernible again. Tanytarsini were also numerically reduced after B.t.i. application. At a flow rate of 38 m3/s B.t.i. was visibly effective in killing S. chutteri up to 6 km downstream of the application site and statistically significant decreases (P less than 0.05) in numbers of larvae were seen at a site 11 km downstream of the application site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. X-ray induced visible alterations in the giant chromosomes of Phryne cincta (Nematocera, Diptera): relation of radiation sensitivity to pronuclear chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Israelewski, N

    1975-12-10

    In order to induce chromosomal rearrangements, males were exposed to x-rays and then mated to non-irradiated females. The number of each type of structural alteration was determined by examination of the polytene chromosomes of the F1 progeny. -- A comparison of the results with similar studies made on Drosophila revealed a significantly greater sensitivity in Phryne. Parallel to that an extremely high frequency of small inversions was ascertained in Phryne, and the observed ratio of inversions to translocations was the inverse of that which would be expected from purely mathematical considerations based on the lengths of the different chromosomes. These facts allow the conclusion that the paternal pronuclear chromosomes in Phryne are highly spiralized. Besides, the kinetochore-to-translocation-breakpoint distance was measured in both of the chromosomes involved in each reciprocal translocation and the differences (kinetochore-break distance differences) were registered and from them the arrangement of the chromosomes in the pronucleus of Phryne deduced. The data obtained support the assumption of an ordered, polar-field type of orientation. In Drosophila, in contrast, the comparable data showed that the pronuclear chromosomes are not spiralized and are randomly arranged (Bauer, 1939). -- These results seem to indicate that a close correlation exists between the different radiation sensitivities of Drosophila and Phryne and the different states of spiralisation and arrangements of their chromosomes in the pronucleus stage. It is hypothesized that the influence of the maternal genome on the degree of spiralization of the paternal chromosomes could account for differences in the pronuclear chromosome structure of both species.

  9. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    PubMed

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  10. Community Structure of Chironomidae (Midges) in Two Brazilian Rivers in Relation to Contrasting Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, K. C.; Matthaei, C.; Vettorazzi, C. A.; Trivinho-Strixino, S.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated whether the conversion of riparian land use from indigenous forest to pasture is associated with changes in midge community composition in two South Brasilian rivers. Our study was conducted in the main rivers (Sao Jose dos Dourados 6th order; Aguapei 7th order) of two catchments in Sao Paulo State. Both catchments are dominated by agricultural ecosystems but retain substantial patches of native riparian forest in certain areas. Replicated artificial substrates (baskets filled with clay rocks) were exposed in forested and pasture reaches in both rivers. Both land uses had to be present for at least 500m along both river banks, and the riparian forest had to be at least 50m wide. In each river, six baskets per reach type were sampled after a colonization period of 44 days, and all Chironomidae in these samples were sorted and identified to genus level (a total of 3399 individuals belonging to 28 different taxa). As expected, land use affected midge communities. Total midge density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forested reaches. By contrast, midge taxon richness was higher at the forested reaches. These results show the importance of native riparian forests for preserving aquatic biodiversity in Brasilian rivers.

  11. Diversity and structure of Chironomidae communities in relation to water quality differences in the Swartkops River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odume, O. N.; Muller, W. J.

    . Results revealed that the family Chironomidae, identified to species or genus, can be use to assess environmental water quality status in South African freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Nearctic Diptera: Twenty years later

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An overview of our knowledge of the Diptera of Nearctic America is presented. About two-thirds of all the flies estimated to occur in Nearctic America have been named and documented. Unfortunately, less than one percent of these flies are treated comprehensively in monographs and less than a quart...

  13. Two new and one newly recorded species of Polypedilum Kieffer 1912 with DNA barcodes from Oriental China (Chironomidae: Diptera).

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuncai; Song, Chao; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Guangjun; Hou, Ziyuan; Cao, Wei; Wang, Xinhua

    2017-03-02

    Polypedilum (Tripodura) enshiense Song & Wang sp. n. and P. (Tripodura) jianfengense Song & Wang sp. n. are described and illustrated as male imagines from China. P. (Uresipedilum) paraconvictum Yamamoto, Yamamoto & Hirowatari, 2016 is recorded from China for the first time. Cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of above species are uploaded to Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD).

  14. Die Temperaturabhängigkeit semilunarer und diurnaler Schlüpfrhythmen bei der intertidalen Mücke Clunio marinus (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, M.; Neumann, D.

    1983-12-01

    On Helgoland (North Sea), the imagines of Clunio emerge during two seasonal periods (late spring and summer) from water temperatures of 8° 18 °C. The temperature dependence of the known semilunar eclosion rhythm of Clunio (correlated in nature with the spring tides every 14 15 days) was tested in the laboratory. Between 15° and 23 °C the semilunar eclosion maxima varied by only one day within the artifical 15-day zeitgebercycle, below 15 °C they were delayed up to 8 days at 8 °C. However, the days of pupation were approximately independent of the temperature level. One can conclude the existence of a temperature-independent physiological switch inducing the pupation only within a few days of the semilunar zeitgeber-cycle. Moreover, a semilunar synchronized differentiation of the imaginal discs already starts in the preceding larval instar, indicating an additional physiological switch. A model is suggested in which the semilunar eclosion rhythm and its relatively slight temperature dependence is explained by the action of two physiological switches which are coupled with the endogenous temperature-compensated lunar timing mechanism on the same days of the 15-day zeitgeber-cycle. In the laboratory, the diurnal eclosion and its underlying circadian timing mechanism (correlated on Helgoland with the time of spring low water in the late afternoon) also proved to be temperature independent between 12° and 20 °C. A comparison of field and laboratory data showed very similar results at temperatures around 18 °C (summer swarming period). In contrast, the midges emerged on all days of the semimonthly cycle of springs and neaps during the spring swarming period. This lack of semilunar synchronization may be the consequence of fluctuating temperatures during the larval and pupal development in spring time due to a general rise in the water temperature (4° 8 °C) and to short temperature rises up to 18 °C during exposure of the intertidal habitat at about low tide. Since some higher parts of the Clunio habitat suitable for egg deposition are exposed on almost every day of the semimonthly cycle, even such animals that undergo lunar unsynchronized metamorphosis can reproduce within the short imaginal life duration (ca 2 h) if they emerge just about the time of low water. In correspondence with the daily delay in the times of low water by about 50 min, the diurnal eclosion rhythm was in fact modified with the tides during the spring period resulting in shifts of the diurnal eclosion time of up to 12 hours within the semimonthly cycle of springs and neaps.

  15. Cytogenetic index and functional genome alterations in Chironomus piger Strenzke (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the assessment of sediment pollution: a case study of Bulgarian and UK rivers.

    PubMed

    Michailova, P; Ilkova, J; Dean, A P; White, K N

    2015-01-01

    The genotoxicity of trace metals in the sediments from a number of polluted sites on UK and Bulgarian rivers to Chironomus piger was assessed by an examination of genome instability as demonstrated by structural and functional changes to the salivary glands chromosomes. Based on the metal assays, the sediments were characterized to range from 'extremely' to 'strongly contaminated'. The cytogenetic index calculated on the basis of somatic structural chromosome alterations in the polytene chromosomes indicates a high level of pollution (0.07-0.06 in Bulgarian and 0.10-0.13 in UK stations). Exposure of C. piger to contaminated sediments resulted in a high level of chromosome damage as indicated by a somatic index of between 1.96 and 4.0. The transcription mechanism of the Balbiani rings and nucleolar organizer was damaged as their activity was either partially or completely suppressed. We have demonstrated that the C. piger genome is a sensitive sublethal indicator of sediment contamination, and is a highly suitable candidate for ecotoxicological monitoring of running waters.

  16. Production dynamics and life cycle of dominant chironomids (diptera, chironomidae) in a subtropical stream in China: adaptation to variable flow conditions in summer and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2007-07-01

    The production dynamics and trophic basis of 7 dominant species of chironomids were investigated in the area of a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin, in central China from June 2003 to June 2004. The results showed that Tvetenia discoloripes was by far the most abundant chironomid, dominating the overall standing stock of the taxa. In terms of lif ecycle, Chaetocladius sp., Eukiefferiella potthasti and T. discoloripes developed 1 generation a year, whereas Microtendipes sp. and Pagastia sp. developed two, while Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. developed three. T. discoloripes was the most productive chironomid with 120.305 8 g/m2. a, Pentaneura sp. and E. potthasti had relatively high production values of >17 g/m2.a, and the rest were <10 g/m2.a. All the production temporal variation tended to follow biomass patterns. T. discoloripes, Chaetocladius sp. and Pagastia sp. concentrated most of their production in winter, whereas E. potthasti, Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. had relatively higher production throughout the year. Only Microtendipes sp. had a production that peaked in summer. The overlap in temporal distribution of production among the chironomid species was generally high (>0.5), especially for filter-collectors Microtendipes sp., Chaetocladius sp., Chaetocladius sp., T. discoloripes and Pagastia sp. All species except Pentaneura sp. consumed a large portion of amorphous detritus, constituting more than 90% of their diets, and contributing nearly 90% to their secondary production. All the 7 chironomids represent obvious adaptation to local highly variable climate in summer and autumn in life cycle pattern, production dynamics, and food type.

  17. Multi-scale approach to the environmental factors effects on spatio-temporal variability of Chironomus salinarius (Diptera: Chironomidae) in a French coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, V.; Claret, C.; Garnier, R.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.

    2010-03-01

    The complexity of the relationships between environmental factors and organisms can be revealed by sampling designs which consider the contribution to variability of different temporal and spatial scales, compared to total variability. From a management perspective, a multi-scale approach can lead to time-saving. Identifying environmental patterns that help maintain patchy distribution is fundamental in studying coastal lagoons, transition zones between continental and marine waters characterised by great environmental variability on spatial and temporal scales. They often present organic enrichment inducing decreased species richness and increased densities of opportunist species like C hironomus salinarius, a common species that tends to swarm and thus constitutes a nuisance for human populations. This species is dominant in the Bolmon lagoon, a French Mediterranean coastal lagoon under eutrophication. Our objective was to quantify variability due to both spatial and temporal scales and identify the contribution of different environmental factors to this variability. The population of C. salinarius was sampled from June 2007 to June 2008 every two months at 12 sites located in two areas of the Bolmon lagoon, at two different depths, with three sites per area-depth combination. Environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen both in sediment and under water surface, sediment organic matter content and grain size) and microbial activities (i.e. hydrolase activities) were also considered as explanatory factors of chironomid densities and distribution. ANOVA analysis reveals significant spatial differences regarding the distribution of chironomid larvae for the area and the depth scales and their interaction. The spatial effect is also revealed for dissolved oxygen (water), salinity and fine particles (area scale), and for water column depth. All factors but water column depth show a temporal effect. Spearman's correlations highlight the seasonal effect (temperature, dissolved oxygen in sediment and water) as well as the effect of microbial activities on chironomid larvae. Our results show that a multi-scale approach identifies patchy distribution, even when there is relative environmental homogeneity.

  18. Diagnoses for Nubensia, n. gen. (Diptera, Chironomidae, Chironomini), with the first full descriptions of the adult female and larva of N. nubens (Edwards, 1929).

    PubMed

    Spies, Martin; Dettinger-Klemm, Andreas

    2015-07-30

    A new genus, Nubensia Spies, is proposed for N. nubens (Edwards, 1929), n. comb., based on morphological evaluation of both adult sexes, the pupa and larva. The material studied includes name-bearing syntype specimens and the first reared associations linking three life stages for individual members of this species. The larva represents a unique morphotype previously described incompletely only from studies of subfossil chironomid remains. The problems with placement of the species in any previously established genus are discussed in detail, and various related issues in taxonomy and nomenclature are commented on. The verified distribution of N. nubens ranges from the British Isles and central Europe to the western Mediterranean, including northern Africa, with possible extensions to Turkey and central Asia. Larvae have been found on mostly coarse, variously covered substrates near the shores of lakes and banks of slowly flowing running waters, under both oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions.

  19. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli.

  20. Revealing the Biodiversity in Chironomidae (Diptera): Results From an Emergence Trap Study of a Ravine Spring-run in Northern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, B. A.; Rasmussen, A. K.; Pescador, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    Research for this project was conducted as part of a larger scale investigation of the aquatic insect fauna of a Florida spring-run ravine system that focused especially on stonefly and caddisfly taxa. The present research focused largely on documenting chironomid midge species diversity, emergence phenology, and overall composition by utilizing repeated emergence trap sampling at a single site within a first order, forested ravine stream in the Florida panhandle area. The approximate two year survey revealed a rich and distinctive chironomid fauna, with a variety of feeding types and microhabitat specific taxa. Many of the study species were considered to be common and widespread; however, several species and two genera were new records for the state. Several undescribed species were also noted. Emergence occurred in all months but with greatest densities generally recorded from December through March of the second year. The single location examined to date on this ravine stream ranks near the upper range of chironomid species richness reported on a world-wide basis for first order lotic systems. Other aspects of composition and apparent community patterns, was well as the importance and significance of first order stream biodiversity, are examined and discussed.

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Brazil: seven new species and description of females and immatures of some previously known species.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F

    2016-05-30

    Twenty two species of Stenochironomus Kieffer are known from Brazil, 19 of which occur in the Amazon region. In order to increase knowledge of the taxonomy of this genus in the Amazon region, collections were carried out in streams located in Presidente Figueiredo, Manaus and Itacoatiara municipalities, Amazonas State. Leaves and wood mined by Stenochironomus larvae were collected and transported to the laboratory where they were kept until adult emergence. Seven new species were found, one of which is described in the immature stages and as adults of both sexes (S. amazonicus sp. n.), one as immatures and adult male (S. liviae sp. n.), four as male and pupa (S. bare sp. n., S. figueiredoensis sp. n., S. gracilis sp. nov. and S. manauara sp. n.) and one only as male (S. suzanae sp. n.). Additionally, the female, pupa and larva of S. impendens Borkent, pupa and larva of S. jubatus Borkent, female and pupa of S. zonarius Borkent and female of S. palliaculeatus Borkent were described.

  2. Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Linevitshia prima Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from Amur River basin (Russian Far East), with notes on systematics of the genus.

    PubMed

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2014-10-10

    Additions and corrections to the diagnosis of the genus Linevitshia for male adult, pupa and larva are given, and systematic position of the genus is discussed. Illustrated redescription of adult male and first description of 4th instar larva of L. prima Makarchenko from Amur River basin are provided. Comparison of data based on a new material with those of L. yezoensis Endo showed that the latter name is a junior synonym of L. prima. The species-specificity of L. prima COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters-molecular markers of L. prima.

