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Sample records for chironomidae diptera nematocera

  1. Comparative Mt Genomics of the Tipuloidea (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha) and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of the Tipulomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Meng; Li, Xuankun; Cameron, Stephen L.; de Jong, Herman; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    A traditionally controversial taxon, the Tipulomorpha has been frequently discussed with respect to both its familial composition and relationships with other Nematocera. The interpretation of internal relationships within the Tipuloidea, which include the Tipulidae sensu stricto, Cylindrotomidae, Pediciidae and Limoniidae, is also problematic. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Symplecta hybrida (Meigen, 1804), which belongs to the subfamily Chioneinae of family Limoniidae, and another five nearly complete mt genomes from the Tipuloidea. We did a comparative analysis of these mt genomics and used them, along with some other representatives of the Nematocera to construct phylogenetic trees. Trees inferred by Bayesian methods strongly support a sister-group relationship between Trichoceridae and Tipuloidea. Tipulomorpha are not supported as the earliest branch of the Diptera. Furthermore, phylogenetic trees indicate that the family Limoniidae is a paraphyletic group. PMID:27341029

  2. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Nematocera (Lower Diptera): Evidence of Rearrangement following a Complete Genome Duplication in a Winter Crane Fly

    PubMed Central

    Beckenbach, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented. PMID:22155689

  3. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  4. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  5. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae) as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Daniel A; Fokam, Eric; Ghansah, Anita; Amakye, Josef; Wilson, Michael D; Brown, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn) in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae). Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments). Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum. PMID:19393069

  6. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  7. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  8. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  9. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as Paleothermometers in the African Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.

    2008-12-01

    Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and

  10. Does biodiversity of macroinvertebrates and genome response of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) reflect heavy metal pollution in a small pond?

    PubMed

    Michailova, Paraskeva; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elzbieta; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Kownacki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Bolesław in the Olkusz region with Zn-Pb ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2-8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 μg g( - 1)) and Zn (1,991 μg g( - 1)) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond, 48 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to Oligochaeta and water stages of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Diptera (mainly Chironomidae family) were found. The influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrates diversity was not found. Effect of heavy metal pollution was observed on the appearance of chromosome aberrations in the polytene chromosomes of Chironomidae larvae. It was manifested by two ways: (1) in Kiefferulus tendipediformis and Chironomus sp. chromosome rearrangements in fixed state (tandem fusion and homozygous inversions), indicated intensive process of speciation; (2) in Chironomus sp., K. tendipediformis, Glyptotendipes gripekoveni (Chironomidae) somatic chromosome rearrangements (inversions, deficiencies, specific puffs, polyploidy) affected few cells of every individual. The somatic functional and structural alterations in Chironomidae species are particular suitable as biomarkers-they can be easily identified and used for detecting toxic agents in the environment.

  11. Lignocellulolytic enzymes and bacteria associated with the digestive tracts of Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Koroiva, R; Souza, C W O; Toyama, D; Henrique-Silva, F; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the digestive activity of the enzymes that digest cellulose and hemicellulose and the bacterial community that is capable of hydrolyzing wood compounds in the digestive tracts of Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae, which are miners of decomposing submerged tree and bush branches. Based on quantification of reducing sugars, these larvae have a limited capacity for cellulose degradation but a good capacity for xylan hydrolysis. We isolated 31 types of colonies from two larval morphotypes, of which 19 tested positive for the capacity to hydrolyze at least one of the four substrates that were used as the main carbon source in the culture media. Their woody compound degradation capacity was assessed using colorimetric tests. The bacteria were identified by the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. None of the bacteria were capable of degrading lignin. The genus Pseudomonas had the greatest species richness; Bacillus spp exhibited the greatest capacity for degrading the different substrates, and Sphingobium was found in both morphotypes. Microorganisms participate in the degradation of wood consumed by Stenochironomus larvae. This is the first report of lignocellulolytic bacteria and enzymes in the digestive tracts of mining chironomids.

  12. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  13. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  14. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future. PMID:27394867

  15. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  16. Improving environmental and biodiversity monitoring in the Baltic Sea using DNA barcoding of Chironomidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Brodin, Y; Ejdung, G; Strandberg, J; Lyrholm, T

    2013-11-01

    As for many other regions, environmental and biodiversity monitoring of the brackish Baltic Sea suffers from low species resolution for several taxa. One such case is the benthic larvae of midges Chironomidae (Diptera), which are estimated to constitute about 30% of the macrozoobenthos species of the Baltic Sea and are important indicators of environmental quality. We assessed the usefulness of COI (cytochrome oxidase I) gene barcoding to improve species resolution and its potential for implementation in monitoring programmes. Neighbour-Joining, Maximum parsimony and Bayesian-inference analyses all provided high congruency with morphological analyses of adult males for almost all 42 species studied. Barcoding was helpful to elucidate some cases of taxonomical difficulties, such as synonyms. In contrast to the high identification accuracy when using our local database, there were a number of cases where matching with GenBank and BOLD provided puzzling results. For reliable species identification at least 15-30 specimens from 5-10 well-distributed sites within the geographical range of the species might be needed in a database to adequately cover the intraspecific variability of chironomids. Implementation of DNA barcoding, as applied here, in monitoring would result in an increase from at present less than 10% to more than 90% successful chironomid species identification of Baltic Sea benthic samples, as it also would for many nearby lakes. Routine monitoring of benthic environmental samples based on Next-Generation sequencing techniques would provide a cost effective way to obtain a taxonomically much more complete assessment of environmental quality and biodiversity, as required by EU directives and national legislation.

  17. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed. PMID:27615899

  18. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  19. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  20. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. PMID:24899169

  1. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands.

  2. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    PubMed

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days.

  3. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae and pupae of these…

  4. Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.

    PubMed

    Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera

  5. Cryptic species in the nuisance midge Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the status of Tripedilum Kieffer.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Spies, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse, 1889), originally described from Australia, is an apparently widespread species of Chironomidae (Diptera) that can attain nuisance densities in some eutrophic water bodies. Appropriate management depends upon the identity and ability to distinguish from potential cryptic taxa. A morphological study of larvae, pupae and adults of both sexes confirmed P. nubifer as widely distributed and frequently abundant, but also revealed two previously cryptic species of limited distribution in northern Australia. These species are described as new and illustrated in all stages here. Polypedilum quasinubifer Cranston sp. n. is described from north-west Queensland, Australia and also from Thailand and Singapore. Polypedilum paranubifer Cranston sp. n. is known only from retention ponds of a uranium mine in Northern Territory, Australia. Unusual morphological features of P. nubifer including alternate Lauterborn organs on the larval antenna, cephalic tubules on the pupa and frontal tubercles on the adult head are present in both new species as well. Newly slide-mounted types of Polypedilum pelostolum Kieffer, 1912 (lectotype designated here) confirm synonymy to Chironomus nubifer Skuse, 1889, examined also as newly-slide mounted types. Reviewed plus new evidence does not support recognition of Tripedilum Kieffer, 1921 as a separate taxon; therefore, Tripedilum is returned to junior synonymy with Polypedilum s. str. PMID:27394199

  6. Exploring the utility of DNA barcoding in species delimitation of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ruilei; Sun, Bingjiao; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) as the barcode region to deal with taxonomical problems of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). The 114 DNA barcodes representing 27 morphospecies are divided into 33 well separated clusters based on both Neighbor Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods. DNA barcodes revealed an 82% success rate in matching with morphospecies. The selected DNA barcode data support 37-64 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on the methods of Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP). Furthermore, a priori species based on consistent phenotypic variations were attested by molecular analysis, and a taxonomical misidentification of barcode sequences from GenBank was found. We could not observe a distinct barcode gap but an overlap ranged from 9-12%. Our results supported DNA barcoding as an ideal method to detect cryptic species, delimit sibling species, and associate different life stages in non-biting midges. PMID:27394207

  7. Distribution, Abundance and Molecular Analysis of Genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera, Chironomidae) in Tropical, High Altitude Andean Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Ribera, C; Rieradevall, M; Villamarín, C; Acosta, R

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of the genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera: Chironomidae), previously reported from Chile to Bolivia, has extended northwards. Larvae, pupae and pupal exuviae of this genus have been found in the high mountain tropical streams of Peru to 9°22'56″, but are restricted to very high altitude streams (altitudes over 3,278 m asl) compared to the lower altitude streams (below 1,100 m asl) in which the genus is reported in Chile and Argentina. Based on morphological studies, both described species in the genus, Barbadocladius andinus Cranston & Krosch and Barbadocladius limay Cranston & Krosch, have been found in Peru as pupae or pupal exuviae. Morphological analysis of the larvae and pupae revealed no differences between the two described species from Patagonia and Peru, which are of similar size and with a similar armament of hooklets and spines in pupal tergites and sternites. However, molecular analysis of larvae and pupae revealed that in Peru, there are at least two different evolutionary lines, one distributed widely and another restricted to one site. Phylogenetic analysis (using cox1 mitochondrial sequences) of all available sequences of Barbadocladius shows that the Chilean and Argentinean material differs from that of Peru. Therefore, a total of four molecular segregates are identified, although morphologically, neither larvae nor the pupae may be differentiated.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica.

  10. Shock chloramination: potential treatment for Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae nuisance abatement in water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Broza, M; Halpern, M; Teltsch, B; Porat, R; Gasith, A

    1998-08-01

    In the early 1990s, infestations of midge larvae (Chironomidae, Chironomus sp.) were discovered in the potable water system of Tel Aviv, Israel. Control measures, such as draining and cleaning tanks, spraying water into the tank's air space, and electrocution traps of midge adults, were either inadequate or ineffective. In this system, monochloramine concentrations of up to 0.75 mg/liter are used routinely as a secondary disinfectant. This chemical was tested in the laboratory as a toxicant of midge larvae. The mortality of 4th instar midge larvae after short exposure to high chloramine concentrations (LC50 values of 32 mg/liter for 75 min) suggested the efficacy of instituting a Shock Chloramination treatment program. Tanks were partially drained until they contained only 20 cm of water and were then temporarily disconnected. Chloramine was added to this water to produce a concentration of approximately 70 mg/liter for 1-2 h. Subsequently, all dead chironomids were flushed out, and the tank was refilled to attain the operational volume of water. A 2nd identical treatment of water in the tank was suggested 7 d later to kill midges from reproductive adults and egg-masses that survived the 1st treatment. This treatment program was tested in commercial covered tanks and gave complete control of these pests for 6-10 wk. These results suggest that this treatment program may effectively prevent midge outbreaks in Israel's drinking water supply system during the height of the summer. PMID:9725031

  11. Why on the snow? Winter emergence strategies of snow-active Chironomidae (Diptera) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka; Paasivirta, Lauri; Giłka, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    A long-term study of adult non-biting midges (Chironomidae) active in winter on the snow in mountain areas and lowlands in Poland yielded 35 species. The lowland and mountain communities differed significantly in their specific composition. The mountain assemblage was found to be more diverse and abundant, with a substantial contribution from the subfamily Diamesinae, whereas Orthocladiinae predominated in the lowlands. Orthocladius wetterensis Brundin was the most characteristic and superdominant species in the winter-active chironomid communities in both areas. Only a few specimens and species of snow-active chironomids were recorded in late autumn and early winter. The abundance of chironomids peaked in late February in the mountain and lowland areas with an additional peak in the mountain areas in early April. However, this second peak of activity consisted mainly of Orthocladiinae, as Diamesinae emerged earliest in the season. Most snow-active species emerged in mid- and late winter, but their seasonal patterns differed between the 2 regions as a result of the different species composition and the duration of snow cover in these regions. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests yielded positive results between each season and the number of chironomid individuals recorded in the mountain area. A positive correlation between air temperature, rising to +3.5 °C, and the number of specimens recorded on the snow in the mountain community was statistically significant. The winter emergence and mate-searching strategies of chironomids are discussed in the light of global warming, and a brief compilation of most important published data on the phenomena studied is provided.

  12. Diversity of larvae of littoral Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) and their role as bioindicators in urban reservoirs of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Morais, S S; Molozzi, J; Viana, A L; Viana, T H; Callisto, M

    2010-11-01

    The Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) have a high species richness, with species adapted to live under widely different environmental conditions. The study of the taxonomic composition of chironomid larvae and the percentage of occurrence of deformities in mouthparts, mainly in the mentum, are used in biomonitoring programmes in order to obtain information on the levels of organic and chemical pollution of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abundance of chironomid larvae and to quantify the occurrence of mentum deformities in the specimens collected in three urban reservoirs with different trophic levels. The reservoirs are located in the hydrographic basin of the Paraopeba River, an affluent of the São Francisco River basin (Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil). The Serra Azul Reservoir is oligotrophic, the Vargem das Flores Reservoir is mesotrophic, and the Ibirité Reservoir is eutrophic. Along the littoral zone of each reservoir, 30 samples were collected during each sampling campaign. Sampling was carried out every three months for one year, with two sampling campaigns during the wet season and two during the dry season in 2008. Physical and chemical parameters measured in the water column included the water depth, Secchi depth, air and water temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, Total-N, Total-P, P-ortho, and chlorophyll-a. The chironomid larvae were identified to the genus level. The structure of the chironomid assemblages was evaluated based on taxonomic richness (24 genera), density, equitability, and diversity. The potential indicator taxa for each reservoir were established through an Indicator Species Analysis. The values for taxonomic richness (20 taxa), equitability (0.737), and Shannon-Wiener diversity (2.215) were highest in the Serra Azul Reservoir. Fissimentum was the indicator taxon in Serra Azul, the oligotrophic reservoir; whereas

  13. [Chromosomal polymorphism and cytotypes Endochironomus tendens F. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from reservoirs in the Saratov and Samara Regions].

    PubMed

    Durnova, N A

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal polymorphism of phytophilous chironomidae, Endochironomus tendens F., from reservoirs in the Saratov and Samara Regions has been studied. Cytophotomaps of polytene chromosomes of the species have been worked out in details, and the found chromosomal sequences cadastre has been established. E. tendens F. cytotypes (karyomorphs I and II) have been analyzed. PMID:19764651

  14. Taxonomic and nontaxonomic responses to ecological changes in an urban lowland stream through the use of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Cortelezzi, A; Paggi, A C; Rodríguez, M; Capítulo, A Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Biotic descriptors--both taxonomic (diversity indices, species richness, and indicator species) and nontaxonomic (biomass, oxygen consumption/production, and anatomical deformities)--are useful tools for measuring a stream's ecological condition. Nontaxonomic parameters detect critical effects not reflected taxonomically. We analyzed changes in Chironomidae populations as taxonomic parameters and mentum deformities as a nontaxonomic parameter for evaluating a South-American-plains stream (Argentina). We performed samplings seasonally (March, June, September, and December; 2005) and physical and chemical measurements at three sampling sites of the stream (DC1 at river source, through DC3 downstream). The specimens collected in sediment and vegetation were analyzed to investigate mouth deformities in Chironomidae larvae. We identified a total of 9 taxa from Chironomidae and Orthocladiinae subfamilies. Shannon's diversity index for Chironomidae decreased from 1.6 bits ind⁻¹ (DC1) to 0.3 bits ind⁻¹ (DC3). The total density of the Chironomidae exhibited a great increase in abundance at site DC3, especially that of Chironomus calligraphus. Chironomidae taxonomic composition also changed among the three sites despite their spatial proximity: C. calligraphus, Goeldichironomus holoprasinus, Parachironomus longistilus, and Polypedilum were present at all three; Corynoneura and Paratanytarsu at DC1 only; Cricotopus at DC1 and DC3; Apedilum elachistus notably at DC2 and DC3; and Parametriocnemus only at DC2. C. calligraphus individuals from DC1 showed no mentum deformities; only 2 from DC2 exhibited mouth-structure alterations; while specimens from DC3 presented the most abnormalities, especially during autumn and late winter. Type-II deformities (supernumerary teeth and gaps) were the most common. Anatomical deformities are sublethal effects representing an early alert to chemically caused environmental degradation. Mentum deformities in benthic-Chironomidae larvae

  15. A new record of Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Uzon volcanic caldera (Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia), its karyotype, ecology and biology.

    PubMed

    Orel, Oksana V; Lobkova, Ludmila E; Zhirov, Sergey V; Petrova, Ninel A

    2015-07-03

    Morphology, cytology, ecology and biology of Holarctic Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl, 1960 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the geothermal Vosmerka Lake (pH=2.0-2.5). An illustrated redescription of C. acidophilus is given on the basis of adult males reared from field-collected pupae, and of simultaneously collected larvae. Additional larvae belonging to the pseudothummi-complex were identified as C. acidophilus on the basis of their karyotype. The karyotype of C. acidophilus (2n=8) and detailed mapping of the 4 chromosome arms A, E, D and F are provided. The population of C. acidophilus from Kamchatka was found to be karyologically monomorphic. Information on distribution and ecology of C. acidophilus from Vosmerka Lake (total mineralization 1583.5 mg/l) is also given. Chironomus acidophilus is the only species of aquatic insects recorded in this lake. Lack of competition and a richness of food resources contribute to the high abundance (35161 ind./m2) and biomass (11.342 g/m2) of the larvae of C. acidophilus in Vosmerka Lake.

  16. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected. PMID:26885875

  17. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. PMID:25347841

  18. Identification and reassessment of the specific status of some tropical freshwater midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) using DNA barcode data.

    PubMed

    Pramual, Pairot; Simwisat, Kusumart; Martin, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Chironomidae are a highly diverse group of insects. Members of this family are often included in programs monitoring the health of freshwater ecosystems. However, a difficulty in morphological identification, particularly of larval stages is the major obstacle to this application. In this study, we tested the efficiency of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences as the DNA barcoding region for species identification of Chironomidae in Thailand. The results revealed 14 species with a high success rate (>90%) for the correct species identification, which suggests the potential usefulness of the technique. However, some morphological species possess high (>3%) intraspecific genetic divergence that suggests these species could be species complexes and need further morphological or cytological examination. Sequence-based species delimitation analyses indicated that most specimens identified as Chironomus kiiensis, Tokunaga 1936, in Japan are conspecific with C. striatipennis, Kieffer 1912, although a small number form a separate cluster. A review of the descriptions of Kiefferulus tainanus (Kieffer 1912) and its junior synonym, K. biroi (Kieffer 1918), following our results, suggests that this synonymy is probably not correct and that K. tainanus occurs in Japan, China and Singapore, while K. biroi occurs in India and Thailand. Our results therefore revealed the usefulness of DNA barcoding for correct species identification of Chironomidae, particularly the immature stages. In addition, DNA barcodes could also uncover hidden diversity that can guide further taxonomic study, and offer a more efficient way to identify species than morphological analysis where large numbers of specimens are involved, provided the identifications of DNA barcodes in the databases are correct. Our studies indicate that this is not the case, and we identify cases of misidentifications for C. flaviplumus, Tokunaga 1940 and K. tainanus. PMID:27395909

  19. Annual production of five species of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Houhu Lake, a typical algal lake (Wuhan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun-Jun, Yan; Yan-Ling, Liang; Hong-Zhu, Wang

    1999-06-01

    Annual production and life cycle of five dominant species of Chironomidae ( Chironomus plumosus, Cryptochironomus sp., Tokunagayusurika akamusi, Procladius sp., Clinotanypus sp.) were studied with samples collected monthly from April, 1996 to March, 1997 in Houhu Lake at four stations. Based on instar-frequency data, C. plumosus was univoltine, while the other four were bivoltine. Production rates in grams wet weight m-2a-1 calculated by the size-frequency method were C. plumosus, 2.170; Cryptochironomus sp., 0.602; T. akamusi, 3.160; Procladius sp., 0.964; Clinotanypus sp., 0.390. Their P/B ratios were 3.9, 4.9, 4.4, 5.3 and 6.6, respectively.

  20. Karyotype characteristics and polymorphism peculiarities of Chironomus bernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia

    PubMed Central

    Karmokov, Mukhamed Kh.; Polukonova, Natalia V.; Sinichkina, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data about the karyotype characteristics, features of chromosomal polymorphism and larval morphology of populations of Chironomus bernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Central Caucasus (the northern macroslope) and Ciscaucasia are presented. The characteristics of the pericentromeric regions of the long chromosomes of this species from Caucasian populations were very similar to the ones from some European populations (from Poland and Italy), but differed from Swiss and Siberian populations. In the North Caucasian populations 10 banding sequences were found: two in arms A, C, and E, and one in arms B, D, F, and G. Nine of them were already known for this species, and one, berC2, is described for the first time. Cytogenetic distances between all the studied populations of Chironomus bernensis show that close geographical location of all studied populations from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia is reflected in their similar cytogenetic structure, but on the other hand, that they are more closely related to populations from Europe than to populations from Western Siberia. At the same time, all studied larvae from Caucasian populations have a four-bladed premandible, instead of a two-bladed one, as in the description of Chironomus bernensis from Switzerland (Wülker and Klötzli 1973, Polukonova 2005c). These peculiarities may indicate the relative isolation of the Caucasus from the viewpoint of microevolution. Further research on karyological and morphological characteristics of Chironomus bernensis from geographically distant regions is necessary as there is a possibility that the presently known species is actually polytypic and consists of several sibling species. PMID:26312128

  1. Karyotype characteristics and polymorphism peculiarities of Chironomusbernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia.

    PubMed

    Karmokov, Mukhamed Kh; Polukonova, Natalia V; Sinichkina, Olga V

    2015-01-01

    Data about the karyotype characteristics, features of chromosomal polymorphism and larval morphology of populations of Chironomusbernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Central Caucasus (the northern macroslope) and Ciscaucasia are presented. The characteristics of the pericentromeric regions of the long chromosomes of this species from Caucasian populations were very similar to the ones from some European populations (from Poland and Italy), but differed from Swiss and Siberian populations. In the North Caucasian populations 10 banding sequences were found: two in arms A, C, and E, and one in arms B, D, F, and G. Nine of them were already known for this species, and one, berC2, is described for the first time. Cytogenetic distances between all the studied populations of Chironomusbernensis show that close geographical location of all studied populations from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia is reflected in their similar cytogenetic structure, but on the other hand, that they are more closely related to populations from Europe than to populations from Western Siberia. At the same time, all studied larvae from Caucasian populations have a four-bladed premandible, instead of a two-bladed one, as in the description of Chironomusbernensis from Switzerland (Wülker and Klötzli 1973, Polukonova 2005c). These peculiarities may indicate the relative isolation of the Caucasus from the viewpoint of microevolution. Further research on karyological and morphological characteristics of Chironomusbernensis from geographically distant regions is necessary as there is a possibility that the presently known species is actually polytypic and consists of several sibling species.

  2. High species richness of Chironomidae (Diptera) in temporary flooded wetlands associated with high species turn-over rates.

    PubMed

    Lundström, J O; Brodin, Y; Schäfer, M L; Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Ostman, O

    2010-08-01

    Species richness and species turn-over of Chironomidae was studied in irregularly flooded wetlands of the River Dalälven flood-plains in central Sweden. The chironomid fauna, sampled with emergence traps in six wetlands over six summers, contained as much as 135 species, and the cumulative species curves indicated that the regional species pool contain several more species. Recurrent irregular floods may have induced this high chironomid species richness and the high species turn-over in the temporary wetlands, as the dominance between terrestrial and aquatic species shifted between years. Half of the wetlands were treated with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) against larvae of the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus. These treatments had no significant effect on chironomid species richness, but there was a higher species turn-over between years of primarily low abundance species in the treated wetlands. The cumulative number of species was also higher in the Bti-treated experimental wetlands than in the untreated reference wetlands. Thus, Bti treatment against mosquito larvae seemed to have only small effects on chironomid species richness but seemed to increase the colonisation-extinction dynamics.

  3. Composition and structure of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream in the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, B F J V; Dias-Silva, M V D; Alves, R G

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the structure of the Chironomidae community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. Samples of bryophytes adhered to rocks along a 100-m stretch of the stream were removed with a metal blade, and 200-mL pots were filled with the samples. The numerical density (individuals per gram of dry weight), Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index, the dominance index (DI), and estimated richness were calculated for each collection period (dry and rainy). Linear regression analysis was employed to test the existence of a correlation between rainfall and the individual's density and richness. The high numerical density and richness of Chironomidae taxa observed are probably related to the peculiar conditions of the bryophyte habitat. The retention of larvae during periods of higher rainfall contributed to the high density and richness of Chironomidae larvae. The rarefaction analysis showed higher richness in the rainy season related to the greater retention of food particles. The data from this study show that bryophytes provide stable habitats for the colonization by and refuge of Chironomidae larvae, mainly under conductions of faster water flow and higher precipitation. PMID:23949708

  4. Composition and structure of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream in the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, B F J V; Dias-Silva, M V D; Alves, R G

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the structure of the Chironomidae community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. Samples of bryophytes adhered to rocks along a 100-m stretch of the stream were removed with a metal blade, and 200-mL pots were filled with the samples. The numerical density (individuals per gram of dry weight), Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index, the dominance index (DI), and estimated richness were calculated for each collection period (dry and rainy). Linear regression analysis was employed to test the existence of a correlation between rainfall and the individual's density and richness. The high numerical density and richness of Chironomidae taxa observed are probably related to the peculiar conditions of the bryophyte habitat. The retention of larvae during periods of higher rainfall contributed to the high density and richness of Chironomidae larvae. The rarefaction analysis showed higher richness in the rainy season related to the greater retention of food particles. The data from this study show that bryophytes provide stable habitats for the colonization by and refuge of Chironomidae larvae, mainly under conductions of faster water flow and higher precipitation.

  5. Rapid Recovery of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Little Mill Creek (Kansas, U.S.A.) After the Decommissioning of a Waste Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.