  3. Notes on the genus Conchapelopia Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from southern China, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Hiromi; Tang, Hongqu

    2017-02-22

    Two interesting species, Conchapelopia togamaculosa Sasa & Okazawa and a new species, Conchapelopia brachiata sp. n., were collected from southern China. The male, pupa and larva of the new species are described, and new distributions of the former species are noted. Although the male of the new species is very distinct from that of the former in the hypopygial median volsella, the pupa and larva stunningly resemble those of the former.

  4. Redescription of Chironomus javanus and Chironomus kiiensis (Diptera: Chironomidae) Larvae and Adults Collected from a Rice Field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Chironomus javanus (Kieffer) and Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga were redescribed from materials collected from a rice field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The larvae can only be distinguished after careful preparation and examination using a compound microscope, but the pupae were not useful to differentiate C. javanus from C. kiiensis. The adult specimens showed clear body and wing characteristics for rapid and accurate identification. PMID:24575227

  5. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment when extrapolating from laboratory studies to the field.

  6. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  7. Evaluation of traps for monitoring higher Diptera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...

  8. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  9. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Marcela Skuhrav& #225; ; Marcela NO-VALUE

    1991-01-01

    The family Cecidomyiidae is one of the largest of the Diptera. Gall midges are small, inconspicuous flies, but they may be very important both in forest ecosystems and in agroecosystems. Many phytophagous gall midge species attack forest trees, and some of them can be serious pests, such as the Dasineura rozhkovii Mamaev and Nikolsky, which develops...

  10. Evolution of dosage compensation in Diptera: the gene maleless implements dosage compensation in Drosophila (Brachycera suborder) but its homolog in Sciara (Nematocera suborder) appears to play no role in dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M F; Esteban, M R; Doñoro, C; Goday, C; Sánchez, L

    2000-12-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster and in Sciara ocellaris dosage compensation occurs by hypertranscription of the single male X chromosome. This article reports the cloning and characterization in S. ocellaris of the gene homologous to maleless (mle) of D. melanogaster, which implements dosage compensation. The Sciara mle gene produces a single transcript, encoding a helicase, which is present in both male and female larvae and adults and in testes and ovaries. Both Sciara and Drosophila MLE proteins are highly conserved. The affinity-purified antibody to D. melanogaster MLE recognizes the S. ocellaris MLE protein. In contrast to Drosophila polytene chromosomes, where MLE is preferentially associated with the male X chromosome, in Sciara MLE is found associated with all chromosomes. Anti-MLE staining of Drosophila postblastoderm male embryos revealed a single nuclear dot, whereas Sciara male and female embryos present multiple intranuclear staining spots. This expression pattern in Sciara is also observed before blastoderm stage, when dosage compensation is not yet set up. The affinity-purified antibodies against D. melanogaster MSL1, MSL3, and MOF proteins involved in dosage compensation also revealed no differences in the staining pattern between the X chromosome and the autosomes in both Sciara males and females. These results lead us to propose that different proteins in Drosophila and Sciara would implement dosage compensation.

  11. Evolution of dosage compensation in Diptera: the gene maleless implements dosage compensation in Drosophila (Brachycera suborder) but its homolog in Sciara (Nematocera suborder) appears to play no role in dosage compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, M F; Esteban, M R; Doñoro, C; Goday, C; Sánchez, L

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster and in Sciara ocellaris dosage compensation occurs by hypertranscription of the single male X chromosome. This article reports the cloning and characterization in S. ocellaris of the gene homologous to maleless (mle) of D. melanogaster, which implements dosage compensation. The Sciara mle gene produces a single transcript, encoding a helicase, which is present in both male and female larvae and adults and in testes and ovaries. Both Sciara and Drosophila MLE proteins are highly conserved. The affinity-purified antibody to D. melanogaster MLE recognizes the S. ocellaris MLE protein. In contrast to Drosophila polytene chromosomes, where MLE is preferentially associated with the male X chromosome, in Sciara MLE is found associated with all chromosomes. Anti-MLE staining of Drosophila postblastoderm male embryos revealed a single nuclear dot, whereas Sciara male and female embryos present multiple intranuclear staining spots. This expression pattern in Sciara is also observed before blastoderm stage, when dosage compensation is not yet set up. The affinity-purified antibodies against D. melanogaster MSL1, MSL3, and MOF proteins involved in dosage compensation also revealed no differences in the staining pattern between the X chromosome and the autosomes in both Sciara males and females. These results lead us to propose that different proteins in Drosophila and Sciara would implement dosage compensation. PMID:11102379

  12. Does Nature and Persistence of Substrate at a Mesohabitat Scale Matter for Chironomidae Assemblages? a Study of Two Perennial Mountain Streams in Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Chironomid substrate—specific associations regarding the nature (organic—inorganic) and stability (stable—unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m -2 and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well—represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel—sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land—use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations

  13. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  14. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  15. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  16. Structure and Spatial Distribution of the Chironomidae Community in Mesohabitats in a First Order Stream at the Poço D'Anta Municipal Biological Reserve in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vescovi Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2011-01-01

    The Chironomidae occupy different habitats along the lotic system with their distribution determined by different factors such as the substrate characteristics and water speed. The input of vegetable material from the riparian forest allows a higher habitat diversity and food to the benthic fauna. The main aim of this paper is to verify the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in different mesohabitats in a first order stream located at a Biological Reserve in the southeast of Brazil. In the months of July, August, and September 2007, and in January, February, and March 2008, samples were collected with a hand net (250 µm) in the following mesohabitats: litter from riffles, litter from pools, and sediment from pools. The community structure of each mesohabitat was analyzed through the abundance of organisms, taxa richness, Pielou's evenness, Shannon's diversity, and taxa dominance. Similarity among the mesohabitats was obtained by Cluster analysis, and Chironomidae larvae distribution through the Correspondence analysis. Indicator species analysis was used to identify possible taxa preference for a determined mesohabitat. The analyzed mesohabitats showed high species richness and diversity favored by the large environmental heterogeneity. Some taxa were indicators of the type of mesohabitat. The substrate was the main factor that determined taxa distribution in relation to water flow differences (riffle and pool). Stream characteristics such as low water speed and the presence of natural mechanisms of retention may have provided a higher faunistic similarity between the areas with different flows. The results showed that the physical characteristics of each environment presented a close relationship with the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in lotic systems. PMID:21529258

  17. Structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae community in mesohabitats in a first order stream at the Poço D'Anta Municipal Biological Reserve in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour Vescovi; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2011-01-01

    The Chironomidae occupy different habitats along the lotic system with their distribution determined by different factors such as the substrate characteristics and water speed. The input of vegetable material from the riparian forest allows a higher habitat diversity and food to the benthic fauna. The main aim of this paper is to verify the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in different mesohabitats in a first order stream located at a Biological Reserve in the southeast of Brazil. In the months of July, August, and September 2007, and in January, February, and March 2008, samples were collected with a hand net (250 µm) in the following mesohabitats: litter from riffles, litter from pools, and sediment from pools. The community structure of each mesohabitat was analyzed through the abundance of organisms, taxa richness, Pielou's evenness, Shannon's diversity, and taxa dominance. Similarity among the mesohabitats was obtained by Cluster analysis, and Chironomidae larvae distribution through the Correspondence analysis. Indicator species analysis was used to identify possible taxa preference for a determined mesohabitat. The analyzed mesohabitats showed high species richness and diversity favored by the large environmental heterogeneity. Some taxa were indicators of the type of mesohabitat. The substrate was the main factor that determined taxa distribution in relation to water flow differences (riffle and pool). Stream characteristics such as low water speed and the presence of natural mechanisms of retention may have provided a higher faunistic similarity between the areas with different flows. The results showed that the physical characteristics of each environment presented a close relationship with the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in lotic systems.

  18. Checklist of the Empidoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016

  19. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  20. Revision of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Cellia) dirus (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Southeast Asian Leucosphyrus Group. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 82: 319–328. Baimai... Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 38: 79–89. Kirnowardoyo, S. 1985. Status of Anopheles malaria vectors in Indonesia. The...world, Supplement II (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 65: 117–140. Stone, A.; J. E. Scanlon; D. L

  1. Revision of the family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora).

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S A

    2016-04-05

    The family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora) is revised. The family consists of 11 species in the single genus Nothybus Rondani, which occurs in Papua New Guinea, Nepal and much of the Oriental Region. Three species are described as new: N. absens spec. nov. (China), N. cataractus spec. nov. (Laos, Thailand) and N. procerus spec. nov. (India). Nothybus longithorax Rondani, 1875 is treated as a junior synonym of N. longicollis (Walker, 1856). Nothybus decorus Meijere, 1924 syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of N. lineifer Enderlein, 1922.

  2. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  3. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  4. Coexistent anaphylaxis to Diptera and Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Freye, H B; Litwin, C

    1996-03-01

    Anaphylaxis to the bite of Diptera and specifically the bite of the Tabanidae family (horsefly) have been sparsely documented. The coexistent hypersensitivity to both the order Diptera and Hymenoptera has not been documented. We present a patient who experienced anaphylaxis to both insect species. Venom skin testing and RAST revealed sensitivity to several members of the Hymenoptera order. Prick, intradermal and RAST with whole body extracts of Tabanidae species is also documented in this patient. Twenty patients who are sensitive to Hymenoptera and have been bitten by horseflies but have had no reaction to the horsefly bite were used as controls. An anaphylactic reaction to horsefly bite has been documented in a 56-year-old white male. This patient also demonstrated evidence of anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera envenomation. In controls consisting of 20 patients with Hymenoptera sensitivity, there was no clinical history of reaction to horsefly bite despite the presence of positive prick and/or positive intradermal tests and/or positive RAST to mixed Tabanidae species extract. Skin testing to horsefly by prick and/or intradermal testing using whole body insect extract is not useful in making a diagnosis of Tabanidae hypersensitivity. RAST using Tabanidae species as antigen is similarly useless in making a diagnosis of Tabanidae hypersensitivity. In vivo and in vitro diagnosis of horsefly hypersensitivity may be achieved when the salivary gland antigen of the horsefly becomes available.

  5. Morphological deformities in Chironomus spp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae as a tool for impact assessment of anthropogenic and environmental stresses on three rivers in the Juru river system, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman; Rawi, Che Salmah M; Nor, Siti Azizah M; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Ali, Arshad

    2010-02-01

    Morphological deformities in parts of the head capsule of Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers (Permatang Rawa [PRR], Pasir [PR], and Kilang Ubi [KUR]) in the Juru River Basin, northeastern peninsular Malaysia, were studied. Samples of the fourth-instar larvae at one location in each river were collected monthly from November 2007 to March 2008 and examined for deformities of the mentum, antenna, mandible, and epipharyngis. At each sample location, in situ measurements of water depth, river width, water pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature were made. Samples of river water and benthic sediments were also collected monthly from each larval sample location in each river and taken to the laboratory for appropriate analysis. Total suspended solids (TSSs), ammonium-N, nitrate-N, phosphate-P, chloride, sulfate, and aluminum content in water were analyzed. Total organic matter and nonresidual metals in the sediment samples were also analyzed. Among the three rivers, the highest mean deformity (47.17%) was recorded in larvae collected from KUR that received industrial discharges from surrounding garment and rubber factories, followed by PRR (33.71%) receiving primarily residues of fertilizers and pesticides from adjacent rice fields, and PR (30.34%) contaminated primarily by anthropogenic wastes from the surrounding residential areas. Among the various head capsule structures, deformity of the mentum was strongly reflective of environmental stress and amounted to 27.9, 20.87, and 30.19% in the PRR, PR, and KUR, respectively. Calculated Lenat's toxic score index satisfactorily explained the influence of prevailing environmental variables on the severity of mentum deformities. Redundancy analysis and forward selection selected TSSs, sediment Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ni, and water pH, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, total organic matter, nitrate-N, chloride, phosphate-P, ammonium-N, sulfate, and aluminum as parameters that significantly affected some proportion of deformities. The total deformities correlated closely with deformities of mentum but only weakly with deformities in other parts of head. The total deformity incidence was strongly correlated with high contents of sediment Mn and Ni. The mentum and epipharyngis deformities incidence was highly correlated with an increase of TSSs, total aluminum, and ammonium-N and a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen.

  6. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 3. Some experimental trials for control of nuisance midges and proposed counterplans].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    In the present paper the author tried to forecast the massive emergence of adult Tokunagayusurika akamusi midges from Lake Suwa. Furthermore, several control measures for chironomids were examined. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The forecast for the emergence of adult midges from the lake. A survey of the chironomid larva population was carried out at three stations in the lake. T. akamusi emerged at about the tenth day after the decrease of the larval number and at this time the temperature of the bottom water was within the range of 11-18 degrees C. The flights of adult midges were closely related to environmental factors such as air temperature, the strength and the direction of the wind and the light conditions. 2. The attraction of adult midges to lamps of various colors and wattages was studied. A comparative study on various colors of lights of the same intensity (100 W) showed that white was more attractive to chironomids than yellow, and that both colors were preferred to red, green, or blue. The experiment on light intensity showed that 100 W was more effective than 40 W and 20 W and that no differences in preference were observed between 100 W and 60 W white lamps. Therefore, the light intensity was thought to be more important than color for the control of adult midges. 3. Cyprinus is the natural enemy of the larva and pupae of T. akamusi. The total numbers of adult T. akamusi emerging from Enclosure A (in which there were 10 times as many Cyprinus as in the natural lake water), Enclosure B (no predator was present), and Station C (the natural lake) were 458, 1108, and 684 ind./m2, respectively. It was estimated that 38% of larvae or pupae were eaten by the fish in the lake, and by putting Cyprinus into the water, the percentage increased to 58%. It seems that Cyprinus has a significant effect in reducing the number of midges in field trials. 4. The control of T. akamusi may also be achieved by employing general prevention, by physical and biological means, depending upon the nature of the breeding source, and the cooperation of inhabitants and persons concerned is necessary to carry out the control of adult midges. 5. The proposals for the control of the nuisance caused by chironomid midges are as follows: (1) To make the inhabitants aware of the ecological role of chironomids in the lake, and the importance of protection of the natural ecosystem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. Using δ15N of Chironomidae as an index of nitrogen sources and processing within watersheds as part of EPA's National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. R.; Compton, J.; Herlihy, A.; Sobota, D. J.; Stoddard, J.; Weber, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) removal in watersheds is an important regulating ecosystem service that can help reduce N pollution in the nation's waterways. However, processes that remove N such as denitrification are generally determined at point locations. Measures that integrate N processing within watersheds and over time would be particularly useful for assessing the degree of this vital service. Because most N removal processes isotopically enrich the N remaining, δ15N from basal food-chain organisms in aquatic ecosystems can provide information on watershed N processing. As part of EPA's National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), we measured δ15N of Chironomidae in lakes, rivers and streams because these larval aquatic insects were found in abundance in almost every lake and stream in the U.S. Using information on nitrogen loading to the watershed, and total N concentrations within the water, we assessed when elevated chironomid δ15N would indicate N removal rather than possible enriched sources of N. Chironomid δ15N values ranged from -4 to +20 ‰, and were higher in rivers and streams than in lakes (median = 7.6 ‰ vs. 4.8 ‰, respectively), indicating that N was processed to a greater degree in lotic chironomids than in lentic ones. For both, δ15N increased with watershed-level agricultural land cover and N loading, and decreased as precipitation increased. In rivers and streams with high synthetic N loading, we found lower N concentrations in streams with higher chironomid δ15N values, suggesting greater N removal. At low levels of synthetic N loading, the pattern reversed, and streams with enriched chironomid δ15N had higher N concentrations, suggesting enriched sources such as manure or sewage. Our results indicate that chironomid δ15N values can provide valuable information about watershed-level N inputs and processing for national water quality monitoring efforts.

  8. Pictorial Keys for the Identification of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Associated With Dengue Virus Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-03

    a new species (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 88(4), 634–649. Huang, Y.M. (1990) The subgenus Stegomyia...mosquitoes of the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 103(1), 1–53. Huang, Y.M. and Ward...female of Aedes (Finlaya) niveus (Ludlow) (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washing- ton, 100(4), 824–827. Knight, K.L

  9. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera) is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically. PMID:23878512

  10. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  11. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Kerppola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930) and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. Platycheirus modestus is also new to the Palaearctic. PMID:25337020

  12. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  13. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Treesearch

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  14. World catalog of extant and fossil Corethrellidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2014-05-20

    A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.

  15. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  16. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  17. Six new species of Microdon Meigen from Madagascar (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Reemer, Menno; Bot, Sander

    2015-10-28

    Six new species of the myrmecophilous hoverfly genus Microdon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) are described from Madagascar. Redescriptions are given for the three other Madagascan species of this genus. Keys are presented to the Madagascan genera of the subfamily Microdontinae and to the Madagascan species of Microdon.

  18. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sheep blow fly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. The females are attracted to sheep, following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Ear...

  19. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...

  20. Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Diptera Ð Culicidae). Guayaquil Univ., Guayaquil, Ecuador. Levi-Castillo, R. 1945. Los anofelinos de la Republica del Ecuador, vol. 1: 1Ð172. Artes ...BritishMuseumNatural History, Lon- don, England. Vargas, L., and A. Martinez Palacios. 1956. Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion. Secretaria

  1. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-08-25

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  2. Osmoregulatory Organs of Immature Culicodes Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The water saturated soils and wet feces in livestock feed lots support a variety of Diptera including Musca spp. and Culicoides spp. Aquatic insects that must regulate the ion concentrations of their haemolymph; and fresh water insects tend to loose ions to their aquatic environment. The larvae of C...

  3. Frass semiochemicals important to corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...

  4. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  5. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  6. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culcidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGE.M) TO KEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) Annual Report Terry L. Erwin June...GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Annual--1 September 1979- (SEIGEM) TO MEDICALLY ThWORTANT ARTHROPODS 30 May 1980 (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) 6

  7. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

    PubMed

    Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-04-22

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

  8. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  9. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  10. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  11. Unusual larval habitats and life history of chironomid (Diptera) genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-three genera, representing all subfamilies of Chironomidae, are organized into 9 categories of unusual habitats or life history including hygropetric, riparian (bank, floodplain, upland), hyporheic, symbiotic, and intertidal; others live in water held in plants or mine into unusual substrates. In riparian zones precise location of optimum habitat is difficult to determine as is definition of habitat within the continuum from shoreline to upland areas. The ecological importance of the riparian group appears to lie in its processing of coarse particulate matter along the floodplain of streams and rivers. All riparian genera are zoogeographically useful and can be used in reconstructing evolutionary dispersal pathways because they are adapted to unique habits that have remained largely undisturbed by human activities.

  12. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  13. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.

  14. Change of name for the Oriental robber fly Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae, Asilinae), nec Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric

    2015-08-14

    A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.

  15. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para

  16. Biology and ecology of higher Diptera from freshwater wetlands.

    PubMed

    Keiper, Joe B; Walton, William E; Foote, Benjamin A

    2002-01-01

    Although studies of freshwater entomofauna frequently do not include the biodiversity and ecological roles of higher Diptera, cyclorraphous flies are often numerous and species rich in wetlands. Seventeen families are commonly found in freshwater wetlands, with Ephydridae, Chloropidae, Sciomyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, and Scathophagidae being among the most important in terms of population size and species richness. Difficulty with sampling cryptic larval habitats and species identification challenges may account for the exclusion of acalyptrate and other dipterans from wetlands ecology studies. Large populations are facilitated by the high productivity of freshwater wetlands and the high intrinsic rate of increase characteristic of many species. Higher dipterans exist in all freshwater wetland types, are microhabitat selective, and play significant roles in food webs. The varied strategies for food acquisition and patterns of spatial and temporal distribution limit ecological overlap among the higher Diptera.

  17. Effect of octenol on engorgement by Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Downer, Kelley E; Stoffolano, John G

    2006-05-01

    Adult female Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae) were field collected from a salt marsh in Essex County, Massachusetts. The horse flies were transported back to and tested in the laboratory to determine the effects of octenol (1-octen-3-ol) on engorgement. Flies exposed to octenol strips had a significantly higher engorgement response compared with control flies. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an important link between an odor stimulus and the feeding response in Tabanidae. Research examining the link between odor attractants and repellents on the engorgement response is lacking or limited in most hematophagous Diptera. Understanding the role odors have on ingestion is essential to knowing how to interrupt feeding behavior of blood-feeding arthropods, especially for important vectors.

  18. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel's Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeffrey V

    2011-01-01

    A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel's Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel's Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft) elevation on Camel's Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  19. Sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages in natural habitats in central Spain: spatial and seasonal changes in composition.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A

    2013-03-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.

  20. Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Galindo 3 ABSTRACT. The adults of both sexes, pupa and 4th stage larva of CuZex (MeZanoconion) adamesi, a new species from Panama are described...Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) and several other arboviruses from wild caught adults of Culex (MeZanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab and related species at...00-00-1980 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  1. A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Mosquito Sys tematics VOL. 8(2) 1976 205 A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite oflMosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) John F. Rein& Department of...aegypt; (Linnaeus) by Hochman and Reinert (1974). The ventromedian cervical sclerite has a frag- mented appearance in a number of species of the...Dyar and Knab and dupreei (Coquillett)). Seventy-four species in 19 subgenera of Aedes examined possessed a ven- tromedian cervical sclerite. These

  2. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  3. Two new species of fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) from Kunashir Island, Kuril Islands.

    PubMed

    Zaitzev, Alexander

    2017-04-05

    Two new species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera), Clastobasis subalternans sp. n. and Phthinia kurilensis sp. n. are described from Kunashir I. (South Kuril Is.). Their relationships with other species of Clastobasis Skuse and Phthinia Winnertz are briefly discussed.

  4. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  5. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  6. Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann), a new immigrant soldier fly in the United States (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae), a species widespread in the Old World, has been introduced and is apparently established in the eastern United States. Specimens were taken in Alexandria, Virginia in August of 2007....

  7. New Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859 Crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2015-02-27

    Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.

  8. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  9. Six New Species of the Culex (Lophoceraomyia) Mammilifer Group from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-03-01

    608 and 412 pp. CoIIess, D. H. 1965. The genus Culex , subgenus LophoceraomyM, in Malaya (Diptera: Culicidae). Jour. ;Med. Ent. 2: 261-307. ...SIX NEW SPECIES OF THE CULEX (LOPHOCERAOMYIA) MAMMILIF-ER GROUP FROM THAILAND ( DIPTERA: CULICIDAIZ)~ F~ALPH A. BRAM and MANOP RAT~TAN- South...of de Cukr subgenus Lophoceraomyiu in any area of South East Asia was that of Colless ( 1965). This study described 14 new species, revalidated

  10. Isozyme Variation in Simulium (Edwardsellum) Damnosum S.L. (Diptera: simuliidae) from Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    1387. Raybould, J. N. and G. B. White. 1979. The distribu- uscript, tion, bionomics and control of onchocerciasis vec- tors (Diptera: Simuliidae) in...editions ire otssoiete U NCLAKSSIFE Reprinted from Journal of The American Mosquito Control Association Vol 3 June 1987 Number 2 196 JOURNAL OF THE...AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION VOL. 3, No. 2 ISOZYME VARIATION IN SIMULIUM (EDWARDSELLUM) DAMNOSUM S.L. (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE) FROM KENYA YEMANE

  11. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure-Activity Relationship of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure- Activity Relationship of...deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using theK...corresponding C12:0 and C12:1 homologues. KEYWORDS fatty acid, biting deterrence, repellent, structure-activity relationship, Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes transmit

  12. Characterisation of novel Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephridae).

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae.

  13. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  14. New genera of Australian stiletto flies (Diptera, Therevidae)

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael E.; Winterton, Shaun L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new stiletto fly genera of Agapophytinae (Diptera: Therevidae) are described from Australia. Sidarena gen. n. comprises six new species (Sidarena aurantia sp. n., Sidarena flavipalpa sp. n., Sidarena geraldton sp. n., Sidarena hortorum sp. n., Sidarena macfarlandi sp. n., and Sidarena yallingup sp. n.) and is largely endemic to Western Australia. Zelothrix gen. n. is described based on two species; Zelothrix warrumbungles sp. n. is a locally abundant species in Eastern Australia, while Zelothrix yeatesi sp. n. is restricted to southwestern Western Australia. These sister genera are likely closely related to Taenogerella Winterton & Irwin and Actenomeros Winterton & Irwin. PMID:27853402

  15. Skipping clues: forensic importance of the family Piophilidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, Daniel

    2011-10-10

    Among the insects which are typically considered of forensic interest, the family Piophilidae (Diptera) is frequently cited because of its common occurrence on carcasses in different stages of decay. Piophilids are mainly known from the cosmopolitan species Piophila casei, which can be also a major pest for the food industry and an agent of myiasis. However, many other species of Piophilidae occur frequently on carrion, including human corpses; hence, it is essential to ensure a careful identification of specimens. Reviews of relevant published information about the Piophilidae species of potential forensic use, including recent interesting records, are presented.

  16. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  17. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  18. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846

  19. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included.

  20. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  1. Acetylcholinesterase genes within the Diptera: takeover and loss in true flies

    PubMed Central

    Huchard, Elise; Martinez, Michel; Alout, Haoues; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P; Lutfalla, Georges; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Weill, Mylène

    2006-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in mosquitoes is encoded by the ace-1 gene, distinct and divergent from the ace-2 gene, which performs this function in Drosophila. This is an unprecedented situation within the Diptera order because both ace genes derive from an old duplication and are present in most insects and arthropods. Nevertheless, Drosophila possesses only the ace-2 gene. Thus, a secondary loss occurred during the evolution of Diptera, implying a vital function switch from one gene (ace-1) to the other (ace-2). We sampled 78 species, representing 50 families (27% of the Dipteran families) spread over all major subdivisions of the Diptera, and looked for ace-1 and ace-2 by systematic PCR screening to determine which taxonomic groups within the Diptera have this gene change. We show that this loss probably extends to all true flies (or Cyclorrhapha), a large monophyletic group of the Diptera. We also show that ace-2 plays a non-detectable role in the synaptic AChE in a lower Diptera species, suggesting that it has non-synaptic functions. A relative molecular evolution rate test showed that the intensity of purifying selection on ace-2 sequences is constant across the Diptera, irrespective of the presence or absence of ace-1, confirming the evolutionary importance of non-synaptic functions for this gene. We discuss the evolutionary scenarios for the takeover of ace-2 and the loss of ace-1, taking into account our limited knowledge of non-synaptic functions of ace genes and some specific adaptations of true flies. PMID:17002944

  2. Haltere morphology and campaniform sensilla arrangement across Diptera.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sweta; Grimaldi, David; Fox, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    One of the primary specializations of true flies (order Diptera) is the modification of the hind wings into club-shaped halteres. Halteres are complex mechanosensory structures that provide sensory feedback essential for stable flight control via an array of campaniform sensilla at the haltere base. The morphology of these sensilla has previously been described in a small number of dipteran species, but little is known about how they vary across fly taxa. Using a synoptic set of specimens representing 42 families from all of the major infraorders of Diptera, we used scanning electron microscopy to map the gross and fine structures of halteres, including sensillum shape and arrangement. We found that several features of haltere morphology correspond with dipteran phylogeny: Schizophora generally have smaller halteres with stereotyped and highly organized sensilla compared to nematoceran flies. We also found a previously undocumented high variation of haltere sensillum shape in nematoceran dipterans, as well as the absence of a dorsal sensillum field in multiple families. Overall, variation in haltere sensillar morphology across the dipteran phylogeny provides insight into the evolution of a highly specialized proprioceptive organ and a basis for future studies on haltere sensory function.

  3. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.

  5. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity.

  6. DNA Barcodes for the Northern European Tachinid Flies (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Mutanen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    This data release provides COI barcodes for 366 species of parasitic flies (Diptera: Tachinidae), enabling the DNA based identification of the majority of northern European species and a large proportion of Palearctic genera, regardless of the developmental stage. The data will provide a tool for taxonomists and ecologists studying this ecologically important but challenging parasitoid family. A comparison of minimum distances between the nearest neighbors revealed the mean divergence of 5.52% that is approximately the same as observed earlier with comparable sampling in Lepidoptera, but clearly less than in Coleoptera. Full barcode-sharing was observed between 13 species pairs or triplets, equaling to 7.36% of all species. Delimitation based on Barcode Index Number (BIN) system was compared with traditional classification of species and interesting cases of possible species oversplits and cryptic diversity are discussed. Overall, DNA barcodes are effective in separating tachinid species and provide novel insight into the taxonomy of several genera. PMID:27814365

  7. Nocturnal colonization behavior of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide research into nocturnal colonization by blowflies has produced many contradictory findings, prompting investigation specific to southeastern Australia. Initial experiments showed that blowfly colonization begins shortly after sunrise and continues until sunset; nocturnal colonization never occurred. Colonization peaks occurred at mid-morning, midday, and in the hours preceding sunset. In an additional experiment, wild blowflies were captured and placed in cages with colonization medium supplied nocturnally. Colonization occurred on four of five nights, and Calliphora augur (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was the main species colonizing baits nocturnally. Results suggest that colonization is most likely to occur during warm weather and when flies are able to walk or crawl to bait. In particular, blowflies trapped within a confined space (such as a room or car) with warmer-than-ambient temperature may be stimulated to colonize nearby remains. Entomologists should consider these findings when estimating minimum postmortem interval under these environmental conditions.