    2005-05-01

    In June 1995 the Lenexa Waste Water Treatment Plant was decommissioned, providing an opportunity to study recovery of Chironomidae community structure in Little Mill Creek. Using pupal exuviae, weekly changes in the species richness and composition of Chironomidae emerging upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall was evaluated from two weeks before decommissioning to eight weeks post-decommissioning. Chironomidae emergence was clearly different between upstream and downstream sites both before and shortly after effluent input ceased. Before decommissioning, sites immediately downstream of the effluent had low species richness and were dominated by Chironomus riparius (Meigen) and other tolerant taxa, with some recovery at sites farther downstream. Two weeks after decommissioning, only sites immediately downstream of the former effluent were clearly impacted, but effects were reduced compared to pre-recovery collections. At five weeks post-decommissioning, species richness was only slightly lower at the sites immediately downstream of the former effluent and the composition of common species (i.e., >5% of relative abundance) was similar between upstream and downstream sites. Rapid recovery of chironomid emergence below the sewage effluent likely resulted from both colonization of drifting larvae from upstream sources and adult dispersal and oviposition, indicating rapid responses in emergence as water quality conditions improved.

  6. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  7. Biological and genetic characteristics of Glyptotendipes tokunagai (Diptera: Chironomidae) on the basis of successive rearing of forty-two generations over seven years under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min Jeong; Yoon, Tae Joong; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2014-10-01

    Members of the nonbiting midge family Chironomidae have been used worldwide as water-quality indicators or toxicity test organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the chironomid Glyptotendipes tokunagai Sasa as a new test species by conducting successive rearing under laboratory conditions. We monitored biological and genetic aspects of >42 successive generations over 7 yr, and also compared the development of the 39th generation with the fourth generation under five constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. We observed that the number of eggs in an egg mass and the adult body sizes decreased rapidly in the early generations, and thereafter tended to stabilize from the fifth generation to the 42nd generation. In all generations, the mean hatching rate was >75%. Males were predominant in the early generations, but the sex ratio increased to 0.5 (ranged 0.24-0.61) in later generations. The genetic divergence of the reared generations, analyzed by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, decreased from 0.0049 to 0.0004 as the generations progressed. In comparison with the fourth generation, the mortality and developmental time of the 39th generation were generally greater, and the adult body sizes were generally smaller. The estimated low developmental threshold temperatures of eggs, male larvae to male adults, and female larvae to female adults were 9.6, 11.3, and 9.7°C, respectively. The optimal rearing temperature was determined to be 25°C. This is the first record of domesticated rearing of a wild chironomid species under laboratory conditions for >7 yr.

  8. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  9. Revision of the genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 (Diptera, Nematocera, Protopleciidae) with five new species

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiuqin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 of Protopleciidae is revised based on five new species, Epimesoplecia plethora sp. n., Epimesoplecia prosoneura sp. n., Epimesoplecia stana sp. n., Epimesoplecia macrostrena sp. n., and Epimesoplecia ambloneura sp. n., described and illustrated from the Jiulongshan Formation of China. These new species, with clearly preserved characters of (1) compound eyes connected in males; (2) antennae, filiform or moniliform, with 16 segments; (3) r-m reaching the middle of the wing; (4) R4+5 ending very close to wing apex; (5) ratio of bRs/dRs ranging from 1.6 to 10.5; (6) M2 more than 3 times as long as dM1+2; (7) legs thin and long, femur slender, almost equal to tibia; (8) tibial spurs minute; and (9) male genitalia (previously unknown), enable us to emend the diagnosis of Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007. In addition, all described species of Epimesoplecia are characterized, their features summarized, and a key to Epimesoplecia species is given. PMID:25878544

  10. Two new species of Paramesosciophilodes (Diptera, Nematocera, Mesosciophilidae) from the Middle Jurassic of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiaqi; Shi, Guifeng; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Two new species, Paramesosciophilodesbellus sp. n. and Paramesosciophilodesrarissima sp. n., from the Jiulongshan Formation at Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China, are described in the extinct family Mesosciophilidae. Altogether seven genera with 21 species of mesosciophilids have been described from the Jurassic of Siberia and Kazakhstan, the Lower Cretaceous of Transbaikalia, and the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia. An emended generic diagnosis of Paramesosciophilodes and a list of known taxa of mesosciophilids are provided. PMID:26257555

  11. An insight into the sialome of blood feeding Nematocera

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José M.C.; Mans, Ben J.; Arcà, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Within the Diptera and outside the suborder Brachycera, the blood feeding habit occurred at least twice, producing the present day sand flies, and the Culicomorpha, including the mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simulidae), biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and frog feeding flies (Corethrellidae). Alternatives to this scenario are also discussed. Successful blood feeding requires adaptations to antagonize the vertebrate's mechanisms of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, pain and itching, which are triggered by tissue destruction and immune reactions to insect products. Saliva of these insects provides a complex pharmacological armamentarium to block these vertebrate reactions. With the advent of transcriptomics, the sialomes (from the Greek word sialo=saliva) of at least two species of each of these families have been studied (except for the frog feeders), allowing an insight into the diverse pathways leading to today's salivary composition within the Culicomorpha, having the sand flies as an outgroup. This review catalogs 1,288 salivary proteins in 10 generic classes comprising over 150 different protein families, most of which we have no functional knowledge. These proteins and many sequence comparisons are displayed in a hyperlinked spreadsheet that hopefully will stimulate and facilitate the task of functional characterization of these proteins, and their possible use as novel pharmacological agents and epidemiological markers of insect vector exposure. PMID:20728537

  12. Chironomidae of the southeastern United States: a checklist of species and notes on biology, distribution, and habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Caldwell, Broughton A.; Smith, David

    1990-01-01

    We provide a current listing of the species of midges (Diptera:Chironomidae) in the southeastern United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). This checklist should aid research on this group of insects, which have often proved useful in the assessment of water quality. We document each species' distribution and general habitat and provide the best taxonomic reference to facilitate the identification or description of species in that genus. Changes in nomenclature, unique ecological traits, bibliographic sources, or other items of information are summarized in a paragraph on each genus. Of the 10 sub-families currently recognized in the Chironomidae, 7 occur in the Southeast. The chironomid fauna of the six southeastern States now consist of 164 described genera and 479 described species. In addition we have listed 14 genera and 245 species that are tenatively noted as undescribed.

  13. Denopelopia amicitia, a new Tanypodinae from Brazil (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Galileu P.S.; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Denopelopia from Brazil is described based on adult male and pupa. The male of the new species can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the genitalia and fore-tibial spur morphology. The pupa is very similar to those of Denopelopia atria, but it can be distinguished by the absence of distinct constrictions in the respiratory atrium of the thoracic horn. Generic diagnosis to male and pupa of Denopelopia is emended and keys to male and pupae of known species are provided. PMID:26877674

  14. Denopelopia amicitia, a new Tanypodinae from Brazil (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Denopelopia from Brazil is described based on adult male and pupa. The male of the new species can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the genitalia and fore-tibial spur morphology. The pupa is very similar to those of Denopelopia atria, but it can be distinguished by the absence of distinct constrictions in the respiratory atrium of the thoracic horn. Generic diagnosis to male and pupa of Denopelopia is emended and keys to male and pupae of known species are provided. PMID:26877674

  15. Karyotypes of Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) species from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wülker, Wolfgang F.; Kiknadze, I.I.; Istomina, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The karyotypes of six African Chironomus species (Chironomus alluaudi Kieffer, 1913, Chironomus transvaalensis Kieffer, 1923, Chironomus sp. Nakuru, Chironomus formosipennis Kieffer, 1908, Chironomus prope pulcher Wiedemann, 1830, Chironomus sp. Kisumu) were investigated; four of these karyotypes were described for the first time (Chironomus sp. Nakuru, Chironomus formosipennis, Chironomus prope pulcher, Chironomus sp. Kisumu). Of the six Chironomus karyotypes, three had “pseudothummi” cytocomplex chromosome arms combinations AE CD BF G (Chironomus alluaudi, Chironomus transvaalensis, Chironomus sp. Nakuru), two had “thummi”cytocomplex arms combinations AB CD EF G (Chironomus formosipennis, Chironomus prope pulcher), and one had “parathummi”armcombinations AC BF DE G (Chironomus sp. Kisumu). Thus, three of the ten main cytocomplexes known were detected in Africa. Detailed photomaps of all chromosome arms, with the exception of arms B and G, were prepared for the karyotypes of Chironomus alluaudi, Chironomus transvaalensis, Chironomus sp. Nakuru, Chironomus prope pulcher; the karyotypes of Chironomus formosipennis, Chironomus sp. Kisumucould only be fragmentarily mapped. Endemic African banding sequences were characteristic for most of the chromosomal arms in all species studied. However, basic sequences, which can be present in different Chironomus species on different continents (Wülker, 1980; Kiknadze et al. 2008), were also detected also in several African species (Chironomus alluaudi, Chironomus sp. Nakuru, and Chironomus formosipennis). The banding sequences of African species studied allow discussion of the derivation of modern banding patterns from hypothetical species, living before separation of cytocomplexes and continents. PMID:24260617

  16. New Neotropical Nilothauma Kieffer, 1921 From Brazil (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, H. F.; Andersen, T.

    2005-05-01

    The larvae of Nilothauma Kieffer, 1921 are found in the littoral and sublittoral sediments of both standing and flowing waters. The adults are easily recognized as they have one or several median, setose projections on tergite IX. The genus was recently revised, and 25 species in four species groups are recognized from the Holarctic, Oriental, Australian and Afrotropical regions. Two species from Peru described in Nilothauma, are now considered to belong in Paratendipes Kieffer, 1911, as they both lack any projection on tergite IX. No species of Nilothauma from the Neotropical region have been named so far, although both larvae and pupa exuviae have been recorded repeatedly from Brazil. In the present paper we describe and figure four new species of Nilothauma from Brazil. Three of the species are described on male imagines only, while the fourth species also have associated pupal exuviae. The genus groups with the genera Neelamia Soponis, 1986 and Paranilothauma Soponis, 1986, both of which are restricted to the Neotropical region.

  17. Colonization by Chironomidae larvae in decomposition leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a lentic system in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations. PMID:23886040

  18. Colonization by Chironomidae Larvae in Decomposition Leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a Lentic System in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; da Gama Alves, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations. PMID:23886040

  19. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  20. Congruence and controversy: toward a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera.

    PubMed

    Yeates, D K; Wiegmann, B M

    1999-01-01

    The order Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-rich and ecologically diverse clades of insects. The order probably arose in the Permian, and the main lineages of flies were present in the Triassic. A novel recent proposal suggests that Strepsiptera are the sister-order to Diptera. Within Diptera, evidence is convincing for the monophyly of Culicomorpha, Blephariceromorpha, and Tipulomorpha but weak for the monophyly of the other basal infraorders and for the relationships among them. The lower Diptera (Nematocera) is paraphyletic with respect to Brachycera, and morphological evidence suggests the sister-group of Brachycera lies in the Psychodomorpha. Recent analyses suggest Tipulomorpha are closer to the base of Brachycera than to the base of Diptera. Brachycera are undoubtedly monophyletic, but relationships between the basal lineages of this group are poorly understood. The monophyly of Stratiomyomorpha, Xylophagomorpha, Tabanomorpha, and Muscomorpha is well supported. Eremoneura, and its constituent clades Empidoidea and Cyclorrhapha, are monophyletic. The sister-group of Eremoneura is likely to be part or all of Asiloidea. Several viewpoints on the homology of the male genitalia of eremoneuran flies are discussed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that lower Cyclorrhapha (Aschiza) are paraphyletic; however, schizophoran monophyly is well supported. The monophyly of Acalyptratae is not well-founded and the relationships between acalyptrate superfamilies remain obscure. Recent advances document the monophyly of the families of Calyptratae and the relationships among them. Areas critical to future advances in understanding dipteran phylogeny include the relationships among the basal infraorders of Diptera and Brachycera and the relationships between the superfamilies of acalyptrates. Progress in dipteran phylogenetics will accelerate with the exploration of novel data sources and the formulation of hypotheses in an explicitly quantitative framework. PMID

  1. Distribution of Chironomidae in a semiarid intermittent river of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farias, R L; Carvalho, L K; Medeiros, E S F

    2012-12-01

    The effects of the intermittency of water flow on habitat structure and substrate composition have been reported to create a patch dynamics for the aquatic fauna, mostly for that associated with the substrate. This study aims to describe the spatial distribution of Chironomidae in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and to associate assemblage composition with environmental variables. Benthic invertebrates were sampled during the wet and dry seasons using a D-shaped net (40 cm wide and 250 μm mesh), and the Chironomidae were identified to genus level. The most abundant genera were Tanytarsus, Polypedilum, and Saetheria with important contributions of the genera Procladius, Aedokritus, and Dicrotendipes. Richness and density were not significantly different between the study sites, and multiple regression showed that the variation in richness and density explained by the environmental variables was significant only for substrate composition. The composition of genera showed significant spatial segregation across the study sites. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed significant correspondence between Chironomidae composition and the environmental variables, with submerged vegetation, elevation, and leaf litter being important predictors of the Chironomidae fauna. This study showed that Chironomidae presented important spatial variation along the river and that this variation was substantially explained by environmental variables associated with the habitat structure and river hierarchy. We suggest that the observed spatial segregation in the fauna results in the high diversity of this group of organisms in intermittent streams.

  2. Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.

    2005-05-01

    As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

  3. Effect of chromium on larval chironomidae as determined by the optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Batac-Catalan, Z.; White, D.S.

    1981-10-01

    An optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system for examining the activity of aquatic invertebrates has been developed to test potential toxicity of chromium and other compounds on tubicolous larval Diptera (Chironomidae). Chromium has been identified as a heavy metal of environmental concern, but little is known of its effect on aquatic biota at chronic or sublethal levels. When movement patterns of midge larvae, Chironomus tentans, are monitored by the system, three distinct phases are revealed: respiratory undulations, crawling-type movements, and rest or immobility. It has been shown in other studies that the rates and duration of movements are controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature. Chromium alters the duration but not the rates of the three movement phases. At 0.01 ppm chromium, larval movement patterns were not altered. At 0.1 and 1.0 ppm, the duration of the respiratory phase was suppressed. Levels from 10.0 to 1000.0 ppm progressively increased the duration of this phase. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ for fourth instar larvae was calculated to be 61.0 ppm chromium, which shows that the change in respiratory movements does indicate potential lethality of the solutions. Thus, the biomonitoring system's sensitivity is apparent in detecting low-level effects of a heavy metal on this aquatic invertebrate.

  4. Biodiversity of Chironomidae at the North Temperate Lakes LTER Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, M. B.; Olson, S.; Hayford, B.; Gresens, S. E.; Kennedy, J.; Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.

    2005-05-01

    The National Science Foundation has established a network of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites to enhance research at large spatial scales, extended temporal scales, and to facilitate intersite comparisons of system structure and processes. Present knowledge of Chironomidae community structure at LTER sites is insufficient to accomplish these goals. Our project objectives are to determine species composition of Chironomidae in a wide variety of aquatic habitats at LTERs, describe all undescribed species/life stage associations, determine the temporal seasonality of emergence and develop a data base of species by habitat and emergence times. Our methods include light trapping and sweep netting for adults, dip-netting and hand-picking wood/aquatic vegetation for larvae, collecting surface-floating pupal exuviae, and rearing to associate life stages. Our initial focus on the North Temperate Lakes LTER in Wisconsin and has documented 80 genera (representing > 125 species, including 18 undescribed species and/or unknown life stages) from 11 lakes, 5 streams and 2 bogs. Taxa include species with larvae that are: epiphytic, endophytic, xylophagic, phoretic on mollusks or other aquatic insects, specialized to feed on freshwater sponges, predators of black fly pupae, and those occurring in hyporheic zones, marginal semi-aquatic habitats or terrestrial soils.

  5. X-ray induced visible alterations in the giant chromosomes of Phryne cincta (Nematocera, Diptera): relation of radiation sensitivity to pronuclear chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Israelewski, N

    1975-12-10

    In order to induce chromosomal rearrangements, males were exposed to x-rays and then mated to non-irradiated females. The number of each type of structural alteration was determined by examination of the polytene chromosomes of the F1 progeny. -- A comparison of the results with similar studies made on Drosophila revealed a significantly greater sensitivity in Phryne. Parallel to that an extremely high frequency of small inversions was ascertained in Phryne, and the observed ratio of inversions to translocations was the inverse of that which would be expected from purely mathematical considerations based on the lengths of the different chromosomes. These facts allow the conclusion that the paternal pronuclear chromosomes in Phryne are highly spiralized. Besides, the kinetochore-to-translocation-breakpoint distance was measured in both of the chromosomes involved in each reciprocal translocation and the differences (kinetochore-break distance differences) were registered and from them the arrangement of the chromosomes in the pronucleus of Phryne deduced. The data obtained support the assumption of an ordered, polar-field type of orientation. In Drosophila, in contrast, the comparable data showed that the pronuclear chromosomes are not spiralized and are randomly arranged (Bauer, 1939). -- These results seem to indicate that a close correlation exists between the different radiation sensitivities of Drosophila and Phryne and the different states of spiralisation and arrangements of their chromosomes in the pronucleus stage. It is hypothesized that the influence of the maternal genome on the degree of spiralization of the paternal chromosomes could account for differences in the pronuclear chromosome structure of both species.

  6. [THE CYTOGENETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF SOME PALEARCTIC POPULATIONS OF HOLARCTIC MIDGE GLYPTOTENDIPES BARBIPES STAEGER (DIPTERA, CHIRONOMIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Petrova, N A; Zhirov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Set and frequencies of inversion banding sequences in polytene chromosomes in the Palearctic natural populations of a Holarctic chironomid Glyptotendipes barbipes (2n = 8) (the Northwest of Russia, Irkutsk region, Kirghizia, Armenia) have been investigated. The majority of larvae were heterozygotes on inversions. Distinctions in a set and frequencies of inversions between populations form different regions have been ascertained. We have established that G. barbipes karyotype in the populations studied includes inversion banding sequences that are endemic for Palearctic (p'barG2), and also the general sequences met both in Palearctic, and in Nearctic (h'barB3, h'barC3, h'baE2, h'barF2). PMID:27012098

  7. Two new species of genus Hydrosmittia Ferrington & Sæther (Diptera: Chironomidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilei; Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The genus Hydrosmittia from China is reviewed. Two new species H. continalinea sp. n. and H. sipinata sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Key to known male imagines of genus Hydrosmittia worldwide is provided. PMID:27395216

  8. Two new species and one new record of Parakiefferiella Thienemann, 1936 from China (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Sun, Bingjiao; Yan, Chuncai; Song, Chao; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Parakiefferiella Thienemann, 1936 (Parakiefferiella fasciata Liu & Wang, sp. n. and Parakiefferiella liupanensis Liu & Wang, sp. n.) are described as adult males from China. Parakiefferiella tamatriangulata Sasa is recorded from China for the first time. A key to the known adult males of Parakiefferiella from China is presented. The generic diagnosis of male Parakiefferiella given by Cranston et al. (1989) is emended. PMID:26798300

  9. Life cycle and production of chironomidae (diptera) in Biandantang, a typical macrophytic lake (Hubei, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun-Jun, Yan

    2000-09-01

    The life cycle and annual production of four dominant species of Chironomids ( Chironomus plumosus, Chironomus sp., Clinotanypus sp., Tokunagayusurika akamusi) were studied with samples taken monthly in Biandantang Lake at eight stations from April, 1996 to March, 1997. Instarfrequency data showed C. plumosus was univoltine, while the other three were bivoltine. Production in wet weight (g/(m2·a)) calculated by the size-frequency method for each species were: C. plumosus, 2.663; Chironomus sp., 1.161; Clinotanypus sp., 0.270; T. akamusi, 1.476. Based on the mean standing stock, their P/B ratios were 3.2, 4.0, 6.2, and 4.4, respectively.

  10. Redescription of 13 holotypes of Rheocricotopus Brundin, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Sino-Indian Region.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yue; Huang, Jingli; Liu, Wenbin; Fang, Xiangliang; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen holotypes of the orthoclad genus Rheocricotopus from Sino-Indian Region: R. (Psilocricotopus) hidakadeeus Sasa & Suzuki, R. (P.) isigadeeus Sasa & Suzuki, R. (P.) kurocedeus Sasa, R. (P.) tokarakeleus Sasa & Suzuki, R. (P.) tobatervicesimus Kikuchi & Sasa, R. (Rheocricotopus) inaquereus Sasa, Kitami & Suzuki, R. (R.) inaxeyeus Sasa, Kitami & Suzuki, R. (R.) shoufukusecundus Sasa, R. (R.) tamahumeralis Sasa, R. (R.) tatequintus Sasa, R. (R.) tedorisecundus Sasa, R. (R.) togapeniculus Sasa & Okazawa and R. (R.) yakulemeus Sasa & Suzuki are re-examined and illustrated, Some additional descriptions, corrections and a key of these thirteen holotypes are given. PMID:27395129

  11. New species and records of Goeldichironomus Fittkau, 1965 from Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided. PMID:26701570

  12. Notes on Nilothauma Kieffer from Oriental China, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Tang, Hongqu; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Nilothauma Kieffer are described and figured from Oriental China: Nilothauma angustum sp. n. based on the male only, Nilothauma aristatum sp. n. based on the male, pupa and larva, and Nilothauma bilobatum sp. n. based on the male and pupa. In addition, new distribution records are given for Nilothauma japonicum Niitsuma, Nilothauma nojirimaculatum Sasa, Nilothauma hibaratertium Sasa, and Nilothauma acre Adam & Sæther. A key to known males of Nilothauma Kieffer in China is provided. PMID:27110183

  13. New species and records of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 from the Neotropical region (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Bellodi, Carolina Ferraz; Fusari, Lívia Maria; Roque, Fabio De Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Oukuriella, O. angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in MZUSP: BRAZIL, Paraná State) and O. plumaterata sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in MZUSP: BRAZIL, São Paulo State), and the immatures stages of O. sublettei are described and figured. The larvae of O. sublettei were collected from submerged woods in low-order streams in the Atlantic Forest. In addition new records of several described species, including the first records of Oukuriella from Mexico and Bolivia are given. PMID:27395973

  14. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trond; Baranov, Viktor; Hagenlund, Linn Katrine; Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes "Metriocnemini" and "Orthocladiini". Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe "Metriocnemini". Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  15. Diplosmittia caribensis, a new Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Wiedenbrug, Sofia; Silva, Fabio Laurindo Da

    2016-01-01

    The genus Diplosmittia was erected by Sæther (1981) based on Diplosmittia harrisoni from St. Lucia and St. Vincent in the British West Indies. Prior to the present study the genus comprised nine species, all except D. carinata Sæther were known only from Neotropical Region (Ashe & O'Connor, 2012). During sampling in the surroundings of a highly organic polluted river, in the National Botanical Garden in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the present second author collected several imagines of Diplosmittia that did not fit any taxon treated in the recent review of the genus (Pinho et al. 2009). In the present paper, the male of this new species is described and illustrated. PMID:27394616

  16. Cloning and expression of an atrazine inducible cytochrome P450 from Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies performed in our lab have measured the effect of atrazine exposure on cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activity and have found increased activity in midge larvae (Chironomus tentans) as a result of atrazine exposure (1-10 ppm). Here we report the cloning and expression of a ...

  17. Inconsistency in the analysis of morphological deformities in chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Salmelin, Johanna; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of morphological deformities of chironomid larvae as an indicator of sediment toxicity has been studied for decades. However, standards for deformity analysis are lacking. The authors evaluated whether 25 experts diagnosed larval deformities in a similar manner. Based on high-quality digital images, the experts rated 211 menta of Chironomus spp. larvae as normal or deformed. The larvae were from a site with polluted sediments or from a reference site. The authors revealed this to a random half of the experts, and the rest conducted the assessment blind. The authors quantified the interrater agreement by kappa coefficient, tested whether open and blind assessments differed in deformity incidence and in differentiation between the sites, and identified those deformity types rated most consistently or inconsistently. The total deformity incidence varied greatly, from 10.9% to 66.4% among experts. Kappa coefficient across rater pairs averaged 0.52, indicating insufficient agreement. The deformity types rated most consistently were those missing teeth or with extra teeth. The open and blind assessments did not differ, but differentiation between sites was clearest for raters who counted primarily absolute deformities such as missing and extra teeth and excluded apparent mechanical aberrations or deviations in tooth size or symmetry. The highly differing criteria in deformity assignment have likely led to inconsistent results in midge larval deformity studies and indicate an urgent need for standardization of the analysis. PMID:26061223

  18. Biochemical and morphological responses in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae exposed to lead-spiked sediment.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Helene; Gismondi, Eric; Branchu, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential use of biochemical markers and mentum deformities as indicators of long-term exposure to lead (Pb) in Chironomus riparius larvae. To do this, the authors measured 3 biochemical markers (i.e., malondialdehyde level, metallothionein concentration, and energy reserve content) as well as larval growth and mentum deformities after 16-d exposure to sediment containing Pb. The concentrations studied ranged from 3.5 mg/kg to 505.5 mg/kg dry weight. Despite the bioaccumulation of Pb in C. riparius bodies, frequencies of both mentum deformities and the dry weight were not significantly different between the control and stressed groups. On the contrary, Pb exposure caused a significant increase of both malondialdehyde level and metallothionein concentration. The increase of body Pb concentrations did not significantly modify body copper and zinc concentrations. Moreover, we observed a decrease of total lipid content and an increase of glycogen content as a function of a dose-response relationship, while no variation in protein concentrations was observed. Despite the adverse effects observed at the biochemical level, larval development was not affected. These results suggested that measurements of malondialdehyde level, metallothionein concentration, and energy reserve content can be used as relevant biomarkers of long-term sublethal exposure to Pb in C. riparius larvae. PMID:23893569

  19. New species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp (Diptera: Chironomidae) from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanseverino, Angela M; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Tanytarsus lenyae sp. n., T. giovannii sp. n., T. fittkaui sp. n. and T. alfredoi sp. n. from São Paulo State (Brazil) are described and diagnosed, the first as adult male and pupa, and the remaining as male, pupa and larva. The species were collected in areas of Cerrado, at the boundaries of São Carlos city. Complete diagnoses and drawings of the species are given. The imagos can be separated from other species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp mainly by differences in the antennal ratio, dorsomedian extension of the eyes, the thorax and wing setation, the shape of anal tergal bands, the anal point armament and the shape of superior volsella, digitus and median volsella. The pupae are characterized by the thoracic horn armament, the arrangement of the precorneals, the shape of anal comb and the abdominal setation. The larvae can be separated by differences in the antennal pedestal, the sclerotization of the second antennal segment, the size of Lauterborn organ pedicels, the shape of the clypeal seta S3 and the sclerotization of the mentum. Apparently, the four new species are not closely related, and the anal point armament alone would be enough to separate one species from the other. PMID:20305901

  20. Polypedilum nubifer, a Chironomid Midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) new to Florida that has nuisance potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, R.E.; Perry, S.A.