  8. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    PubMed

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  9. Observations on Hilltopping in Thick-Headed Flies (Diptera: Conopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Maurizio; Gibson, Joel F.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observations of hilltopping behaviour in the thick-headed flies (Diptera: Conopidae) have only been mentioned once in the literature. Hilltop collecting, however, may be an effective way to survey these endparasitoids. The first evidence of hilltopping in species belonging to the subfamilies Myopinae and Dalmanniinae is presented and discussed. Field observations were conducted on Colle Vescovo, Italy and Mount Rigaud, Canada, and museum specimens were examined. Observations and records indicate that four species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, and Zodion are hilltoppers on Colle Vescovo, while three species in the genera Myopa and Physocephala are hilltoppers on three hilltops near Ottawa, Canada. Fifteen additional species of conopids have been collected on hilltops and could possibly utilize hilltops in some years as a part of their mating strategy. Detailed phenologies and observations of mating and perching behaviours are given for species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, Physocephala, and Zodion. The importance of hilltop habitat preservation is stressed. PMID:20578949

  10. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  11. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  12. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Marcelo A; Centeno, Néstor

    2003-03-01

    To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively); Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p<0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively) and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p<0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively).

  13. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  14. Biology of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chelbi, I; Zhioua, E

    2007-07-01

    Details on the productivity and developmental times of a colony of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) over 14 generations are reported and compared with findings of previous studies. The average productivity (percentage of eggs laid that were reared to adults) over six generations at 26-27 and at 29 -30 degrees C was 44.08 and 59.53%, respectively. The maximum productivity was 69.5%. The average developmental time over six generations at 26-27 and at 29 -30 degrees C was 35 and 26 d, respectively. The minimum developmental time from egg to adults was 25 d. The Tunisian strain of P. papatasi can reproduce autogenously or anautogenously, depending on the availability of a suitable bloodmeal source.

  15. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts.

  16. Limonia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija

    2017-02-09

    The Korean species of Limonia Meigen, 1803 crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) are taxonomically revised. Species L. annulata Lackschewitz, 1940 (Lackschewitz, Pagast, 1940), L. bidens Savchenko, 1979, L. episema Alexander, 1924, L. fusciceps fusciceps Alexander, 1924, L. juvenca Alexander, 1935, L. messaurea messaurea Mendl, 1971, L. nemoralis Savchenko, 1983 are new records for the Korean peninsula and L. pia n. sp. is described. Synonymy of L. venerabilis Alexander, 1938 with L. macrostigma (Schummel, 1829) is confirmed. L. tanakai (Alexander, 1921) is not confirmed for the Korean Peninsula. An identification key, redescriptions and illustrations of all species and both sexes of adults, if they were found in Korea, are presented. Descriptions, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larva and pupa of L. parvipennis Alexander, 1940. Distinguishing morphological characters of the last instar larvae of Korean Limonia are discussed. Keys to the known Korean Limonia larvae and pupae are compiled.

  17. Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) Grossbecki Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Illinois Nat. 25:83-126. Hist. Surv. 24:1-96. Darsie , R.F., Jr . and R.A. Ward. 1981. Iden- Siverly, R.E. 1972. Mosquitoes of...Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- onomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. 270. Plexus Publ. Inc., Marlton, New Jersey. Ward, R.A. and R.F. Darsie , Jr ...Knight and Stone 1977, Knight 1978, Wood Maryland, Prince George’s County, Fort et al. 1979, Darsie and Ward 1981, Ward Washington, coll. no. BH 901, 28

  18. Facultative myiasis of domestic cats by Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Bonacci, Teresa; Del Zingaro, Carlo Nicola Francesco; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Massimo; Leis, Marilena

    2017-08-12

    We describe five cases of myiasis of domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), reported in 2016 in northern Italy and caused by three Diptera species: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). Three were cases of traumatic myiasis, one by S. argyrostoma and two by L. sericata, one was a case of auricular myiasis by C. vicina and one was a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by an association of L. sericata and C. vicina. The myiasis by S. argyrostoma is the first reported case of this species in a cat, whereas the two myiases by C. vicina are the first reported cases in cats in Italy.

  19. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  20. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  1. Description of a new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea:Figitidae) parasitoid of Ephydridae (Diptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrelliaeucoila egeria, a new genus and species obtained from pupae of Hydrellia sp. nov. (Diptera: Ephydridae) mining in Egeria densa Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae), is described. Diagnostic photographs and data about the biology of this parasitoid are included. ...

  2. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  3. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  4. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) I’ Annual Report...Bailey. 1981. Application of a com- puterized information management system (SELGEM) to medically important arthropods (National Museum Mosquito

  5. Descriptions of Two New Species of Culex (Lophoceraomyia) with Notes on Three Other Species from the Papuan Subregion (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-25

    male of Culex jaudatrix Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) . Proc. Linn. Sot. N. S. W. 87: 382-90. 1965. The genus Culex , subgenus Lophoceraomyia, in...J. Med. Ent. Vol. 10, no. 2: 212-216 25 April 1973 DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF CULEX (LOPHOCERAOMYIA) WITH NOTES ON THREE OTHER SPECIES FROM...THE PAPUAN SUBREGION (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)l By Sunthorn Sirivanakard Abstract: Two new species, Culex (Lobhoceraomyia) sub- marginalis and C. (L

  6. A Redescription of the Holotype Male of Aedes (Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-09-01

    A REDESCRIPTION OF THE HOLOTYPE MALE OF AEDES (STEGOMYIA) TONGAE EDWARDS WITH A NOTE ON TWO TOPOTYPIC FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) YIAU-MIN...Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d... FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) ‘v2 YIAU-MIN HUANG, Southeast Asia Mosquito Project, Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington

  7. A Method for Rearing Pupae of Net-Winged Midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae) and Other Torrenticolous Flies

    Treesearch

    Gregory W. Courtney

    1998-01-01

    A method for obtaining reared adults of net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae) is presented. Rocks with attached pupae are removed from the stream and placed in a container maintained at high humidity. Survival and emergence rates exceeding 60% were recorded for several species of Nearctic Blephaecera. This method is ideal for associating...

  8. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  9. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  10. Kerteszmyia, a new genus of Pachygastrinae from the Neotropical Region (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus and species, Kerteszmyia ecuadora gen. nov., sp. nov., (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae) is described from material from Ecuador (type locality), Venezuela, and Costa Rica. A key to the known Neotropical genera of Pachygastrinae with two or more scutellar spines is presented. ...

  11. Laboratory effects of two organically-certified insecticides on Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera:Tachinidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...

  12. [The mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) of Morocco. Bibliographic review (1916-2001) and inventory of the species].

    PubMed

    Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A

    2003-11-01

    The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.

  13. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  14. First North American record of the Palaearctic rhinophorid Stevenia deceptoria (Loew) (Diptera: Rhinophoridae).

    PubMed

    O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A

    2015-12-16

    The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998).

  15. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-03-22

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini.

  16. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    PubMed

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-06-08

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini.

  17. Pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), collected by dry-ice trap.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takeo; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sato, Yukita; Murata, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    During a mosquito collection, a female of the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), was collected by a mosquito trap baited with dry ice in Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. This is the 1st record of P. canariensis from Yaeyama Islands.

  18. Toxicity of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) and Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) leaf extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative control technologies envisioned for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) include botanical insecticides, which are believed to pose little threat to the environment or to human health and may provide a practical substitute for synthetic insecticides. In this study, we...

  19. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  20. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood-Feeding Behavior in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior. Midges were intrathoracically inoc...

  1. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood Feeding Behavior and Fecundity in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior and fecundity. Blood feeding succes...

  2. Blood Feeding Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infected Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of Bluetongue virus in North America and a competent vector of Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects blood feeding behavior and how this might affect virus transmission....

  3. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  4. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...

  5. Long distance movement of batrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidale in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. The need to control large populations over large areas helped initiate the USDA-ARS (United Stat...

  6. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  7. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil.

  8. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  9. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  10. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  11. Effects of Melezitose and Stachyose on Adult Longevity and Virus Persistence in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...

  12. New genera, species and host plant records of Nearctic and Neotropical Tephritidae (Diptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...

  13. New species of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Durango, Yesica; Ramírez-Mora, Manuel

    2013-12-20

    Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy is a genus of calyptrate Diptera that comprises 89 Neotropical species, of which only 23 occur in Colombia. Based on male characters (including terminalia), two new species from the Department of Antioquia (Fannia colazorrensis sp. nov. and Fannia laclara sp. nov.) are described. Illustrations of the male are presented.

  14. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  15. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  16. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  17. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  18. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal dev...

  19. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  20. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  1. Effect of seasonality and perisulfakinin on engorgement by Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the laboratory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horse fly Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae), a hematophagous insect, is a nuisance pest along the Atlantic Coast. A description of the engorgement pattern throughout the season is lacking in the literature for this species. The percentage of the flies engorging a bloodmeal in...

  2. Pangonius theodori a new horse fly species for science from Israel and Lebanon (Diptera: Tabanidae: Pangoniinae).

    PubMed

    Zeegers, Theo; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Müller, Günter C

    2013-03-01

    Pangonius theodori a new horse fly species (Diptera: Tabanidae: Pangoniinae) from northern Israel and southern Lebanon is described. The zoogeography, habitat preference and taxonomic position within the genus of the new species is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A peculiar new Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae) from Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Couri, M S

    2012-12-01

    Helina sinaloensis n. sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) is described and illustrated from Mexico and Panama. The new species shows a unique combination of characters and can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the prosternum with lateral cilia, pre-alar seta absent, anepimeron bare, katepimeron setulose, postalar wall setulose and scutellum with setulae on lateroventral margin.

  4. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  5. Checklist of the family Ephydridae of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of 112 species of shore flies (Ephydridae, Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. Comparing this to the list of Hackman (1980), 52 changes are made: 25 species are added (all but one recorded after 1980), 18 misidentifications are deleted, 5 junior synonyms are replaced and 5 updated generic combinations are given. PMID:25337031

  6. Evolution of Mitochondrial and Ribosomal Gene Sequences in Anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae): Implications for Phylogeny Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    incongruence. Cladistics 10: 315-319. Felsenstein, J. (1993). PHYLIP (Phylogeny inference package), ver- sion 3.5. Department of Genetics, University of...disease vectors (Diptera, Culicidae): Impact of molecular biology and cladistic analysis. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 351-369. Peyton, E. L

  7. The genus Camptochaeta in Nearctic caves, with the description of C. prolixa sp. n. (Diptera, Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Vilkamaa, Pekka; Hippa, Heikki; Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Camptochaeta prolixa sp. n. (Diptera, Sciaridae) is described from caves in Nevada, and three other congeneric species are recorded from caves in Nevada and Arkansas, United States. The new species shows some indication to a subterranean mode of life, including long antenna and legs, and in some specimens, reduction of the eye bridge. PMID:22259302

  8. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  9. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  10. Attraction of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephitidae) to white light in the presence and absence of ammonia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attraction of tephritid fruit flies to light and its role in fly biology and management has received little attention. Here, the objective was to show that western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is attracted to white light in the presence and absence of ammo...

  11. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  12. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  14. Diel periodicity of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard K.; Toews, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity. Results show that D. suzukii reproductive success was significantly higher during the night (including dawn and dusk periods) than the day in terms of oviposition, pupation, adult eclosion, and the number of progeny per female. Female D. suzukii reproductive success was not significantly different between specific regions of a blueberry bush in relation to the amount of shade provided by the canopy. Our studies indicate that D. suzukii flight activity is crepuscular and is sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. Results also suggest that the majority of fly activity during peak hours is concentrated in areas around the border and within the center of blueberry orchards with little activity in the surrounding wooded areas. These findings suggest that D. suzukii prefers microclimate with mild temperatures and high humidity, and does not function well when exposed to direct sunlight with extreme heat. The authors propose that D. suzukii management strategies should be implemented during the early morning and immediately before darkness to maximize efficacy. PMID:28187140

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  16. The larval head of Exechia (Mycetophilidae) and Bibio (Bibionidae) (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, René; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2015-07-01

    Exechia and Bibio have retained several plesiomorphic groundplan features of Diptera and Bibionomorpha, including a fully exposed and sclerotized head capsule, the transverse undivided labrum, the absence of movable premandibles, and undivided mandibles without combs. The fusion of the hypostomal bridge with the head capsule and largely reduced antennae are derived features shared by both taxa. The absence of teeth at the anterior hypostomal margin is a potential autapomorphy of Bibionomorpha. A basal position of Anisopodidae is suggested by a number of plesiomorphies retained in this family. Apomorphies of Bibionomorpha excluding Anisopodidae are the reduction of tentorial elements, the partial fusion of the labrum and clypeus, one-segmented antennae, the absence of a separate submental sclerite, the loss of the labial palpus, and the reduction of the pharyngeal filter apparatus. Head structures of Bibio are largely unmodified. The subprognathous orientation is one of few autapomorphic features. In contrast, the mouthparts of Exechia are highly modified in correlation with the specialized food uptake. The rasping counterrotating movements of maxillae and mandibles with teeth oriented in opposite directions are carried out by strongly developed extensors and flexors of the paired mouthparts. The modified labium mechanically supports the "drill head" formed by the mandibles und maxillae. The necessary stability of the head capsule is provided by the hypostomal bridge which also compensates the far-reaching reduction of the tentorium.

  17. DNA barcodes can distinguish species of Indian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Jambulingam, P

    2007-01-01

    Species identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on morphological characteristics remains often difficult in field-collected mosquito specimens in vector-borne disease surveillance programs. The use of DNA barcodes has been proposed recently as a tool for identification of the species in many diverse groups of animals. However, the efficacy of this tool for mosquitoes remains unexplored. Hence, a study was undertaken to construct DNA barcodes for several species of mosquitoes prevalent in India, which included major vector species. In total, 111 specimens of mosquitoes belonging to 15 genera, morphologically identified to be 63 species, were used. This number also included multiple specimens for 22 species. DNA barcode approach based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene sequences could identify 62 species among these, in confirmation with the conventional taxonomy. However, two closely related species, Ochlerotatus portonovoensis (Tiwari & Hiriyan) and Ochlerotatus wardi (Reinert) could not be identified as separate species based on DNA barcode approach, their lineages indicating negligible genetic divergence (Kimura two-parameter genetic distance = 0.0043).

  18. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Irradiation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose

    2007-08-01

    Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females.

  20. Blood Meal Analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285

  1. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  2. Distribution and abundance of Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Maneeon, Pattarapon; Ganpanakngan, Manoch; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Sriwichai, Patchara; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn

    2012-11-01

    Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) include species of parasitic flies of medical and veterinary importance. The adult flies feed on the blood of mammals and may transmit several parasites and pathogens. We conducted an entomological survey of Stomoxyini flies from different sites in Thailand. Stomoxyini flies were collected at four major types of sites: zoos, livestock farms, wildlife conservation areas and a national park using vavoua traps between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 3,314 Stomoxyini flies belonging to the genera Stomoxys, Haematobosca, Haematostoma and Haematobia were collected. Eight species were identified: S. calcitrans (46.6%), S. uruma (26.8%), S. pulla (4.3%), S. indicus (0.7%), S. sitiens (0.1%), H. sanguinolenta (11.2 %), H. austeni (0.5%) and H. irritans exigua (9.8%). The diversity of Stomoxyini flies in the livestock farms was higher than the other sites. Altitude correlated with the number of flies. This study provides information that may be useful for Stomoxyini flies control.

  3. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae) Tetraspanins.

    PubMed

    Murungi, Edwin K; Kariithi, Henry M; Adunga, Vincent; Obonyo, Meshack; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-11-12

    Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps), all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL) domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  4. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.

  5. Quantifying bluetongue virus in adult Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Eva; Mertens, Peter P C; Shaw, Andrew E; Brownlie, Joe; Mellor, Philip S; Carpenter, Simon T

    2008-01-01

    A TissueLyser system (QIAGEN) was used to rapidly and accurately estimate bluetongue virus "loads" in individual adult Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). The optimized homogenization program that was developed, involved shaking insects for 1 min at 25 Hz with 2- or 3-mm stainless steel ball bearings. This program was used to measure the quantities of bluetongue virus present in insects that had either been inoculated or had ingested a viremic bloodmeal through an artificial membrane. The virus titers obtained using either infection technique and the optimized program did not differ significantly from those obtained using a polypropylene motor-driven pestle, a method that is currently in common use for studies of vector competence). The advantages of the new method, as a rapid means of detecting fully disseminated infections in individual field-caught flies, are discussed. Its use is compared with the processing of pools of Culicoides by conventional methods, where the extent of dissemination of the virus is unknown and could wrongly implicate species that are of low importance in transmission.

  6. Effect of temperature on metabolism of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Benkova, Ivana; Volf, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the most important vector of Leishmania major, and previous experiments revealed that Leishmania development in the sand fly midgut is significantly affected by temperature. Therefore, we maintained blood-fed P. papatasi females at 23 or 28 degrees C to understand the effect of temperature on bloodmeal digestion and developmental times of this sand fly. At the lower temperature, the metabolic processes were slower and developmental times were longer: defecation, oviposition, and egg hatch started later and took longer to complete. Also, the mortality of blood-fed females was significantly lower. The defecation of bloodmeal remains was delayed for 12-36 h at 23 degrees C compared with the group maintained at 28 degrees C. Such delay would provide more time for Leishmania to establish the midgut infection and could partially explain the increased susceptibility of P. papatasi to Leishmania major at 23 degrees C. In both experimental groups, blood-fed females laid similar numbers of eggs (mean 60 and 70, maximum 104 and 115 per female). Egg numbers were positively correlated with the amount of hematin excreted in feces of ovipositing females. In parallel experiments, autogeny was recorded in 8% of females. The autogenous egg batches were smaller (mean, 12; range, 1-39), but they all produced viable larvae.

  7. New and poorly known Palaearctic fungus gnats (Diptera, Sciaroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fungus gnats (Sciaroidea) are a globally species rich group of lower Diptera. In Europe, Fennoscandian peninsula in particular holds a notable diversity, ca. 1000 species, of which 10 % are still unnamed. Fungus gnats are predominantly terrestrial insects, but some species dwell in wetland habitats. New information Eight new fungus gnat species, belonging to the families Keroplatidae (Orfelia boreoalpina Salmela sp.n.) and Mycetophilidae (Sciophila holopaineni Salmela sp.n., S. curvata Salmela sp.n., Boletina sasakawai Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., B. norokorpii Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., Phronia sompio Salmela sp.n., P. reducta Salmela sp.n., P. prolongata Salmela sp.n.), are described. Four of the species are known from Fennoscandia only whilst two are supposed to have boreo-alpine disjunct ranges, i.e. having populations in Fennoscandia and the Central European Alps. One of the species probably has a boreal range (Finnish Lapland and Central Siberia). Type material of Boletina curta Sasakawa & Kimura from Japan was found to consist of two species, and a further species close to these taxa is described from Finland. Phronia elegantula Hackman is redescribed and reported for the first time from Norway. DNA barcodes are provided for the first time for five species. PMID:28325987

  8. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  9. A new trap and lure for Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Anna L; Kovacs, Ervin; Lafontaine, Jean Pierre; Avelino, Norman; Borden, John H; Andreller, Isak S; Gries, Gerhard

    2011-06-01

    We conducted a series of nine laboratory experiments testing the response of "vinegar flies," Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae), released in bioassay chambers to experimental traps and lures. These experiments showed that an effective trap could be constructed from a clear 225-ml screw-cap jar fitted with a hollow 8-mm-diameter cylindrical cross bridge. Flies could enter the trap from either end of the cylindrical "gate" and in turn could enter the interior chamber of the trap through a cut out portion at mid-span of the cylinder. The experiments also showed that a natural-component lure could be made using a teabag containing freeze-dried banana powder, yeast, and carrageenan gum powder as a humectant. When dipped in water for 10-15 s and then placed in the bottom of a trap, the teabag provided effective attraction for at least 7 d. Captured flies were immobilized on a sticky card placed in the trap, allowing them to be easily seen. Unlike other traps that cannot be opened and have liquid lures, the cylindrical-gate trap can be reused repeatedly if the teabag and sticky card are replaced. A final two experiments showed that the prototype operational cylindrical-gate trap with a teabag lure captured 3.3 and 2.3 times more released flies, respectively, than the next best of three commercially available traps.

  10. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Harrup, L E; Bellis, G A; Balenghien, T; Garros, C

    2015-03-01

    Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock and equines, and are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important pathogens of both veterinary and medical importance. Despite their economic significance, the delimitation and identification of species and evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains at best problematic. To date no phylogenetic study has attempted to validate the subgeneric classification of the genus and the monophyly of many of the subgenera remains doubtful. Many informal species groupings are also known to exist but few are adequately described, further complicating accurate identification. Recent contributions to Culicoides taxonomy at the species level have revealed a high correlation between morphological and molecular analyses although molecular analyses are revealing the existence of cryptic species. This review considers the methods for studying the systematics of Culicoides using both morphological and genetic techniques, with a view to understanding the factors limiting our current understanding of Culicoides biology and hence arbovirus epidemiology. In addition, we examine the global status of Culicoides identification, highlighting areas that are poorly addressed, including the potential implementation of emerging technologies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock and equines, and are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important pathogens of both veterinary and medical importance. Despite their economic significance, the delimitation and identification of species and evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains at best problematic. To date no phylogenetic study has attempted to validate the subgeneric classification of the genus and the monophyly of many of the subgenera remains doubtful. Many informal species groupings are also known to exist but few are adequately described, further complicating accurate identification. Recent contributions to Culicoides taxonomy at the species level have revealed a high correlation between morphological and molecular analyses although molecular analyses are revealing the existence of cryptic species. This review considers the methods for studying the systematics of Culicoides using both morphological and genetic techniques, with a view to understanding the factors limiting our current understanding of Culicoides biology and hence arbovirus epidemiology. In addition, we examine the global status of Culicoides identification, highlighting areas that are poorly addressed, including the potential implementation of emerging technologies. PMID:25535946

  12. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.

  13. Adhesive attachments of the endangered botfly, Portschinskia magnifica (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Z; Zhang, D

    2014-10-01

    Portschinskia magnifica (Diptera: Oestridae) is an endangered subcutaneous parasitic fly that is mainly distributed in Eurasia. The external morphology of the main adhesive attachments that include the pretarsus and tarsus is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Two types of tenent setae that are characterised as spoon-like tip and pointed-like tip, which can increase the contact points for attachment to a surface, are described in this study. Hairs around the bristle of the empodium in P. magnifica are much denser than those of other flies, and thus, we proposed that the dense hairs around the empodium may be a more efficient way to perform the sensory function. Compared with saprophagous flies that are reported previously, the microsculpture of the unguitractor plate is obviously different in that microplates are scale-like and similar to those of the water bug, Ranatra linearis. In addition, microtrichia found in the lateral region of the unguitractor plate provides stronger fixation between two surfaces. These results provide anatomical information that allows us to understand the role of the pretarsus as an attachment device.

  14. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  15. Simuliid blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and ceratopogonid midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Shelley, A J; Coscarón, S

    2001-05-01

    Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively nonpathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.

  16. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed.

  17. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeffrey V.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft) elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there. PMID:22371675

  18. Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.

  19. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  20. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  1. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  2. Phytosanitary Treatments Against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae): Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W

    2016-12-27

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem.

  3. Second Supplement to "A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World" (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Faran 1979:27 (d*, ?*, P*, L*). Type-lot: 1.5 km S of Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador (USNM). Name Rejected Anopheles subpictus var. vadakadiensis...25. Type Depositories AMC. Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Medical Science, P.L.A., People’s Republic of China. BMC...YeZanoconion) from Bolivia and Ecuador (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 11:135-138. Sirivanakarn, S. 1982 (1983). A review of the systematics and

  4. A New Species, Culex (Culex) Litwakae (Diptera: Culicidae), from the Coastal Region of Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    with existing keys and descriptions. Further study revealed that this species is closely related to Culex ( Culex ) antennatus (Becker), differing...254 Mosquito S.ystematics Vol. 17(3) 1985 A new species, Culicidae), Culex (Cu7ex) 7itwakae (Dipterf: from the coastal region of Kenya Ralph E...1985 to 00-00-1985 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A new species, Culex ( Culex ) litwakae (Diptera: Culicidae), from the coastal region of Kenya 5a. CONTRACT

  5. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  6. Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a big-eyed hoverfly from Peru and Suriname.

    PubMed

    Reemer, Menno; Morales, Mirian N

    2016-03-15

    The hoverfly species Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described based on specimens from Peru and Suriname. It belongs to the scutellaris species group and it is most similar to P. erratica (Curran, 1930), from which it differs most notably by the strongly enlarged ommatidia in the upper half of the eye. Additional differences between these two species and an adjustment for the latest identification key for the species of the scutellaris group are given.

  7. The crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  8. Review of the genus Parerigone Brauer (Diptera: Tachinidae) with five new species from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chuntian; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-02-18

    The genus Parerigone (Diptera, Tachinidae) is reviewed. Five new species from China, P. atrisetosa sp. nov., P. flava sp. nov., P. flavisquama sp. nov., P. laxifrons sp. nov. and P. wangi sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Parerigone flavihirta (Chao & Sun) is proposed as a new synonym of P. takanoi Mesnil. Diagnosis of species examined and a key to the 15 species of Parerigone are provided.

  9. Effect ofalpha-difluormethylornithine on Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) ovary size.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, V V; Moreira, J C F; Oliveira, A K

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian sizes (length and width) were measured in young females of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) subjected or not to the inhibitor alpha-difluormethylornithine (alpha-DFMO). The most effective concentration of alpha-DMFO used was 50 mM and the ovarian measurements (length and width) of the treated females were smaller than those of females not treated with alpha-DMFO. These data may suggest some relationship between ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and sexual maturation in A. fraterculus.

  10. Morphological Analysis of Three Populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Nuneztovari Gabaldon (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Mayury Fajardo Ramos, Ranulfo González Obando/+, Marco...Fidel Suárez, David López, Richard Wilkerson1, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2 Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas y Facultad de Salud , AA 25623...Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 1Division of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, US 2Departamento de

  11. Aedes (Stegomyia) Bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), The Yellow Fever Virus Vector in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    J. Med. Entomol. Vol. 23, no. 2: 196-200 31 March 1986 AEDES (STEGOLMYIA) BROMELIAE (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE), THE YELLOW FEVER VIRUS VECTOR IN EAST...lilii, and Ae. bromeliae). The species from which Mahaffy, Had- dow, and others isolated yellow fever virus , and which is the most common and...and western Africa but is less prevalent than Ae. bromeliae, and no females have been recorded as biting man. Literature refer- ences to Ae

  12. New Contributions to Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Spain: Addition of Three New Species

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Ortiz, Ricardo; Martinez, Michel; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The genus Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) includes the main leafminer pests for monocots. Three new species are described that were captured using Malaise traps in “Tinença de Benifassà”, “Font Roja” and “Lagunas de La Mata-Torrevieja” (Spain) Natural Parks: Pseudonapomyza curvata n. sp., P. longitata n. sp., and P. sicicornis n. sp. Systematics. Ecological data are discussed. PMID:21062209

  13. Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis (Diptera: Culicidae) morphological description including pupa and fourth-stage larva previously unknown.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R

    2008-05-01

    Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.

  14. Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    Theobald) are herein des- cribed for the first time. Aedes vexans (Meigen) is the only other species in the subgenus Aedimorphus which has the eggs ...1972 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1972 to 00-00-1972 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus...ANSI Std Z39-18 60 Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)l John F. Reinert* Department of

  15. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  16. Two New Species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) From the Chaco Forest Ecoregion of South America.

    PubMed

    Dufek, M I; Mulieri, P R

    2017-04-03

    Two new Neotropical species of the genus Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Chaco ecoregion of Argentina are described, O. berthet, sp. nov. and O. ibera, sp. nov. Both species were recovered from localities in the eastern part of the Chaco forest (Humid Chaco). The descriptions are based on the male external morphology and terminalia. Photographs and SEM images are provided to aid in the identification of the species.

  17. A new Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-10-31

    Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox, 1974 (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) is a very rare monotypic genus, with the type-species, M. politus (Wiedemann, 1828), occurring exclusively in Amazonia. With the description of Mapinguari uai sp. nov. from a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, the distribution of the genus is greatly expanded. In addition, an updated diagnosis for the genus and its type-species is provided.

  18. A Modified Trap for Adult Sampling of Medically Important Flies (Insecta: Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Nozari, Jamasb; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran. Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm) with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010. Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap. Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult. PMID:23378969

  19. Expanding the view of Clock and cycle gene evolution in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Chahad-Ehlers, S; Arthur, L P; Lima, A L A; Gesto, J S M; Torres, F R; Peixoto, A A; de Brito, R A

    2017-02-24

    We expanded the view of Clock (Clk) and cycle (cyc) gene evolution in Diptera by studying the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Afra), a Brachycera. Despite the high conservation of clock genes amongst insect groups, striking structural and functional differences of some clocks have appeared throughout evolution. Clk and cyc nucleotide sequences and corresponding proteins were characterized, along with their mRNA expression data, to provide an evolutionary overview in the two major groups of Diptera: Lower Diptera and Higher Brachycera. We found that AfraCYC lacks the BMAL (Brain and muscle ARNT-like) C-terminus region (BCTR) domain and is constitutively expressed, suggesting that AfraCLK has the main transactivation function, which is corroborated by the presence of poly-Q repeats and an oscillatory pattern. Our analysis suggests that the loss of BCTR in CYC is not exclusive of drosophilids, as it also occurs in other Acalyptratae flies such as tephritids and drosophilids, however, but it is also present in some Calyptratae, such as Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae. This indicates that BCTR is missing from CYC of all higher-level Brachycera and that it was lost during the evolution of Lower Brachycera. Thus, we can infer that CLK protein may play the main role in the CLK\\CYC transcription complex in these flies, like in its Drosophila orthologues.