    2007-03-15

    We document the first record of Polypedilum nubifer in Pan-America. This eurytopic species often reaches severe nuisance population sizes in Australia, Asia, and Hawaii in warm, shallow, eutrophic waters subject to drying. A large population was discovered in newly-constructed infiltration basins and neighboring marshes along the eastern boundary of Everglades National Park. Presently, this population appears minimally invasive to Park marshes and is far removed from urban areas. However, we anticipate this species could disperse and attain nuisance population sizes in suitable urban and agricultural habitats in south Florida. (author)

  1. Diplosmittia caribensis, a new Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Wiedenbrug, Sofia; Silva, Fabio Laurindo Da

    2016-01-01

    The genus Diplosmittia was erected by Sæther (1981) based on Diplosmittia harrisoni from St. Lucia and St. Vincent in the British West Indies. Prior to the present study the genus comprised nine species, all except D. carinata Sæther were known only from Neotropical Region (Ashe & O'Connor, 2012). During sampling in the surroundings of a highly organic polluted river, in the National Botanical Garden in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the present second author collected several imagines of Diplosmittia that did not fit any taxon treated in the recent review of the genus (Pinho et al. 2009). In the present paper, the male of this new species is described and illustrated.

  2. A new species of Metapelopia Silva, Oliveira & Trivinho-Strixino (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Araujo, Ana A Huamantinco

    2016-07-08

    A new species of the monotypic genus Metapelopia is described and illustrated based on all life stages. Adults of the Metapelopia peruensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from those of M. corbii by the color pattern of the legs and abdomen. Larvae and pupae were collected associated with algae accumulated on rocks.

  3. Sediment microbes and biofilms increase the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Widenfalk, Anneli; Lundqvist, Anna; Goedkoop, Willem

    2008-10-01

    In a microcosm study, the importance of different sources of organic matter (humic acids, sterile sediment, sediment, and a microbial extract) for the bioavailability of the hydrophobic pesticide chlorpyrifos to Chironomus riparius larvae was quantified. In the last two treatments biofilms were allowed to grow before (14)C-chlorpyrifos addition. Chlorpyrifos accumulation was quantified after 25 h of exposure and after 21 h of depuration. Larval accumulation was twice as high in the microbial extract treatment (447+/-79 microg/kg ww larvae) and 1.7 times higher in the sediment treatment (371+/-33 microg/kg). After depuration, chlorpyrifos accumulation in larval tissue showed even higher differences; 3.1 times higher tissue concentrations in the microbial extract treatment (218+/-21 microg/kg) and 2.2 times higher in the sediment treatment (156+/-35 microg/kg). In contrast, chlorpyrifos accumulation in the humic acid and sterile sediment did not differ from that in controls. These results show that living microbes and biofilms, by creating a microenvironment and providing food for larvae, markedly increase the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos to Chironomus riparius.

  4. Studies on the chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) of the Nansei Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasa, M

    1990-06-01

    The Nansei Islands are located in the subtropical zone of the western Pacific Ocean between Kyushu and Taiwan, and are composed of the two main island groups, the Amami and the Ryukyu Archipelagoes. This area has been known for the presence of a number of indigenous animal species. Prior to the present studies, collections of the chironomids mainly in the urban areas of the three main islands of the Ryukyus were carried out by Sasa and Hasegawa, and a total of 42 species, including 25 new species, were recorded. Additional collections of the chironomids mainly in the mountainous areas of this region were carried out by the present author during 1988 and 1989, and a total of 26 species (including 12 new species) were recorded from Amami Island, and a total of 27 species (including 10 new species) were recorded from the Ryukyu Islands. Eight species among them, including 3 new species, were common to the two archipelagos. PMID:2214255

  5. A Key to the Pupal Exuviae of the Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobsen, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A key has been developed for identifying the pupal exuviae of 132 taxa of chironomid midges collected in Everglades National Park, as well as 18 additional species from freshwater habitats adjacent to the Park. Descriptions and illustrations are based upon voucher specimens from extensive collections of chironomid pupal exuviae for faunal surveys and biomonitoring research conducted in ENP and surrounding freshwater areas from 1998 to 2007. The key includes taxonomic comments for confirming identifications, as well as brief summaries of the distribution and ecology of each species in southern Florida waters. Information is also provided on the morphology of chironomid pupal exuviae, recommended references for identifying pupal exuviae, techniques for making slides, and methods to confirm proper identification.

  6. Winter growth, development, and emergence of Diamesa mendotae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Minnesota streams.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, R W; Ferrington, L C

    2009-02-01

    Diamesa mendotae Muttkowski is commonly observed emerging during winter at low air temperatures from Minnesota streams, but little is known about the winter dynamics of this and other winter-emerging aquatic insects. Biweekly collections of surface-floating pupal exuviae indicated that this species emerged from October through May, when water temperatures were less than approximately 10 degrees C. Emergence occurred continuously through winter, with a lull during January and February. Development of larvae from in situ growth enclosures supported emergence data and indicated that the reduction and halt of emergence in the spring was related to increasing water temperatures (> 10 degrees C), which were unsuitable for the growth or survival of the larvae. Development continued through January when water temperatures were at their lowest for the study stream and therefore did not explain the mid-winter lull in emergence. Growth rates of D. mendotae were not greater than other chironomid taxa at similar temperatures, indicating that lower critical thermal limits for growth allow this species to dominate ground-water influenced streams during the winter in Minnesota. The results of this study show that D. mendotae is well suited for growth and development at low temperatures and provides an assessment of important factors that regulate this species at low water and air temperatures.

  7. Notes on Nilothauma Kieffer from Oriental China, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Tang, Hongqu; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Nilothauma Kieffer are described and figured from Oriental China: Nilothauma angustum sp. n. based on the male only, Nilothauma aristatum sp. n. based on the male, pupa and larva, and Nilothauma bilobatum sp. n. based on the male and pupa. In addition, new distribution records are given for Nilothauma japonicum Niitsuma, Nilothauma nojirimaculatum Sasa, Nilothauma hibaratertium Sasa, and Nilothauma acre Adam & Sæther. A key to known males of Nilothauma Kieffer in China is provided. PMID:27110183

  8. New species and records of Goeldichironomus Fittkau, 1965 from Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-12-22

    One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided.

  9. Revision of the Japanese Ablabesmyia (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae), with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese species of Ablabesmyia Johannsen are reviewed on the basis of the type material and the specimens obtained recently. Four species of the subgenus Ablabesmyia, A. (A.) monilis (Linnaeus), A. (A.) amamisimplex Sasa, A. (A.)jogancornua Sasa et Okazawa and A. (A.) prorasha Kobayashi et Kubota, are recognized as valid. The adults, male and female, and the immature stages, pupa and larva, of the first species and the adult males of the remaining are redescribed, while the female adults and both immature stages of A. (A.) amamisimplex and A. (A.) jogancornua, and both immature stages of A. (A.) prorasha are described here for the first time. Reexamination of the holotypes of A. (A.) amamisimplex and A. (A.) jogancornua has shown that the respective original descriptions contain errors in some diagnostic aspects, which are corrected in this study. In addition, the male and female adults, pupa and larva of a new species of the subgenus Karelia Roback, A. (K.) nakarchenkoi n. sp., and the male adults of two new species, A. (K.) lata n. sp. and A. (K.) perexilis n. sp., are described and illustrated.

  10. Effect of cadmium on oviposition and egg viability in Chironomus riparius (diptera: chironomidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Green, D.W.J.; Pascoe, D.; Gower, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Although the importance of toxicity data on freshwater macroinvertebrates for establishing water quality criteria is now well recognized few attempts have been made to determine the relative sensitivities of different life stages or ages within a species. Previous work with insects has suggested that earlier life stages may be more sensitive than later ones although toxicant effects on the egg itself have been virtually ignored. The selection of water of a suitable quality for egg-laying has been demonstrated in mosquitoes. However, there is virtually no information available on oviposition behavior in relation to toxicant stress or water quality although some authors have speculated on the presence of chemo-receptors in insect antennae and their possible involvement in testing water quality prior to oviposition. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of selection by Chironomus riparius females between a range of cadmium solutions as sites for oviposition and the effect of cadmium on egg hatching.

  11. Studies on the chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) of the Nansei Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasa, M

    1990-06-01

    The Nansei Islands are located in the subtropical zone of the western Pacific Ocean between Kyushu and Taiwan, and are composed of the two main island groups, the Amami and the Ryukyu Archipelagoes. This area has been known for the presence of a number of indigenous animal species. Prior to the present studies, collections of the chironomids mainly in the urban areas of the three main islands of the Ryukyus were carried out by Sasa and Hasegawa, and a total of 42 species, including 25 new species, were recorded. Additional collections of the chironomids mainly in the mountainous areas of this region were carried out by the present author during 1988 and 1989, and a total of 26 species (including 12 new species) were recorded from Amami Island, and a total of 27 species (including 10 new species) were recorded from the Ryukyu Islands. Eight species among them, including 3 new species, were common to the two archipelagos.

  12. A generic guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Tanytarsini, (Chironomidae:diptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiner, J.W.; Doughman, J.S.; Moore, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Larvae of the tribe Tanytarsini occur in nearly every aquatic habitat in North America where they act as primary consumers in the food chain. This new taxonomic guide overcomes some deficiencies in existing keys to this tribe and the reviewed and updated taxonomy enables identification of the larvae that may be useful as ecological indicators. Over 2,000 specimens from 26 states were examined, identified and measured in this study. The following genera were included: Stempellinell, Zavrelia, Stempellina, Constempellina, Corynocera, Cladotanytarsus,.. Paratanytarsus, Rheotanytarsus,. Micropsectra, Lauterbornia, Nimbocera, Tanytarsus and Neozavrelia. Photographs illustrate mature larvae of these genera with the exception of Zavrelia and Neozavrelia which are not known to exist in North America. The morphological data, Which are summarized in a table of distinctive characteristics and the dichotomous key, enable identification to genus. Notes on range, habitat and food preference are included, and species identifications are presented where applicable.

  13. Pseudosmittia aizaiensis, a new species of orthocladiinae (Diptera, Chironomidae) from human province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shida

    1990-09-01

    Male and female adult midges of Pseudosmittia aizaiensis sp.n. are described and illustrated with figures of morphological characters. The inferior volsella of gonocoxite with large lobes, the long but equal width gonostylus, and the small projection in basal part of outer margin are the characters that may separate this species from others. One larva of this genus is purely aquatic in habitat and is associated with Cricotopus bicinctus, Cardiocladius capucinus and Polypedilum sp. in the same algae debris (Spirogyra sp.) of the Dunghe River. Further, the larva's very short SI and SII bifids, its 5 pairs of lateral teeth on mentum and its absence of premandible brush are the characters that may also separate this species from any known species of this genus.

  14. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  15. Effects of atrazine and cyanazine on chlorpyrifos toxicity in Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Jin-Clark, Ying; Lydy, Michael J; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2002-03-01

    Toxicities of two triazine herbicides (atrazine and cyanazine) and an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos) were evaluated individually and with each herbicide in binary combination with chlorpyrifos using fourth-instar larvae of the aquatic midge, Chironomus tentans. Chlorpyrifos at 0.25 microg/L resulted in an effect in less than 10% of midges in 48-h acute toxicity bioassays. Neither atrazine nor cyanazine alone at relatively high concentrations (up to 1,000 microg/L) caused significant acute toxicity to C. tentans. However, atrazine and cyanazine caused significant synergistic effects on the toxicity of chlorpyrifos when midges were exposed to mixtures of atrazine or cyanazine (10, 100, 1,000 microg/L) with chlorpyrifos (0.25 microg/L). At fixed concentrations (200 microg/L) of the herbicides, toxicity of chlorpyrifos was enhanced by 1.8- and 2.2-fold by atrazine and cyanazine, respectively, at the 50% effective concentration levels. Although atrazine and cyanazine are not effective inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro, the synergism of the two triazine herbicides with chlorpyrifos was associated with increased in vivo inhibition of AChE in midges. We observed a positive correlation between the degree of inhibition of AChE and the concentration of atrazine or cyanazine in the presence of a fixed concentration of chlorpyrifos. It is possible that these herbicides may affect cytochrome P450 enzymes to confer synergistic effects on the toxicity of chlorpyrifos.

  16. Use of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) as bioindicators of contaminant stress: Biochemical, chromosomal and developmental measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Cervi, L.; Sinasac, D.; Pardalis, G.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    Sublethal environmental stresses produce effects ranging from subtle biochemical changes that protect an organism from damage, through developmental effects that interfere with growth and compromise fitness. Benthic chironomids live in intimate contact with the sediments to which most persistent chemicals are bound. Their short life cycle and unique developmental and genetic structure make them excellent candidates as biological indicators of stress. The authors evaluated the short and long-term responses of Chironomus riparius larvae to contaminants. To determine short-term stress responses, third and fourth instar Chironomus larvae were exposed to up to 1.5 {micro}L/g creosote or up to 100 {micro}g/g Cd for 12 h. Creosote-exposed larvae exhibited proteins of a molecular weight consistent with production of heat shock proteins of the HSP 70 family. Exposure to Cd induced significant enlargement of Balbiani Rings of the 4th chromosome in chironomid salivary glands, indicative of increased transcription of RNA precursors to salivary mucoproteins. Chironomus larvae individually reared from second instar larvae at [Cd] up to 40 {micro}g/g sediment exhibited increased incidence of mentum deformities, and delayed development that resulted in larger size at pupation. Thus deformities are biologically relevant indicators of stress. Overall, the results confirm the potential of chironomids as relevant bioindicators of contaminant stress.

  17. A new species of Metapelopia Silva, Oliveira & Trivinho-Strixino (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Araujo, Ana A Huamantinco

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Metapelopia is described and illustrated based on all life stages. Adults of the Metapelopia peruensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from those of M. corbii by the color pattern of the legs and abdomen. Larvae and pupae were collected associated with algae accumulated on rocks. PMID:27395740

  18. Distribution of chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in polluted rivers of the Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; HassanAhmad, Abu; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the abundance and diversity of chironomids was studied in six rivers with moderate to highly polluted water in the Juru River Basin. The rivers: Ceruk Tok Kun (CTKR) as reference site, and polluted rivers of Pasir (PR), Juru (JR), Permatang Rawa (PRR), Ara (AR) and Kilang Ubi (KUR) were sampled over a period of five months (November 2007-March 2008). Nine chirnomid species: Chironimus kiiensis, C. javanus, Polypedilum trigonus, Microchironomus sp., Dicrotendipes sp., Tanytarsus formosanus, Clinotanypus sp., Tanypus punctipennis and Fittkauimyia sp. were identified. Assessment of their relationships with several environmental parameters was performed using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tanytarsus formosanus was the most dominant in the relatively clean CTKR and moderately polluted JR with mean densities of 19.66 and 25.32 m(-2), respectively while C. kiiensis was abundant in more polluted rivers. Tanytarsus formosanus, Dicrotendipes sp. and Microchironomus sp. were grouped under moderate to high water temperature, total organic matter (TOM), total suspended solids (TSS), velocity, pH, phosphates and sulphates. However, Tanypus punctipennis, Fittkauimyia sp., and Clinotanypus sp. were associated with high contents of river sediment such as TOM, Zn and Mn and water ammonium-N and nitrate-N and they were associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the water. Chironomus kiiensis, C. javanus and P. trigonus showed positive relationships with TOM, ammonium-N and nitrate-N as well as trace metals of Zn, Cu and Mn. These three species could be considered as tolerant species since they have the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions with low DO and high concentrations of pollutants. Based on the water parameter scores in all rivers, the highest diversity of chironomid larvae was reported in CTKR. With higher concentrations of organic and/or inorganic pollutants as reported in PPR, KUR and AR, the chironomid larval diversity decreased, and the abundance of tolerant species, mainly Chironomus spp., increased.

  19. Polytene chromosomes and phylogenetic relationships of Chironomus atrella (Diptera: Chironomidae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jon; Andreeva, Eugenia N; Kiknadze, Iya I; Wülker, Wolfgang F

    2006-11-01

    The identity of Chironomus atrella Townes has been confusing because the name has been used for at least 2 quite different species. This situation is clarified karyosystematically by describing the banding patterns and chromosomal polymorphisms from a number of locations in Canada and the US. Most populations show only moderate levels of polymorphism (average heterozygosity, 0.36), although in some samples from shallow waters, the level of polymorphism is much higher (average heterozygosity, up to 0.92). The banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes are either identical or closely related to those found in Holarctic species with a northern distribution. These patterns and the distribution of inversions in the C. atrella populations are consistent with a progenitor that colonized North America across the Bering Strait and spread down the Rocky Mountain chain; at the same time, new gene combinations developed that allowed it to spread eastward over the majority of the continent. PMID:17426753

  20. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  1. A Drosophila heat shock response represents an exception rather than a rule amongst Diptera species.

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Yushenova, I A; Shilova, V; Zelentsova, E S; Shostak, N G; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is the major player that underlies adaptive response to hyperthermia in all organisms studied to date. We investigated patterns of Hsp70 expression in larvae of dipteran species collected from natural populations of species belonging to four families from different evolutionary lineages of the order Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. All investigated species showed a Hsp70 expression pattern that was different from the pattern in Drosophila. In contrast to Drosophila, all of the species in the families studied were characterized by high constitutive levels of Hsp70, which was more stable than that in Drosophila. When Stratiomyidae Hsp70 proteins were expressed in Drosophila cells, they became as short-lived as the endogenous Hsp70. Interestingly, three species of Ceratopogonidae and a cold-water species of Chironomidae exhibited high constitutive levels of Hsp70 mRNA and high basal levels of Hsp70. Furthermore, two species of Tabanidae were characterized by significant constitutive levels of Hsp70 and highly stable Hsp70 mRNA. In most cases, heat-resistant species were characterized by a higher basal level of Hsp70 than more thermosensitive species. These data suggest that different trends were realized during the evolution of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the responses of Hsp70 genes to temperature fluctuations in the studied families. PMID:27089053

  2. Chironomidae and Oligochaeta for water quality evaluation in an urban river in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Beatriz Jabour Figueiraujo Vescovi; Rodrigues, Luciana Falci Theza; de Oliveira, Gilmar Simões; da Gama Alves, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Considering the importance of benthic macroinvertebrates for diagnosis of variations in the ecological conditions of aquatic habitats, the aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages along an organic pollution gradient. The fauna specimens were obtained with the use of artificial substrates, and the environmental variables were recorded at five sites of the São Lourenço River, during 12 months. Metrics of the assemblage and detrended correspondence analysis were used to verify the response of the fauna to the pollution gradient. Procrustes analysis was used to verify whether the data on the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages, as well as the taxonomic and numerical resolution of these groups, provide similar results in relation to the pollution gradient. The richness, evenness, and taxonomic composition of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages varied significantly among the collection sites, with distinct conservation conditions. Genera of the subfamilies Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae were associated with the sites upstream of the urban area, where the dissolved oxygen levels are higher. Species of Oligochaeta and the genus Chironomus were associated with more organically polluted sites. No concordance was observed in the response of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages in relation to the environmental variables, indicating the need to use both groups in biomonitoring studies. On the other hand, both the data on composition (presence or absence) and those on the lowest taxonomic resolution (abundance of subfamilies) were effective to diagnose the pollution gradient in the river studied. Therefore, when the environmental conditions along a river's gradient are contrasting, we suggest the use of the lowest taxonomic resolution of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta in biomonitoring. That procedure considerably reduces the assessment time, besides being a method that can be used by people not

  3. Chironomidae feeding habits in different habitats from a Neotropical floodplain: exploring patterns in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Train, S; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2016-02-01

    Ecological studies on food webs have considerably increased in recent decades, especially in aquatic communities. Because Chironomidae family are highly specious, occurring in almost all aquatic habitats is considered organisms-key to initiate studies on ecological relationships and trophic webs. We tested the hypothesis that the diversity of the morphospecies diet reflects differences on both the food items available among habitats and the preferences of larval feeding. We analyzed the gut content of the seven most abundant Chironomidae morphospecies of the different habitats from the Upper Paraná River. We categorized the food items found into algae, fungal spores, fragments of plants, algae and animal fragments and sponge spicules. We observed the algae predominance in the gut content of morphospecies from lakes. Considering the different regions from each lake, we registered the highest food abundance in the littoral regions in relation to the central regions. From the variety of feeding habits (number of item kinds), we classified Chironomus strenzkei, Tanytarsus sp.1, Procladius sp.1 as generalist morphospecies. We found a nested pattern between food items and Chironomidae morphospecies, where some items were common to all taxa (e.g., Bacillariophyceae algae, especially), while others were found in specific morphospecies (e.g., animals fragments found in Procladius sp.1). The algae represented the most percentage of gut contents of Chironomidae larvae. This was especially true for the individuals from littoral regions, which is probably due to the major densities of algae associated to macrophytes, which are abundant in these regions. Therefore, the feeding behavior of these morphospecies was generalist and not selective, depending only of the available resources. PMID:26909630

  4. Chironomidae feeding habits in different habitats from a Neotropical floodplain: exploring patterns in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Train, S; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2016-02-01

    Ecological studies on food webs have considerably increased in recent decades, especially in aquatic communities. Because Chironomidae family are highly specious, occurring in almost all aquatic habitats is considered organisms-key to initiate studies on ecological relationships and trophic webs. We tested the hypothesis that the diversity of the morphospecies diet reflects differences on both the food items available among habitats and the preferences of larval feeding. We analyzed the gut content of the seven most abundant Chironomidae morphospecies of the different habitats from the Upper Paraná River. We categorized the food items found into algae, fungal spores, fragments of plants, algae and animal fragments and sponge spicules. We observed the algae predominance in the gut content of morphospecies from lakes. Considering the different regions from each lake, we registered the highest food abundance in the littoral regions in relation to the central regions. From the variety of feeding habits (number of item kinds), we classified Chironomus strenzkei, Tanytarsus sp.1, Procladius sp.1 as generalist morphospecies. We found a nested pattern between food items and Chironomidae morphospecies, where some items were common to all taxa (e.g., Bacillariophyceae algae, especially), while others were found in specific morphospecies (e.g., animals fragments found in Procladius sp.1). The algae represented the most percentage of gut contents of Chironomidae larvae. This was especially true for the individuals from littoral regions, which is probably due to the major densities of algae associated to macrophytes, which are abundant in these regions. Therefore, the feeding behavior of these morphospecies was generalist and not selective, depending only of the available resources.

  5. Influence of Pools and Riffles on Chironomidae Diversity in Headwater Streams of the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Silveira, L S; Rosa, B F J V; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on mesohabitat scale have been used to shed light on the ecology and distribution of chironomid larvae in small streams. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the diversity and distribution of the Chironomidae assemblage on the mesohabitat scale in three streams located in different preserved areas of southeastern Brazil. In each stream, litter samples were obtained in the dry season of 2010 in ten pools and ten riffles with a Surber sampler (area 0.04 m(2); mesh size 0.21 mm). The abundance was similar among streams and between mesohabitats, while the estimated richness was highest in riffles. There was a difference in the composition of the Chironomidae assemblages between the mesohabitats, although the litter composition was similar between them, indicating the importance of current speed on the distribution of the taxa. The dispersion of the sample units (β-diversity) of riffles and pools was similar, although it was different among the three streams. The results of this study provide further evidence of the importance of habitat heterogeneity within streams as a generator of diversity for Chironomidae in tropical lotic systems. PMID:26243331

  6. Evaluating potential sources of variation in Chironomidae catch rates on sticky traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua T.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Sticky traps are a convenient tool for assessing adult aquatic insect population dynamics, but there are many practical questions about how trap sampling artefacts may affect observed results. Utilising study sites on the Colorado River and two smaller streams in northern Arizona, USA, we evaluated whether catch rates and sex ratios of Chironomidae, a ubiquitous aquatic insect, were affected by spraying traps with insecticide, placing traps at different heights above ground, and placing traps at different locations within a terrestrial habitat patch. We also evaluated temporal variation in Chironomidae counts monthly over a 9-month growing season. We found no significant variation in catch rates or sex ratios between traps treated versus untreated with insecticide, nor between traps placed at the upstream or downstream end of a terrestrial habitat patch. Traps placed near ground level did have significantly higher catch rates than traps placed at 1.5 m, although sex ratios were similar across heights. Chironomidae abundance and sex ratios also varied from month-to-month and seemed to be related to climatic conditions. Our results inform future sticky trap studies by demonstrating that trap height, but not insecticide treatment or precise trap placement within a habitat patch, is an important source of variation influencing catch rates.