  20. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions.

  1. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  2. Seasonal patterns in tree swallow prey (Diptera) abundance are affected by agricultural intensification.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Garant, Dany; Pelletier, Fanie; Bélisle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In many parts of the world, farmland bird species are declining at faster rates than other birds. For aerial insectivores, this decline has been related to a parallel reduction in the abundance of their invertebrate prey in agricultural landscapes. While the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on arthropod communities at the landscape level have been substantially studied in recent years, seasonal variation in these impacts has not been investigated. To assess the contention that intensive cultures negatively impact food resources for aerial insectivorous birds, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of Diptera, the main food resource for breeding tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor), across a gradient of AI in southeastern Quebec, Canada. Linear mixed models computed from a data set of 5000 samples comprising >150,000 dipterans collected over three years (2006-2008) suggest that both Diptera abundance and biomass varied greatly during swallow breeding season, following a quadratic curve. Globally, AI had a negative effect on Diptera abundance (but not biomass), but year-by-year analyses showed that in one of three years (2008), dipterans were more abundant in agro-intensive landscapes. Analyses also revealed a significant interaction between the moment in the season and AI: In early June, Diptera abundances were similar regardless of the landscape, but differences increased as the season progressed, with highly intensive landscapes harboring fewer prey, possibly creating an "ecological trap" for aerial insectivores. While global trends in our results are in agreement with expectations (negative impact of Al on insect abundance), strong discrepancies in 2008 highlight the difficulty of predicting the abundance of insect communities. Our study indicates that predicting the effects of AI may prove more challenging than generally assumed, even when large data sets are collected, and that temporal variation within a season is important to take into

  3. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  4. Pseudacteon calderensis, a new fly species (Diptera:Phoridae) attacking the fire ant Solenopsis interrupta (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) in northwestern Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Pseudacteon phorid fly Pseudacteon calderis (Diptera: Phoridae) is described from females attacking worker ants of Solenopsis interrupta Santschi in Salta and Jujuy provinces, northwestern Argentina. Pseudacteon calderis differs from almost all other South American Pseudacteon speci...

  5. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  6. Host plants of Solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of Bactrocera(Bactrocera)latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. Bactrocera latifrons i...

  7. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  8. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  9. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-11-01

    Oligochaeta 2YY Spr 1.I PHYLUM ARTHROPODA Crustaceans, Insects and Spiders I Class Insecta Insects Order Coleoptera Beetles I Family Elmidae UBB Spr 5...Cities B Rivers, Collected on Standard and Special Transects in 1973 (Continued) l PHYLUM ARTHROPODA (Continued) Class Insecta (Continued) Order Diptera...Transects in 1973 (Continued) j PHYLUM ARTHROPODA (Continued) Class Insecta (Continued) Order Diptera (Continued) Family Chironomidae (Continued) Genus

  10. Key for European species of the Cheilosia proxima group (Diptera, Syrphidae) with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Ante; Radenković, Snežana; Trifunov, Sonja; Nikolić, Tijana

    2013-01-01

    A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae), is described and distinguished from the closely related species Cheilosia pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided.

  11. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  12. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  13. Attraction, oviposition preferences, and olfactory responses of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to various host-based substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh market sweet corn produced in Florida is threatened by larval damage by Euxesta stigmatias Loew, E. eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition and attraction bioassays were desig...

  14. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  15. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  16. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  17. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  18. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  19. Activity patterns and parasitism rates of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera:Phoridae:Pseudacteon spp.) in their native Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...

  20. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  1. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  2. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  3. Phytomyza omlandi spec. nov. – the first species of Agromyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) reared from the family Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...

  4. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  5. The distribution and life history of Axymyia Furcata Mcatee (Diptera:Axymyhdae), a wood inhabiting, semi-aquatic fly

    Treesearch

    Matthew Wihlm; Gregory Courtney

    2011-01-01

    Axymyia furcata McAtee (Diptera: Axymyhdae), is a xylophilic, semi-aquatic fly from eastern North America. As part of a comprehensive study of the fly’s distribution, life history, and phylogeography, we surveyed populations of A. furcata in the eastern United States and Canada. Collecting and rearing methods are described, and use of the niche modeling software,...

  6. Revision of the net-winged midges of the genus Blepharicera macquart (diptera: blephariceridae) of eastern North America

    Treesearch

    Gregory W. Courtney

    2000-01-01

    The net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae: Blepharicera Macquart) of eastern North America are revised to include 16 species. Seven new species are described: B. caudata, n. sp., B. chooga, n. sp, B. corniculata, n. sp., B. magna, n. sp., and B. tuberosa, n. sp. from the southern Appalachians; B....

  7. New records of Tabanidae (Diptera) from Saudi Arabia, first record of Atylotus venturii Leclercq and Tabanus separatus Efflatoun.

    PubMed

    Amoudi, M A; Leclercq, M

    1996-04-01

    Atylotus venturii Leclercq and Tabanus separatu Efflatoun (Diptera: Tabanidae) are 2 additional species in Saudi Arabia; they lift up to 26 taxa known from the country. Some comments on new record of other species, zoogeographical distribution of Tabanus sufis, taxonomic significance of eye pattern of Tabanidae, exemplification with T. albifacies and T. unifasciatus, rehydration of dry specimens, are presented.

  8. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  9. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY 0 IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) oAnnual Report Terry L. Erwin July...APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE Annual Report INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO July 1981 to June 1982 MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS

  10. Mapping global potential risk of establishment of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) using MaxEnt and CLIMEX niche models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major quarantine pest of apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the United States. Apple maggot is found only in North America and negatively impacts the apple industry in the western U.S. by reducing grower access to export...

  11. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  12. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae) that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), digging a mine near...

  13. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  14. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  15. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  16. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  17. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  18. How much can diptera-borne viruses persist over unfavourable seasons?

    PubMed

    Charron, Maud V P; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally.

  19. How Much Can Diptera-Borne Viruses Persist over Unfavourable Seasons?

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Maud V. P.; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally. PMID:24023929

  20. Conservation of capa peptide-induced nitric oxide signalling in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Valerie P; McGettigan, James; Cabrero, Pablo; Maudlin, Ian M; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2004-11-01

    In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport. The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Glossina morsitans) and in one orthopteran out-group, Schistocerca gregaria. NOS immunoreactivity was detectable by immunocytochemistry in tubules from all species studied. D. melanogaster, A. aegypti and A. stephensi express NOS in only principal cells, whereas G. morsitans and S. gregaria show more general NOS expression in the tubule. Measurement of associated NOS activity (NADPH diaphorase) shows that both D. melanogaster capa-1 and the two capa peptides encoded in the A. gambiae genome, QGLVPFPRVamide (AngCAPA-QGL) and GPTVGLFAFPRVamide (AngCAPA-GPT), all stimulate NOS activity in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but not in S. gregaria. Furthermore, capa-stimulated NOS activity in all the Diptera was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME. All capa peptides stimulate an increase in cGMP content across the dipteran species, but not in the orthopteran S. gregaria. Similarly, all capa peptides tested stimulate fluid secretion in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but are either without effect or are inhibitory on S. gregaria. Consistent with these results, the Drosophila capa receptor was shown to be expressed in Drosophila tubules, and its closest Anopheles homologue was shown to be expressed in Anopheles tubules. Thus, we provide the first demonstration of physiological roles for two putative A. gambiae neuropeptides. We also demonstrate neuropeptide modulation of fluid secretion in tsetse tubule for the first time. Finally, we show the generality of capa peptide action, to stimulate NO/cGMP signalling and

  1. The evolutionary ecology of detritus feeding in the larvae of freshwater Diptera.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Athol J; Ladle, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Detritus (dead organic matter), largely of terrestrial origin, is superabundant in inland waters but because of its indigestible nature, would appear to be a poor food source for animals. Yet this unpromising material is widely used as food and indeed can be viewed as a defining characteristic of the freshwater environment. We here explore the relationships among animals, detritus and its associated micro-organism decomposers, taking a functional approach. We pose questions about interrelationships and attempt to arrive at new insights by disentangling them from an adaptive point of view. To do this we have been careful in selecting the habitats for detailed consideration. Rain pools on rock surfaces in tropical Africa and pools on peat moorland in the UK were chosen. Both examples have a relatively simple community structure and hence offer the prospect of achieving our aim. As model organisms for study we focus principally on the aquatic stages of selected holometabolous insects; that is, selected genera of the universally common midges, Ceratopogonidae and Chironomidae. We approach these case studies from an evolutionary ecology perspective and see detritus as a simple template upon which a beautiful complex of adaptations can evolve.

  2. Impact of Humidity on the Biological Development of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Guillaume Jean; Nicolas, Aurore; Al Mohamad, Raki; Hance, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is one of the most important predators used in the augmentative biological control of aphids worldwide. However, due to its particular life history, mass rearing A. aphidimyza remains difficult. Our results show that a high relative humidity level during pupation optimizes the development of A. aphidimyza By improving humidity levels during pupae storage, we improved the production efficiency and nearly achieved a 100% adult emergence rate. These results allow us to suggest a new rearing method for the aphid predator A. aphidimyza.

  3. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  4. Three New Species of the Genus Tripteroides, Subgenus Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-12-01

    Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2672 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Sur- geon General. 2 Immediate publication...Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Southeast Asia Mosquito Project,Smithsonian Institution,Washington,DC,20560 8

  5. Taxonomic notes and new records of the genus Tabanus Linnaeus 1758 (Diptera: Tabanidae) from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talafha, Hazem; Yaakop, Salmah Binti; Ghani, Idris Bin Abd

    2016-11-01

    Horsefly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Malaysia consists currently of 120 species belonging to eight genera. The present study added four new records to this hematophagous family. The new records were Tabanus crassus (Walker, 1850), T. griseipalpis Schuurmans Stekhoven (1926), T. melanognathus (Bigot, 1890), and T. mesogaus Burton (1978). Tabanus auricircus Philip (1979) was recorded here for the first time from peninsular Malaysia, whereas T. perakiensis Ricardo (1911) was recorded from Sabah for the first time. Key characters for new records were illustrated based on the examined materials and range of distribution for each species was given.

  6. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  7. Use of deer models to study larviposition by wild nasopharyngeal bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1989-05-01

    Deer models baited with CO2 and with CO2 plus 1-octen-3-ol and Deer Trail Scent attracted and induced female Cephenemyia apicata Bennett & Sabrosky and C. jellisoni Townsend to larviposit on them. Larvae were not deposited on unbaited models. Females of both species were seen at baited models, and an insect trapping adhesive applied to the nostrials, muzzle, and lips of models revealed that all larvae were stuck to the lips and bottom part of the muzzle. The models also attracted and caught most other parasitic Diptera known to attack California black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in the study area.

  8. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  9. Bartonella spp. in deer keds, Lipoptena mazamae (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), from Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Nelder, Mark P; Cobb, Kristin D; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-04-01

    Deer keds, Lipoptena mazamae (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and humans in Georgia and South Carolina, USA (1 October 2001-6 January 2005) and screened for the presence of DNA from Bartonella spp. Forty deer keds were screened for Bartonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to the riboflavin synthase gene (ribC) of Bartonella. Bartonella species closely related to Bartonella schoenbuchensis and to the etiologic agent of cat-scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) were detected in 10 keds and one ked, respectively.

  10. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed.

  11. A review of the New World Coproica (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) with a description of 8 new species.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Matthew D; Marshall, Stephen A; Swann, John E

    2015-04-30

    The New World species of Coproica Rondani, 1861 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) are reviewed on the basis of over 17,000 examined specimens. The genus is divided into three major clades: the C. acutangula, C. vagans, and C. urbana species groups. Eight new species (C. bifurcata, C. bispatha, C. brachystyla, C. diabolica, C. emarginata, C. galapagosensis, C. novacula, and C. testudinea) are described, and redescriptions are provided for eleven additional species. Included are two keys (one for the twenty New World species only and one for all described species), updated New World distribution records, and illustrations of male and female genitalic structures.

  12. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-10-10

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. 

  13. Revision of the genus Melanagromyza in California, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D

    2015-08-20

    The 27 Californian species of the genus Melanagromyza Hendel (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are reviewed, including descriptions of three new species (Melanagromyza californiana sp. nov., M. chemsaki sp. nov. and M. gonzalesina sp. nov.) and the first record for one species (Melanagromyza martini Spencer) for California and the USA. All species in California are described or redescribed, with illustrations and photographs, and a key to the species is presented. Maps for the species in California, along with host distributions, are provided, with comments on biology and host plants.

  14. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  15. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  16. A new species, new immature stages, and new synonymy in Australian Dasybasis flies (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2015-04-09

    Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.

  17. Sex-biased captures of sarcosaprophagous Diptera in carrion-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed.

  18. Effects of Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd. (Meliaceae) extract on the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Senthil Nathan, Sengottayan; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Sehoon, Kim

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for disease vector control. Methanol extracts of leaves from the Indian white cedar Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd. (Meliaceae) were tested against mature and immature Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera) mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. The extract showed strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and antiovipositional activity. The maximum leaf extract concentration tested in this study was 4%, which produced pronounced effects. In general, first and second instars were more susceptible to leaf extract than older insects. Clear dose-response relationships were established, with the highest dose of 4% plant extract causing 97% mortality of first instars.

  19. Preservation of iridescent colours in Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Stephen; Simonis, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Iridescent blue-green colours are exhibited by various organisms including several taxa in the Tachinidae (Diptera) with notable examples within the Afrotropical members of the genus Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The vivid colouration observed in life quickly fades to a dull golden-yellow when a specimen is dried. Although well known, no published explanation has been given for this phenomenon. New information We illustrate the mechanism associated with this colour change. We also test and propose technical alternatives to retain the living colours in dried specimens. PMID:26929707

  20. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  1. Description of the Terrestrial Larva of Parosca latipalpis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tabanidae) from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Llanos, L; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, M

    2016-10-01

    The terrestrial larva of the austral horsefly, Parosca latipalpis (Macquart), identified by molecular techniques, is described. The larva of P. latipalpis resembles Scaptia auriflua (Donovan), Copidapha vicina (Taylor), Myioscaptia muscula (English), and Osca lata (Guérin-Meneville) in many morphological characters, as well as in their terrestrial habitats. Some characters that are shared between these species are unique among Tabanidae and provide evidence of their monophyletic origin, suggesting a typical Gondwanaland group. Larvae of P. latipalpis were found 2-3 cm below of the soil surface and associated with larvae of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera in southern Chile.

  2. The Anopheles (Anopheles) Crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    collected in light traps and dog-baited traps. Mosq. News 33:39-41. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1949. Pupae of the anopheline mosquitoes of the north- eastern...United States (Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. de Entomol. 20:509-30. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1973. A record of changes in mosquito taxonomy in the United States...of America, 1955-1972. Mosq. Syst. 5:187-93. 60 Darsie , R. F., Jr ., D. MacCreary, and L. A. Stearns. 1951. An annotated list of the mosquitoes of

  3. Method refinements for the midge life-cycle, Chironomus dilutus test

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval stages of non-biting midges can be found in almost any freshwater ecosystem, and one of the commonly tested midges is Chironomus dilutus (Chironomidae, Diptera) which is used for toxicity testing and ecological risk assessment of freshwater contaminants. USEPA, ASTM, Envir...

  4. Cryoprotective dehydration and the resistance to inoculative freezing in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During winter, larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae), must endure 7–8 months of continuous subzero temperatures, encasement in a matrix of soil and ice, and severely desiccating conditions. This environment, along with the fact that larvae possess a high rate of w...

  5. Method refinements for the midge life-cycle, Chironomus dilutus test

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval stages of non-biting midges can be found in almost any freshwater ecosystem, and one of the commonly tested midges is Chironomus dilutus (Chironomidae, Diptera) which is used for toxicity testing and ecological risk assessment of freshwater contaminants. USEPA, ASTM, Envir...

  6. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Assemblage of Necrophagous Diptera in Atlantic Insular Environments and Response to Different Levels of Human Presence.

    PubMed

    Carmo, R F R; Vasconcelos, S D

    2016-10-01

    Islands act as natural laboratories for ecological studies to explain bioinvasion processes and, in this scenario, necrophagous Diptera have never been used as model organisms. This study aimed to (i) describe assemblages of necrophagous Diptera (Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in two insular environments of different origins and distances from mainland, (ii) investigate the effect of anthropogenic impact on the assemblage of carrion flies, (iii) to quantify the establishment of invasive species in the two islands, and (iv) to infer about the conservation status of the islands based on the ecological parameters. Sampling was performed in 2011-2012, in the dry and rainy season. Insects were collected by using traps with chicken liver or sardine baits. In each island, environments exposed to different degrees of human impact were sampled. Ecological analyses were carried out to characterize the assemblages of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, with emphasis on the relation between native and invasive species. In total, 99,862 adults of 21 species of blow flies and flesh flies were collected. Overall abundance in the oceanic island was higher than in the continental island, although the richness of species was higher in the latter. The type of bait did not influence diversity of species sampled in either island. No difference was observed in total richness of both families according to the gradient of anthropogenic impact, in both islands. The invasive species Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was classified as dominant in all environments, irrespective of the anthropogenic impact, which raises concern about the conservation status of each island.

  8. Identification through DNA barcoding of Tabanidae (Diptera) vectors of surra disease in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas; Maity, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Tyagi, Kaomud; Singha, Devkant; Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Naskar, Atanu; Rath, Shibananda

    2015-10-01

    Horse flies and deer flies are common names applied to members of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Tabanid flies are pestiferous and of veterinary and medical importance, with about 244 species in India. They are major vectors of Trypanosoma evansi that causes trypanosomiasis (surra disease). Lack of stable morphological characters, and scarcity of taxonomic expertise, is major impediments for accurate species identification of these important pest and disease vectors. Molecular data, especially DNA barcode data, has been widely used in the identification of Diptera of economic importance. We evaluated the utility of DNA barcode data to discriminate the vectors of surra disease (trypanosomiasis) from India. We used barcode gap and reciprocal monophyly (neighbor-joining and Bayesian tree) criteria to analyze barcode data. A total of 46 specimens belonging to 7 species under four genera in two subfamilies were used for this study. DNA barcode data was not available previously for these species. Analysis revealed that all morphologically identifiable species can be discriminated using DNA barcoding data. Further, our study clearly demonstrated the presence of cryptic species in Chrysops dispar. Moreover, we revealed that closely related species without stable taxonomic distinguishing characters in the "Tabanus striatus species complex" can be discriminated using DNA barcode data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The adult head morphology of the hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Schneeberg, Katharina; Polilov, Alexey; Harris, Marion O; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-11-01

    The adult head of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor was examined and described in detail. Morphological features are evaluated with respect to phylogenetic implications and possible effects of miniaturisation. Preserved groundplan features of Diptera are the orthognathous orientation of the head, the vestiture of small microtrichia (possible autapomorphy), filiform antennae inserted frontally between the compound eyes, the presence of a clypeolabral muscle (possible autapomorphy), the presence of labellae (autapomorphy), and the presence of only one premental retractor. Potential synapomorphies of the groups assigned to Bibionomorpha are the origin of M. tentorioscapalis medialis on the frons and the loss of M. craniolacinialis. Further apomorphies of Cecidomyiidae identified in Mayetiola are the unusually massive anterior tentorial arm, the absence of the labro-epipharyngeal food channel, the absence of the lacinia, and the presence of antennal sensilla connected by a seta, a feature not known from any other group of Diptera. The very large size of the compound eyes (in relation to the entire head surface) and the complete loss of ocelli are possible effects of miniaturization. The large size of the brain (in relation to the cephalic lumen), the unusual shape of the optic lobes, and the absence of the frontal ganglion as a separate structure are probably also linked with size reduction.

  10. Genome sequence of Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae): implications for medical, veterinary and forensic research.

    PubMed

    Andere, Anne A; Platt, Roy N; Ray, David A; Picard, Christine J

    2016-10-28

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are important medical, veterinary and forensic insects encompassing 8 % of the species diversity observed in the calyptrate insects. Few genomic resources exist to understand the diversity and evolution of this group. We present the hybrid (short and long reads) draft assemblies of the male and female genomes of the common North American blow fly, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The 550 and 534 Mb draft assemblies contained 8312 and 9490 predicted genes in the female and male genomes, respectively; including > 93 % conserved eukaryotic genes. Putative X and Y chromosomes (21 and 14 Mb, respectively) were assembled and annotated. The P. regina genomes appear to contain few mobile genetic elements, an almost complete absence of SINEs, and most of the repetitive landscape consists of simple repetitive sequences. Candidate gene approaches were undertaken to annotate insecticide resistance, sex-determining, chemoreceptors, and antimicrobial peptides. This work yielded a robust, reliable reference calliphorid genome from a species located in the middle of a calliphorid phylogeny. By adding an additional blow fly genome, the ability to tease apart what might be true of general calliphorids vs. what is specific of two distinct lineages now exists. This resource will provide a strong foundation for future studies into the evolution, population structure, behavior, and physiology of all blow flies.

  11. Genomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Suwanchaichinda, C.; Brattsten, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. PMID:25368081

  12. Transcriptomes of three species of Tipuloidea (Diptera, Tipulomorpha) and implications for phylogeny of Tipulomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zehui; Zhang, Xiao; Ding, Shuangmei; Tang, Chufei; Wang, Yuyu; de Jong, Herman; Cameron, Stephen L.; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Tipulomorpha has long been a problematic taxon in terms of familial composition, phylogenetic relationships among families and position relative to other ‘lower’ Diptera. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing provides a powerful basis for phylogenetic studies. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome datasets representing the families Pediciidae, Limoniidae and Cylindrotomidae using high-throughput sequencing technologies. We assembled cDNA libraries for Pedicia vetusta (Alexander) (Pediciidae), Rhipidia sejuga Zhang, Li and Yang (Limoniidae) and Liogma simplicicornis Alexander (Cylindrotomidae). Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 28,252, 44,152 and 44,281 unigenes, from the three respective species. Based on sequence similarity searches, 12,475 (44.16%), 20,334 (46.05%) and 17,478 (39.47%) genes were identified. Analysis of genes highly conserved at the amino acid sequence level revealed there were 1,709 single-copy orthologs genes across the analyzed species. Phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the 1,709 single-copy orthologs genes indicated that the relationship between the four major infraorders of lower Diptera was: Culicomorpha + (Tipulomorpha + (Psychodomorpha + (Bibionomorpha + Brachycera))). Trichoceridae belongs within Tipulomorpha as the sister-group of Tipuloidea. Highly supported relationships within the Tipuloidea are Pediciidae + (Limoniidae + (Cylindrotomidae + Tipulidae)). Four-cluster likelihood mapping was used to study potential incongruent signals supporting other topologies, however, results were congruent with the ML tree. PMID:28264066

  13. Structure and ultrastructure of spermatozoon in six species of Drosophilidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Gracielle, I M S; Tidon, R; Báo, S N

    2016-10-18

    The Drosophilidae family is formed by Brachycera Diptera distributed widely across different regions of the planet. It is composed of about 4000 species, 304 of which are found in Brazil. The objective of this work was to characterize morphologically the structure of the male internal reproductive apparatus and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon in four Neotropical (Drosophila cardini, D. mercatorum, D. nebulosa and D. sturtevanti) and two invasive (D. simulans and Zaprionus indianus) species of drosophilids. The structural aspect of the internal reproductive apparatus corresponds with that described for other drosophilids; however, there are differences in the size and coloration of the structures, such as the testes, in each species analyzed. The spermatozoon of these species was seen to be long and fine, presenting morphological variation. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon revealed that the morphological pattern is similar to that found in the majority of insects. The head region presents a nucleus with condensed chromatin and the acrosome positioned laterally to the nucleus. In the tail region, the axoneme presents the 9+9+2 pattern commonly described for other species of Diptera. The species presented differences regarding the shape and size of the mitochondrial derivatives. Cytochemical analysis using EPTA also revealed differences in terms of the location of the basic proteins in the mitochondrial derivates. The results obtained contribute to expanding the database for the Drosophilidae family, providing information that may contribute to intra- and inter-specific identification and supplying phylogenetic analyses.

  14. Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigations of Third-Instar Larva of Cordylobia rodhaini (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Agent of Furuncular Myiasis.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, M; Cultrera, R; Chicca, M; Leis, M

    2015-05-01

    A scanning electron microscopy study of the third larval instar of Cordylobia rodhaini Gedoelst (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causing obligatory furuncular myiasis, is presented here for the first time. The larvae were collected from a patient exposed to them in the tropical rainforest of Kibale National Park (Uganda). Distinctive features are described in sequence from the anterior region to the posterior region, highlighting the morphological features of antennae, maxillary palps, structures related to mouth opening, sensory structures, thoracic and abdominal spines, and anterior and posterior spiracles. The results are compared with those of other Calyptrata flies, mainly from the family Calliphoridae and, when possible, with Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the only other species of genus Cordylobia investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Using Frons Width to Differentiate Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Phormia regina (Meigen) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy).

    PubMed

    Langer, Sarah V; Kyle, Christopher J; Beresford, David V

    2017-03-01

    Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are morphologically similar blow fly species commonly used for estimating postmortem intervals. Field collection and storage of adults can result in color changes, in particular on calypters and palps; often collected specimens show damage such as wing fray or fungal growth. We measured the frons width: total head width ratio using photographs (ImageJ version 1.49) to differentiate these two species. Both sexes were distinguishable to species, with the greatest difference between males: 12.34% P. terraenovae versus 1.62% P. regina, less so for females: 40.25% P. terraenovae, versus 33.65% P. regina. Incorporating this feature into future blow fly keys would help with distinguishing field-caught specimens when other features are obstructed.

  16. The Evolution of SINEs and LINEs in the genus Chironomus (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Papusheva, Ekaterina; Gruhl, Mary C; Berezikov, Eugene; Groudieva, Tatiana; Scherbik, Svetlana V; Martin, Jon; Blinov, Alexander; Bergtrom, Gerald

    2004-03-01

    Genomic DNA amplification from 51 species of the family Chironomidae shows that most contain relatives of NLRCth1 LINE and CTRT1 SINE retrotransposons first found in Chironomus thummi. More than 300 cloned PCR products were sequenced. The amplified region of the reverse transcriptase gene in the LINEs is intact and highly conserved, suggesting active elements. The SINEs are less conserved, consistent with minimal/no selection after transposition. A mitochondrial gene phylogeny resolves the Chironomus genus into six lineages (Guryev et al. 2001). LINE and SINE phylogenies resolve five of these lineages, indicating their monophyletic origin and vertical inheritance. However, both the LINE and the SINE tree topologies differ from the species phylogeny, resolving the elements into "clusters I-IV" and "cluster V" families. The data suggest a descent of all LINE and SINE subfamilies from two major families. Based on the species phylogeny, a few LINEs and a larger number of SINEs are cladisitically misplaced. Most misbranch with LINEs or SINEs from species with the same families of elements. From sequence comparisons, cladistically misplaced LINEs and several misplaced SINEs arose by convergent base substitutions. More diverged SINEs result from early transposition and some are derived from multiple source SINEs in the same species. SINEs from two species (C. dorsalis, C. pallidivittatus), expected to belong to the clusters I-IV family, branch instead with cluster V family SINEs; apparently both families predate separation of cluster V from clusters I-IV species. Correlation of the distribution of active SINEs and LINEs, as well as similar 3' sequence motifs in CTRT1 and NLRCth1, suggests coevolving retrotransposon pairs in which CTRT1 transposition depends on enzymes active during NLRCth1 LINE mobility.

  17. Descriptions of Zavortinkius, a New Subgenus of Aedes, and the Eleven Included Species from the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    entomology studies -XVII. Biosystematics of Kenknightia, a new subgenus of the mosquito genus Aedes Meigen from the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae...subgenus, Zavortinkius, in genus Aedes is described and includes 11 species of which four are new (Ae. brunhesi, Ae. geofioyi, Ae. huangae and Ae...Brygooi, Longipalpis and Monetus) based on features of the adults, female and male genitalia, pupae and fourth-instar larvae. Keys to adults, pupae

  18. Redescription of Four Oriental Species of Culex (Culiciomyia) and the Description of a New Species from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    fauna of Southeast Asia - II. The genus Culex in Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) Z(1): 1-296. 1967b...illustrated. A new species, C. harrisoni, from Thailand is rec- ognized. During the preliminary study of the CuZex material from Southeast Asia and...these spe- cies so that they will be readily recognized by other workers studying the Or- iental fauna. The descriptions of bahri, viridiventer and

  19. Effects of Different Pyrethroids on Landing Behavior of Female Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) MIRIAM F. COOPERBAND1 AND SANDRA A. ALLAN Center for Medical, Agricultural and...genera, Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were tested for facultative landing and resting behavior on...which justify the use of alternative terminology. The term “locomotive stimulant” is offered as an acceptable alternative. KEY WORDS insect behavior

  20. New Record of Lipoptena cervi and Updated Checklist of the Louse Flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS New Record of Lipoptena cervi and Updated Checklist of the Louse Flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea HEUNG...Republic of Korea. A total of Þve females and 10 males was collected from eight of 29 Korean water deer ,Hydropotes inermis argyropus Swinhoe, from...collection records, and repositories are also noted. KEY WORDS louse ßy, Lipoptena cervi, Hippoboscidae, water deer , Korea Both sexes of louse ßies or

  1. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-02-26

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.