  7. Influence of Pools and Riffles on Chironomidae Diversity in Headwater Streams of the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Silveira, L S; Rosa, B F J V; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on mesohabitat scale have been used to shed light on the ecology and distribution of chironomid larvae in small streams. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the diversity and distribution of the Chironomidae assemblage on the mesohabitat scale in three streams located in different preserved areas of southeastern Brazil. In each stream, litter samples were obtained in the dry season of 2010 in ten pools and ten riffles with a Surber sampler (area 0.04 m(2); mesh size 0.21 mm). The abundance was similar among streams and between mesohabitats, while the estimated richness was highest in riffles. There was a difference in the composition of the Chironomidae assemblages between the mesohabitats, although the litter composition was similar between them, indicating the importance of current speed on the distribution of the taxa. The dispersion of the sample units (β-diversity) of riffles and pools was similar, although it was different among the three streams. The results of this study provide further evidence of the importance of habitat heterogeneity within streams as a generator of diversity for Chironomidae in tropical lotic systems.

  8. Diel drift of Chironomidae larvae in a pristine Idaho mountain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilley, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Simultaneous hourly net collections in a meadow and canyon reach of a mountain stream determined diel and spatial abundances of drifting Chironomidae larvae. Sixty-one taxa were identified to the lowest practical level, 52 in the meadow and 41 in the canyon. Orthocladiinae was the most abundant subfamily with 32 taxa and a 24 h mean density of 294 individuals 100 m-3 (meadow) and 26 taxa and a mean of 648 individuals 100 m-3 (canyon). Chironominae was the second most abundant subfamily. Nonchironomid invertebrates at both sites and total Chironomidae larvae (meadow) were predominantly night-drifting. Parakiefferiella and Psectrocladius were day-drifting (meadow) whereas 8 other chironomid taxa (meadow) and 2 taxa (canyon) were night-drifting. All others were aperiodic or too rare to test periodicity, Stempellinella cf brevis Edwards exhibited catastrophic drift in the canyon only. The different drift patterns between sites is attributed to greater loss of streambed habitat in the canyon compared to the meadow as streamflow decreased. Consequent crowding of chironomid larvae in the canyon caused catastrophic drift or interfered with drift periodicty. This study adds to knowledge of Chironomidae drift and shows influences on drift of hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. ?? 1989 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  9. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  10. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  11. Identification of Anhydrobiosis-related Genes from an Expressed Sequence Tag Database in the Cryptobiotic Midge Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera; Chironomidae)*

    PubMed Central

    Cornette, Richard; Kanamori, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Gusev, Oleg; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Shimomura, Michihiko; Mita, Kazuei; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Some organisms are able to survive the loss of almost all their body water content, entering a latent state known as anhydrobiosis. The sleeping chironomid (Polypedilum vanderplanki) lives in the semi-arid regions of Africa, and its larvae can survive desiccation in an anhydrobiotic form during the dry season. To unveil the molecular mechanisms of this resistance to desiccation, an anhydrobiosis-related Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database was obtained from the sequences of three cDNA libraries constructed from P. vanderplanki larvae after 0, 12, and 36 h of desiccation. The database contained 15,056 ESTs distributed into 4,807 UniGene clusters. ESTs were classified according to gene ontology categories, and putative expression patterns were deduced for all clusters on the basis of the number of clones in each library; expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR for selected genes. Among up-regulated genes, antioxidants, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were identified as important groups for anhydrobiosis. Genes related to trehalose metabolism and various transporters were also strongly induced by desiccation. Those results suggest that the oxidative stress response plays a central role in successful anhydrobiosis. Similarly, protein denaturation and aggregation may be prevented by marked up-regulation of Hsps and the anhydrobiosis-specific LEA proteins. A third major feature is the predicted increase in trehalose synthesis and in the expression of various transporter proteins allowing the distribution of trehalose and other solutes to all tissues. PMID:20833722

  12. New strategies for the control of the parthenogenetic chironomid (Paratanytarsus grimmii) (Diptera:Chironomidae) infecting water systems.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M K; Merritt, R W; Berg, M B

    1997-06-01

    Control of the midge, Paratanytarsus grimmii, infesting municipal water systems has proven to be difficult, because it is a parthenogenetic species that can oviposit as a pharate adult and reproduce within the system. Mean densities of P. grimmii in a midwestern USA water distribution system ranged from approximately 140 to 560 individuals/sampling date, and all 4 instars and pupae were present throughout the sampling period. Two products were tested as potential chemical controls: Cat-Floc LS, a coagulant produced by the Calgon Corporation, and 35% hydrogen peroxide, a water purifier. The results of laboratory bioassays showed that Cat-Floc LS over a 15-day period was most effective against P. grimmii. PMID:9249659

  13. Evolutionary ecotoxicology of perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) inferred from multigenerational exposure: a case study with Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Stefani, F; Rusconi, M; Valsecchi, S; Marziali, L

    2014-11-01

    A multigeneration toxicity test on Chironomus riparius was performed with the aim of investigating the evolutionary consequences of exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorobutane sulfonate, PFBS). Six-hundred larvae were bred per treatment and per generation until emergence and egg deposition under a nominal concentration of 10μg/L of contaminants. Newborn larvae were used to start the next generation. Evolution of genetic variability was evaluated along a total of 10 consecutive generations based on 5 microsatellite loci. Analysis of life-history traits (survival, sex ratio and reproduction) was also carried out. Rapid genetic variability reduction was observed in all treatments, including controls, across generations due to the test conditions. Nevertheless, an increased mutation rate determined a stronger conservation of genetic variability in PFOS and, at minor extent, in PFBS exposed populations compared to controls. No significant effects were induced by exposure to PFOA. Direct mutagenicity or induced stress conditions may be at the base of increased mutation rate, indicating the potential risk of mutational load caused by exposure to PFOS and PFBS. The test provided the opportunity to evaluate the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and coalescent approaches in evolutionary ecotoxicology. A weak performance was evidenced for ABC, either in terms of bias or dispersion of effective population sizes and of estimates of mutation rate. On the contrary, coalescent simulations proved the sensitivity of traditional genetic endpoints (i.e. heterozygosity and number of alleles) to the alteration of mutation rate, but not to erosion of genetic effective size.

  14. Sympotthastia wuyiensis sp. n. from China, with description of the immature stages of S. takatensis (Tokunaga) (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Sympotthastia wuyiensis sp. n. is described and illustrated as male imago from China. The immature stages of S. takatensis (Tokunaga) are described. The generic diagnosis is emended. Key to the known adult males, larvae and pupae of the genus worldwide is presented. PMID:27395597

  15. Fluctuating asymmetry and mentum gaps in populations of the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) from a metal-contaminated River

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendijk, D.; Zeinstra, L.W.M.; Postma, J.F.

    1998-10-01

    The developmental stability of both metal-exposed and nonexposed Chironomus riparius populations from the lowland River Dommel was investigated using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and the incidence of mentum gaps. It was hypothesized that larval development was affected by the influx of Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Pb directly by chemical stress, as well as through inbreeding of metal-adapted and nonadapted specimens. Morphological para/meters were therefore assessed in field-collected larvae and in clean, laboratory-cultured, first-generation (F1) larvae. Fluctuating asymmetry values and mentum gap incidence at contaminated field sites were significantly higher than at clean, upstream locations. Furthermore, FA values of clean, laboratory-cultured F1 larvae generally fell to reference values, indicating the direct effect of metal pollution on developmental aberrations. Mentum gaps were not observed in clean F1 cultures. Slightly elevated FA values were, however, still observed in clean F1 larvae from polluted locations downstream from the metal input. This residual disturbance was thought to reflect genetic stress emerging from interbreeding between metal-adapted and nonadapted specimens. Fluctuating asymmetry and mentum gaps together serve as a useful ecotoxicological marker for metal stress and, when combined with in situ studies and F1 cultures, allow for analysis of the response of animal populations to spatial and temporal gradients in metal exposure.

  16. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals in Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae) in synthetic sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrahy, E.A.; Clements, W.H.

    1997-02-01

    This research investigated toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Chironomus tentans in synthetic sediment, and compared predicted to measured steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). In a toxicity test, C. tentans were exposed to various dilutions of a base concentration (1.0 X) of a mixture of the four metals (5 {micro}g/g Cd. 10 {micro}g/g Cu. 70 {micro}g/g Pb, and 300 {micro}g/g Zn) in synthetic sediment. Mortality ranged from 17 to 100%. To measure bioaccumulation of the metals, C. tentans were exposed to 0.35 X the base concentration for a period of up to 14 d in two uptake tests. Bioaccumulation of all four metals increased over the 14-d uptake phases. Concentrations of metals in chironomids were significantly correlated with exposure time in the uptake phases. Only concentrations of copper approached background levels after 7 d depuration. Uptake rate coefficients and elimination rate constants were determined for each metal. Bioaccumulation factors were highest for Cd and lowest for Pb. With the exception of Pb, steady-state BAFs were within a factor of about two of those calculated using the first-order kinetic model. The high BAFs calculated may indicate greater bioavailability in synthetic sediment. Studies comparing toxicity and bioaccumulation of natural and synthetic sediments are necessary before the use of synthetic sediments is widely adopted.

  17. Two species of Nilothauma Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    The male and female adults and pupa of Nilothauma niidaense n. sp. are described and illustrated on the basis of the material collected from a fontal stream in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. N. sasai Adam & Sæther is treated as a junior synonym of N. hibaratertium Sasa, of which the male is redescribed. The Adam & Sæther key to Nilothauma males is revised. PMID:27394209

  18. Patterns of fluctuating asymmetry and shape variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) exposed to nonylphenol or lead.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid's body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously. PMID:23133660

  19. Comparative analysis of karyotypes of Chironomus solitus Linevich & Erbaeva, 1971 and Chironomus anthracinus Zetterstedt, 1860 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from East Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Proviz, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comparative chromosome banding analysis of Chironomus solitus Linevich & Erbaeva, 1971 and Chironomus anthracinus Zetterstedt, 1860 from East Siberia (Lakes Baikal, Gusinoe, Arakhley and Irkutsk Reservoir) showed close similarity of banding sequences. Chironomus solitus differs from Chironomus anthracinus in one species-specific sequence of arm B. Arms C (43%) and D (30%) had inversion banding sequences previously reported in Chironomus anthracinus The similarity of karyotypic features of Chironomus solitus and Chironomus anthracinus in combination with morphological features of larvae provide evidence in favour of including Chironomus solitus in the Chironomus anthracinus group of sibling species long with Chironomus reservatus Shobanov, 1997. PMID:26140165

  20. Mouthpart deformities and community composition of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae downstream of metal mines in New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Swansburg, Erin O; Fairchild, Wayne L; Fryer, Brian J; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2002-12-01

    The effect of metal enrichment on chironomid communities was examined in streams receiving mine drainage from metal mining operations in New Brunswick, Canada. At five sites receiving mine drainage, metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in water (Zn), periphyton (Cd, Co, Cu, and Zn), and chironomid tissue (Cu, Cd, and Zn) relative to five paired reference locations. Metal concentrations in chironomid larvae were significantly correlated with concentrations in both water and periphyton. Chironomid communities were severely affected at sites receiving mine drainage as demonstrated by reduced genera richness and altered community composition. Sites receiving mine drainage exhibited an increased abundance of metal-tolerant Orthocladiinae and a reduced abundance of metal-sensitive Tanytarsini relative to reference sites. The incidence of mentum deformities was significantly elevated at sites receiving mine drainage (1.43 +/- 0.24%), with the mean percentage approaching a doubling of that observed at reference sites (0.79 +/- 0.22%). Trace metal concentrations at mine-associated streams in New Brunswick significantly affected the benthic community and have the potential to alter the structure and function of these aquatic ecosystems. PMID:12463564

  1. Suitability of morphological parameters for instar determination of pestiferous midges Chironomus crassicaudatus and Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, Arshad; Lobinske, Richard J

    2002-09-01

    The midges Chironomus crassicaudatus and Glyptotendipes paripes were reared in the laboratory on artificial food under constant temperature (30 degrees C) and a 14:10 h light: dark photoperiod for 31 days, from eggs laid by field-collected females. Sequential samples of developing immature stages were taken and measured. Eggs were on average 254 microm long and 102 microm wide at the widest point for C. crassicaudatus and 286 microm long and 113 microm wide at the widest point for G. paripes. Mean larval lengths ranged from 0.9 mm after hatching to 16.3 mm before pupation in C. crassicaudatus and from 0.8 mm after hatching to 9.7 mm before pupation in G. paripes. Mean length of pupae was 8.7 mm and 8.3 mm in C. crassicaudatus and G. paripes, respectively. Four morphometric head parameters (length, width, mentum width, and cephalolabial length) were tested for differentiation of larval instars. All parameters revealed 4 larval instars in both species, with head capsule width apparently the most sensitive indicator for instar differentiation. The cephalolabial length was the most sensitive indicator of sex differentiation in last instar. All investigated morphological parameters of head capsule of both species followed Dyar's law. PMID:12322946

  2. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes.

  3. Effects of exposure to azaarenes on emergence and mouthpart development in the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Bleeker, E.A.J.; Leslie, H.A.; Groenendijk, D.; Plans, M.; Admiraal, W.

    1999-08-01

    Adverse effects of azaarenes on emergence and mouthpart development of the midge Chironomus riparius were analyzed using six closely related three-ringed isomers and metabolites. Effects on growth rate were examined by comparing the average day of emergence of exposed midges with that of controls. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the pecten epipharyngis was examined as a measure of developmental abnormality. Delayed emergence was found at concentrations as low as 2% of the acute LC50, so emergence day appears to be a useful sensitive parameter to quantity life cycle effects. No differences in FA were found between exposed and control larvae, although, in other studies, all compounds have been proven to be genotoxic. The differences in FA were found between exposed and control larvae, although, in other studies, all compounds have been proven to be genotoxic. The differences in the genotoxic and FA-inducing properties of these compounds indicate that different mechanisms are involved in expressing these adverse effects. This study also illustrates that the choice of the morphological parameter strongly influences the results of developmental disturbance analyses and thus the risk qualification of a potentially hazardous compound.

  4. A guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Diamesinae (Diptera; Chironomidae), the genera Boreoheptagyia, Protanypus, Diamesa, and Pseudokiefferiella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doughman, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subfamily Diamesinae consists of the monogeneric tribes Boreoheptagnini and Parotanypini and the diverse tribe Diamesini with seven genera. These midges are prevalent in clean, cool arctic-alpine waters, but less abundant in the lowlands. Keys and descriptions herein to the known species of these nine genera may prove valuable in the biomonitoring of these cool aquatic habitats. The larvae of Protanypus saetheri Wiederholm is described for the first time. Identification is based upon the absence of other species in the collection area. Examination of a series of larval D. incallida Walker collected in Wyoming and a review of pertinent literature shows that there is considerable variation in the procerus and the labral armature. Because these characters are often used in keys, this variability can lead to misidentification of less recognizable species of Diamesa. (USGS)

  5. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes. PMID:26811777

  6. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor-joining analysis reported here describes the application and confirmation of a useful tool that can accelerate identification and bioassesment of chironomid communities.

  7. Morphological description and DNA barcoding of Hydrobaenus majus sp. nov. (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) from the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Makarchenko, Marina A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2015-08-14

    Illustrated descriptions of adult male, pupa and fourth instar larva, as well as DNA barcoding, of Hydrobaenus majus sp. nov. in comparison with the close related species H. sikhotealinensis Makarchenko et Makarchenko from the Russian Far East are provided. The species-specificity of H. majus sp. nov. COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters--molecular markers of H. majus and H. sikhotealinensis.

  8. Karyotypical characteristics of two allopatric African populations of anhydrobiotic Polypedilum Kieffer, 1912 (Diptera, Chironomidae) originating from Nigeria and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ninel A.; Cornette, Richard; Shimura, Sachiko; Gusev, Oleg A.; Pemba, Dylo; Kikawada, Takahiro; Zhirov, Sergey V.; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The African chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki Hinton, 1951 is the only chironomid able to withstand almost complete desiccation in an ametabolic state known as anhydrobiosis. The karyotypes of two allopatric populations of this anhydrobiotic chironomid, one from Nigeria and another from Malawi, were described according to the polytene giant chromosomes. The karyotype from the Nigerian population was presented as the reference chromosome map for Polypedilum vanderplanki. Both populations, Nigerian and Malawian, showed the same number of chromosomes (2n=8), but important differences were found in the band sequences of polytene chromosomes, and in the number and the arrangement of active regions between the two populations. Such important differences raise the possibility that the Malawian population could constitute a distinct new species of anhydrobiotic chironomid. PMID:26140160

  9. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama – Trojama Cave in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama—Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes “Metriocnemini” and “Orthocladiini”. Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe “Metriocnemini”. Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  10. Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Shape Variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) Exposed to Nonylphenol or Lead

    PubMed Central

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid’s body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously. PMID:23133660

  11. Biological and molecular responses of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) to herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid).

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Park, Jungan; Kim, Jongkyu; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2010-05-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an agricultural contaminant found in rural ground water. It remains to be determined whether neither 2,4-D poses environmental risks, nor is the mechanism of toxicity known at the molecular level. To evaluate the potential ecological risk of 2,4-D, we assessed the biological parameters including the survival rate, adult sex ratio of emerged adults, and mouthpart deformities in Chironomus riparius after long-term exposure to 2,4-D. The larvae were treated with 0.1, 1 or, 10microgL(-1) of 2,4-D for short- and long-term exposure periods. The sex ratio was changed in C. riparius exposed to only 10microgL(-1) of 2,4-D, whereas mouthpart deformities were observed as significantly higher in C. riparius exposed to 0.1microgL(-1) of 2,4-D. Survival rates were not significantly affected by 2,4-D. Furthermore, we evaluated the molecular and biochemical responses of biomarker genes such as gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), ferritins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in C. riparius exposed to 2,4-D for 24h. The expressions of HSP70, HSP40, HSP90 and GST levels in C. riparius were significantly increased after exposure to a 10microgL(-1) concentration of 2,4-D, whereas ferritin heavy and light chain gene expressions were significantly increased at all concentrations of 2,4-D exposure. Finally, these results may provide an important contribution to our understanding of the toxicology of 2,4-D herbicide in C. riparius. Moreover, the 2,4-D-mediated gene expressions may be generated by 2,4-D is the causative effects on most probable cause of the observed alterations. These biological, molecular and morphological parameters and the measured parameters can be used to monitor 2,4-D toxicity in an aquatic environment.

  12. A review of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Lin, Xiaolong; Wang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China is reviewed. Three new species, R. (P.) brochus sp. n., R. (P.) rotundus sp. n. and R. (P.) serratus sp. n. are described as adult males. R. (P.) imperfectus Makarchenko & Makarchenko, 2005, R. (P.) robacki (Beck & Beck, 1964) and R. (P.) valgus Chaudhuri & Sinharay, 1983 are recorded from China for the first time and annotated. The diagnosis for the species group is emended and a key to adult males of the species group in China is presented. PMID:24715767

  13. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Failla, A J; Vasquez, A A; Hudson, P; Fujimoto, M; Ram, J L

    2016-02-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or 'species group' level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor-joining analysis reported here describes the application and confirmation of a useful tool that can accelerate identification and bioassessment of chironomid communities.

  14. Survivorship and longevity of adult Diamesa mendotae Muttkowski, 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) at controlled, sub-freezing temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazack, Jane E.; Kranzfelder, Petra; Anderson, Alyssa M.; Bouchard, William; Perry, James; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.

    2014-01-01

    Diamesa mendotae Muttkowski, 1915 is a winter-active species common in groundwater-buffered streams of Minnesota and Wisconsin. This species is capable of surviving under snow cover for at least 28 days. Field collections of adult D. mendotae were used to determine survivorship under long-term exposure to controlled sub-freezing conditions. Specimens were placed into a controlled temperature chamber at −5 °C, batches removed at weekly intervals, and subsequently held at 6 °C to determine survivorship and longevity. Our results indicate that overall survivorship is negatively related to treatment duration of sub-freezing treatment, individuals can survive sub-freezing temperatures for at least 70 days, with total longevity of 92 days. Additionally, males had a significantly higher rate of survivorship than females within treatments. Total longevity increased with treatment time, suggesting adult D. mendotae may survive long periods of below-freezing temperatures under natural conditions before mating, which may convey population-level advantages.

  15. Impact of damming on the Chironomidae of the upper zone of a tropical run-of-the-river reservoir.

    PubMed

    Brandimarte, A L; Anaya, M; Shimizu, G Y

    2016-06-01

    We examined the effects of the Mogi-Guaçu river damming (São Paulo State, Brazil) on the Chironomidae fauna. Pre, during, and post-filling sampling was carried out in the main channel and margins of one site in the upper zone of the reservoir, using a modified Petersen grab (325 cm2). We evaluated the total, subfamily, and tribe densities and also their relative abundance. Analysis of genera included densities, relative abundance, richness, and dominance. The Rosso's ecological value index (EVI) determined the ecological importance of each genus. There was a tendency of decrease of the total Chironomidae density, increase in the percentage of Chironomini, and decrease in densities and percentages of Orthocladiinae and Tanytarsini. These changes in percentage were respectively related to Polypedilum, Lopescladius, and Rheotanytarsus, the genera with the highest EVI values. After-filling richness was lower in the margins and dominance of genera did not change significantly. Chironomidae in the margins was more sensitive to damming than in the main channel. This difference in sensibility sustains the use of Chironomidae as bioindicators. Damming impact was indicated by the reduction of both genera richness in the margins and relative abundance of groups typical of faster waters. The results have highlighted the need for multi-habitat analysis combined with a before-after sampling approach in the environmental impact studies concerning the damming impact on the benthic fauna. PMID:26934147

  16. Evolution of dosage compensation in Diptera: the gene maleless implements dosage compensation in Drosophila (Brachycera suborder) but its homolog in Sciara (Nematocera suborder) appears to play no role in dosage compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, M F; Esteban, M R; Doñoro, C; Goday, C; Sánchez, L

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster and in Sciara ocellaris dosage compensation occurs by hypertranscription of the single male X chromosome. This article reports the cloning and characterization in S. ocellaris of the gene homologous to maleless (mle) of D. melanogaster, which implements dosage compensation. The Sciara mle gene produces a single transcript, encoding a helicase, which is present in both male and female larvae and adults and in testes and ovaries. Both Sciara and Drosophila MLE proteins are highly conserved. The affinity-purified antibody to D. melanogaster MLE recognizes the S. ocellaris MLE protein. In contrast to Drosophila polytene chromosomes, where MLE is preferentially associated with the male X chromosome, in Sciara MLE is found associated with all chromosomes. Anti-MLE staining of Drosophila postblastoderm male embryos revealed a single nuclear dot, whereas Sciara male and female embryos present multiple intranuclear staining spots. This expression pattern in Sciara is also observed before blastoderm stage, when dosage compensation is not yet set up. The affinity-purified antibodies against D. melanogaster MSL1, MSL3, and MOF proteins involved in dosage compensation also revealed no differences in the staining pattern between the X chromosome and the autosomes in both Sciara males and females. These results lead us to propose that different proteins in Drosophila and Sciara would implement dosage compensation. PMID:11102379

  17. FAMILY CHIRONOMIDAE.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Humberto Fonseca; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 chironomid species distributed in 16 genera and three subfamilies are formally recorded to Colombia. Another 32 genera and two subfamilies have been recorded on larval stage, with no identification at species level. Many new records, genera and species are expected when focusing on systematics of chironomids from Colombia. PMID:27395264

  18. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    PubMed

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  19. Diversity and structure of Chironomidae communities in relation to water quality differences in the Swartkops River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odume, O. N.; Muller, W. J.

    . Results revealed that the family Chironomidae, identified to species or genus, can be use to assess environmental water quality status in South African freshwater ecosystems.

  20. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  1. Multi-scale approach to the environmental factors effects on spatio-temporal variability of Chironomus salinarius (Diptera: Chironomidae) in a French coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, V.; Claret, C.; Garnier, R.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.

    2010-03-01

    The complexity of the relationships between environmental factors and organisms can be revealed by sampling designs which consider the contribution to variability of different temporal and spatial scales, compared to total variability. From a management perspective, a multi-scale approach can lead to time-saving. Identifying environmental patterns that help maintain patchy distribution is fundamental in studying coastal lagoons, transition zones between continental and marine waters characterised by great environmental variability on spatial and temporal scales. They often present organic enrichment inducing decreased species richness and increased densities of opportunist species like C hironomus salinarius, a common species that tends to swarm and thus constitutes a nuisance for human populations. This species is dominant in the Bolmon lagoon, a French Mediterranean coastal lagoon under eutrophication. Our objective was to quantify variability due to both spatial and temporal scales and identify the contribution of different environmental factors to this variability. The population of C. salinarius was sampled from June 2007 to June 2008 every two months at 12 sites located in two areas of the Bolmon lagoon, at two different depths, with three sites per area-depth combination. Environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen both in sediment and under water surface, sediment organic matter content and grain size) and microbial activities (i.e. hydrolase activities) were also considered as explanatory factors of chironomid densities and distribution. ANOVA analysis reveals significant spatial differences regarding the distribution of chironomid larvae for the area and the depth scales and their interaction. The spatial effect is also revealed for dissolved oxygen (water), salinity and fine particles (area scale), and for water column depth. All factors but water column depth show a temporal effect. Spearman's correlations highlight the seasonal effect (temperature, dissolved oxygen in sediment and water) as well as the effect of microbial activities on chironomid larvae. Our results show that a multi-scale approach identifies patchy distribution, even when there is relative environmental homogeneity.

  2. First record of Odontomesa Pagast from China, with description of the immature stages of O. ferringtoni Sæther (Diptera, Chironomidae, Prodiamesinae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The genus Odontomesa Pagast is newly recorded from China. Based on associated material collected from China and U.S.A, the immature stages of Odontomesa fulva (Kieffer) and Odontomesa ferringtoni Sæther are redescribed. Odontomesa sp. A Sæther is confirmed as conspecific with O. ferringtoni. The generic diagnosis of immature stages is emended. Keys to the known larvae and pupae of the genus are presented. PMID:27395659

  3. Chromosome analysis of Endochironomus albipennis Meigen, 1830 and morphologically similar Endochironomus sp. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from water bodies of the Volga region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Durnova, Natalya; Sigareva, Ludmila; Sinichkina, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Based upon the detailed chromosome map of polytene chromosomes of the eurybiont species Endochironomus albipennis Meigen, 1830, the localization of the centromere regions using a C-banding technique is defined. Chromosomal polymorphism in populations from two water bodies in the Volga region has been studied, 17 sequences are described. Polytene chromosomes of Endochironomus sp. (2n=6), having larvae morphologically similar to those of Endochironomus albipennis Meigen, 1830 (2n=6) are described for the first time. PMID:26752268

  4. Taxonomic review on the subgenus Tripodura Townes (Diptera: Chironomidae: Polypedilum) from China with eleven new species and a supplementary world checklist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilei; Song, Chao; Qi, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The subgenus Tripodura Townes of Polypedilum Kieffer from China including 26 species is reviewed. Eleven new species, named P. (T.) absensilobum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) apiculusetosum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) arcuatum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) bilamella Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) conghuaense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) dengae Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) mengmanense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) napahaiense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) parallelum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) pollicium Zhang & Wang sp. n. and P. (T.) trapezium Zhang & Wang sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Three species, P. (T.) quadriguttatum Kieffer, P. (T.) unifascia (Tokunaga) and P. (T.) udominutum Niitsuma are firstly recorded in China. A key to known male imagines of Chinese species and an updated world checklist of subgenus Tripodura are presented. PMID:27395703

  5. Evaluation of mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. (Chironomidae: Diptera) larvae using modified toxic score index (MTSI) to assess the environmental stress in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Salmah, Mad Rawi Che; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Azizah, Mohd Nor Siti

    2011-06-01

    Morphological mentum deformities which represent sublethal effect of exposure to different types of pollutants were evaluated in Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers of Juru River Basin in northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Using mentum deformity incidences, the modified toxic score index (MTSI) was developed based on Lenat's toxic score index (TSI). The suggested MTSI was compared with TSI in terms of its effectiveness to identify different pollutants including heavy metals. The MTSI showed stronger relationship to total deformity incidence expressed as percentage. Additionally, the multivariate RDA model showed higher capability of MTSI to explain the variations in heavy metal contents of the river sediments. The MTSI was recommended in bioassessment of water and sediment quality using the mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. larvae from aquatic ecosystems receiving anthropogenic, agricultural, or industrial discharges. PMID:20697808

  6. Redescription of Chironomus javanus and Chironomus kiiensis (Diptera: Chironomidae) Larvae and Adults Collected from a Rice Field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Chironomus javanus (Kieffer) and Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga were redescribed from materials collected from a rice field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The larvae can only be distinguished after careful preparation and examination using a compound microscope, but the pupae were not useful to differentiate C. javanus from C. kiiensis. The adult specimens showed clear body and wing characteristics for rapid and accurate identification. PMID:24575227

  7. Chromosome analysis of Endochironomus albipennis Meigen, 1830 and morphologically similar Endochironomus sp. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from water bodies of the Volga region, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Durnova, Natalya; Sigareva, Ludmila; Sinichkina, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Based upon the detailed chromosome map of polytene chromosomes of the eurybiont species Endochironomus albipennis Meigen, 1830, the localization of the centromere regions using a C-banding technique is defined. Chromosomal polymorphism in populations from two water bodies in the Volga region has been studied, 17 sequences are described. Polytene chromosomes of Endochironomus sp. (2n=6), having larvae morphologically similar to those of Endochironomus albipennis Meigen, 1830 (2n=6) are described for the first time. PMID:26752268

  8. Characterization of Heterochromatin in the Salivary Gland Chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Meigen and Chironomuspiger Strenzke (Diptera, Chironomidae) by Differential and Fluorochrome Staining.

    PubMed

    Michailova, Paraskeva; Ilkova, Julia; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive heterochromatin of two homosequential sibling species, Chironomus riparius and Chironomus piger, was studied. The salivary gland chromosomes of both species were analyzed using three staining methods: orcein and C band staining combined with DAPI and CMA3 fluorochrome staining. Both species have the chromosome set 2n = 8, with the same banding pattern and chromosome arm combinations: AB, CD, EF, G, but they differed in number and distribution of heterochromatic bands, AT-rich sequences (DAPI+) and GC-rich sequences (CMA3+). In the polytene chromosomes of C. piger, C-bands were found in centromeres only. They contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences: DAPI+ (very weak) and CMA3+ sequences. However, the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius have many interstitial heterochromatic bands in addition to the centromeric heterochromatin. Some of these bands contain both AT-rich and GC-rich sequences, while others are either AT-rich (DAPI+) or GC-rich (CMA3+). Therefore, these closely related species differ both in the content and localization of constitutive heterochromatin. The species-specific organization of the constitutive heterochromatin can be used as an additional cytogenetic marker for species differentiation. PMID:26255462

  9. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli.

  10. Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Linevitshia prima Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from Amur River basin (Russian Far East), with notes on systematics of the genus.

    PubMed

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2014-10-10

    Additions and corrections to the diagnosis of the genus Linevitshia for male adult, pupa and larva are given, and systematic position of the genus is discussed. Illustrated redescription of adult male and first description of 4th instar larva of L. prima Makarchenko from Amur River basin are provided. Comparison of data based on a new material with those of L. yezoensis Endo showed that the latter name is a junior synonym of L. prima. The species-specificity of L. prima COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters-molecular markers of L. prima.

  11. A systematic review of the genus Constempellina Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Russian Far East, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Zorina, Oksana V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Constempellina Brundin, 1947, C. tokunagai sp. n., from the Russian Far East is described and figured as male, pupa and larva. The male and pupa of C. brevicosta (Edwards 1937) are redescribed and figured. Consequently, the generic diagnosis is emended. Keys to the males, pupae and larvae of Russian Constempellina are also given.

  12. Responses of Chironomidae (Diptera; Insecta) to the exclusion of shrimps and Ephemeroptera in a coastal forest stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, M L; Moulton, T P; Silveira, R M L; Krsulović, F A M; Brito, E F

    2007-02-01

    In a benthic community on a continuous flat granite substrate in a third-order coastal forest stream, the dominant chironomid (Cricotopus) increased in number when shrimps (Macrobrachium olfersi and Potimirim glabra) and baetid ephemeropterans were excluded by electricity. The response appeared to be mediated by an increase in periphyton and sediments, rather than a reduction of direct predation or interference. Chironomids, periphyton and sediments decreased significantly compared to the control when shrimps only were excluded. Baetid ephemeropteran appeared to be the most important determinants of periphyton and sediment mass; the density of chironomids appeared to follow the quantity of periphyton and sediments.

  13. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli. PMID:26129721

  14. Mode of existence and seasonality of midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in man-made lakes in the Coachella Valley, southern California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, B B; Mulla, M S

    1995-03-01

    Over the past 2 decades, numerous man-made ponds and lakes constructed in country clubs and on golf courses in the Coachella Valley have become ideal habitats for various chironomid species. Large numbers of adult midges emerging from these water bodies pose nuisance and economic problems. During 1992 and 1993 we initiated comprehensive studies on the nature and scope of the nuisance midge problem in the valley. We sampled on a biweekly basis 2 lakes supplied with well water, 2 supplied with tertiary effluent water, and one supplied with a mixture of these 2 sources, to determine the midge larval fauna and the mode of existence, seasonal abundance, and population trends of these midges. Climbers, clingers, portable sand tube builders, and tube builders on plants predominated in well-water habitats with submerged vegetation and detritus bottoms. Tube builders and burrowers predominated in the tertiary water, which characteristically had a detritus bottom, devoid of vegetation. Habitats holding a mixture of the 2 water types with sandy bottoms supported midge larvae known to be sprawlers.

  15. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment when extrapolating from laboratory studies to the field.

  16. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment when extrapolating from laboratory studies to the field. PMID:27262133

  17. Diagnoses for Nubensia, n. gen. (Diptera, Chironomidae, Chironomini), with the first full descriptions of the adult female and larva of N. nubens (Edwards, 1929).

    PubMed

    Spies, Martin; Dettinger-Klemm, Andreas

    2015-07-30

    A new genus, Nubensia Spies, is proposed for N. nubens (Edwards, 1929), n. comb., based on morphological evaluation of both adult sexes, the pupa and larva. The material studied includes name-bearing syntype specimens and the first reared associations linking three life stages for individual members of this species. The larva represents a unique morphotype previously described incompletely only from studies of subfossil chironomid remains. The problems with placement of the species in any previously established genus are discussed in detail, and various related issues in taxonomy and nomenclature are commented on. The verified distribution of N. nubens ranges from the British Isles and central Europe to the western Mediterranean, including northern Africa, with possible extensions to Turkey and central Asia. Larvae have been found on mostly coarse, variously covered substrates near the shores of lakes and banks of slowly flowing running waters, under both oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions.

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Brazil: seven new species and description of females and immatures of some previously known species.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F

    2016-01-01

    Twenty two species of Stenochironomus Kieffer are known from Brazil, 19 of which occur in the Amazon region. In order to increase knowledge of the taxonomy of this genus in the Amazon region, collections were carried out in streams located in Presidente Figueiredo, Manaus and Itacoatiara municipalities, Amazonas State. Leaves and wood mined by Stenochironomus larvae were collected and transported to the laboratory where they were kept until adult emergence. Seven new species were found, one of which is described in the immature stages and as adults of both sexes (S. amazonicus sp. n.), one as immatures and adult male (S. liviae sp. n.), four as male and pupa (S. bare sp. n., S. figueiredoensis sp. n., S. gracilis sp. nov. and S. manauara sp. n.) and one only as male (S. suzanae sp. n.). Additionally, the female, pupa and larva of S. impendens Borkent, pupa and larva of S. jubatus Borkent, female and pupa of S. zonarius Borkent and female of S. palliaculeatus Borkent were described. PMID:27395156

  19. Evaluation of mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. (Chironomidae: Diptera) larvae using modified toxic score index (MTSI) to assess the environmental stress in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Salmah, Mad Rawi Che; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Azizah, Mohd Nor Siti

    2011-06-01

    Morphological mentum deformities which represent sublethal effect of exposure to different types of pollutants were evaluated in Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers of Juru River Basin in northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Using mentum deformity incidences, the modified toxic score index (MTSI) was developed based on Lenat's toxic score index (TSI). The suggested MTSI was compared with TSI in terms of its effectiveness to identify different pollutants including heavy metals. The MTSI showed stronger relationship to total deformity incidence expressed as percentage. Additionally, the multivariate RDA model showed higher capability of MTSI to explain the variations in heavy metal contents of the river sediments. The MTSI was recommended in bioassessment of water and sediment quality using the mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. larvae from aquatic ecosystems receiving anthropogenic, agricultural, or industrial discharges.

  20. Loss of centromeric histone H2AT120 phosphorylation accompanies somatic chromosomes inactivation in the aberrant spermatocytes of Acricotopus lucidus (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Staiber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In the germ line of the chironomid Acricotopus lucidus, two cells with quite different chromosome constitutions result from the last unequal gonial mitosis. In the male, the future primary spermatocyte receives all the germ line-limited chromosomes (=Ks) together with somatic chromosomes (=Ss), and later on undergoes meiotic divisions, while the connected aberrant spermatocyte gets only Ss and remains undivided with chromosomes inactivated in a metaphase-like condensed state. This raises the question whether the centromeres of the permanently condensed Ss of the aberrant spermatocyte remain active during meiosis of the connected regular spermatocyte. Active centromeres exhibit an epigenetic phosphorylation mark at threonine 120 of histone H2A. To visualise the centromeric H2A phosphorylation of the Ss in the aberrant spermatocyte, meiotic stages were immunostained with different anti-phospho histone H2AT120 antibodies. Clear H2AT120ph signals appear at the centromeres of the Ss during prophase, persist on the metaphase-like condensed Ss during meiosis I of the connected primary spermatocyte and disappear during transition to meiosis II. The centromeres of the Ss and Ks of the regular spermatocytes display H2AT120ph signals from prophase I to anaphase II. The loss of the H2AT120 phosphorylation detected on the centromeres of the Ss of the aberrant spermatocyte indicating their deactivation supports the idea of a programmed inactivation of the Ss to block the entry of the germ line-derived aberrant spermatocyte, lacking Ks, into meiosis, and thus to prevent the generation of sperms possessing only Ss. This mechanism would ensure the presence of the Ks in the germ line.

  1. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  2. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  3. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  4. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  5. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  6. New species of Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera: Muscoidea).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    The study of recently collected Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera) from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and South Africa has revealed ten new species which are described herein: Coenosia duomaculata sp. nov., C. nigromaculata sp. nov., C. fragilis sp. nov., Helina harrisorum sp. nov., H. ferfriniorum sp. nov., Hydrotaea tantula sp. nov., Limnophora diminuta sp. nov., L. antennalis sp. nov., Spilogona brunnea sp. nov. and S. bella sp. nov. Coenosia, Helina and Limnophora are speciose muscid genera, found throughout the Afrotropical Region, while Hydrotaea and Spilogona have a more restricted geographic distribution and include some 20 species each. 

  7. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  8. Does Nature and Persistence of Substrate at a Mesohabitat Scale Matter for Chironomidae Assemblages? a Study of Two Perennial Mountain Streams in Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Chironomid substrate—specific associations regarding the nature (organic—inorganic) and stability (stable—unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m -2 and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well—represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel—sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land—use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations

  9. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  10. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-09-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  11. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  12. Structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae community in mesohabitats in a first order stream at the Poço D'Anta Municipal Biological Reserve in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour Vescovi; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2011-01-01

    The Chironomidae occupy different habitats along the lotic system with their distribution determined by different factors such as the substrate characteristics and water speed. The input of vegetable material from the riparian forest allows a higher habitat diversity and food to the benthic fauna. The main aim of this paper is to verify the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in different mesohabitats in a first order stream located at a Biological Reserve in the southeast of Brazil. In the months of July, August, and September 2007, and in January, February, and March 2008, samples were collected with a hand net (250 µm) in the following mesohabitats: litter from riffles, litter from pools, and sediment from pools. The community structure of each mesohabitat was analyzed through the abundance of organisms, taxa richness, Pielou's evenness, Shannon's diversity, and taxa dominance. Similarity among the mesohabitats was obtained by Cluster analysis, and Chironomidae larvae distribution through the Correspondence analysis. Indicator species analysis was used to identify possible taxa preference for a determined mesohabitat. The analyzed mesohabitats showed high species richness and diversity favored by the large environmental heterogeneity. Some taxa were indicators of the type of mesohabitat. The substrate was the main factor that determined taxa distribution in relation to water flow differences (riffle and pool). Stream characteristics such as low water speed and the presence of natural mechanisms of retention may have provided a higher faunistic similarity between the areas with different flows. The results showed that the physical characteristics of each environment presented a close relationship with the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in lotic systems. PMID:21529258

  13. Structure and Spatial Distribution of the Chironomidae Community in Mesohabitats in a First Order Stream at the Poço D'Anta Municipal Biological Reserve in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vescovi Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2011-01-01

    The Chironomidae occupy different habitats along the lotic system with their distribution determined by different factors such as the substrate characteristics and water speed. The input of vegetable material from the riparian forest allows a higher habitat diversity and food to the benthic fauna. The main aim of this paper is to verify the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in different mesohabitats in a first order stream located at a Biological Reserve in the southeast of Brazil. In the months of July, August, and September 2007, and in January, February, and March 2008, samples were collected with a hand net (250 µm) in the following mesohabitats: litter from riffles, litter from pools, and sediment from pools. The community structure of each mesohabitat was analyzed through the abundance of organisms, taxa richness, Pielou's evenness, Shannon's diversity, and taxa dominance. Similarity among the mesohabitats was obtained by Cluster analysis, and Chironomidae larvae distribution through the Correspondence analysis. Indicator species analysis was used to identify possible taxa preference for a determined mesohabitat. The analyzed mesohabitats showed high species richness and diversity favored by the large environmental heterogeneity. Some taxa were indicators of the type of mesohabitat. The substrate was the main factor that determined taxa distribution in relation to water flow differences (riffle and pool). Stream characteristics such as low water speed and the presence of natural mechanisms of retention may have provided a higher faunistic similarity between the areas with different flows. The results showed that the physical characteristics of each environment presented a close relationship with the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in lotic systems. PMID:21529258

  14. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  15. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae).

    PubMed

    O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera) is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically. PMID:23878512

  16. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  17. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  18. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  19. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...

  20. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  1. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  2. Descriptions of two new species of Afrotropical Psychodidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ježek, Jan; Oboňa, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) are described and illustrated on the basis of male morphological characters. Neoarisemus nyahururuensis sp. nov. was collected in the vicinity of Thomson's Falls (Nyahururu) in Kenya and Tonnoiriella veronikae sp. nov. in Toamasina province, Madagascar, Analamazaotra 1.4 km SSW Andasibe vill. (Périnet). PMID:27470871

  3. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  4. Frass semiochemicals important to corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...

  5. World catalog of extant and fossil Corethrellidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2014-01-01

    A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.

  6. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Kerppola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930) and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. Platycheirus modestus is also new to the Palaearctic. PMID:25337020

  7. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 2. Quantitative evaluations of the nuisance of chironomid midges].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    In order to make clear the present "nuisance" caused by chironomid midges around a eutrophic lake, a questionnaire survey of 249 leaders of the Hygiene Self-governing Association of the cities of Suwa and Okaya and the town of Shimosuwa near Lake Suwa was conducted. The results are as follows: 1. More than 90% of the respondents had specific knowledge about the chironomid midge, but 40% of them didn't know about its role as a purifier in the lake. 2. More than 10% of respondents answered that they were "can not able to stand any more" massive flights of chironomid midges, and about half of them lived within 500 m of the lake shore. The damages "nuisances" were "running laundry or defacing walls (67.1%) and "contamination of food (15.3%)", suggesting that chironomid midges influenced the daily life of the residents. 3. The selected causes of massive flights of chironomid midges were "pollution in Lake Suwa" and "decreases in the numbers of birds and dragonflies" as well as others. This means that the deterioration of the environmental situation around the lake may cause the "nuisance" of chironomid midges. 4. The respondents were more strongly interested in counterplans for the control of the chironomid midges made by administrative authorities than in plans made by each family. 5. "The distance from the lake shore" was the major factor contributing to the impression of chironomid damage. "The occupation of the respondent" was the second important factor. To redirect the insect flights away from the residential area, and to decrease the number of adult midges coming from the lake, are thought to be the most important measures for the resolution of this problem. PMID:1890774

  8. Morphological deformities in Chironomus spp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae as a tool for impact assessment of anthropogenic and environmental stresses on three rivers in the Juru river system, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman; Rawi, Che Salmah M; Nor, Siti Azizah M; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Ali, Arshad

    2010-02-01

    Morphological deformities in parts of the head capsule of Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers (Permatang Rawa [PRR], Pasir [PR], and Kilang Ubi [KUR]) in the Juru River Basin, northeastern peninsular Malaysia, were studied. Samples of the fourth-instar larvae at one location in each river were collected monthly from November 2007 to March 2008 and examined for deformities of the mentum, antenna, mandible, and epipharyngis. At each sample location, in situ measurements of water depth, river width, water pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature were made. Samples of river water and benthic sediments were also collected monthly from each larval sample location in each river and taken to the laboratory for appropriate analysis. Total suspended solids (TSSs), ammonium-N, nitrate-N, phosphate-P, chloride, sulfate, and aluminum content in water were analyzed. Total organic matter and nonresidual metals in the sediment samples were also analyzed. Among the three rivers, the highest mean deformity (47.17%) was recorded in larvae collected from KUR that received industrial discharges from surrounding garment and rubber factories, followed by PRR (33.71%) receiving primarily residues of fertilizers and pesticides from adjacent rice fields, and PR (30.34%) contaminated primarily by anthropogenic wastes from the surrounding residential areas. Among the various head capsule structures, deformity of the mentum was strongly reflective of environmental stress and amounted to 27.9, 20.87, and 30.19% in the PRR, PR, and KUR, respectively. Calculated Lenat's toxic score index satisfactorily explained the influence of prevailing environmental variables on the severity of mentum deformities. Redundancy analysis and forward selection selected TSSs, sediment Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ni, and water pH, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, total organic matter, nitrate-N, chloride, phosphate-P, ammonium-N, sulfate, and aluminum as parameters that significantly affected some proportion of deformities. The total deformities correlated closely with deformities of mentum but only weakly with deformities in other parts of head. The total deformity incidence was strongly correlated with high contents of sediment Mn and Ni. The mentum and epipharyngis deformities incidence was highly correlated with an increase of TSSs, total aluminum, and ammonium-N and a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen. PMID:20146859

  9. Morphological deformities in Chironomus spp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae as a tool for impact assessment of anthropogenic and environmental stresses on three rivers in the Juru river system, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman; Rawi, Che Salmah M; Nor, Siti Azizah M; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Ali, Arshad

    2010-02-01

    Morphological deformities in parts of the head capsule of Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers (Permatang Rawa [PRR], Pasir [PR], and Kilang Ubi [KUR]) in the Juru River Basin, northeastern peninsular Malaysia, were studied. Samples of the fourth-instar larvae at one location in each river were collected monthly from November 2007 to March 2008 and examined for deformities of the mentum, antenna, mandible, and epipharyngis. At each sample location, in situ measurements of water depth, river width, water pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature were made. Samples of river water and benthic sediments were also collected monthly from each larval sample location in each river and taken to the laboratory for appropriate analysis. Total suspended solids (TSSs), ammonium-N, nitrate-N, phosphate-P, chloride, sulfate, and aluminum content in water were analyzed. Total organic matter and nonresidual metals in the sediment samples were also analyzed. Among the three rivers, the highest mean deformity (47.17%) was recorded in larvae collected from KUR that received industrial discharges from surrounding garment and rubber factories, followed by PRR (33.71%) receiving primarily residues of fertilizers and pesticides from adjacent rice fields, and PR (30.34%) contaminated primarily by anthropogenic wastes from the surrounding residential areas. Among the various head capsule structures, deformity of the mentum was strongly reflective of environmental stress and amounted to 27.9, 20.87, and 30.19% in the PRR, PR, and KUR, respectively. Calculated Lenat's toxic score index satisfactorily explained the influence of prevailing environmental variables on the severity of mentum deformities. Redundancy analysis and forward selection selected TSSs, sediment Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ni, and water pH, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, total organic matter, nitrate-N, chloride, phosphate-P, ammonium-N, sulfate, and aluminum as parameters that significantly affected some proportion of deformities. The total deformities correlated closely with deformities of mentum but only weakly with deformities in other parts of head. The total deformity incidence was strongly correlated with high contents of sediment Mn and Ni. The mentum and epipharyngis deformities incidence was highly correlated with an increase of TSSs, total aluminum, and ammonium-N and a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen.

  10. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  11. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

    PubMed

    Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-04-22

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

  12. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  13. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  14. Unusual larval habitats and life history of chironomid (Diptera) genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-three genera, representing all subfamilies of Chironomidae, are organized into 9 categories of unusual habitats or life history including hygropetric, riparian (bank, floodplain, upland), hyporheic, symbiotic, and intertidal; others live in water held in plants or mine into unusual substrates. In riparian zones precise location of optimum habitat is difficult to determine as is definition of habitat within the continuum from shoreline to upland areas. The ecological importance of the riparian group appears to lie in its processing of coarse particulate matter along the floodplain of streams and rivers. All riparian genera are zoogeographically useful and can be used in reconstructing evolutionary dispersal pathways because they are adapted to unique habits that have remained largely undisturbed by human activities.

  15. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.

  16. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. PMID:27456938

  17. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para

  18. Change of name for the Oriental robber fly Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae, Asilinae), nec Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric

    2015-08-14

    A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.

  19. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level. Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dissected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome techniques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identification process. Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae. Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diagnosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to understand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle. PMID:27308299

  20. Sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages in natural habitats in central Spain: spatial and seasonal changes in composition.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A

    2013-03-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Vettore, André Luiz; Arruda, Paulo; Azeredo Espin, Ana Maria L

    2004-09-15

    In view of the medical, sanitary and forensic importance of Chrysomya species, a knowledge of their nucleotide sequences would be useful for the molecular characterization of this genus, and would help in designing primers and in improving the molecular identification of Calliphoridae species. In this work, the mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule was 15,837 bp long and was sequenced using the shotgun approach. The overall nucleotide composition was heavily biased towards As and Ts, which accounted for 76.7% of the whole genome. The cox1 gene had a serine as the start codon, while incomplete termination codons mediated by tRNA signals were found for cox2, nd4 and nd5. The C. chloropyga genes were in the same order and orientation as the mitochondrial genome of other dipteran species, except for the occurrence of a 123 bp region that included a complete duplication of tRNA(Ile) and a partial duplication of tRNA(Gln) genes. C. chloropyga is the first species of Diptera with 23 tRNA genes instead of the usual 22 already described. A phylogenetic analysis showed a split of Brachycera into Calyptratae and Acalyptratae subdivisions. The complete sequence of C. chloropyga mtDNA described here will be a useful source of sequence information for general molecular and evolutionary studies in Diptera.

  2. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  3. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  4. Revision of the key characters for the Thricops nigrifrons species-group (Diptera, Muscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vikhrev, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An analysis of key characters for the separation of Thricops nigrifrons and Thricops longipes (Diptera, Muscidae) is given. A revised key for Thricops nigrifrons and related species, including two species recently described from the Caucasus, is proposed. PMID:21594046

  5. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  6. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  7. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980).

  8. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980). PMID:27394742

  9. [Hematophagous diptera arbovirus vectors in Africa (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, A; Mouchet, J

    1981-01-01

    The authors, in a first part, show the general arthropods-viruses-vertebrates relationships and specially the different conditions of virus maintenance in the selvatic foci. Then they succinctly give the main characteristics of the vectors bioecology useful for understanding the epidemiology of arbovirus diseases of man and domestic animals. Thus diptera vectors of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya fevers, yellow fever, dengue fever, Wesselsbron, Sindbis, and West Nile viruses, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fevers, bluetongue and african horsesickness are recorded. Lastly some attention is given to the range of virus-vector specificity and to the virulence variability of virus according to the vector.

  10. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846

  11. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  12. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  13. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  14. Acetylcholinesterase genes within the Diptera: takeover and loss in true flies

    PubMed Central

    Huchard, Elise; Martinez, Michel; Alout, Haoues; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P; Lutfalla, Georges; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Weill, Mylène

    2006-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in mosquitoes is encoded by the ace-1 gene, distinct and divergent from the ace-2 gene, which performs this function in Drosophila. This is an unprecedented situation within the Diptera order because both ace genes derive from an old duplication and are present in most insects and arthropods. Nevertheless, Drosophila possesses only the ace-2 gene. Thus, a secondary loss occurred during the evolution of Diptera, implying a vital function switch from one gene (ace-1) to the other (ace-2). We sampled 78 species, representing 50 families (27% of the Dipteran families) spread over all major subdivisions of the Diptera, and looked for ace-1 and ace-2 by systematic PCR screening to determine which taxonomic groups within the Diptera have this gene change. We show that this loss probably extends to all true flies (or Cyclorrhapha), a large monophyletic group of the Diptera. We also show that ace-2 plays a non-detectable role in the synaptic AChE in a lower Diptera species, suggesting that it has non-synaptic functions. A relative molecular evolution rate test showed that the intensity of purifying selection on ace-2 sequences is constant across the Diptera, irrespective of the presence or absence of ace-1, confirming the evolutionary importance of non-synaptic functions for this gene. We discuss the evolutionary scenarios for the takeover of ace-2 and the loss of ace-1, taking into account our limited knowledge of non-synaptic functions of ace genes and some specific adaptations of true flies. PMID:17002944

  15. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.

  16. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.

  17. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity.

  18. Evolution of cis-regulatory sequence and function in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Wittkopp, P J

    2006-09-01

    Cis-regulatory sequences direct patterns of gene expression essential for development and physiology. Evolutionary changes in these sequences contribute to phenotypic divergence. Despite their importance, cis-regulatory regions remain one of the most enigmatic features of the genome. Patterns of sequence evolution can be used to identify cis-regulatory elements, but the power of this approach depends upon the relationship between sequence and function. Comparative studies of gene regulation among Diptera reveal that divergent sequences can underlie conserved expression, and that expression differences can evolve despite largely similar sequences. This complex structure-function relationship is the primary impediment for computational identification and interpretation of cis-regulatory sequences. Biochemical characterization and in vivo assays of cis-regulatory sequences on a genomic-scale will relieve this barrier.

  19. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval. PMID:26888288

  20. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts. PMID:27032216

  1. New data on Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952) (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, M S; Rabuffetti, F L; Reboreda, J C

    2005-11-01

    Philornis Meinert is a very interesting Muscidae (Diptera) genus whose larvae are associated with a wide range of bird species. The existing description of Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952), which was reported in Argentina, so far involves only the female. During the 2000-2002 breeding seasons, we collected Philornis flies from six bird species in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. All the flies were identified as P. seguyi. Based on this material, we describe the larva, puparium, adult male, and male and female terminalia. All the host associations presented here--Mimus saturninus (Mimidae), Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae), Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae), Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae), Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae) and Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae) in nests of M. saturninus and Troglodytes aedon--are new for P. seguyi. We also present some data on the biology of the species.

  2. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  3. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  4. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  5. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  6. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts.

  7. Effectiveness of wound cleansing treatments on maggot (Diptera, Calliphoridae) mortality.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Mollie D; Merritt, Richard W; Kolar, Rebecca E; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K

    2011-07-15

    Myiasis is defined as an infestation of the organs and/or tissues of human and other animals by fly maggots. Fly species that normally breed in meat or carrion (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae) may become involved in cutaneous myiasis by colonizing preexisting wounds. Reports of human wound myiasis contracted in hospitals and nursing homes, especially when patients are chronically ill or bed-ridden, are not uncommon across North America and often result in cases of neglect and civil litigation. Based on a case history dealing with this latter situation and circumstances surrounding the treatment of maggot infestation, we designed an experiment to assess the effectiveness of wound cleansing solutions on maggot mortality. Treatments, consisting of four commonly used cleaning solutions (isopropyl alcohol, Dakin's solution, iodine, and hydrogen peroxide) and a control (deionized water), were applied to experimental units (n=5), with each unit consisting of groups of actively feeding Lucilia sericata maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Every 24h, treatments were applied and mortality was assessed for the duration of the study (14 days). Total mean mortality increased over the duration of the experiment, with an initial large increase (10-25%) after the first treatment application, followed by a gradual increase over the remainder of the study. General differences among treatments indicated greatest mean total mortality for Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) (46%), followed by isopropyl alcohol (42%), Betadine (37%), hydrogen peroxide (33%) and lowest mortality for the control (25%); however, no statistically significant differences were observed among treatments and no treatment resulted in 100% maggot mortality. Traditional wound cleansing solutions may not be sufficient for maggot infestations of pre-existing wounds and supplemental treatments may be necessary to effectively treat cases of wound myiasis.

  8. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  9. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  10. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  11. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  12. Laboratory effects of two organically-certified insecticides on Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera:Tachinidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...

  13. New species and redescriptions of the New Zealand genus Exsul Hutton (Diptera: Muscidae: Coenosiinae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Leandro Silva; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2013-01-01

    Exsul Hutton (Diptera, Muscidae) is revised and the genus diagnosis is enlarged. The female of Exsul singularis Hutton is described for the first time. The male and female terminalia of all species are described and illustrated. Exsul alfredoi sp. n. is described and illustrated and compared with the other known species. A key to separate the species is given.

  14. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  15. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  16. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  17. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  18. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  19. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  20. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  1. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  2. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  3. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...

  4. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  5. Effects of Melezitose and Stachyose on Adult Longevity and Virus Persistence in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...

  6. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  7. Effectiveness of genes for Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) resistance in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant w...

  8. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    PubMed

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  9. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  10. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini. PMID:27394507

  11. Effect of surround WP on behavior and mortality of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot fly...

  12. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  13. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  14. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  15. New genera, species and host plant records of Nearctic and Neotropical Tephritidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...

  16. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  17. First North American record of the Palaearctic rhinophorid Stevenia deceptoria (Loew) (Diptera: Rhinophoridae).

    PubMed

    O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998). PMID:26701527

  18. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  19. New combinations and changes in the classification of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, biting midges).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2015-01-01

    This short article contains some necessary taxonomic changes prior to the publication of a chapter on the Ceratopogonidae by the author for the upcoming Manual of Afrotropical Diptera and spearheaded by Ashley Kirk-Spriggs. Some additional placements of three genera to a recently redefined tribe are also included. PMID:26249516

  20. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  1. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock and equines, and are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important pathogens of both veterinary and medical importance. Despite their economic significance, the delimitation and identification of species and evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains at best problematic. To date no phylogenetic study has attempted to validate the subgeneric classification of the genus and the monophyly of many of the subgenera remains doubtful. Many informal species groupings are also known to exist but few are adequately described, further complicating accurate identification. Recent contributions to Culicoides taxonomy at the species level have revealed a high correlation between morphological and molecular analyses although molecular analyses are revealing the existence of cryptic species. This review considers the methods for studying the systematics of Culicoides using both morphological and genetic techniques, with a view to understanding the factors limiting our current understanding of Culicoides biology and hence arbovirus epidemiology. In addition, we examine the global status of Culicoides identification, highlighting areas that are poorly addressed, including the potential implementation of emerging technologies. PMID:25535946

  2. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  3. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  4. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  5. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  6. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  7. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  8. The larval head of Exechia (Mycetophilidae) and Bibio (Bibionidae) (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, René; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2015-07-01

    Exechia and Bibio have retained several plesiomorphic groundplan features of Diptera and Bibionomorpha, including a fully exposed and sclerotized head capsule, the transverse undivided labrum, the absence of movable premandibles, and undivided mandibles without combs. The fusion of the hypostomal bridge with the head capsule and largely reduced antennae are derived features shared by both taxa. The absence of teeth at the anterior hypostomal margin is a potential autapomorphy of Bibionomorpha. A basal position of Anisopodidae is suggested by a number of plesiomorphies retained in this family. Apomorphies of Bibionomorpha excluding Anisopodidae are the reduction of tentorial elements, the partial fusion of the labrum and clypeus, one-segmented antennae, the absence of a separate submental sclerite, the loss of the labial palpus, and the reduction of the pharyngeal filter apparatus. Head structures of Bibio are largely unmodified. The subprognathous orientation is one of few autapomorphic features. In contrast, the mouthparts of Exechia are highly modified in correlation with the specialized food uptake. The rasping counterrotating movements of maxillae and mandibles with teeth oriented in opposite directions are carried out by strongly developed extensors and flexors of the paired mouthparts. The modified labium mechanically supports the "drill head" formed by the mandibles und maxillae. The necessary stability of the head capsule is provided by the hypostomal bridge which also compensates the far-reaching reduction of the tentorium.

  9. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500-550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300-400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400-500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap "UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle" was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  10. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  11. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods. PMID:26271257

  12. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata.

  13. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  14. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  15. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.

  16. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  17. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  18. Blood Meal Analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285

  19. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  20. The decomposition of rabbit carcasses and associated necrophagous Diptera in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Mesbah, Hanadi; Moffatt, Colin; El-Azazy, Osama M E; Majeed, Qais A H

    2012-04-10

    Rabbit carcasses were used to compare rates of decomposition and associated assemblages of Diptera at four discernable habitat types in Kuwait; a country of a region with a paucity of such reference data. Carcasses in an urban habitat showed faster decomposition (as measured by percentage weight loss) than in agricultural, coastal or desert habitats, even with accumulated degree days (ADD) as the explanatory variable (t=2.73, df=34, p=0.010) to compensate for temperature differences. Taxa of Diptera at the four habitats became more similar as decomposition progressed, suggesting such differences between habitats were not marked. The occurrence of Chrysomyia megacephala and Lucilia sericata had not previously been recorded in Kuwait. PMID:22018747

  1. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  2. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  3. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  4. Simulium (Inaequalium) marins, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from inselbergs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepinelli, Mateus; Hamada, Neusa; Currie, Douglas C

    2009-08-01

    A new species of black fly, Simulium (Inaequalium) marins (Diptera: Simuliidae), is described based on the male, female, pupa and larva. This new species was collected from two localities: a small stream on the Pico dos Marins, a high mountain with granite outcrops in Piquete County, state of São Paulo, and in a small stream in the Serra dos Orgãos National Park, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  5. Camptotarsopoda annulitarsis Stein: redescription, description of terminalia and new record to South Africa (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-01

    Camptotarsopoda Strand (Diptera, Muscidae) comprises five species restricted to the Afrotropical region. The genus belongs to the subfamily Coenosiinae and tribe Limnophorini. The type-species, C. annulitarsis (Stein), is redescribed and the male and female terminalia are described and illustrated for the first time. The species is newly recorded from South Africa. The systematic placement of the genus is confirmed among the basal Limnophorini.

  6. Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis (Diptera: Culicidae) morphological description including pupa and fourth-stage larva previously unknown.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R

    2008-05-01

    Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.

  7. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Tanja; Stojković, Milenko; Vuković, Ivana; Spasić, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlović, Svetlana; Božić, Marija; Džamić, Aleksandar

    2014-07-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly.

  8. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.

  9. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  10. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  11. First crane fly from the Upper Jurassic of Australia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Oberprieler, Stefanie K; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Hinde, Jack; Yeates, David K

    2015-01-01

    The first crane fly (Diptera: Tipuloidea) fossil discovered in the Upper Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in Australia is described and illustrated. Eotipula grangeri sp. nov., described from a single specimen, is assigned to the family Limoniidae based primarily on the conformation of wing veins. It is the second and oldest record of Limoniidae from Australia, and the first of Jurassic age from the southern hemisphere. PMID:26624125

  12. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  13. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial genome of Exorista sorbillans: the Tachinidae (Diptera: Calyptratae) perspective.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuan-jun; Hu, Xian-qiong; Peng, Guang-da; Wang, Rui-xian; Gao, Rui-na; Lin, Chao; Shen, Wei-de; Li, Rui; Li, Bing

    2012-12-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tachinidae Exorista sorbillans (Diptera) is sequenced by PCR-based approach. The circular mitogenome is 14,960 bp long and has the representative mitochondrial gene (mt gene) organization and order of Diptera. All protein-coding sequences are initiated with ATN codon; however, the only exception is Cox I gene, which has a 4-bp ATCG putative start codon. Ten of the thirteen protein-coding genes have a complete termination codon (TAA), but the rest are seated on the H strand with incomplete codons. The mitogenome of E. sorbillans is biased toward A+T content at 78.4 %, and the strand-specific bias is in reflection of the third codon positions of mt genes, and their T/C ratios as strand indictor are higher on the H strand more than those on the L strand pointing at any strain of seven Diptera flies. The length of the A+T-rich region of E. sorbillans is 106 bp, including a tandem triple copies of a13-bp fragment. Compared to Haematobia irritans, E. sorbillans holds distant relationship with Drosophila. Phylogenetic topologies based on the amino acid sequences, supporting that E. sorbillans (Tachinidae) is clustered with strains of Calliphoridae and Oestridae, and superfamily Oestroidea are polyphyletic groups with Muscidae in a clade.

  14. The structure of the USP/RXR of Xenos pecki indicates that Strepsiptera are not closely related to Diptera.

    PubMed

    Hayward, D C; Trueman, J W H; Bastiani, M J; Ball, E E

    2005-04-01

    The receptor for the insect molting hormone, ecdysone, is a heterodimer consisting of the Ecdysone Receptor and Ultraspiracle (USP) proteins. The ligand binding domain sequences of arthropod USPs divide into two distinct groups. One group consists of sequences from members of the holometabolous Lepidoptera and Diptera, while the other arthropod sequences group with vertebrate retinoid-X-receptors (RXRs). We therefore wondered whether USP/RXR structure could be used to clarify the contentious phylogenetic position of the order Strepsiptera, which has proposed affinities with either Diptera or Coleoptera. We have cloned and sequenced the USP/RXR from the strepsipteran Xenos pecki. Phylogenetic analyses are not consistent with a close affinity between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:15660250

  15. Intron insertion as a phylogenetic character: the engrailed homeobox of Strepsiptera does not indicate affinity with Diptera.

    PubMed

    Rokas, A; Kathirithamby, J; Holland, P W

    1999-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the order Strepsiptera are unclear. Affiliation to Coleoptera has been proposed, however this implies that dipteran halteres and strep-sipteran haltere-like organs evolved convergently. An alternative is a sister group relationship with Diptera. In this case, halteres could be homologous but a radical homeotic mutation may have switched their position to the Strepsipteran mesothorax. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis has been used to support Dipteran affiliation, although this is controversial. Here we investigate the potential of an intron insertion site as a phylogenetic character. We find that the en homeobox gene of the strepsipteran Stichotrema dallatorreanum lacks a derived intron insertion shared by representatives of Diptera and Lepidoptera. We argue against a close affiliation between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:10620047

  16. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  17. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  18. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  19. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  20. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  1. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  2. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  3. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  4. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  5. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  6. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  7. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  8. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  9. Activity patterns and parasitism rates of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera:Phoridae:Pseudacteon spp.) in their native Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...

  10. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  11. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  12. Phytomyza omlandi spec. nov. – the first species of Agromyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) reared from the family Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...

  13. How Much Can Diptera-Borne Viruses Persist over Unfavourable Seasons?

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Maud V. P.; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally. PMID:24023929

  14. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.

  15. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  16. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  17. A Case of Oral Myiasis Caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mun; Ryu, Seung-Min; Kwon, Sang-Chang; Ha, Jun-Ouk; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Soon-Myung; Lee, Soon-Il; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We report here a case of oral myiasis in the Republic of Korea. The patient was a 37-year-old man with a 30-year history of Becker's muscular dystrophy. He was intubated due to dyspnea 8 days prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). A few hours after the ICU admission, 43 fly larvae were found during suction of the oral cavity. All maggots were identified as the third instars of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by morphology. We discussed on the characteristics of myiasis acquired in Korea, including the infection risk and predisposing factors. PMID:23467858

  18. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  19. Preservation of iridescent colours in Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Stephen; Simonis, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Iridescent blue-green colours are exhibited by various organisms including several taxa in the Tachinidae (Diptera) with notable examples within the Afrotropical members of the genus Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The vivid colouration observed in life quickly fades to a dull golden-yellow when a specimen is dried. Although well known, no published explanation has been given for this phenomenon. New information We illustrate the mechanism associated with this colour change. We also test and propose technical alternatives to retain the living colours in dried specimens. PMID:26929707

  20. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  1. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  2. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Neder, Lilia Estela

    2014-06-24

    Four species of Trupanea Shrank (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are considered new synonyms of Trupanea, and the following species are transferred from Celidosphenella to Trupanea: Acinia bella Blanchard, 1852; Acanthiophilus benoisti Séguy, 1933; Tephritis diespasmena Schiner, 1868; Celidosphenella maculata Hendel, 1914; Sphenella poecila Schiner, 1868; Trypanea simulata Malloch, 1933; Trupanea stonei Stuardo, 1946; and Trypanea vidua Hering, 1942. Aphyllocladus spartioides Wedd. (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) is reported as a probable host plant for Trupanea dimorphica.

  3. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  4. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  5. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  6. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  7. A new record of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Fanniidae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, B; Kurahashi, H; Jeffery, J; Yasohdha, N; Lau, S Y; John, M C; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Ahmad, M S

    2007-12-01

    Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.

  8. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    PubMed

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  9. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860.

    PubMed

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species--E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew--are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus' ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  10. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  11. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin N; Corcoran, Jacob A; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  12. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  13. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  14. The evolutionary ecology of detritus feeding in the larvae of freshwater Diptera.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Athol J; Ladle, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Detritus (dead organic matter), largely of terrestrial origin, is superabundant in inland waters but because of its indigestible nature, would appear to be a poor food source for animals. Yet this unpromising material is widely used as food and indeed can be viewed as a defining characteristic of the freshwater environment. We here explore the relationships among animals, detritus and its associated micro-organism decomposers, taking a functional approach. We pose questions about interrelationships and attempt to arrive at new insights by disentangling them from an adaptive point of view. To do this we have been careful in selecting the habitats for detailed consideration. Rain pools on rock surfaces in tropical Africa and pools on peat moorland in the UK were chosen. Both examples have a relatively simple community structure and hence offer the prospect of achieving our aim. As model organisms for study we focus principally on the aquatic stages of selected holometabolous insects; that is, selected genera of the universally common midges, Ceratopogonidae and Chironomidae. We approach these case studies from an evolutionary ecology perspective and see detritus as a simple template upon which a beautiful complex of adaptations can evolve.

  15. The mitochondrial genome of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Zhu; Jin, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) (GenBank accession no. KR047789). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Chromatomyia. The current length with partial A  +  T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 15,320 bp with an A  +  T content of 77.54%. All the 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes were sequenced, except for the A  +  T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Diptera, there is no rearrangement compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with the ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses abnormal TTG. The A  +  T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a sequenced length of 503 bp. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes recovered the monophyly of Agromyzidae with one species of Chromatomyia and four species of Liriomyza in our study. The superfamily Oestroidea (with Agromyzidae in analysis) is sister to the Opomyzoidea.

  16. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy.

  17. Identification through DNA barcoding of Tabanidae (Diptera) vectors of surra disease in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas; Maity, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Tyagi, Kaomud; Singha, Devkant; Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Naskar, Atanu; Rath, Shibananda

    2015-10-01

    Horse flies and deer flies are common names applied to members of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Tabanid flies are pestiferous and of veterinary and medical importance, with about 244 species in India. They are major vectors of Trypanosoma evansi that causes trypanosomiasis (surra disease). Lack of stable morphological characters, and scarcity of taxonomic expertise, is major impediments for accurate species identification of these important pest and disease vectors. Molecular data, especially DNA barcode data, has been widely used in the identification of Diptera of economic importance. We evaluated the utility of DNA barcode data to discriminate the vectors of surra disease (trypanosomiasis) from India. We used barcode gap and reciprocal monophyly (neighbor-joining and Bayesian tree) criteria to analyze barcode data. A total of 46 specimens belonging to 7 species under four genera in two subfamilies were used for this study. DNA barcode data was not available previously for these species. Analysis revealed that all morphologically identifiable species can be discriminated using DNA barcoding data. Further, our study clearly demonstrated the presence of cryptic species in Chrysops dispar. Moreover, we revealed that closely related species without stable taxonomic distinguishing characters in the "Tabanus striatus species complex" can be discriminated using DNA barcode data. PMID:26126785

  18. Octenol as attractant to Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M C; Barbieri, K; Silva, M C E; Graminha, M A S; Casanova, C; Andrade, A J; Eiras, A E

    2011-01-01

    The kairomone octenol is known as attractive to hematophagous Diptera such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, and midges. There is little evidence that traps baited with octenol are also effective in attracting phlebotomine sand flies. The present report evaluated octenol in modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps in two experiments: 1) modified CDC trap without light and 2) modified CDC trap with light. The traps were baited with octenol at concentrations of 0.5, 27, and 43 mg/h in Rincão locality, São Paulo, Brazil. Traps without octenol were used as controls. The sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Lutzomyia neivai) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) was the prevalent species (99.9%) in both experiments. The results of the experiments showed that traps baited with octenol at 27 and 43 mg/h caught significantly more N. neivai than control and octenol at 0.5 mg/h with and without light. This is the first report that shows that octenol itself is attractive to N. neivai and associated with light traps significantly increases the catches.

  19. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system.

  20. Method refinements for the midge life-cycle, Chironomus dilutus test

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval stages of non-biting midges can be found in almost any freshwater ecosystem, and one of the commonly tested midges is Chironomus dilutus (Chironomidae, Diptera) which is used for toxicity testing and ecological risk assessment of freshwater contaminants. USEPA, ASTM, Envir...

  1. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    PubMed

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  2. Taxonomic revision of the Carpathian endemic Pedicia (Crunobia) staryi species–group (Diptera, Pediciidae) based on morphology and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Avar-Lehel; Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Pedicia, subgenus Crunobia (Diptera: Pediciidae) belonging to the staryi group are described on the basis of a combination of molecular and morphology datasets, and a key to discriminate between species of the subgenus Crunobia is added. Geographic projection of the identified taxa suggests insular-like distribution and shows the importance of the Carpathians as a genetic center which is home to an exceptionally high aquatic diversity in Europe. PMID:27110152

  3. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.

  4. Description of a new species and new country distribution records of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-09-04

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.

  5. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided. PMID:27394269

  6. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    PubMed

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.

  7. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    PubMed

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated. PMID:25525098

  8. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3(rd) palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  9. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  10. Patterns of evolutionary conservation of microsatellites (SSRs) suggest a faster rate of genome evolution in Hymenoptera than in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H; Moritz, Robin F A

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution.

  11. Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136

  12. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about the dominant frequency. This method is based on determination of a quantity called the Hindex, which is derived using data from the FFT analysis. Calculation of the H index allows computer-based selection of the most suitable segment of recorded data for determination of the representative wing beat frequency. Experimental data suggest that the H index can also prove useful in examining wing beat frequency variability in Diptera whose flight muscle structure has been genetically altered. Examples from Drosophila indirect flight muscle studies as well as examples of artificial data are presented to illustrate the method. This method fulfills a need for a standardized method for determining wing beat frequencies and examining wing beat frequency variability in insects whose flight muscles have been altered by protein engineering methods. PMID:7811927

  13. Reproductive Organ of Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Ultrastructural of Testis

    PubMed Central

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sanford, Michelle; Sukontason, Kom

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the ultrastructure of testis of the medically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using light microscopy and electron microscopy. Reproductive organ of males was dissected to determine the testis in the pupal stage, 3-day-old flies and 7-day-old flies and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM displayed a smooth surface which is occasionally penetrated by tracheoles. TEM of the testis in the pupal stage presents the thick testis wall covering underdeveloped cells containing a variable size of an electron-dense globule. For the 3-day-old males, the testicular wall is formed by an external layer, a peritoneal sheath, a muscular layer, a basement membrane, and a follicular epithelium. Follicular epithelium presented developing spermatozoa. Regarding the 7-day-old males, development of spermatozoa is apparent, displaying nucleus, centriolar adjunct, axoneme, and mitochondrial derivatives, with the 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern of axoneme. PMID:21845212

  14. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Forensic Entomology Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Thaipakdee, Chinnapat; Vitta, Apichat; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2012-01-01

    Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in each stage was given. The developmental time of H. ligurriens to complete metamorphosis; from egg, larva, pupa to adult, took 270.71 h for 1 cycle of development. The results from this study may be useful not only for application in forensic investigation, but also for study in its biology in the future. PMID:22792441

  15. Human Cutaneous Myiasis by the Australian Sheep Blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Ahadizadeh, Emily N; Ketchum, Heather R; Wheeler, Russell

    2015-07-01

    This case report describes an incident of myiasis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Paramedics treated a 53-year-old man in the field when he suffered cardiac arrest. He was intubated by the paramedics and transported to an emergency room, where he received two stents and a balloon pump. He was found to have a GCS of three and remained in the hospital for 7 days before passing away. After his death, the breathing tube was removed, revealing the presence of several maggots. On closer inspection, the dipteran larvae were found in both the oral and nasal cavities. Four of these larvae were reared to adulthood and identified as Lucilia cuprina (Weidemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), commonly known as the Australian sheep blowfly, by the Biology Department of the University of Oklahoma. Based on the fly's life cycle and rate of development, the infestation is suspected to be hospital acquired.

  16. Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Mara De; Buenaventura, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from the Colombian Andes are described based on male specimens collected using decaying animal matter as bait: Oxysarcodexia catica sp. n., O. laclaricola sp. n., and O. liliarum sp. n. The straight and narrow cercal prong with an acute apex, and the juxta enlarged distally and folded backwards of O. catica sp. n. resemble these structures in O. fraterna Lopes, O. peruviana (Lopes) and O. vittata (Walker). The shape of the cercus of O. laclaricola sp. n. is similar to that of O. floricola Lopes, whereas its vesica is similar in shape to that of O. cyaniforceps (Hall). Oxysarcodexia liliarum sp. n. resembles O. favorabilis (Lopes) in the inflorescence-like phallus and enlarged juxta. The postero-distal phallic enlargement of O. catica sp. n. and O. liliarum sp. n. support the inclusion of these species in the so-called "Xarcophaga group" (sensu Lopes). PMID:27394253

  17. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru).

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía Gladys; Claps, Guillermo Luis; Barquez, Rubén Marcos; Díaz, María Mónica

    2011-12-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the department of Loreto. Also, we found 17 new host-ectoparasite relationships. Of note, we found remarkable new association between Neotrichobius delicatus and bat species from the families Molossidae and Noctilionidae and a novel association between Paradyschiria parvula and a species of Vespertilionidae. Host-ectoparasite specificity was recorded with 14 species as monoxenous, three oligoxenous, seven pleioxenous and two polyxenous.

  18. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review.

    PubMed

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements.

  19. Initial distribution assessment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Barcelona, Spain, area.

    PubMed

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Molina, R; Melero-Alcibar, R; Lucientes, J

    2008-05-01

    The invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae) has reached several European countries, including Albania, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and recently Spain (Med. Vet. Entomol. 20: 150-152, 2006). Here, we present the initial characterization of the distribution of Ae. albopictus in the municipality of Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain, where it was found for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. An ovitrap sampling campaign was developed from September to December 2004 to assess the spatial distribution and abundance of Ae. albopictus to evaluate the potential of an eradication attempt. The population of Ae. albopictus in the whole area was shown to be widespread within the municipality, and it included at least another one neighboring town, so authorities were advised to develop large-scale control measures. Some indirect evidence was collected on the introduction means and date. PMID:18533426

  20. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.  PMID:25661231

  1. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the megadiverse insect infraorder Bibionomorpha sensu lato (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspřák, David; Mantič, Michal; Fitzgerald, Scott; Ševčíková, Tereza; Tóthová, Andrea; Jaschhof, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The phylogeny of the insect infraorder Bibionomorpha (Diptera) is reconstructed based on the combined analysis of three nuclear (18S, 28S, CAD) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, COI) gene markers. All the analyses strongly support the monophyly of Bibionomorpha in both the narrow (sensu stricto) and the broader (sensu lato) concepts. The major lineages of Bibionomorpha sensu lato (Sciaroidea, Bibionoidea, Anisopodoidea, and Scatopsoidea) and most of the included families are supported as monophyletic groups. Axymyiidae was not found to be part of Bibionomorpha nor was it found to be its sister group. Bibionidae was paraphyletic with respect to Hesperinidae and Keroplatidae was paraphyletic with respect to Lygistorrhinidae. The included Sciaroidea incertae sedis (except Ohakunea Edwards) were found to belong to one clade, but the relationships within this group and its position within Sciaroidea require further study. PMID:27781163

  3. Sex-Biased Captures of Sarcosaprophagous Diptera in Carrion-Baited Traps

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed. PMID:23885859

  4. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. IV. Asilidae and other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863.

  5. Giant spiral shaped spermatozoa of Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae) with a unique ultrastructural component.

    PubMed

    Kotrba, M; Heß, M

    2013-12-01

    In this study we describe a new kind of sperm gigantism in the stalk-eyed fly, Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae). The sperm cells have a length of up to 1.7 mm and can be coiled into a compact 'slinky' spiral. Their ultrastructure involves a prominent electron dense central band, which runs the entire length of the sperm tail and in some regions constitutes its largest element in cross section. We propose that this organelle is either a giant centriole adjunct or a kind of accessory body derived from it, and that it takes part in coiling the sperm tail. To our knowledge, no comparable structure has been described before. PMID:24054968

  6. Nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Chichaoua, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2006-02-01

    The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  7. Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786

  8. Molecular identification of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in eastern North America by using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Yu, Tian; Florin, David A; Nukmal, Nismah; Brown, Grayson C; Zhou, Xuguo

    2013-07-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are small blood-feeding dipterans that are primary vectors of numerous human and livestock pathogens. Effective surveillance programs with accurate identification tools are critical in development and implementation of modern integrated pest management programs. Although morphological keys are available for North American species, identification can still be challenging owing to the nature of sample preparation and incompatibility with molecular or biochemical-based pathology assays. Further, the potential for introduction of Old World or other exotic species is not accounted for by current keys. Herein, we present the development and validation of a restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based molecular identification method. Specifically, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, a mitochondrial DNA marker, was used to distinguish two species of adult sand flies indigenous to eastern North America with two exotic species not yet known to occur in the United States.

  9. [Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Woman in Siirt].

    PubMed

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Yılmaz, Hasan; Baran, Ali İrfan; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Yakan, Ümit; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2015-12-01

    Urogenital myiasis cases occurring with the settlement of larvae of flies belonging to the order Diptera are facultative and are rarely encountered in humans. In this study, urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis in a 20-year-old female patient was presented. The patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and dysuria and claimed that she saw motile larvae in her urine. Five larvae collected from the patient's urine were microscopically examined, and they were identified as fourth-stage larvae of Psychoda albipennis. Complaints of the patient ceased after the application of an antibiotic and urinary antiseptic. It was concluded that myiasis should be considered in patients with urogenital complaints.

  10. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  11. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details. PMID:26798270

  12. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    PubMed Central

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far. PMID:27698490

  13. Spatial stratification of host-seeking Diptera in boreal forests of northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A; Adler, P H; Malmqvist, B

    2012-03-01

    The stratification of haematophagous Diptera was assessed in two boreal forests in northern Sweden by placing traps baited with carbon dioxide at 1.5 m, 5.0 m and 10.0 m above the ground. More than 40 000 specimens were captured, including 617 biting midges (Ceratopogonidae), 4029 mosquitoes (Culicidae) and 36 092 black flies (Simuliidae). Catches at the various trap heights reflected the general vertical distribution of the preferred hosts, with mammalophilic flies predominating (68.6%) in catches at 1.5 m and ornithophilic flies (42.4%) in catches at 10.0 m; however, most flies that use host birds at ground level were caught in the lowest traps (e.g. 85.1% of Simulium annulus were collected at 1.5 m). Within-species variation in vertical patterns between forests suggests plasticity in responses to environmental factors such as vegetative structure.

  14. Analysis of somatic and salivary gland antigens of third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-01

    Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies.

  15. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26336303

  16. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  17. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  18. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review

    PubMed Central

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  19. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  20. Effects of neem limonoids on the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nathan, Sengottayan Senthil; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2005-10-01

    The effects of the neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) limonoids azadirachtin, salannin, deacetylgedunin, gedunin, 17-hydroxyazadiradione and deacetylnimbin on Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated. In exploring advantages of pure neem limonoids, we studied the larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal and antiovipositional activity of neem limonoids. Azadirachtin, salannin and deacetylgedunin showed high bioactivity at all doses, while the rest of the neem limonoids were less active, and were only biologically active at high doses. Azadirachtin was the most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% larval mortality at 1 ppm concentration. In general, first to third larval instars were more susceptible to the neem limonoids. Neem products may have benefits in mosquito control programs. PMID:16112073

  1. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  2. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  3. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study.

  4. Differential emergence of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from on-farm breeding substrates in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey M; Jess, Stephen; Murchie, Archie K

    2013-05-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of viral diseases worldwide. Following the unforeseen outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe (2006–2009) there was a need to clarify on-farm breeding substrates utilized by temperate Culicoides spp. Six substrates (cow dung, cow slurry, horse dung, sheep dung, maize silage and soil) were investigated for Culicoides spp. emergence over a 31-week period. Overall, most Obsoletus group Culicoides emerged from the cow dung and the most Pulicaris group Culicoides emerged from the sheep dung. Furthermore, Culicoides of the Obsoletus group were found to be abundant in cow slurry and sheep dung. Temperature played a significant role in the emergence times of adult Culicoides. The Obsoletus group appear to have undergone 3 generations during the experimental period. The sex ratio of emergent Obsoletus group Culicoides was affected by substrate type, with a greater proportion of males emerging from cow dung and slurry compared with the other substrates.

  5. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review.

    PubMed

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  6. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  7. Lucifensin II, a defensin of medicinal maggots of the blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    El Shazely, Baydaa; Veverka, V; Fucík, V; Voburka, Z; Zdárek, J; Cerovský, V

    2013-05-01

    A novel homolog of insect defensin, designated lucifensin II (Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann [Diptera: Calliphoridae] defensin), was purified from hemolymph extract from larvae of the blowfly L. cuprina. The full-length primary sequence of this peptide of 40 amino acid residues and three intramolecular disulfide bridges was determined by electrospray ionization-orbitrap mass spectrometry and Edman degradation and is almost identical to the previously identified sequence of lucifensin (Lucilia sericata Meigen defensin). Lucifensin II sequence differs from that of lucifensin by only one amino acid residue, that is, by isoleucine instead of valine at position 11. The presence of lucifensin II also was detected in the extracts of other larval tissues, such as gut, salivary glands, fat body, and whole body extract.

  8. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  9. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. IV. Asilidae and other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863. PMID:27660536

  10. Optimizing Trap Design and Trapping Protocols for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. PMID:26470076

  11. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  12. A transcriptional and proteomic survey of Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Keroplatidae) lanterns gives insights into the origin of bioluminescence from the Malpighian tubules in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Amaral, D T; Hastings, J W; Wilson, T; Viviani, V R

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-gnats of the genus Arachnocampa are unique among bioluminescent insects for displaying blue-green bioluminescence, and are responsible for one of the most beautiful bioluminescence spectacles on the roofs of the Waitomo Caves. Despite morphological studies showing that Arachnocampa larval lanterns involve specialization of the Malpighian tubules, the biochemical origin of their bioluminescence remains enigmatic. Using a cDNA library previously constructed from lanterns of the New Zealand glowworm A. luminosa, we carried out the first transcriptional analysis of ~ 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify putative candidate proteins for light production, and to better understand the molecular physiology of the lanterns and their relationship with Malpighian tubule physiology. The analysis showed an abundance of hexamerin-like proteins, as well as luciferase-like enzymes, indicating a possible critical role for these proteins in bioluminescence. These findings were corroborated by proteomic analysis of lantern extracts, which showed the presence of hexamerins and luciferase-like enzymes. Other gene products typical of Malpighian tubules, such as detoxifying enzymes, were also found. The results support the existence of an evolutionary link between Malpighian tubule detoxification and the origin of bioluminescence in these Diptera.

  13. A transcriptional and proteomic survey of Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Keroplatidae) lanterns gives insights into the origin of bioluminescence from the Malpighian tubules in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Amaral, D T; Hastings, J W; Wilson, T; Viviani, V R

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-gnats of the genus Arachnocampa are unique among bioluminescent insects for displaying blue-green bioluminescence, and are responsible for one of the most beautiful bioluminescence spectacles on the roofs of the Waitomo Caves. Despite morphological studies showing that Arachnocampa larval lanterns involve specialization of the Malpighian tubules, the biochemical origin of their bioluminescence remains enigmatic. Using a cDNA library previously constructed from lanterns of the New Zealand glowworm A. luminosa, we carried out the first transcriptional analysis of ~ 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify putative candidate proteins for light production, and to better understand the molecular physiology of the lanterns and their relationship with Malpighian tubule physiology. The analysis showed an abundance of hexamerin-like proteins, as well as luciferase-like enzymes, indicating a possible critical role for these proteins in bioluminescence. These findings were corroborated by proteomic analysis of lantern extracts, which showed the presence of hexamerins and luciferase-like enzymes. Other gene products typical of Malpighian tubules, such as detoxifying enzymes, were also found. The results support the existence of an evolutionary link between Malpighian tubule detoxification and the origin of bioluminescence in these Diptera. PMID:25676901

  14. [The results of a trial in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam of clothing providing mechanical protection against the bites of blood-sucking Diptera].

    PubMed

    Gornostaeva, R M; Zhukova, L I

    1993-01-01

    The tested overalls for protection in hot climate may be recommended only for the protection of people engaged in work involving little movement (fishermen, watchmen, etc.). For wider use of such overalls in hot regions the design should be changed, the alterations are described in the paper. Further trials of the overalls should be carried out with its modified design; this costume provides adequate mechanical protection from the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking Diptera and it will be widely used in the tropics, where blood-sucking Diptera contribute much to infection transmission.

  15. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  16. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  17. A new species of Neolasioptera (Diptera: Cecidomyiiidae) from Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguninosae) in Argentina for possible use in biological control in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neolasioptera parkinsoniae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described as a new species from stem swellings on Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae) in NW Argentina. The new species appears to be a good candidate for the biological control of its host in Australia, where the plant was accidentally i...

  18. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  19. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  20. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  1. A catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-02-12

    Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.

  2. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  3. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  4. Population structure of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) assessed on a global scale using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...

  5. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos

  6. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  7. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  8. The first report of Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae) in a forensic case, with redescription of its pupa.

    PubMed

    Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; García, Rafael; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Presa, Juan-José; García, María-Dolores

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a forensic investigation that took place in the city of Murcia (SE Spain) and shows how the entomological specimens collected at the scene were extremely helpful for estimating the minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin). The occurrence of Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is reported here for the first time in a forensic case. Additionally, the importance of other entomological evidence in this case is discussed. The first known images of the puparium are provided, as well as its redescription and that of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton recovered from the puparium.

  9. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology.

  10. New species and records of Pseudacteon Coquillett, 1907 (Diptera, Phoridae), parasitoids of the fire ant Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given. PMID:26624156

  11. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  12. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  13. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology. PMID:25466156

  14. Community dynamics of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in a natural habitat from Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, Graciela; Salvo, Adriana

    2001-12-01

    We examined the temporal community dynamics of leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and their mainly polyphagous parasitoids in a natural habitat from Central Argentina. Changes in community composition are shown by changes in dominant species and similarity coefficients. Abundance of leafminers was highest in winter, and was not related to their species richness. Abundance and species richness were correlated in the parasitoid community. Temporal variation in parasitoid diversity and abundance were positively correlated with species number and density in the host community. Apparent parasitism was greater when parasitoid species richness was high and parasitoid community dominance was low.

  15. Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) to domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G

    2009-11-01

    Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.

  16. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  17. Evaluation of long term effects of thermal effluents on stream biota

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, J.E.

    1980-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of energy related developments in aquatic ecosystems, a normal water data base must be established. One approach used is the selection of indicator communities on species with fairly well known environmental tolerances and requirements. The Chironomidae (Order Diptera) dominate the macrobenthic assemblages of many streams. The group offers great potential for water quality assessment. The studies in this report determine the species composition of Chironomidae at stream sites in New Mexico, across the relationship of species composition to water quality parameters, and map karyotypes for the chironomus decorus group. (ACR)

  18. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  19. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga) from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M; Vahtera, Varpu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae). In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I.) boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I.) intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %). Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood) based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I.) intricata and D. (I.) esbeni (Nielsen). The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I.) intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen) is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia. PMID:25535487

  20. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    PubMed

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  1. Age-dependent changes in cuticular hydrocarbons of larvae in Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Xu, Ying; Hu, Cui; Zhu, Guang-Hui

    2014-09-01

    Necrophagous flies, comprising the first wave of insects present in a cadaver, provide a great potential for more accurate determination of the late postmortem interval (PMI) based on their age. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) are a promising age indicator in some insect species, especially for the larvae of necrophagous flies. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the age-dependent, quantitative changes in CHs of larval Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at 24°C. The majority of low-molecular-weight alkanes (≤C25) and almost all of the alkenes decreased in abundance with larval development. By contrast, the abundance of high-molecular-weight alkanes of chain length greater than C25 gradually increased with age. For several peaks, including peak 28 (pentacosene a), peak 31 (n-C25), peak 43 (n-C27) and peak 68 (n-C31), a highly significant correlation was found between peak ratio (n-C29 divided by each chromatographic peak) and chronological age of the larvae. A mathematical model, derived from multivariate linear regression analysis, was developed for determining age of the larvae based on age-dependent changes in CHs. The estimated larval age based on the CHs had a good linear correlation with the chronological age (R(2)>0.9). These results indicate that CHs has a great potential for determining the age of fly larvae, and concomitantly for the PMI in forensic investigation.

  2. Descriptions of three new species of the genus Cheilosia Meigen from China (Diptera, Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Barkalov, Anatolij V; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    Three species of genus Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae: Eristalinae) from China are described as new to science, Cheilosia bullabucca Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n., C. lamproptera Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. and C. yunnanensis Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. We provide species descriptions and keys for their identification. The phylogenetic placements of the taxa was estimated based on their morphological characteristics and by analysing the taxa under parsimony using a mtDNA COI sequence dataset including a comprehensive set of Palaearctic previously generated Cheilosia spp. sequences representing all major subgenera. Based on both their morphological affinities and the molecular data. The Chinese taxa were placed in the subgenera Eucartosyrphus (C. bullabucca), Cheilosia s. str. (C. oblonga), Floccocheila (C. versicolor) while C. yunnanensis was not resolved as member of Cheilosia s. str. based on DNA despite sharing morphological characteristics with the subgenus. As the name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) prima Barkalov & Cheng from China is a junior homonym of Cheilosia (Cartosyrphus) prima Hunter, 1896 from the Nearctic region, for the Chinese species the new name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) primaria Barkalov & Ståhls nomen nov. is proposed. PMID:26249493

  3. DNA barcoding distinguishes pest species of the black fly genus Cnephia (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    PubMed

    Conflitti, I M; Pruess, K P; Cywinska, A; Powers, T O; Currie, D C

    2013-11-01

    Accurate species identification is essential for cost-effective pest control strategies. We tested the utility of COI barcodes for identifying members of the black fly genus Cnephia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae). Our efforts focus on four Nearctic Cnephia species-Cnephia dacotensis (Dyar & Shannon), Cnephia eremities Shewell, Cnephia ornithophilia (Davies, Peterson & Wood), and Cnephia pecuarum (Riley)--the latter two being current or potential targets of biological control programs. We also analyzed one Palearctic species, Cnephia pallipes (Fries). Although Cnephia adults can be identified anatomically to species, control programs target the larval stage, which is difficult or impossible to distinguish morphologically. By using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian methods, we found that COI barcodes successfully identified three Nearctic Cnephia species, but not C. pecuarum. The Palearctic C. pallipes was also successfully identified. Despite nonmonophyly of C. pecuarum, we show that data from COI barcoding, in combination with geographical and ecological information, can be used to distinguish all four Nearctic species. Finally, we discussed 1) possible reasons for paraphyly in C. pecuarum, 2) topological concordance to previously reported chromosomal dendrograms, and 3) evolution of diverse feeding strategies within the genus Cnephia. PMID:24843929

  4. First overview of the Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) livestock associated species of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Grimaud, Y; Guis, H; Esnault, O; Allène, X; Gardès, L; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Garros, C

    2015-02-01

    This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci. Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region.

  5. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of Marrakech, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boussaa, S; Guernaoui, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2005-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected continuously, using sticky traps, during 1 year from October 2002 to September 2003, in an urban area of Marrakech city (Morocco). A total of 3277 specimens were collected belonging to five species. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (54.6%) is the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) minuta (20%), S. (S.) fallax (11.3%), P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (10.3%) and P. (Larroussius) longicuspis (3.8%). Data analyses showed a mono-modal annual pattern for P. sergenti and a bi-modal one for the other species. P. papatasi, the proven vector of Leishmania major in Morocco, was active throughout the year. This species did not diapause in this region. P. papatasi population peaked in June and November, which relating to the periods of risk in this area. Its preferred temperature ranged between 32 and 36 degrees C but no significant correlation was found between its density and the temperature. Considering the high density and long activity period of P. papatasi, the area of Marrakech should be regarded as a potential focus for L. major. This suggests the need for a continuously surveillance to prevent risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:15985259

  6. Crop sequence effects on root maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae: Delia spp.) infestations in canola.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, L M; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Blackshaw, R E; Kutcher, H R; Gan, Y; Johnson, E N

    2012-08-01

    Strong market demand for canola, Brassica napus L., has prompted some western Canadian producers to increase the frequency of this crop in rotations with other crop species, but the impact of this practice on canola insect pests has not been determined. Here, we investigate 12 cropping sequences involving canola over a 3-yr period (2008-2010 inclusive) at five locations across western Canada. Cropping sequences varied from continuous production of two herbicide-tolerant canola varieties, to production in two of 3 yr, to canola production in one of the 3 yr. Treatments analyzed were the frequency and timing of canola within the rotational sequence. Damage by larvae of root maggots (Diptera: Anthomyiidae: Delia spp.) to canola taproots increased as the study progressed, particularly in 2010 after canola had been grown continuously for 3 yr. Yield declined with continuous canola production, and differences were greatest in 2010. At mean canola crop prices for 2010, the yield reduction from continuous production amounted to economic losses of approximately Can$282-$377/ha. Crop quality, in terms of oil and protein concentrations of harvested seed, was affected more by crop variety than cropping sequence. Crop sequence effects for root maggot damage, yield, and seed quality were relatively stable in the presence of environmental (location) variation. Results of our study suggest that continuous canola production could be unsustainable over the long-term even though market forces currently provide incentive for this practice.

  7. The effect of dietary fat levels on the size and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuebo; Yang, Yongqiang; Li, Genping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Qingshan; Wan, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the type of tissue that larvae feed on can produce marked differences in developmental rate and body size, which can compromise predictions of minimum postmortem interval. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat content in the diet on larval growth in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an important forensic blowfly species in China. Bionomical parameters such as body size, development time, mortality, and sex ratio were observed. The results indicated that fat content in the diet has a dramatic effect on the body size and larval development. More dietary fat content was beneficial for development of larvae in first and early second instar. But it was adverse in the later third instar. Significantly, a high-fat diet resulted in increased development rates and the production of undersized larvae and adults. Overall mortality of larvae and pupa was higher when more fat was added to the diet, but sex ratio of adults was not negatively affected. This study highlights that the fat content in the diet should be considered in the entomological research and forensic application when estimating minimum postmortem interval on the basis of larval body size and developmental stage.

  8. The laying of live larvae by the blowfly Calliphora varifrons (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Cook, David F; Voss, Sasha C; Dadour, Ian R

    2012-11-30

    This study examined larviposition in Calliphora varifrons Malloch (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an ovoviviparous blowfly of forensic importance in Western Australia. Females took 1.5 min (mean 89±10.0s, n=42) to deposit their live, first instar larvae (average body length 2.5 mm) on fresh liver in the laboratory. Females laid an average of 30 live larvae (mean of 29.9±1.2, n=50) at a rate of 1 larva every 2 s (mean of 0.46±0.05 larvae/s, n=42). Most females (66%) laid live larvae only, but 18% laid fully developed eggs (half of the egg masses laid by individual females were viable) and 16% laid live larvae and some eggs at the same time. Females laying only eggs laid a mean of 24.1±3.0, n=10 eggs on each occasion. Field females carried between 20 and 44 live larvae (mean of 33.4±1.0, n=49) with a strong linear relationship between female size and number of live larvae. In the laboratory, females typically laid larvae in multiple locations. Very few females (<8%) retained some larvae in their ovisacs, retaining on average, half of their complement of developed larvae. Those larvae retained had begun to be resorbed by the female with necrosis evident on the posterior segments.

  9. Effects of the antibiotics Gentamicin on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; Silva, Débora C; Figueiredo, Adriana L; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Aguiar, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

  10. Development of a GC-MS method for methamphetamine detection in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Pacini, Tommaso; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco; Dadour, Ian R

    2014-08-01

    Entomotoxicology is the study of using insects for the detection of drugs and other chemical substances in decomposing tissues. One research aspect in particular is the effects of these substances on arthropod development and morphology, and their consequences on the post mortem interval estimation. Since methamphetamine (MA) is becoming commonplace as an illegal recreational drug, a GC-MS method for the detection of MA in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of MA on the development, growth rates and survival of the blowfly was investigated. Larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with measured amounts of MA (5 ng/g and 10 ng/g) based on typical concentrations found in human tissue in cases of death caused by MA overdose. The experimental results demonstrated that (i) MA produced a significant increase in the developmental time from egg to adult in C. vomitoria, (ii) approximately 60% of larvae exposed to either dose of MA died during the pupation period and (iii) the resultant lengths of larvae and pupae were on average significantly larger than the controls.

  11. Identification of forensically important blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by high-resolution melting PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Malewski, Tadeusz; Draber-Mońko, Agnieszka; Pomorski, Jan; Łoś, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2010-07-01

    We describe here the successful coupling of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to rapidly identify 15 forensically important species of blowfly from the family Calliphoridae (Diptera), which occur in Poland. Two short regions (119 and 70 base pairs, respectively) of cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I with sufficient sequence diversity were selected. In the case of lacking taxa (e.g., reference species) these amplicons can be synthesized using sequences deposited in gene banks. The technique utilizes low template DNA concentration and is highly reproducible. The melting profile was not altered up to a 10,000-fold difference in DNA template concentration (ranging from 5 pg to 50 ng). The several HRM runs performed on different specimens from Poland belonging to the same species and on different days resulted in only minor variations in the amplification curves and in melting temperatures of the peaks. Intraspecific variation in a larger scale was tested using synthesized oligonucleotides from cosmopolitan Lucilia illustris originating from Poland, France, Great Britain, India, and USA. As HRM PCR analysis is sensitive to even single base changes, all geographic variants of this species were identified. This technique is also cost-effective and simple, and it may even be used by non-geneticists. A working protocol was ultimately constructed for the purpose of rapid and accurate species identification in most countries in Europe regardless of which stage or which part of a blowfly was collected.

  12. Using the developmental gene bicoid to identify species of forensically important blowflies (Diptera: calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  13. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  14. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  15. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  16. Distribution of tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) along a two-sided altitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jarić, Davorka; Krcmar, Stjepan

    2009-12-01

    The pattern of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) distribution and correlations among biodiversity, abundance, abiotic factors, and altitude were determined along a two-sided altitudinal transect. The sampling was carried out on five 3-d periods during tabanid seasonal activity. Linen canopy traps with 1-octen-3-ol as an attractant were used at 20 sampling sites along the transect. The results showed that the qualitative composition of tabanid species can be distinguished by altitude and, especially, between southeastern and northwestern mountain slopes. The peaks of horse fly species richness and abundance were indicated at middle elevations of both slopes, where horse fly distributional groups were overlapping and most rare and infrequent species were sampled. All expected species were sampled according to species accumulation curve. The canonical correlation analysis separated species and sampling sites into three clusters; two were positively correlated with the temperature and the wind but differed in sensitivity toward them, and the third cluster was correlated with the humidity. The horse fly distribution was nonhomogenous, and the distributional patterns were only partially determined by altitude and vegetation. The determining environmental variables were different for each slope: temperature and wind for the southern slope (Mediterranean climatic zone) and humidity for the northern slope (continental climatic zone).

  17. Association between Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition and structural features of belowground stormwater treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Metzger, Marco E; Hu, Renjie

    2010-01-01

    Belowground stormwater treatment devices referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be persistent sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and in urban environments necessitate routine monitoring and insecticide treatment for control. The design of certain structural features of BMPs may discourage mosquito entry and oviposition, potentially reducing the need for control measures. From August 2007 to November 2008, 29 BMPs were intermittently monitored for the presence of mosquitoes and compared against selected structural features. A bucket ovitrap was developed to estimate entry of oviposition-site-seeking females into BMPs via egg raft counts. The number of egg rafts collected was positively associated with larger diameters and shorter lengths of conveyance pipe from the nearest inlet or outlet and with increasing number of pickholes in BMP manhole covers. In contrast, the number of days pickholes were sealed against adult mosquito entry was negatively associated with eggs rafts. Findings suggest that the design of belowground BMPs and their conveyance systems can influence mosquito oviposition inside these structures. Specific design criteria with the greatest potential to minimize mosquito production and provide safe access for monitoring and control activities are discussed. PMID:20180310

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rosângela M R; Souto, Antonio; Eiras, Alvaro E; Regis, Lêda

    2007-06-01

    An ovitrap (BR-OVT) based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:17612774

  19. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla. PMID:25859927

  20. New records of bat ectoparasites (Diptera, Hemiptera and Siphonaptera) from northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía G; Claps, Guillermo L; Sánchez, Mariano S; Barquez, Rubén M

    2009-01-01

    New species of bat-ectoparasite insects are added to the fauna of Argentina and distributional limits are extended for others, based on information obtained from 21 species of bats collected. New data is reported for the distribution of 23 species of bat ectoparasites, of which 17 belong to the Order Diptera [14 Streblidae: Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, Anatrichobius scorzai Wenzel, Aspidoptera phyllostomatis (Perty), Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Sèguy), Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, Noctiliostrebla aitkeni Wenzel, N. dubia (Rudow), Paradyschiria fusca Speiser, Paradyschiria sp., Strebla chrotopteri Wenzel, Strebla diaemi Wenzel, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais y Xenotrichobius noctilionis Wenzel, and three Nycteribiidae: Basilia carteri Scott, B. plaumanni Scott y B.neamericana Schuurmans Stekhoven (Jr)], three belong to the Order Siphonaptera [one Ischnopsyllidae: Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh), one Tungidae: Rhynchopsyllus pulex Haller, and one Stephanocircidae: Craneopsylla m. minerva (Rothschild)] and three belong to Order Hemiptera [two Polyctenidae: Hesperoctenes fumarius (Westwood) and H. vicinus Jordan, and one Cimicidae: Latrocimex spectans Lent]. Some records are new for Argentina, while others are new for the provinces of Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Jujuy, Misiones and Salta. Also new host-parasite relationships are reported. PMID:19488504

  1. Population and temperature effects on Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) body size and minimum development time.

    PubMed

    Tarone, A M; Picard, C J; Spiegelman, C; Foran, D R

    2011-09-01

    Understanding how ecological conditions influence physiological responses is fundamental to forensic entomology. When determining the minimum postmortem interval with blow fly evidence in forensic investigations, using a reliable and accurate model of development is integral. Many published studies vary in results, source populations, and experimental designs. Accordingly, disentangling genetic causes of developmental variation from environmental causes is difficult. This study determined the minimum time of development and pupal sizes of three populations of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae; from California, Michigan, and West Virginia) at two temperatures (20 degrees C and 33.5 degrees C). Development times differed significantly between strain and temperature. In addition, California pupae were the largest and fastest developing at 20 degrees C, but at 33.5 degrees C, though they still maintained their rank in size among the three populations, they were the slowest to develop. These results indicate a need to account for genetic differences in development, and genetic variation in environmental responses, when estimating a postmortem interval with entomological data.

  2. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192

  3. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  4. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss. PMID:22066192

  5. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  6. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  7. Telomeric transcriptome from Chironomus riparius (Diptera), a species with noncanonical telomeres.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guitarte, J L; de la Fuente, M; Morcillo, G

    2014-06-01

    Although there are alternative telomere structures, most telomeres contain DNA arrays of short repeats (6-26 bp) maintained by telomerase. Like other diptera, Chironomus riparius has noncanonical telomeres and three subfamilies, TsA, TsB and TsC, of longer sequences (176 bp) are found at their chromosomal ends. Reverse transcription PCR was used to show that different RNAs are transcribed from these sequences. Only one strand from TsA sequences seems to render a noncoding RNA (named CriTER-A); transcripts from both TsB strands were found (CriTER-B and αCriTER-B) but no TsC transcripts were detected. Interestingly, these sequences showed a differential transcriptional response upon heat shock, and they were also differentially affected by inhibitors of RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. A computer search for transcription factor binding sites revealed putative regulatory cis-elements within the transcribed sequence, reinforcing the experimental evidence which suggests that the telomeric repeat might function as a promoter. This work describes the telomeric transcriptome of an insect with non-telomerase telomeres, confirming the evolutionary conservation of telomere transcription. Our data reveal differences in the regulation of telomeric transcripts between control and stressful environmental conditions, supporting the idea that telomeric RNAs could have a relevant role in cellular metabolism in insect cells.

  8. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts. PMID:20962718

  9. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  10. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  11. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria.

  12. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco. PMID:26593735

  13. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  14. Haltere mediated flight stabilization in Diptera: Rate decoupling, sensory encoding, and control realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rhoe A.

    Insects of the order Diptera have a single pair of wings. The rear wings of Dipteran insects have evolved into organs that allow stabilizing control responses through sensing and encoding of body angular rate feedback. This dissertation documents research on the physical and physiological mechanisms that enable a pair of halteres to distinguish and encode three orthogonal components of the body rate vector. While the knowledge that the halteres play a role in flight stability has been accepted for centuries, the understanding of how insect's very simple sensory structures are able to encode and decouple the orthogonal components of the rate vector has been lacking. The work described in this report furthers this understanding through modeling and simulation. First, a natural decoupling of the observable rate components has been identified that asserts proportionality of body rate components to averaged strain characteristics near the center of the haltere stroke. Second, a means of encoding and decoding the necessary rate information in a manner compatible with the insect's sensory structures and flight motor physiology has been identified and demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the proposed haltere model to stabilize flight in a 6DOF environment with competing behavioural objectives and randomly generated obstructions has been demonstrated.

  15. An adaptive kernel smoothing method for classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) larval instars.

    PubMed

    Cen, Guanjun; Yu, Yonghao; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks' rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby's growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods.

  16. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Alcaine-Colet, Anna; Wotton, Karl R; Jimenez-Guri, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192

  17. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.

  18. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of the forensically important family Piophilidae (Diptera) from different European locations.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Barbara Karolina; Martin-Vega, Daniel; Feddern, Nina; Fremdt, Heike; e Castro, Catharina Prado; Szpila, Krzysztof; Reckel, Frank; Schütt, Svenja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Amendt, Jens; Zehner, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Species identification plays an important role in forensic entomology and is mandatory for an accurate calculation of the minimum post-mortem interval. Many important Diptera and Coleoptera taxa of the cadaver community can already be identified by common barcoding approaches, i.e., by sequencing a 658bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) gene. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of reference barcodes for species, in particular, that can be found on cadavers at later decomposition stages. Flies of the family Piophilidae illustrate this gap of knowledge perfectly. Due to the fact that a reliable morphological identification key for the immature stages of this flies is still missing and the immature stages of many piophilids cannot be assigned to a certain species, there is need for additional tools to identify forensically relevant taxa. We collected adult piophilid specimens at 10 locations in five European countries: Spain (n=3 locations), Germany (n=3), Portugal (n=2), Poland (n=1) and Switzerland (n=1). Apart from the coI barcoding region, we additionally analyzed a 398bp long region of the nuclear elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1a) and subsequently established the molecular identifier for nine piophilid species. In addition, we present the molecular phylogeny of the examined taxa. PMID:26760908

  19. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  20. Flushing effect of rain on container-inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies.

  1. Molecular and Morphological Inference of Three Cryptic Species within the Merodon aureus Species Group (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ačanski, Jelena; Vujić, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenković, Snežana; Milić, Dubravka; Obreht Vidaković, Dragana; Đan, Mihajla

    2016-01-01

    The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods). PMID:27532618

  2. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management.

  3. Molecular and Morphological Inference of Three Cryptic Species within the Merodon aureus Species Group (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Šašić, Ljiljana; Ačanski, Jelena; Vujić, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenković, Snežana; Milić, Dubravka; Obreht Vidaković, Dragana; Đan, Mihajla

    2016-01-01

    The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods). PMID:27532618

  4. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science. PMID:23586044

  5. Infectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) to Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Alia; Soliman, Mustafa M; El-Shazly, Mohamed M

    2013-07-01

    Susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Ma79) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) was evaluated at two different temperatures. The ability of the fungus to reinfect healthy sand flies was followed up for approximately 20 wk and the effect of in vivo repassage on the enhancement of its virulence was assessed. The fungus reduced the adult emergence at 26 +/- 1 degrees C when applied to larval diet. Six spore concentrations were used in the bioassays ranging from 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(8) spores/ml. Mortality decreased significantly when the temperature was raised to 31 +/- 1 degrees C at all tested concentrations. Fungus-treated vials were assayed against sand fly larvae at different time lapses without additional reapplication of the fungus in the media to determine whether the level of inocula persisting in the media was sufficient to reinfect healthy sand flies. Twenty weeks postapplication, there were still enough infectious propagules of Ma79 to infect 40% of P. papatasi larvae. A comparison between the infectivity of 10 subsequent in vitro cultures and the host-passed inocula of the fungus against sand fly larvae was conducted. Mortalities of P. papatasi larvae changed significantly when exposed to inocula passed through different insects. Presented data can provide vector control decision makers and end users with fundamental information for the introduction and application of M. anisopliae as an effective control agent against the main cutaneous leishmaniasis old-world vector P. papatasi.

  6. Distribution of tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) along a two-sided altitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jarić, Davorka; Krcmar, Stjepan

    2009-12-01

    The pattern of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) distribution and correlations among biodiversity, abundance, abiotic factors, and altitude were determined along a two-sided altitudinal transect. The sampling was carried out on five 3-d periods during tabanid seasonal activity. Linen canopy traps with 1-octen-3-ol as an attractant were used at 20 sampling sites along the transect. The results showed that the qualitative composition of tabanid species can be distinguished by altitude and, especially, between southeastern and northwestern mountain slopes. The peaks of horse fly species richness and abundance were indicated at middle elevations of both slopes, where horse fly distributional groups were overlapping and most rare and infrequent species were sampled. All expected species were sampled according to species accumulation curve. The canonical correlation analysis separated species and sampling sites into three clusters; two were positively correlated with the temperature and the wind but differed in sensitivity toward them, and the third cluster was correlated with the humidity. The horse fly distribution was nonhomogenous, and the distributional patterns were only partially determined by altitude and vegetation. The determining environmental variables were different for each slope: temperature and wind for the southern slope (Mediterranean climatic zone) and humidity for the northern slope (continental climatic zone). PMID:20021754

  7. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.

  9. Seasonal occurrence of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a desert stream receiving trout farm effluent.

    PubMed

    Pachón, R Trudith; Walton, William E

    2011-06-01

    The distribution and abundance of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small desert stream were influenced by environmental changes caused by recharge of water supply storage basins and an aquaculture operation. Simulium virgatum was the most abundant benthic insect collected in Whitewater Canyon (Riverside County, CA) after April; however, it was never found in trout farm effluent where the ammonium-nitrogen concentration was > 0.25 mg/liter. S. virgatum densities downstream of the input of water from the Colorado River aqueduct were lower than at other sampling sites in the Whitewater River. Simulium tescorum, an especially anthropophilic black fly, was most abundant during February and March, was not collected from late spring through early autumn, and was found only in the highly enriched, less variable flow of trout farm effluent. The mean concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the trout farm effluent nearly 1 km from the fish holding ponds were ten and two times, respectively, the ambient levels in the Whitewater River upstream of the effluent discharge point. A combination of factors probably contributed to the presence of S. tescorum in the trout farm effluent including homogenization of the flow regime, enrichment of larval resources, and the development of riparian vegetation that provided oviposition and attachment sites. PMID:21635657

  10. [Current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses.

  11. Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Johansen, C A; Power, S L; Broom, A K

    2009-09-01

    A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the bloodmeal sources of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in encephalitis vector surveillance mosquito traps in Western Australia between May 1993 and August 2004. In total, 2,606 blood-fed mosquitoes, representing 29 mosquito species, were tested, and 81.7% reacted with one or more of the primary antibodies. Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Culex annulirostris Skuse were the most common species tested, making up 47.2% (1,234) and 35.6% (930), respectively. These species obtained bloodmeals from a variety of vertebrate hosts but particularly marsupials and cows. In contrast, Culex pullus Theobald (72.7%; 24/33), Culiseta atra (Lee) (70.0%; 7/10), Culex globocoxitus Dobrotworsky (54.5%; 12/22), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (39.3%; 22/56) often obtained bloodmeals from birds. Although Ae. camptorhynchus and Cx. annulirostris are well established vectors of arboviruses, other mosquitoes also may have a role in enzootic and/ or epizootic transmission.

  12. Diversity and synanthropy of Calliphoridae (Diptera) in the region of Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Souza, C R; Zuben, C J V

    2012-06-01

    Dipteran blowflies (Calliphoridae) are of great medical and hygienic importance as vectors of pathogens and as parasites of living and dead tissue, and their association with carrion allows their use in forensic entomology. The objective of this study was to determine the synanthropic index of adult Calliphoridae (Diptera) collected in Rio Claro, São Paulo. Sampling occurred between September 2009 and August 2010. Traps baited with sardines, beef liver, and minced meat were assessed for five consecutive days per month in three distinct ecological areas representing urban, rural, and forest environments. The most abundant species was Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann), followed by Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia was the only species present in all seasons and the only species collected during the winter. The season with the lowest abundance was winter, with 69 (5.5%) specimens, and spring was the season with the greatest number of specimens collected (774-61.8%). The only species found outside inhabited areas (synanthropic) was Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), with a synanthropy index (SI) value of +5.7. The SI values for the other species were negative, showing a preference for uninhabited areas. The rural and urban areas were most similar in terms of species composition as were the beef and sardine baits. Among the baits used, liver attracted the greatest abundance of calliphorids, whereas minced meat attracted the greatest diversity.

  13. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    PubMed Central

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  14. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  15. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  16. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-02-25

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.

  17. Diptera of forensic importance in the Iberian Peninsula: larval identification key.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S

    2010-09-01

    A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe.

  18. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  19. Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species associated with human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2013-09-10

    The analyses of necrophagous insects feeding on a corpse can be successfully used to estimate the minimum time since death. A minimum time frame is sometimes an underestimate, but it is actually the only method that can provide such information when decomposed remains are found at a crime scene. Many insects are known to be colonisers of a corpse, but because there is an endless spectrum of crime scene environments, the development data bases for necrophagous insects is incomplete. The two cases detailed in this paper show different entomological patterns due to the different environments (well and burial) and locations (south and central Italy) where the two cadavers were found. Common to both of these cases' was the discovery of the corpse in the same period of the year (January) and the presence of Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a species that has never been associated with deceased humans. The ecological information concerning this insect was used in combination with the more typical entomofauna found on the corpse to provide a minimum post mortem interval.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  1. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.

  2. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  3. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  4. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. PMID:25800723

  5. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.

  6. Environmental factors affecting early carcass attendance by four species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Texas.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-05-01

    As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.

  7. Seasonal occurrence of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a desert stream receiving trout farm effluent.

    PubMed

    Pachón, R Trudith; Walton, William E

    2011-06-01

    The distribution and abundance of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small desert stream were influenced by environmental changes caused by recharge of water supply storage basins and an aquaculture operation. Simulium virgatum was the most abundant benthic insect collected in Whitewater Canyon (Riverside County, CA) after April; however, it was never found in trout farm effluent where the ammonium-nitrogen concentration was > 0.25 mg/liter. S. virgatum densities downstream of the input of water from the Colorado River aqueduct were lower than at other sampling sites in the Whitewater River. Simulium tescorum, an especially anthropophilic black fly, was most abundant during February and March, was not collected from late spring through early autumn, and was found only in the highly enriched, less variable flow of trout farm effluent. The mean concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the trout farm effluent nearly 1 km from the fish holding ponds were ten and two times, respectively, the ambient levels in the Whitewater River upstream of the effluent discharge point. A combination of factors probably contributed to the presence of S. tescorum in the trout farm effluent including homogenization of the flow regime, enrichment of larval resources, and the development of riparian vegetation that provided oviposition and attachment sites.

  8. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  9. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1α) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ∼5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific.

  10. Persistence and Retention of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Rochon, K; Baker, R B; Almond, G W; Gimeno, I M; Pérez de León, A A; Watson, D W

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the acquisition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus by the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae; Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) through a bloodmeal, and virus persistence in the digestive organs of the fly using virus isolation and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Stable flies were fed blood containing live virus, modified live vaccine virus, chemically inactivated virus, or no virus. Stable flies acquired PRRSV from the bloodmeal and the amount of virus in the flies declined with time, indicating virus did not replicate in fly digestive tissues. Virus RNA was recovered from the flies fed live virus up to 24 h postfeeding using virus isolation techniques and 96 h using qRT-PCR. We further examined the fate of PRRSV in the hemolymph of the flies following intrathoracic injection to bypass the midgut barrier. PRRSV was detected in intrathoracically inoculated adult stable flies for 10 d using qRT-PCR. In contrast to what we observed in the digestive tract, detectable virus quantities in the intrathoracically inoculated stable flies followed an exponential decay curve. The amount of virus decreased fourfold in the first 3 d and remained stable thereafter, up to 10 d.

  11. Immunofluorescent characterization of DNA . RNA hybrids on polytene chromosomes of Trichosia pubescens (Diptera, sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Büsen, W; Amabis, J M; Leoncini, O; Stollar, B D; Lara, F J

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of DNA X RNA hybrids on polytene chromosomes with the aid of a goat antibody against DNA X RNA hybrids using the immunofluorescence technique. Fixed polytene chromosomes of the sciarid Trichosia pubescens (Diptera) show distinct, stage-specific labelling patterns throughout larval development. Controls for the staining procedure - including preincubation with hybrid-specific endoribonuclease H - prove that DNA X RNA hybrids are present on fixed chromosomes. They are revealed only under mild fixation conditions which do not efficiently immobilize all chromosomal proteins, indicating that some proteins have to be removed to make the antigens accessible to antibody. Certain fixation conditions may also cause local denaturation of chromosomal DNA, and some hybrids may possibly form during specimen preparation. After incorporation of radioactive uridine, a combination of phase contrast, fluorescent, and autoradiographic images of one and the same chromosomal preparation demonstrates that hybrid fluorescence is confined to transcriptionally active regions. Two puff classes can be distinguished. The first binds antibody and includes most RNA puffs and all DNA puffs so far studied; the second, comprising some RNA puffs, does not show bright fluorescence in spite of the fact that RNA synthesis is high as revealed by 3H-uridine incorporation. DNA X RNA hybrids are not found at DNA puff sites during the DNA amplification period; these sites contain detectable hybrids only when transcription is taking place. - Combination of the fluorescent technique with its excellent resolution and autoradiography should be helpful in studying detailed topological aspects of transcriptionally active chromosomal regions.

  12. Assessment of resistance risk in Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to methoxyfenozide.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-09-01

    Methoxyfenozide, an ecdysone receptor agonist is an effective larvicide against many pests of public health and veterinary importance including house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Methoxyfenozide is a bio-rational insecticide having many environmentally friendly attributes that make it compatible with integrated pest management programs. This experiment was performed for the assessment of resistance evolution in M. domestica to methoxyfenozide. A field population of M. domestica, after 24 rounds of selection with methoxyfenozide, resulted in 64 fold and 915-fold increase in lethal concentration 50 (LC50) compared to field and susceptible strain, respectively. Realized heritability (h(2)) of resistance to methoxyfenozide was 0.17 in methoxyfenozide-selected strain of M. domestica. The projected rate of resistance development indicated that, if slope=1.71 and h(2)=0.17, then 13-5 generations are required for tenfold increase in LC50 at 50-95% selection intensity. These findings suggest that a risk for resistance development to methoxyfenozide occurred in M. domestica under continuous selection pressure.

  13. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance.

  14. Purification and characterization of an antimicrobial peptide, insect defensin, from immunized house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, X L; Wang, Y S; Huang, Y D; Yu, X Q; Zhang, W Q

    2010-11-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is involved in phoretic movement of pathogenic agents, but it has a very efficient defense mechanism against infection. It is believed that antimicrobial peptides play a significant role in the defense system of the house fly. Here, we isolated a peptide from the immunized house fly pupae, measured its molecular mass (3987.6 Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight-mass spectrometry, and determined its amino acid sequence by using the Procise Protein Sequencing System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The peptide was confirmed as a member of the insect defensin family. It displayed high activity against gram-positive bacteria but lower activity against gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the house fly defensin gene was constitutively expressed in naive pupae and strongly up-regulated after immunization. House fly defensin is an amphiphilic peptide with a structure similar to that of the CSalphabeta scaffold of insect defensin A from the flesh fly, Phormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated and characterized house fly antimicrobial peptide, and our work may provide useful information for developing pharmacologically active antimicrobial agents.

  15. Examination of nocturnal blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposition on pig carcasses in mid-Michigan.

    PubMed

    Zurawski, Kristi N; Benbow, M Eric; Miller, James R; Merritt, Richard W

    2009-05-01

    The most common application of forensic entomology involves estimating a portion of the postmortem interval (PMI), which usually assumes that blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) do not oviposit nocturnally. Research objectives were to (1) investigate blow fly nocturnal oviposition in relation to sunrise and sunset in Michigan; (2) evaluate abiotic variables postulated to affect blow fly oviposition; and (3) conduct laboratory experiments testing blow fly activity under complete darkness. In 2006, nocturnal oviposition was evaluated in relation to sunset by exposing pigs to fly colonization at 1-h intervals, beginning 2 h before and ending 2 h after sunset. This test was replicated in 2007; however, replicate pigs were placed in the field 2 h after sunset, and hourly observations were made into the following morning. Oviposition was never observed at night. In a laboratory experiment, Lucilia sericata (Meigen), never oviposited on liver hanging above or placed directly on the ground in a completely dark room, Another dark room laboratory study documented that adult flies launched into the air could not fly. This study documents that the probability of nocturnal oviposition on pig carcasses in Michigan was extremely low to nonexistent. These results should be considered when estimating a portion of the PMI in forensic entomological investigations.

  16. The effect of dietary fat levels on the size and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuebo; Yang, Yongqiang; Li, Genping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Qingshan; Wan, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the type of tissue that larvae feed on can produce marked differences in developmental rate and body size, which can compromise predictions of minimum postmortem interval. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat content in the diet on larval growth in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an important forensic blowfly species in China. Bionomical parameters such as body size, development time, mortality, and sex ratio were observed. The results indicated that fat content in the diet has a dramatic effect on the body size and larval development. More dietary fat content was beneficial for development of larvae in first and early second instar. But it was adverse in the later third instar. Significantly, a high-fat diet resulted in increased development rates and the production of undersized larvae and adults. Overall mortality of larvae and pupa was higher when more fat was added to the diet, but sex ratio of adults was not negatively affected. This study highlights that the fat content in the diet should be considered in the entomological research and forensic application when estimating minimum postmortem interval on the basis of larval body size and developmental stage. PMID:25550356

  17. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga. PMID:27399679

  18. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  19. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  20. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.