  2. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) konderi Galvao and Damasceno: Neotype Designation and Resurrection from Synonymy with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassu) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-07

    AND RESURRECTION FROM SYNONYMY WITH ANOPHELES (NYSSORHYNCHUS) OSWALDOI (PERYASSU) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) CARMEN FLORES -MENDOZA, E. L. PEYTON, RICHARD C...Amazonas, Brazil, specimen 1629, 15-VIII-1998, C. Flores -Mendoza coil., deposited at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC), Rio de Janeiro, Bra- zil...Hygiene, Monographic Series 18. 1948. Notas sobre a distribui•fio e a biologia dos anofelinos das Regi6es Nordestina e Amaz6n- ica do Brasil

  3. Experimental Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus by Strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    AD-A281 335 0 Experimental Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephaliti Vi 4 by Strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynch &1j (Diptera: Culicidae...co m •strains of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was assessed for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus isolated from Ae. albopictus collected in Polk...County, Florida. Both species became infected with and transmitted EEE virus by bite after feeding on 1-d-old chicks that had _been inoculated with EEE

  4. Key for European species of the Cheilosia proxima group (Diptera, Syrphidae) with a description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Vujić, Ante; Radenković, Snežana; Trifunov, Sonja; Nikolić, Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae), is described and distinguished from the closely related species Cheilosia pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided. PMID:23653524

  5. Taxonomic revision of the Carpathian endemic Pedicia (Crunobia) staryi species–group (Diptera, Pediciidae) based on morphology and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Avar-Lehel; Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Pedicia, subgenus Crunobia (Diptera: Pediciidae) belonging to the staryi group are described on the basis of a combination of molecular and morphology datasets, and a key to discriminate between species of the subgenus Crunobia is added. Geographic projection of the identified taxa suggests insular-like distribution and shows the importance of the Carpathians as a genetic center which is home to an exceptionally high aquatic diversity in Europe. PMID:27110152

  6. How to inventory tropical flies (Diptera)--One of the megadiverse orders of insects.

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V

    2015-04-28

    A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to

  7. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about the dominant frequency. This method is based on determination of a quantity called the Hindex, which is derived using data from the FFT analysis. Calculation of the H index allows computer-based selection of the most suitable segment of recorded data for determination of the representative wing beat frequency. Experimental data suggest that the H index can also prove useful in examining wing beat frequency variability in Diptera whose flight muscle structure has been genetically altered. Examples from Drosophila indirect flight muscle studies as well as examples of artificial data are presented to illustrate the method. This method fulfills a need for a standardized method for determining wing beat frequencies and examining wing beat frequency variability in insects whose flight muscles have been altered by protein engineering methods. PMID:7811927

  8. Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136

  9. Seasonal, Locality, and Habitat Variation in Assemblages of Carrion-Associated Diptera in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Parry, N J; Mansell, M W; Weldon, C W

    2016-11-01

    Seasonal, spatial, and habitat responses of carrion-associated Diptera assemblages can provide valuable information about the presence or absence of species and their relative abundance, and thereby enhance understanding of their responses to environmental variables and how this may have an impact on forensic investigations. Three different nature reserves (localities) within the Municipality of Tshwane, South Africa, were selected to determine whether species assemblages of carrion-feeding flies differ between seasons, localities, and habitat types. A total of 59,511 adult Diptera, identified to 35 species in eight different families, were collected using modified Redtop hanging traps, baited with liver and fish, during four seasons in three different habitat types. Species assemblages differed temporally, with season being the main factor determining species diversity and not locality or habitat. However, savanna and human-disturbed habitats supported a higher abundance and species richness than grassland habitats. Areas adjacent to the localities, such as large urban expanses in Dinokeng or agricultural holdings in Rietvlei, led to an increase in the abundance and mean species richness of carrion-associated Diptera, and in increased numbers of pest or invasive species such as Chrysomya megacephala (F.). Despite this, the overall species assemblages present in human-disturbed areas were very similar to those recorded in natural habitats.

  10. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  11. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  12. Mitochondrial Genomes Provide Insights into the Phylogeny of Lauxanioidea (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuankun; Li, Wenliang; Ding, Shuangmei; Cameron, Stephen L; Mao, Meng; Shi, Li; Yang, Ding

    2017-04-14

    The superfamily Lauxanioidea is a significant dipteran clade including over 2500 known species in three families: Lauxaniidae, Celyphidae and Chamaemyiidae. We sequenced the first five (three complete and two partial) lauxanioid mitochondrial (mt) genomes, and used them to reconstruct the phylogeny of this group. The lauxanioid mt genomes are typical of the Diptera, containing all 37 genes usually present in bilaterian animals. A total of three conserved intergenic sequences have been reported across the Cyclorrhapha. The inferred secondary structure of 22 tRNAs suggested five substitution patterns among the Cyclorrhapha. The control region in the Lauxanioidea has apparently evolved very fast, but four conserved structural elements were detected in all three complete mt genome sequences. Phylogenetic relationships based on the mt genome data were inferred by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. The traditional relationships between families within the Lauxanioidea, (Chamaemyiidae + (Lauxaniidae + Celyphidae)), were corroborated; however, the higher-level relationships between cyclorrhaphan superfamilies are mostly poorly supported.

  13. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review

    PubMed Central

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  14. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details. PMID:26798270

  15. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  16. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review.

    PubMed

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements.

  17. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  18. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  19. Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José

    2014-01-01

    The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the "Coleção de Flebotomíneos" of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female "allotype" and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female "syntypes"), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female "allotype" and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype).

  20. Aggregation of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) Males on Iris spp. Flowers Releasing Methyl Anthranilate.

    PubMed

    Ohler, Bonnie J; Guédot, Christelle; Zack, Richard S; Landolt, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I. germanica flowers elicited attraction of T. glabra to the flowers. This study suggests that I. pallida flowers may attract T. glabra males to aggregate because they release the known attractant, methyl anthranilate, whereas I. germanica flowers may not be attractive because they do not release methyl anthranilate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Differential emergence of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from on-farm breeding substrates in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey M; Jess, Stephen; Murchie, Archie K

    2013-05-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of viral diseases worldwide. Following the unforeseen outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe (2006–2009) there was a need to clarify on-farm breeding substrates utilized by temperate Culicoides spp. Six substrates (cow dung, cow slurry, horse dung, sheep dung, maize silage and soil) were investigated for Culicoides spp. emergence over a 31-week period. Overall, most Obsoletus group Culicoides emerged from the cow dung and the most Pulicaris group Culicoides emerged from the sheep dung. Furthermore, Culicoides of the Obsoletus group were found to be abundant in cow slurry and sheep dung. Temperature played a significant role in the emergence times of adult Culicoides. The Obsoletus group appear to have undergone 3 generations during the experimental period. The sex ratio of emergent Obsoletus group Culicoides was affected by substrate type, with a greater proportion of males emerging from cow dung and slurry compared with the other substrates.

  2. Retrocitomyia Lopes, 1982 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): new species, new records, key to males, and an updated catalog.

    PubMed

    De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes; Salazar-Souza, Mônica

    2016-09-29

    Prior to this work, Retrocitomyia Lopes (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) included ten recognized species distributed exclusively in the New World. We here add a new species to the genus, Retrocitomyia sisbiota sp. nov. from the Central-West Region of Brazil. Four other species of Retrocitomyia are recorded from this region for the first time, redescribed, compared, and illustrated, with emphasis on the male terminalia. Retrocitomyia paraguayensis Lopes is recorded from Brazil for the first time, R. fluminensis Lopes and R. retrocita (Hall) are newly recorded from the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, and R. mizuguchiana Tibana & Xerez is newly recorded from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. New generic diagnostic characters are added and the interpretation of some structures of the male terminalia is discussed. An updated catalog of all Retrocitomyia species and an identification key to the males of these species are also provided.

  3. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera) and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies. PMID:28484485

  4. New record of Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) collected from Siberian roe deer on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Lee, Sang; Moon, Kyoung-Ha; Kang, Chang-Wan; Yun, Young-Min

    2013-09-01

    Lipoptena deer keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals, and only one species, Lipoptena cervi (L.), has previously been reported from the Republic of Korea. A study of Siberian roe deer Capreolus pygargus Pallas on Jeju Island, south of the Korean mainland, led to the discovery of a second species of deer ked, Lipoptena fortisetosa Maa, for Korea. In total, 518 deer keds were collected from 19 adult and juvenile deer examined from May to October 2012. The infestation of all of the deer examined and the occurrence on newly born deer suggest a high prevalence and abundance of L. fortisetosa parasitizing Siberian roe deer throughout Jeju Island. This deer represents a new host species for L. fortisetosa.

  5. Thaumaleidae (Diptera) collected by the late Dr. W. Joost in the Caucasus Mountains.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Rüdiger; Bellstedt, Ronald

    2015-11-05

    The aquatic insect collection of the late Dr. W. Joost contained two new species of Thaumaleidae (Diptera) from the Caucasus Mountains: Thaumalea monikae sp. n. and Thaumalea biacuminata sp. n. These two new species are herein described, and the most abundant species in Dr. Joost's collection, Thaumalea martinovskyi Joost, 1979, is redescribed based on the type material. Figures of male and female genitalia for all species are provided. All three species show morphological similarities to taxa from the Eastern Mediterranean area. Thaumalea monikae is related to the European T. bezzii-species group, T. biacuminata to the T. serrata-group, and T. martinovskyi to T. kyladica Wagner, 1981 and T. malickyi Theischinger, 1979 from the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, Kyanne R; Cook, Shelley; Bertone, Matthew A; Harbach, Ralph E; Wiegmann, Brian M; Besansky, Nora J

    2009-12-22

    Phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. The generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address. We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous. Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. The generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address. Results We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous. Conclusions Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes. PMID:20028549

  8. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Hawaiian Craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  9. Introduction and establishment of the exotic mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Schaffner, F; Garros, C; Dekoninck, W; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2009-11-01

    The establishment of the potential vector species Aedes (Finlaya) japonicusjaponicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Belgium is reported. The species was most likely introduced through the international trade in used tires. It was first collected in 2002 on the premises of a second-hand tire company and was sampled using different sampling methods in the two consecutive years (2003-2004). It was only in 2007 and 2008, during a national mosquito survey (MODIRISK), that its presence as adults and larvae at the above-mentioned site and at another tire company in the area was confirmed based on morphological and molecular identification. This discovery is the first record for Belgium of an exotic mosquito species that established successfully and raises the question on the need for monitoring and control. Considering the accompanying species found during the surveys, we also report here the first observation of Culex (Maillotia) hortensis hortensis (Ficalbi) in Belgium.

  10. A standard cytogenetic photomap for the mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae): application for physical mapping.

    PubMed

    Sharakhova, Maria V; Xia, Ai; McAlister, Sarah I; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2006-09-01

    To facilitate physical genome mapping, we have developed a new cytogenetic photomap for Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae), an important malaria vector in Asia. The high-resolution images of the ovarian polytene chromosomes have been straightened and divided by numbered divisions and lettered subdivisions. The exact chromosomal locations of eight DNA probes have been determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Using the DNA sequences, we have established correspondence between chromosomal arms among An. stephensi, Anopheles gambiae (Patton), and Anopheles funestus (Giles). The results support previous cytogenetic observations of arm translocations taking place during diversification of the species. To make the cytogenetic map useful for population genetics studies, we have indicated the chromosomal positions for the breakpoints of 19 polymorphic inversions.

  11. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Hawaiian craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification.

  12. First record of the avian ectoparasite Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, L; Antoniazzi, L R; Couri, M S; Monje, L D; Beldomenico, P M

    2011-10-01

    Species of Philornis Meinert, 1890 (Diptera, Muscidae) are Neotropical dipterans that include species with parasitic larvae which feed on nestling birds. To date, all Philornis species that have been recorded from Argentina have parasitic subcutaneous larvae. Here, for the first time for Argentina, we report the finding of Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968, a fly with a nest-dwelling, semi-haematophagous larva. This record, from the humid Chaco ecoregion of Argentina in the nest of a saffron finch Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater, substantially extends the known distribution of this species. We also report the consensus sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of three of the specimens for future reference and comparison. Further investigation is needed to determine whether Argentina is part of the historical range of P. downsi or, alternatively, represents a recent expansion of its range, perhaps due to climatic changes or other factors of global environmental variation.

  13. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  14. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics.

  15. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details.

  16. Phylogeny of Drosophilinae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), with comments on combined analysis and character support.

    PubMed

    Remsen, James; O'Grady, Patrick

    2002-08-01

    Drosophilidae (Diptera) is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies. Here, we present a combined analysis phylogeny of Drosophilinae, one of the two subfamilies of Drosophilidae, based on data from six different data partitions, including both molecular and morphological characters. Although our data show support for the monophyly of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae, and the subgenus Sophophora, neither the genus Drosophila nor the subgenus Drosophila is monophyletic. Partitioned Bremer support (PBS) indicates that morphological data taken from Grimaldi's monograph (Grimaldi, 1990a), as well as sequences from the mitochondrial (mt) 16S rDNA and the nuclear Adh gene, lend much support to our tree's topology. This is particularly interesting in the case of Grimaldi's data, since his published hypothesis conflicts with ours in significant ways. Our combined analysis cladogram phylogeny reflects the catch-all designation that the name Drosophila has become, in that the cladogram does not support the monophyly of either the genus or subgenus Drosophila.

  17. Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Mara De; Buenaventura, Eliana

    2016-02-24

    Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from the Colombian Andes are described based on male specimens collected using decaying animal matter as bait: Oxysarcodexia catica sp. n., O. laclaricola sp. n., and O. liliarum sp. n. The straight and narrow cercal prong with an acute apex, and the juxta enlarged distally and folded backwards of O. catica sp. n. resemble these structures in O. fraterna Lopes, O. peruviana (Lopes) and O. vittata (Walker). The shape of the cercus of O. laclaricola sp. n. is similar to that of O. floricola Lopes, whereas its vesica is similar in shape to that of O. cyaniforceps (Hall). Oxysarcodexia liliarum sp. n. resembles O. favorabilis (Lopes) in the inflorescence-like phallus and enlarged juxta. The postero-distal phallic enlargement of O. catica sp. n. and O. liliarum sp. n. support the inclusion of these species in the so-called "Xarcophaga group" (sensu Lopes).

  18. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  19. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) specific recombinant monoclonal phage display antibodies for prey detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.

  20. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-01-12

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco.