Rubis, Lisa M
The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management including the use of cold laser and chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of a patient with Bell palsy. A 40-year-old male patient had a 10-day history of facial paralysis on his left side, including the inability to close his left eye, which also had tearing and a burning sensation. The patient had trouble lifting his left lip and complained of drooling while brushing his teeth. There was no previous history of similar symptoms or a recent infection. Prior treatment had included oral steroids. The patient was treated with low-level laser therapy and chiropractic manipulation 2 times in 4 days. The laser was applied along the course of the facial nerve for 30 seconds at each point and for 1 minute at the stylomastoid foramen. The laser used was a GaAs class 4 laser with a wavelength of 910 nm. The patient perceived a 70% to 80% improvement of facial movement after the first treatment. After the second treatment, the patient reported full control of his facial movements. A patient with acute facial paralysis appeared to have complete resolution of his symptoms following the application of low-level laser therapy and chiropractic manipulation.
Rubis, Lisa M.
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management including the use of cold laser and chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of a patient with Bell palsy. Clinical features A 40-year-old male patient had a 10-day history of facial paralysis on his left side, including the inability to close his left eye, which also had tearing and a burning sensation. The patient had trouble lifting his left lip and complained of drooling while brushing his teeth. There was no previous history of similar symptoms or a recent infection. Prior treatment had included oral steroids. Intervention and outcome The patient was treated with low-level laser therapy and chiropractic manipulation 2 times in 4 days. The laser was applied along the course of the facial nerve for 30 seconds at each point and for 1 minute at the stylomastoid foramen. The laser used was a GaAs class 4 laser with a wavelength of 910 nm. The patient perceived a 70% to 80% improvement of facial movement after the first treatment. After the second treatment, the patient reported full control of his facial movements. Conclusion A patient with acute facial paralysis appeared to have complete resolution of his symptoms following the application of low-level laser therapy and chiropractic manipulation. PMID:24396332
Francio, Vinicius T; Boesch, Ron; Tunning, Michael
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative syndrome which unusual symptoms include deficits of balance, bodily orientation, chronic pain syndrome and dysfunctional motor patterns. Current research provides minimal guidance on support, education and recommended evidence-based patient care. This case reports the utilization of chiropractic spinal manipulation, dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS), and other adjunctive procedures along with medical treatment of PCA. A 54-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with non-specific back pain associated with visual disturbances, slight memory loss, and inappropriate cognitive motor control. After physical examination, brain MRI and PET scan, the diagnosis of PCA was recognized. Chiropractic spinal manipulation and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization were utilized as adjunctive care to conservative pharmacological treatment of PCA. Outcome measurements showed a 60% improvement in the patient's perception of health with restored functional neuromuscular pattern, improvements in locomotion, posture, pain control, mood, tolerance to activities of daily living (ADLs) and overall satisfactory progress in quality of life. Yet, no changes on memory loss progression, visual space orientation, and speech were observed. PCA is a progressive and debilitating condition. Because of poor awareness of PCA by physicians, patients usually receive incomplete care. Additional efforts must be centered on the musculoskeletal features of PCA, aiming enhancement in quality of life and functional improvements (FI). Adjunctive rehabilitative treatment is considered essential for individuals with cognitive and motor disturbances, and manual medicine procedures may be consider a viable option.
Francio, Vinicius T.; Boesch, Ron; Tunning, Michael
Objective: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative syndrome which unusual symptoms include deficits of balance, bodily orientation, chronic pain syndrome and dysfunctional motor patterns. Current research provides minimal guidance on support, education and recommended evidence-based patient care. This case reports the utilization of chiropractic spinal manipulation, dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS), and other adjunctive procedures along with medical treatment of PCA. Clinical features: A 54-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with non-specific back pain associated with visual disturbances, slight memory loss, and inappropriate cognitive motor control. After physical examination, brain MRI and PET scan, the diagnosis of PCA was recognized. Intervention and Outcome: Chiropractic spinal manipulation and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization were utilized as adjunctive care to conservative pharmacological treatment of PCA. Outcome measurements showed a 60% improvement in the patient’s perception of health with restored functional neuromuscular pattern, improvements in locomotion, posture, pain control, mood, tolerance to activities of daily living (ADLs) and overall satisfactory progress in quality of life. Yet, no changes on memory loss progression, visual space orientation, and speech were observed. Conclusion: PCA is a progressive and debilitating condition. Because of poor awareness of PCA by physicians, patients usually receive incomplete care. Additional efforts must be centered on the musculoskeletal features of PCA, aiming enhancement in quality of life and functional improvements (FI). Adjunctive rehabilitative treatment is considered essential for individuals with cognitive and motor disturbances, and manual medicine procedures may be consider a viable option. PMID:25729084
Haavik, Heidi; Özyurt, Mustafa Görkem; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Nedergaard, Rasmus Wiberg; Yilmaz, Gizem; Türker, Kemal Sitki
Recent research has shown that chiropractic spinal manipulation can alter central sensorimotor integration and motor cortical drive to human voluntary muscles of the upper and lower limb. The aim of this paper was to explore whether spinal manipulation could also influence maximal bite force. Twenty-eight people were divided into two groups of 14, one that received chiropractic care and one that received sham chiropractic care. All subjects were naive to chiropractic. Maximum bite force was assessed pre- and post-intervention and at 1-week follow up. Bite force in the chiropractic group increased compared to the control group ( p = 0.02) post-intervention and this between-group difference was also present at the 1-week follow-up ( p < 0.01). Bite force in the chiropractic group increased significantly by 11.0% (±18.6%) post-intervention ( p = 0.04) and remained increased by 13.0% (±12.9%, p = 0.04) at the 1 week follow up. Bite force did not change significantly in the control group immediately after the intervention (−2.3 ± 9.0%, p = 0.20), and decreased by 6.3% (±3.4%, p = 0.01) at the 1-week follow-up. These results indicate that chiropractic spinal manipulation can increase maximal bite force.
Holleman, Annique C; Nee, John; Knaap, Simone F C
The purpose of this study is to discuss a chiropractic case of management and resolution of breast-feeding difficulties. The case involves an 8-day-old baby unable to breast-feed since 4 days old. Initial examination revealed cervical, cranial, and sacral restrictions. She was diagnosed with craniocervical syndrome by a doctor of chiropractic. Following history and examination, the infant received gentle chiropractic manipulation based on clinical findings. Immediate improvement and complete resolution of the nursing problems were observed after 3 treatments over 14 days. The results of this case suggest that neuromusculoskeletal dysfunction may influence the ability of an infant to suckle successfully and that intervention via chiropractic adjustments may result in improving the infant's ability to suckle efficiently. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gillman, Scott F.
Abstract Objective To describe two cases of abrupt resolution of chronic, recurrent, inversion sprain to ankles in young recreational athletes. Clinical Features A 13-year-old, female, avid recreational soccer player with ankles that would spontaneously invert during various inconsistent points in the weight bearing gait cycle, sometimes with acute pain or sprain to the ankle. No intervention was attempted prior to her entry to the chiropractic office. A 17-year-old male avid skate- boarder and snowboarder whose left ankle routinely “gave out” into inversion upon mundane weight bearing activity, usually with pain and with dependence on wearing an ankle support when skateboarding to lessen ankle pain. The patient had used an ankle support prior to seeking chiropractic care. Intervention and Outcome High velocity, low amplitude chiropractic manipulative therapy applied to the spine, pelvis and extremity joints was the primary intervention in both cases, with particular focus on the ankle. Other procedures used included taping and orthotics, but not before the manipulation effect was noted. Conclusion High velocity, low amplitude chiropractic manipulative therapy to the spine, pelvis, and extremities, particularly at the ankle, should be considered when managing young recreational athletes with functional chronic, recurrent, ankle inversion sprains. PMID:19674638
Rodine, Robert J; Aker, Peter
The following case describes a 68 year-old woman with a 7½ year history of worsening head and neck pain diagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia following surgical resection of a brain tumor. After years of unsuccessful management with medication and physical therapies, a therapeutic trial of chiropractic was carried out. Chiropractic care included ultrasound, manual therapies (manipulation and mobilization), soft tissue therapies, and home stretching exercises. After an initial treatment period followed by 18 months of supportive care the patient reported satisfactory improvement. It became evident that there were at least three sources of her symptoms: mechanical and/or degenerative neck pain, temporomandibular joint syndrome, and trigeminal neuralgia. While never completely pain-free, the patient continued to report that her pains reduced to minimal at times. At the most recent follow-up, the pain had not returned to pre-treatment intractable levels. This case study demonstrates the importance of diagnosing and treating multiple sources of pain and the positive role chiropractic care can have in the management of patients with these clinical conditions. The potential for convergence of sensory input from the upper three cervical segments and the trigeminal nerve via the trigeminocervical nucleus is discussed. PMID:20808617
López-Herradón, A; Fujikawa, R; Gómez-Marín, M; Stedile-Lovatel, J P; Mulero, F; Ardura, J A; Ruiz, P; Muñoz, I; Esbrit, P; Mahíllo-Fernández, I; Ortega-de Mues, A
Evidence suggests that chiropractic manipulation might exert positive effects in osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chiropractic manipulation on bone structure and skeletal muscle in rats with bone loss caused by ovariectomy (OVX). The 6-month old Sprague-Dawley rats at 10 weeks following OVX or sham operation (Sh) did not suffer chiropractic manipulation (NM group) or were submitted to true chiropractic manipulation using the chiropractic adjusting instrument Activator V ® three times/week for 6 weeks as follows: Force 1 setting was applied onto the tibial tubercle of the rat right hind limb (TM group), whereas the corresponding left hind limb received a false manipulation (FM group) consisting of ActivatorV ® firing in the air and slightly touching the tibial tubercle. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in long bones and L3-L4 vertebrae in all rats. Femora and tibia were analyzed by μCT. Mechano growth factor (MGF) was detected in long bones and soleus, quadriceps and tibial muscles by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The decrease of BMD and BMC as well as trabecular bone impairment in the long bones of OVX rats vs Sh controls was partially reversed in the TM group versus FM or NM rats. This bone improvement by chiropractic manipulation was associated with an increased MGF expression in the quadriceps and the anterior tibial muscle in OVX rats. These findings support the notion that chiropractic manipulation can ameliorate osteoporotic bone at least partly by targeting skeletal muscle.
Olson, Harold M; Zetocha, Andrew J; Olson, Courtney A
The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient with postoperative perineal numbness as a result of hip arthroscopy. A female patient presented to a chiropractic clinic with 7 weeks of ongoing perineal numbness after right hip arthroscopic surgery with labral repair. The patient reported lack of sensation during urination, sexual intercourse, and the insertion and removal of female hygienic products into the vagina. Conservative care included myofascial therapy to the psoas and obturator internus muscles and instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization over the obturator internus. Manual manipulation to the pelvis was also performed. The patient reported complete resolution of perineal numbness after 3 chiropractic treatments. With conservative chiropractic management, full resolution of sensation for this patient was achieved.
Puhl, Aaron A; Reinhart, Christine J; Injeyan, H Stephen; Tibbles, Anthony
The primary objective of this study was to describe the case mix experienced by chiropractic students during their clinical internship at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Secondary objectives were to characterize teaching clinic patient populations, assess the similarity to previously published data for practicing chiropractors, and describe the treatment plans being recommended by interns. A prospective, observational study was conducted using a convenience sample of 24 chiropractic interns. Data were collected by interns using a standardized form that was completed for each new patient and each new complaint examined during the 1-year internship. Standardized forms included data regarding patient demographics, complaint characteristics, and treatment recommendations. Data were included for 23 of 24 participating interns, who described 828 patients and a total of 948 unique complaint presentations. Overall, 60% of patients were female, 86% were 18 to 64 years old, and 23% were naive to chiropractic care. Of all presenting complaints, 93% were pain-based, 67% were chronic, 65% included spinal complaints, and 7% presented with red flags; individual interns' experiences were variable and are described. On average, treatment recommendations called for 9.4 visits and often included multimodal treatment approaches, most commonly soft-tissue therapies (91%), home-based active care (84%), and spine manipulation (70%). The findings of this study suggest that patients presenting to CMCC teaching clinics are similar to those reported previously to attend private chiropractic clinics. While all participating interns encountered multiple complex clinical cases, very few had experience with pediatric populations. This study adds to the few that detail the characteristics of patients attending chiropractic teaching clinics; to our knowledge it is the first to describe average case loads of chiropractic interns.
Whedon, James M.; Goertz, Christine M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Stason, William B.
Objectives Private insurance plans typically reimburse doctors of chiropractic for a range of clinical services, but Medicare reimbursements are restricted to spinal manipulation procedures. Medicare pays for evaluations performed by medical and osteopathic physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, podiatrists, physical therapists, and occupational therapists; however, it does not reimburse the same services provided by chiropractic physicians. Advocates for expanded coverage of chiropractic services under Medicare cite clinical effectiveness and patient satisfaction, whereas critics point to unnecessary services, inadequate clinical documentation, and projected cost increases. To further inform this debate, the purpose of this commentary is to address the following questions: (1) What are the barriers to expand coverage for chiropractic services? (2) What could potentially be done to address these issues? (3) Is there a rationale for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to expand coverage for chiropractic services? Methods A literature search was conducted of Google and PubMed for peer-reviewed articles and US government reports relevant to the provision of chiropractic care under Medicare. We reviewed relevant articles and reports to identify key issues concerning the expansion of coverage for chiropractic under Medicare, including identification of barriers and rationale for expanded coverage. Results The literature search yielded 29 peer-reviewed articles and 7 federal government reports. Our review of these documents revealed 3 key barriers to full coverage of chiropractic services under Medicare: inadequate documentation of chiropractic claims, possible provision of unnecessary preventive care services, and the uncertain costs of expanded coverage. Our recommendations to address these barriers include the following: individual chiropractic physicians, as well as state and national chiropractic organizations, should continue to strengthen
Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Jadad, Alejandro R; Tomlinson, George A
Chiropractic spinal manipulation treatment (SMT) is common for back pain and has been reported to increase the risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but there is no high quality evidence about this. In the absence of good evidence, clinicians can have knowledge and beliefs about the risk. Our purpose was to determine clinicians' beliefs regarding the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT. Using a belief elicitation design, 47 clinicians (16 chiropractors, 15 family physicians and 16 spine surgeons) that treat patients with back pain from primary and tertiary care practices were interviewed. Participants' elicited incidence estimates of acute LDH among a hypothetical group of patients with acute low back pain treated with and without chiropractic SMT, were used to derive the probability distribution for the relative risk (RR) for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT. Chiropractors expressed the most optimistic belief (median RR 0.56; IQR 0.39-1.03); family physicians expressed a neutral belief (median RR 0.97; IQR 0.64-1.21); and spine surgeons expressed a slightly more pessimistic belief (median RR 1.07; IQR 0.95-1.29). Clinicians with the most optimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT reduces the incidence of acute LDH by about 60% (median RR 0.42; IQR 0.29-0.53). Those with the most pessimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT increases the incidence of acute LDH by about 30% (median RR 1.29; IQR 1.11-1.59). Clinicians' beliefs about the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT varied systematically across professions, in spite of a lack of scientific evidence to inform these beliefs. These probability distributions can serve as prior probabilities in future Bayesian analyses of this relationship.
Cuthbert, Scott C.; Rosner, Anthony L.
Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe the chiropractic management of 21 patients with daily stress and occasional total urinary incontinence (UI). Clinical Features Twenty-one case files of patients 13 to 90 years of age with UI from a chiropractic clinic were reviewed. The patients had a 4-month to 49-year history of UI and associated muscle dysfunction and low back and/or pelvic pain. Eighteen wore an incontinence pad throughout the day and night at the time of their appointments because of unpredictable UI. Intervention and Outcome Patients were evaluated for muscle impairments in the lumbar spine, pelvis, and pelvic floor and low back and/or hip pain. Positive manual muscle test results of the pelvis, lumbar spine muscles, and pelvic floor muscles were the most common findings. Lumbosacral dysfunction was found in 13 of the cases with pain provocation tests (applied kinesiology sensorimotor challenge); in 8 cases, this sensorimotor challenge was absent. Chiropractic manipulative therapy and soft tissue treatment addressed the soft tissue and articular dysfunctions. Chiropractic manipulative therapy involved high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation; Cox flexion distraction manipulation; and/or use of a percussion instrument for the treatment of myofascial trigger points. Urinary incontinence symptoms resolved in 10 patients, considerably improved in 7 cases, and slightly improved in 4 cases. Periodic follow-up examinations for the past 6 years, and no less than 2 years, indicate that for each participant in this case-series report, the improvements of UI remained stable. Conclusion The patients reported in this retrospective case series showed improvement in UI symptoms that persisted over time. PMID:22942842
Cuthbert, Scott C; Rosner, Anthony L
The purpose of this case series is to describe the chiropractic management of 21 patients with daily stress and occasional total urinary incontinence (UI). Twenty-one case files of patients 13 to 90 years of age with UI from a chiropractic clinic were reviewed. The patients had a 4-month to 49-year history of UI and associated muscle dysfunction and low back and/or pelvic pain. Eighteen wore an incontinence pad throughout the day and night at the time of their appointments because of unpredictable UI. Patients were evaluated for muscle impairments in the lumbar spine, pelvis, and pelvic floor and low back and/or hip pain. Positive manual muscle test results of the pelvis, lumbar spine muscles, and pelvic floor muscles were the most common findings. Lumbosacral dysfunction was found in 13 of the cases with pain provocation tests (applied kinesiology sensorimotor challenge); in 8 cases, this sensorimotor challenge was absent. Chiropractic manipulative therapy and soft tissue treatment addressed the soft tissue and articular dysfunctions. Chiropractic manipulative therapy involved high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation; Cox flexion distraction manipulation; and/or use of a percussion instrument for the treatment of myofascial trigger points. Urinary incontinence symptoms resolved in 10 patients, considerably improved in 7 cases, and slightly improved in 4 cases. Periodic follow-up examinations for the past 6 years, and no less than 2 years, indicate that for each participant in this case-series report, the improvements of UI remained stable. The patients reported in this retrospective case series showed improvement in UI symptoms that persisted over time.
Hawk, Cheryl; Pfefer, Mark T; Strunk, Richard; Ramcharan, Michael; Uhl, Nathan
The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary information on the effects of chiropractic spinal manipulation on reducing risk of falls in older adults with impaired balance, as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). This information is necessary to develop a line of investigation into the role of chiropractic care on reduction of fall risk in this population. Randomized, 2-group pretest/posttest design feasibility study with a target sample size of 10 (5 per group), conducted within the outpatient health center of a chiropractic college. Inclusion criteria were as follows: aged 60 years or older, able to stand on one leg <5 seconds, and able to attend all sessions. Patients were assigned to chiropractic care (CMT) or supervised exercise (EX) and scheduled for 2 visits per week for 8 weeks. A total of 26 people responded to recruitment; and 11 were enrolled: 6 in the CMT and 5 in the EX group. Two patients dropped out at the baseline visit when they were assigned to the EX group. One CMT patient dropped out in the seventh week because of a fall at home resulting in a leg fracture. All remaining patients were compliant with treatment protocols. Five of 6 CMT patients and 4 of 5 EX patients had baseline BBS scores <45, indicating increased risk of falls. At visit 16, 2 CMT and 1 of the 3 remaining EX patients had BBS scores <45. One mild and transient adverse event was noted. Further investigation of the possible role of chiropractic care in reducing fall risk in this population appears feasible.
Hawk, Cheryl; Pfefer, Mark T.; Strunk, Richard; Ramcharan, Michael; Uhl, Nathan
Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary information on the effects of chiropractic spinal manipulation on reducing risk of falls in older adults with impaired balance, as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). This information is necessary to develop a line of investigation into the role of chiropractic care on reduction of fall risk in this population. Methods Randomized, 2-group pretest/posttest design feasibility study with a target sample size of 10 (5 per group), conducted within the outpatient health center of a chiropractic college. Inclusion criteria were as follows: aged 60 years or older, able to stand on one leg <5 seconds, and able to attend all sessions. Patients were assigned to chiropractic care (CMT) or supervised exercise (EX) and scheduled for 2 visits per week for 8 weeks. Results A total of 26 people responded to recruitment; and 11 were enrolled: 6 in the CMT and 5 in the EX group. Two patients dropped out at the baseline visit when they were assigned to the EX group. One CMT patient dropped out in the seventh week because of a fall at home resulting in a leg fracture. All remaining patients were compliant with treatment protocols. Five of 6 CMT patients and 4 of 5 EX patients had baseline BBS scores <45, indicating increased risk of falls. At visit 16, 2 CMT and 1 of the 3 remaining EX patients had BBS scores <45. One mild and transient adverse event was noted. Conclusion Further investigation of the possible role of chiropractic care in reducing fall risk in this population appears feasible. PMID:19674706
The understanding of the relationship between cervical manipulative therapy (CMT) and vertebral artery dissection and stroke (VADS) has evolved considerably over the years. In the beginning the relationship was seen as simple cause-effect, in which CMT was seen to cause VADS in certain susceptible individuals. This was perceived as extremely rare by chiropractic physicians, but as far more common by neurologists and others. Recent evidence has clarified the relationship considerably, and suggests that the relationship is not causal, but that patients with VADS often have initial symptoms which cause them to seek care from a chiropractic physician and have a stroke some time after, independent of the chiropractic visit. This new understanding has shifted the focus for the chiropractic physician from one of attempting to "screen" for "risk of complication to manipulation" to one of recognizing the patient who may be having VADS so that early diagnosis and intervention can be pursued. In addition, this new understanding presents the chiropractic profession with an opportunity to change the conversation about CMT and VADS by taking a proactive, public health approach to this uncommon but potentially devastating disorder. PMID:20682039
West, Jason; Phillips, Reed B.
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic care of a patient with persistent headache treated using chiropractic manipulative therapy and adjunct treatments. Clinical features A 54-year-old multiparous woman had chronic debilitating headaches for 11 months. Previous care from a variety of specialties had brought no appreciable relief. Intervention and outcome The patient was managed with chiropractic manipulative therapy, injections, and electromagnetic therapy. Five treatments over 6 weeks brought resolution of the headaches. Conclusion This patient with persistent headache responded favorably to a course of chiropractic and adjunctive care. PMID:24396331
Pavia, Steven; Fischer, Rebecca; Roy, Richard
Objective The purpose of this study is to describe chiropractic treatment of 14 patients who presented with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Methods This is a retrospective case series of 14 patients, including 13 adults and 1 child. The majority of these patients were undergoing chiropractic care for spine-related conditions when they presented with additional TMD signs and symptoms. They were evaluated and treated with Activator Methods International published protocols relative to the temporomandibular joint before the addition of treatment to the suprahyoid muscles. Results All pre- and postadjustment assessments were recorded using a numeric pain scale. The resulting average showed a reduction in the patients’ pain scores from the initial visit of 8.3 ± 1.6 to the last visit at 1.4 ± 1.1 with an 80.9% ± 15.4% improvement. The average number of visits was 13.6 ± 8.2. Conclusion All patients selected for this case series showed a reduction of temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms. PMID:26793040
Cox, James M.
Introduction The purpose of this study is to report the findings resulting from chiropractic care using flexion distraction spinal manipulation for a patient with low back and radicular pain due to spinal stenosis caused by a synovial cyst. Case Report A 75-year-old man presented with low back pain radiating to the right anterior thigh and down the left posterior leg of 3 years' duration. Physical and imaging examinations showed a synovial cyst–induced spinal stenosis at the right L3-L4 level and bilateral L4-L5 spinal stenosis. Intervention and Outcomes Flexion distraction spinal manipulation and physiological therapeutics were applied at the levels of stenosis. After 4 visits, the patient noted total absence of the right and left lower extremity pain and no adverse reaction to treatment. After 3 months of treatment and 16 visits, his low back and buttock pain were minimal; and he had no leg pain. Conclusion Lumbar synovial cyst and stenosis–generated low back and radicular pain was 80% relieved in a 75-year-old man following Cox flexion distraction spinal manipulation. PMID:22942836
This case study reports on chiropractic care for pregnancy-related heartburn. The purpose of this article is to relate the benefit of chiropractic treatment for one individual, to contrast chiropractic management with the biomedical standard of care for pregnancy-related heartburn, and to point to potential epigenetic implications of the standard of care. A 32-year-old woman who was 24 weeks pregnant presented with persistent heartburn that she was treating with ranitidine (Zantac®) and calcium carbonate (Tums®) daily at the initiation of chiropractic care. Findings of the initial examination were thoracic intersegmental dysfunction and pain upon palpation of the diaphragm, with hypertonicity noted. Therapy localization was positive for reflexes associated with the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter, suggesting spasms. Emotional components also were identified in association with the symptoms by the use of a mind-body therapy called NeuroEmotional Technique. The patient was treated by adjusting the thoracic spine, manually releasing the diaphragm spasms, and releasing the esophageal spasm with an activator (a small hand-held instrument that creates a percussive force). The patient was symptom-free and did not use medication after the fifth treatment. She was followed throughout the remainder of her pregnancy and was asymptomatic and required no further treatment. A larger study should investigate the effectiveness of chiropractic care for the treatment of pregnancy-related heartburn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burke, Jeanmarie R
The purpose of this study was to test the utility of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) as a resource for collecting data on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) within academic health centers at a chiropractic college; and, to describe changes in PRO following pragmatic chiropractic care incorporating instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) on pain symptoms. This was a pre-post intervention design without a control group (case series) involving 25 patients (14 females and 11 males; 40.5 ± 16.39 years, range 20-70 years) who completed their chiropractic care and their baseline and post-treatment pain assessments. The pragmatic chiropractic care intervention included both spinal manipulation and IASTM to treat pain symptoms. PRO's were collected using PROMIS to measure pain behavior, pain interference and pain intensity. The average pre-post assessment interval was 33 ± 22.5 days (95% CI, 23-42 days). The durations of treatments ranged from one week to 10 weeks. The median number of IASTM treatments was six. Pre-post decreases in T-scores for pain behavior and pain interference were 55.5 to 48.4 and 57.7 to 48.4, respectively (P < .05). Only 12 patients had a baseline T-score for pain intensity greater than 50. The pre-post decrease in pain intensity T-scores for these 12 patients was from 53.4 to 40.9. Within the limitations of a case series design, these data provide initial evidence on the utility of PROMIS instruments for clinical and research outcomes in chiropractic patients.
Pelletier, Jacques C.
Two cases of primary benign bone tumors were diagnosed radiographically in a chiropractic practice. Although primary osseous tumors are somewhat uncommon, their potential presence emphasizes the importance of x-ray diagnosis as an essential adjunct to chiropractic practice. This procedure may preclude underlying lesions before considering treatment of seemingly uncomplicated injuries. Two such cases are presented: unicameral bone cyst and osteochondroma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3
Kendall, Julie C; French, Simon D; Hartvigsen, Jan; Azari, Michael F
Dizziness in older people is a risk factor for falls. Neck pain is associated with dizziness and responds favourably to neck manipulation. However, it is unknown if chiropractic intervention including instrument-assisted manipulation of the neck in older people with neck pain can also improve dizziness. This parallel two-arm pilot trial was conducted in Melbourne, Australia over nine months (October 2015 to June 2016). Participants aged 65-85 years, with self-reported chronic neck pain and dizziness, were recruited from the general public through advertisements in local community newspapers and via Facebook. Participants were randomised using a permuted block method to one of two groups: 1) Activator II™-instrument-assisted cervical and thoracic spine manipulation plus a combination of: light massage; mobilisation; range of motion exercises; and home advice about the application of heat, or 2) Sham-Activator II™-instrument-assisted manipulation (set to zero impulse) plus gentle touch of cervical and thoracic spinal regions. Participants were blinded to group allocation. The interventions were delivered weekly for four weeks. Assessments were conducted one week pre- and post-intervention. Clinical outcomes were assessed blindly and included: dizziness (dizziness handicap inventory [DHI]); neck pain (neck disability index [NDI]); self-reported concerns of falling; mood; physical function; and treatment satisfaction. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, compliance with intervention and outcome assessment, study location, success of blinding, costs and harms. Out of 162 enquiries, 24 participants were screened as eligible and randomised to either the chiropractic ( n = 13) or sham ( n = 11) intervention group. Compliance was satisfactory with only two participants lost to follow up; thus, post-intervention data for 12 chiropractic intervention and 10 sham intervention participants were analysed. Blinding was similar between groups. Mild harms
Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn
Introduction Migraine affects 15% of the population, and has substantial health and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacological management is first-line treatment. However, acute and/or prophylactic medicine might not be tolerated due to side effects or contraindications. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial (RCT). Method and analysis According to the power calculations, 90 participants are needed in the RCT. Participants will be randomised into one of three groups: CSMT, placebo (sham manipulation) and control (usual non-manual management). The RCT consists of three stages: 1 month run-in, 3 months intervention and follow-up analyses at the end of the intervention and 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is migraine frequency, while migraine duration, migraine intensity, headache index (frequency x duration x intensity) and medicine consumption are secondary end points. Primary analysis will assess a change in migraine frequency from baseline to the end of the intervention and follow-up, where the groups CSMT and placebo and CSMT and control will be compared. Owing to two group comparisons, p values below 0.025 will be considered statistically significant. For all secondary end points and analyses, a p value below 0.05 will be used. The results will be presented with the corresponding p values and 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The RCT will follow the clinical trial guidelines from the International Headache Society. The Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services have approved the project. Procedure will be conducted according to the declaration of Helsinki. The results will be published at scientific meetings and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01741714. PMID:26586317
Hincapié, Cesar A; Tomlinson, George A; Côté, Pierre; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Jadad, Alejandro R; Cassidy, J David
Chiropractic care is popular for low back pain, but may increase the risk for acute lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Low back pain is a common early (prodromal) symptom of LDH and commonly precedes LDH diagnosis. Our objective was to investigate the association between chiropractic care and acute LDH with early surgical intervention, and contrast this with the association between primary care physician (PCP) care and acute LDH with early surgery. Using a self-controlled case series design and population-based healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada, we investigated all adults with acute LDH requiring emergency department (ED) visit and early surgical intervention from April 1994 to December 2004. The relative incidence of acute LDH with early surgery in exposed periods after chiropractic visits relative to unexposed periods was estimated within individuals, and compared with the relative incidence of acute LDH with early surgery following PCP visits. 195 cases of acute LDH with early surgery (within 8 weeks) were identified in a population of more than 100 million person-years. Strong positive associations were found between acute LDH and both chiropractic and PCP visits. The risk for acute LDH with early surgery associated with chiropractic visits was no higher than the risk associated with PCP visits. Both chiropractic and primary medical care were associated with an increased risk for acute LDH requiring ED visit and early surgery. Our analysis suggests that patients with prodromal back pain from a developing disc herniation likely seek healthcare from both chiropractors and PCPs before full clinical expression of acute LDH. We found no evidence of excess risk for acute LDH with early surgery associated with chiropractic compared with primary medical care.
Walker, Bruce F
Physical manipulation and manual therapies are thousands of years old. The most popular western world iteration of these therapies is delivered by chiropractors. It can be argued that the collective public health benefit from chiropractic for spinal pain has been very substantial, however as chiropractic has transitioned from craft to profession it has encountered many internally and externally driven machinations that have retarded its progress to a fully accepted allied health profession. This article sets out a ten point plan for a new chiropractic that will achieve full acceptance for this troubled profession. This article is based on a keynote speech known as the FG Roberts Memorial Address delivered on October 10, 2015, in Melbourne, Australia at the Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia and Chiropractic Australia national conference. The ten point plan consists of the following: improving the pre-professional education of chiropractors, establishing a progressive identity, developing a special interest for the profession, marginalising the nonsensical elements of the profession, being pro-public health, supporting the legitimate organised elements of the profession, improving clinical practice, embracing evidence based practice, supporting research and showing personal leadership. Adherence to this fresh ten point plan will, over time, see the chiropractic profession gain full legitimacy in the allied health field and acceptance by other health providers, policy makers and the public at large.
Hedlund, Sofia; Nilsson, Hans; Lenz, Markus; Sundberg, Tobias
The main objective of this pilot study was to explore the effect of chiropractic high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation on vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction. This was a randomized assessor-blind clinical pilot trial. Twenty-two female handball players with talocrural joint dysfunction were randomized to receive either HVLA manipulation (n = 11) or sham treatment (n = 11) once a week during a 3-week period. The main outcome was change in vertical jump height from baseline to follow-up within and between groups after 3 weeks. Nineteen athletes completed the study. After 3 weeks, the group receiving HVLA manipulation (n = 11) had a statistically significant mean (SD) improvement in vertical jump height of 1.07 (1.23) cm (P = .017). The sham treatment group (n = 8) improved their vertical jump height by 0.59 (2.03) cm (P = .436). The between groups' change was 0.47 cm (95% confidence interval, -1.31 to 2.26; P = .571) in favor of the group receiving HVLA manipulation. Blinding and sham procedures were feasible, and there were no reported adverse events. The results of this pilot study show that a larger-scale study is feasible. Preliminary results suggest that chiropractic HVLA manipulation may increase vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction. However, the clinical result in favor of HVLA manipulation compared with sham treatment needs statistical confirmation in a larger randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniels, Clinton J; Wakefield, Pamela J; Bub, Glenn A; Toombs, James D
The purpose of this narrative review was to describe the most common spinal fusion surgical procedures, address the clinical indications for lumbar fusion in degeneration cases, identify potential complications, and discuss their relevance to chiropractic management of patients after surgical fusion. The PubMed database was searched from the beginning of the record through March 31, 2015, for English language articles related to lumbar fusion or arthrodesis or both and their incidence, procedures, complications, and postoperative chiropractic cases. Articles were retrieved and evaluated for relevance. The bibliographies of selected articles were also reviewed. The most typical lumbar fusion procedures are posterior lumbar interbody fusion, anterior lumbar interbody fusion, transforaminal interbody fusion, and lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Fair level evidence supports lumbar fusion procedures for degenerative spondylolisthesis with instability and for intractable low back pain that has failed conservative care. Complications and development of chronic pain after surgery is common, and these patients frequently present to chiropractic physicians. Several reports describe the potential benefit of chiropractic management with spinal manipulation, flexion-distraction manipulation, and manipulation under anesthesia for postfusion low back pain. There are no published experimental studies related specifically to chiropractic care of postfusion low back pain. This article describes the indications for fusion, common surgical practice, potential complications, and relevant published chiropractic literature. This review includes 10 cases that showed positive benefits from chiropractic manipulation, flexion-distraction, and/or manipulation under anesthesia for postfusion lumbar pain. Chiropractic care may have a role in helping patients in pain who have undergone lumbar fusion surgery.
... physical function. Why it's done Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common problems for ... headaches and other spine-related conditions, such as neck pain. Not everyone responds to chiropractic adjustments. A lot ...
Starmer, David J; Guist, Brett P; Tuff, Taylor R; Warren, Sarah C; Williams, Matthew G R
The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in peak force modulation and time-to-peak thrust in posterior-to-anterior (PA) high-velocity-low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulations in first-year chiropractic students prior to and following a 12-week detraining period. Chiropractic students (n=125) performed 2 thrusts prior to and following a 12-week detraining period: total peak force targets were 400 and 600 N, on a force-sensing table using a PA hand contact of the participant's choice (bilateral hypothenar, bilateral thenar, or cross bilateral). Force modulation was compared to defined target total peak force values of 600 and 400 N, and time-to-peak thrust was compared between data sets using 2-tailed paired t-tests. Total peak force for the 600 N intensity varied by 124.11 + 65.77 N during the pre-test and 123.29 + 61.43 N during the post-test compared to the defined target of 600 N (P = .90); total peak force for the 400 N intensity varied by 44.91 + 34.67 N during the pre-test and 44.60 + 32.63 N during the post-test compared to the defined target of 400 N (P = .57). Time-to-peak thrust for the 400 N total peak force was 137.094 + 42.47 milliseconds during the pre-test and 125.385 + 37.46 milliseconds during the post-test (P = .0004); time-to-peak thrust for the 600 N total peak force was 136.835 + 40.48 milliseconds during the pre-test and 125.385 + 33.78 milliseconds during the post-test (P = .03). The results indicate no drop-off in the ability to modulate force for either thrust intensity, but did indicate a statistically significant change in time-to-peak thrust for the 400 N total peak force thrust intensity in first-year chiropractic students following a 12-week detraining period. Copyright © 2016 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sherrod, Charles W.; Casey, George; Dubro, Robert E.; Johnson, Dale F.
Objective This report describes the case management of musculoskeletal disorders for an employee in a college work environment using both chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. Clinical Findings A 54-year-old male office worker presented with decreased motor function in both wrists; intermittent moderate-to-severe headaches; and pain or discomfort in the neck, both shoulders, left hand and wrist, and lumbosacral region resulting from injuries sustained during recreational soccer and from excessive forces and awkward postures when interacting with his home and office computer workstations. Intervention and Results Ergonomic training, surveillance, retrofitted equipment with new furniture, and an emphasis on adopting healthy work-style behaviors were applied in combination with regular chiropractic care. Baseline ergonomic job task analysis identified risk factors and delineated appropriate control measures to improve the subject's interface with his office workstation. Serial reevaluations at 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year periods recorded changes to the participant's pain, discomfort, and work-style behaviors. At end of study and relative to baseline, pain scale improved from 4/10 to 2/10; general disability improved from 4 to 0; and hand grip strength (pounds) increased from 20 to 105 (left) and 45 to 100 (right). Healthy work habits and postures adopted in the 3-month to 1-year period regressed to baseline exposures for 3 of 6 risk priorities identified in the ergonomic job task analysis. Conclusion The patient responded positively to the intervention of chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. PMID:23997724
Beliveau, Peter J H; Wong, Jessica J; Sutton, Deborah A; Simon, Nir Ben; Bussières, André E; Mior, Silvano A; French, Simon D
Previous research has investigated utilization rates, who sees chiropractors, for what reasons, and the type of care that chiropractors provide. However, these studies have not been comprehensively synthesized. We aimed to give a global overview by summarizing the current literature on the utilization of chiropractic services, reasons for seeking care, patient profiles, and assessment and treatment provided. Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature using keywords and subject headings (MeSH or ChiroSH terms) from database inception to January 2016. Eligible studies: 1) were published in English or French; 2) were case series, descriptive, cross-sectional, or cohort studies; 3) described patients receiving chiropractic services; and 4) reported on the following theme(s): utilization rates of chiropractic services; reasons for attending chiropractic care; profiles of chiropractic patients; or, types of chiropractic services provided. Paired reviewers independently screened all citations and data were extracted from eligible studies. We provided descriptive numerical analysis, e.g. identifying the median rate and interquartile range (e.g., chiropractic utilization rate) stratified by study population or condition. The literature search retrieved 14,149 articles; 328 studies (reported in 337 articles) were relevant and reported on chiropractic utilization (245 studies), reason for attending chiropractic care (85 studies), patient demographics (130 studies), and assessment and treatment provided (34 studies). Globally, the median 12-month utilization of chiropractic services was 9.1% (interquartile range (IQR): 6.7%-13.1%) and remained stable between 1980 and 2015. Most patients consulting chiropractors were female (57.0%, IQR: 53.2%-60.0%) with a median age of 43.4 years (IQR: 39.6-48.0), and were employed (median: 77.3%, IQR: 70.3%-85.0%). The most common reported reasons for people attending chiropractic care were
Minicozzi, Salvatore J; Russell, Brent S
The purpose of this report is to describe the role of on-site chiropractic care in one corporate environment. A part-time chiropractic practice that provides services to a single company on site, 1 day per week, is described. Most care is oriented toward "wellness," is paid for by the employer, and is limited only by the chiropractor's few weekly hours of on-site availability. With approval from the company, the authors conducted an absenteeism analysis after obtaining ethics approval and consent from employee-patients who received care between 2012 and 2014. Comparisons of absenteeism rates of the sample were compared with lost worktime rates from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics' Labor Force Statistics. Of 40 current employees, 35 used chiropractic services; 17 employee-patients met the inclusion criteria. The lost worktime rates of those using chiropractic services (0.72%, 0.55%, and 0.67%, for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively) were lower than corresponding rates from Labor Force Statistics (1.5%, 1.2%, and 1.1%). Absenteeism for the employee-patients was lower than equivalent national figures in this sample of workers. Though these results may or may not be related to the chiropractic care, these findings prompt further investigation into this relationship.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
This reference guide contains laws, regulations, and licensing requirements and procedures governing chiropractic practice in New York State. Following a general introduction to professional regulation in New York State, licensure requirements are spelled out in detail, including general requirements, education requirements, examination…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The laws, rules and regulations of the State Education Department governing chiropractic practice in New York State are provided in this handbook. Requirements and procedures are also highlighted, and the forms for obtaining a license and first registration as a chiropractor are provided. The booklet is divided into the following sections:…
DeVocht, James W; Owens, Edward F; Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Strazewski, John; Bhogal, Ramneek; Xia, Ting
The objectives of this study were to examine the force-time profiles of toggle recoil using an instrumented simulator to objectively measure and evaluate students' skill to determine if they become quicker and use less force during the course of their training and to compare them to course instructors and to field doctors of chiropractic (DCs) who use this specific technique in their practices. A load cell was placed within a toggle recoil training device. The preload, speed, and magnitude of the toggle recoil thrusts were measured from 60 students, 2 instructors, and 77 DCs (ie, who use the toggle recoil technique in their regular practice). Student data were collected 3 times during their toggle course (after first exposure, at midterm, and at course end.) Thrusts showed a dual-peak force-time profile not previously described in other forms of spinal manipulation. There was a wide range of values for each quantity measured within and between all 3 subject groups. The median peak load for students decreased over the course of their class, but they became slower. Field doctors were faster than students or instructors and delivered higher peak loads. Toggle recoil thrusts into a dropping mechanism varied based upon subject and amount of time practicing the task. As students progressed through the class, speed reduced as they increased control to lower peak loads. In the group studies, field DCs applied higher forces and were faster than both students and instructors. There appears to be a unique 2-peak feature of the force-time plot that is unique to toggle recoil manipulation with a drop mechanism. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chiropractors commonly treat children for a variety of ailments by manipulating the spine to correct a 'vertebral subluxation' or a 'vertebral subluxation complex' alleged to be a cause of disease. Such treatment might begin soon after a child is born. Both major American chiropractic associations - the International Chiropractic Association and the American Chiropractic Association - support chiropractic care for children, which includes subluxation correction as a treatment or preventive measure. I do not know of any credible evidence to support chiropractic subluxation theory. Any attempt to manipulate the immature, cartilaginous spine of a neonate or a small child to correct a putative chiropractic subluxation should be regarded as dangerous and unnecessary. Referral of a child to a chiropractor for such treatment should not be considered lest a bad outcome harms the child or leads to a charge of negligence or malpractice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mansholt, Barbara A.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Corber, Lance G.; Stites, John S.
Objective: Scientific literature applicable to chiropractic practice proliferates in quantity, quality, and source. Chiropractic is a worldwide profession and varies in scope between states or provinces and from country to country. It is logical to consider that the focus and emphasis of chiropractic education varies between programs as well. This original research study endeavored to determine “essential literature” recommended by chiropractic faculty. The purpose of this article is (1) to share our results and (2) to promote discussion and explore means for future collaboration of chiropractic faculty through a worldwide platform. Methods: A 2-phase recruitment occurred initially at the institutional level and subsequently at the faculty level. A Web-based survey used qualitative data collection methods to gather bibliographic citations. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographics, and citation responses were ranked per number of recommendations, grouped into categories, and tabulated per journal source and publication date. Results: Forty-one chiropractic programs were contacted, resulting in 30 participating chiropractic programs (16 US and 14 international). Forty-five faculty members completed the entire survey, submitting 126 peer-reviewed publications and 25 additional citations. Readings emphasized clinical management of spine pain, the science of spinal manipulation, effectiveness of manual therapies, teaching of chiropractic techniques, outcomes assessments, and professional issues. Conclusion: A systematic approach to surveying educators in international chiropractic institutions was accomplished. The results of the survey provide a list of essential literature for the chiropractic profession. We recommend establishing a chiropractic faculty registry for improved communication and collaboration. PMID:28768114
Bussières, André E; Stewart, Gregory; Al-Zoubi, Fadi; Decina, Philip; Descarreaux, Martin; Haskett, Danielle; Hincapié, Cesar; Pagé, Isabelle; Passmore, Steven; Srbely, John; Stupar, Maja; Weisberg, Joel; Ornelas, Joseph
The objective of this study was to develop a clinical practice guideline on the management of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) in adults. The aim was to develop a guideline to provide best practice recommendations on the initial assessment and monitoring of people with low back pain and address the use of spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) compared with other commonly used conservative treatments. The topic areas were chosen based on an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality comparative effectiveness review, specific to spinal manipulation as a nonpharmacological intervention. The panel updated the search strategies in Medline. We assessed admissible systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials for each question using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Back Review Group criteria. Evidence profiles were used to summarize judgments of the evidence quality and link recommendations to the supporting evidence. Using the Evidence to Decision Framework, the guideline panel determined the certainty of evidence and strength of the recommendations. Consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi technique. The guideline was peer reviewed by an 8-member multidisciplinary external committee. For patients with acute (0-3 months) back pain, we suggest offering advice (posture, staying active), reassurance, education and self-management strategies in addition to SMT, usual medical care when deemed beneficial, or a combination of SMT and usual medical care to improve pain and disability. For patients with chronic (>3 months) back pain, we suggest offering advice and education, SMT or SMT as part of a multimodal therapy (exercise, myofascial therapy or usual medical care when deemed beneficial). For patients with chronic back-related leg pain, we suggest offering advice and education along with SMT and home exercise (positioning and stabilization exercises). A multimodal approach including SMT, other commonly used active interventions, self
Alcantara, Joel; Ohm, Jeanne; Kunz, Derek
The objective of this study was to characterize the practice of pediatric chiropractic. The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive survey. The settings were private practices throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe. The participants were 548 chiropractors, the majority of whom are practicing in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Practitioner demographics (i.e., gender, years in practice, and chiropractic alma mater), practice characteristics (i.e., patient visits per week, practice income reimbursement), and chiropractic technique were surveyed. The practitioners were also asked to indicate common indicators for pediatric presentation, their practice activities (i.e., use of herbal remedies, exercise and rehabilitation, prayer healing, etc.), and referral patterns. A majority of the responders were female with an average practice experience of 8 years. They attended an average of 133 patient visits per week, with 21% devoted to the care of children (<18 years of age). Practice income was derived primarily from out-of-pocket reimbursement with charges of an average of $127 and $42 for the first and subsequent visits, respectively. These visits were reimbursed to address common conditions of childhood (i.e., asthma, ear infections, etc.). Approach to patient care was spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) augmented with herbal remedies, exercises, rehabilitation, and so on. Wellness care also figured prominently as a motivator for chiropractic care. Fifty-eight percent (58%) indicated an established relationship with an osteopathic or medical physician. Eighty percent (80%) of the responders indicated referring patients to medical practitioners while only 29% indicated receiving a referral from a medical/osteopathic physician. The chiropractic care of children is a significant aspect of the practice of chiropractic. Further research is warranted to examine the safety and effectiveness of this popular nonallopathic approach to children's health.
Nykoliation, J. W.; Cassidy, J. D.
The temporomandibular pain-dysfunction syndrome (TMJ-PDS) is a frequent but often unappreciated cause of head, neck, and facial pain. Information regarding its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment is fragmentary, and often reflects an approach influenced by the background specialty of the involved practitioner. Current treatment is often multidisciplinary, involving the use of various dental splints in conjunction with physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and analgesic medication. This paper suggests that chiropractic manipulation to the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) may be an effective approach to treatment of TJM-PDS. Illustrative cases are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9
Tarola, G A
This report of two cases illustrates the potential effect of chiropractic manipulative therapy on back pain and curve progression in the at-risk, skeletally mature patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Two patients suffering from lumbar scoliosis and chronic back pain. Both had scoliosis that had progressed after skeletal maturity. Diversified type chiropractic manipulative therapy was used palliatively for back pain relief in one case, and routinely 1-2 times per month in the other case. The manipulation was applied manually, with the patients in the prone and side-posture positions. Vertebral levels manipulated were identified as fixated/dysfunctional segments based on static and/or motion palpation. They were generally applied to areas above and/or below the curve apex. When applied at the apex, cavitation was more easily achieved when the direction of thrust was into the concave side. This was also tolerated better by the patient. No attempt was made to "straighten the curve" by thrusting into the convex side. Gentle manual intersegmental mobilization, stretching and muscle massage techniques were also applied. The case treated palliatively had curve progression consistent with the literature over an 8-yr period. The case treated routinely did not. The procedure was effective in both cases for subjective relief of back pain. Diversified-type CMT has a favorable effect on acute back pain when used palliatively. The procedure may also have a favorable long term effect of preventing recurrence of back pain and on retarding curve progression when used routinely 1-2 times per month.
... Shareable Graphics Back Pain Prevention Headaches and Chiropractic Neck Pain and Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter ... new science and healing art. Among his early students were Palmer’s son, Bartlett Joshua (BJ), as well ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000416.htm Chiropractic care for back pain To use the sharing ... discussed in your first session. What Conditions Does Chiropractic Treat Best? Chiropractic treatment is most effective for: ...
Background Chiropractic (Greek: done by hand) is a health care profession concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system and the effects of these disorders on general health. There is an emphasis on manual techniques, including joint adjustment and/or manipulation, with a particular focus on joint subluxation (World Health Organization 2005) or mechanical lesion and restoring function. The chiropractor's role in wellness care, prevention and treatment of injury or illness is based on education in anatomy and physiology, nutrition, exercise and healthy lifestyle counseling as well as referral to other health practitioners. Depending on education, geographic location, scope of practice, as well as consumer preference, chiropractors may assume the role of primary care for families who are pursuing a more natural and holistic approach to health care for their families. Objective To present a perspective on current management of the paediatric patient by members of the chiropractic profession and to make recommendations as to how the profession can safely and effectively manage the paediatric patient. Discussion The chiropractic profession holds the responsibility of ethical and safe practice and requires the cultivation and mastery of both an academic foundation and clinical expertise that distinguishes chiropractic from other disciplines. Research into the effectiveness of chiropractic care for paediatric patients has lagged behind that of adult care, but this is being addressed through educational programs where research is now being incorporated into academic tracks to attain advanced chiropractic degrees. Conclusion Studies in the United States show that over the last several decades, chiropractors are the most common complementary and alternative medicine providers visited by children and adolescents. Chiropractors continue to seek integration with other healthcare providers to provide the most appropriate
Harrison, D D; Janik, T J; Harrison, G R; Troyanovich, S; Harrison, D E; Harrison, S O
This paper discusses linear algebra as applied to human posture in chiropractic, specifically chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP). Rotations, reflections and translations are geometric functions studied in vector spaces in linear algebra. These mathematical functions are termed rigid body transformations and are applied to segmental spinal movement in the literature. Review of the literature indicates that these linear algebra concepts have been used to describe vertebral motion. However, these rigid body movers are presented here as applying to the global postural movements of the head, thoracic cage and pelvis. The unique inverse functions of rotations, reflections and translations provide a theoretical basis for making postural corrections in neutral static resting posture. Chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP) uses these concepts in examination procedures, manual spinal manipulation, instrument assisted spinal manipulation, postural exercises, extension traction and clinical outcome measures.
Council on Chiropractic Education, Des Moines, IA.
The policy of accreditation for the chiropractic profession and educational standards for chiropractic colleges are presented. The following types are historical development of chiropractic accreditation; the structure and function of the Council on Chiropractic Education; and eligibility, procedures, and classifications for status as an…
Strunk, Richard G
The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical response to multimodal chiropractic treatment of a patient diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT), and chronic pain. A 22-year-old woman presented with severe chronic neck and low back pain, headaches, and bilateral hand pain and stiffness. In addition to these pain complaints, the patient had a family history of EDS, weekly or daily recurring joint dislocations, and upper and lower extremity joint hypermobility. As a result of her significant history and examination findings, which met the Brighton and Villefranche criteria, she was diagnosed with EDS-HT. Treatment primarily consisted of low force joint manipulative therapy and soft tissue therapy intermittently over 21 months concurrently with conventional and complementary medical care. Multiple outcome questionnaires were administered pragmatically at follow-up intervals of 3, 5½, 8½, 19, and 21 months, including but not limited to the Headache and Neck Disability Indices and the Oswestry Low Back Questionnaire. The patient had clinically meaningful improvements on the Neck Disability Index, the Headache Disability Index, and the Revised Oswestry after 3, 5½, 8½, and 21 months from baseline. This patient with EDS-HT had clinically meaningful decreases in disability, headache, and spine pain after a course of multimodal chiropractic care combined with conventional and complementary medical care.
Ernst, Edzard; Posadzki, Paul
To promote an independent and critical evaluation of 11 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of chiropractic funded by the National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Electronic searches were conducted to identify all relevant RCTs. Key data were extracted and the risk of bias of each study was determined. Ten RCTs were included, mostly related to chiropractic spinal manipulation for musculoskeletal problems. Their quality was frequently questionable. Several RCTs failed to report adverse effects and the majority was not described in sufficient detail to allow replication. The criticism repeatedly aimed at NCCAM seems justified, as far as their RCTs of chiropractic is concerned. It seems questionable whether such research is worthwhile.
Charlton, Keith H
Background There is little homogeneity of opinion in the chiropractic profession about its essence and identity. Matters compromising the establishment of a coherent identity include the issue of vertebral subluxation, philosophy, mercantilism, poverty of qualifications in some chiropractic college faculty, and lack of intellectual productivity in some chiropractic college faculty. Discussion The Chiropractic profession has mislabeled rhetoric, supposition and cant as philosophy, whilst showing sparse evidence for the existence of more than a few chiropractors writing in philosophy as a discipline. There is no evidence for "Chiropractic Philosophy". I propose, however, that a better use of the discipline of philosophy can be of great use to the Chiropractic profession. Various thinkers throughout the ages have written about deduction, induction and falsificationism as methods to discover more reliably the nature of things in the world about us. Each method has strengths and frailties, but some of the latter are insurmountable for our purposes. Summary Using a contrivance of that method which seems most suited, sui generis, for the purpose, I propose a Chiropracticness Test as a tool to assist the search for essence and identity in Chiropractic. PMID:16307687
Iyer, Madhu Mia; Skokos, Evangelia; Piombo, Denise
The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management of 7-month-old male twins who had had constipation since birth. Identical male twins presented with the chief complaint of constipation and bloating. Both patients were born premature after 29 weeks of gestation and had invasive abdominal surgeries in the right lower quadrant resulting in healed postsurgical scars. Patient A underwent ileostomy for a perforation in his ileum. Patient B underwent surgery to repair an inguinal hernia. Motion palpation restrictions indicated bilateral sacroiliac, cervical, and thoracic joint restrictions. The treatment plan included chiropractic manipulation, acupressure stimulation, and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization. Manipulation of the sacroiliac, cervical, and thoracic spine joint restrictions was performed using minimal force. Cross-frictional massage and myofascial manipulation and scar tissue mobilization of the abdominal scar in the right lower quadrant were performed. Acupressure stimulation was performed on both patients' feet. Both patients had improved bowel movements after the first treatment. Patient A had 5 weeks of treatment (2 visits per week). Patient B had 4 weeks of treatment (2 visits per week). The patients' clinical progress improved, and once the goal of regular bowel movements was reached, as confirmed by their mother, follow-up visits were reduced to once a week and gradually to once a month. Both pediatric patients with constipation responded to chiropractic care using multimodal therapies.
Kuhn, Kurt W.; Cambron, Jerrilyn
Objective The purpose of this report is to describe chiropractic management, using a brain-based model of care, of a teen who had migraine headaches and several social and learning difficulties. Clinical features A 15-year-old adolescent boy with a chronic history of migraines and more than 10 years of learning and behavioral difficulties, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome, presented for chiropractic care. Intervention and outcome The patient received spinal manipulation and was given home physical coordination activities that were contralateral to the side of the involved basal ganglia and ipsilateral to the involved cerebellum, along with interactive metronome training. Quantitative changes were noted in neurological soft signs, tests of variables of attention Conners’ Parent Rating Scale, the California Achievement Test, grade point, and reduction of medications. The patient reported qualitative improvements in tics, attention, reading, vision, health, relationships with his peers and his family, and self-esteem. Conclusion The patient with migraine headaches and learning difficulties responded well to the course of chiropractic care. This study suggests that there may be value in a brain-based model of care in the chiropractic management of conditions that are beyond musculoskeletal in nature. PMID:24396330
... the sciences. Chiropractic training is a 4-year academic program that includes both classroom work and direct ... health approaches, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does ...
Sikorski, David M.; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S.
Objective: Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. Methods: We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Conclusions: Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences. PMID:26655282
Sikorski, David M; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S
Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences.
Nook, Debra D; Nook, Erik C; Nook, Brian C
The purpose of this study was to describe chiropractic care use at the World Games 2013. In this retrospective study, we reviewed treatment charts of athletes and non-athletes who sought chiropractic care at The World Games in Cali, Colombia, from July 25 to August 4, 2013. Doctors of chiropractic of the International Federation of Sports Chiropractic provided care. Chart notes included body region treated, treatment modality, and pretreatment and posttreatment pain ratings. Of the participants, 537 of 2964 accredited athletes and 403 of 4131 accredited non-athletes sought chiropractic treatment; these represent utilization rates of 18.1% for athletes and 9.8% for non-athletes. A total of 1463 treatments were recorded for athletes (n = 897) and non-athletes (n = 566). The athletes who were treated represented 28 of 33 sports and 68 of 93 countries that were present at the games. Among athletes, the thoracic spine was the most frequent area of treatment (57.2%), followed by the lumbar spine (48.7%) and the cervical spine (38.9%). Myotherapy was the most frequently used treatment method (80.9%), followed by chiropractic manipulation (78.5%), taping (38.0%), and mobilization (24.6%). Reports of acute injury were higher among athletes (45.4%) compared with non-athletes (23.8%). Reported pain was reduced after treatment (P < .001), and 86.9% patients reported immediate improvement after receiving chiropractic treatment. The majority of people seeking chiropractic care at an international sporting competition were athletes. For those seeking care, the injury rate was higher among athletes than among non-athletes. The majority of patients receiving chiropractic care reported improvement after receiving care. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Council on Chiropractic Education, Des Moines, IA.
Contents include: background information on the historical development, purpose, structure, and function of chiropractic accreditation; accreditation policy (eligibility, procedures, classifications, commission actions, and reports); standards for chiropractic colleges (organization, administration, scholastic regulations curriculum, faculty,…
Todd, Angela J; Carroll, Matthew T; Russell, David G; Mitchell, Eleanor K L
To compare chiropractic students' perceptions of preparedness for practice before and after a clinical placement in Rarotonga and to report demographics from these experiences. The students completed deidentified pre- and postplacement surveys assessing pediatric practice preparedness. Students tallied the patient numbers, age, and chiropractic techniques used per visit for each day of clinic placement. On completion of the program, participating students (27/34, or 79% of the student cohort) did a postplacement survey on their perception of practice preparedness. Data were analyzed with the Spearman rho correlation, the Mann-Whitney U test, and regression analysis. There was an increase in perceived preparedness for pediatric practice, ranging from 24.1% of the student cohort at the start of the study to 82.1% following clinical placement in Rarotonga. The change in student preparedness to practice with children was positively correlated with the total number of children managed (r s = .05, p = .01) and the number of children managed who were under 10 years of age (r s = .60, p = .001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a medium positive effect for postprogram preparedness (F [4, 20] = 3.567, p = .024). Clinical outreach to Rarotonga provided a broad case mix of patients and a change in student perceptions of preparedness to practice with children, which was positively affected by the total number of children managed and the number of children managed who were under 10 years of age.
Schwab, Matthew J.
Abstract Objective This case report describes the effect of exercise-based chiropractic treatment on chronic and intractable low back pain complicated by lumbar disk extrusion. Clinical Features A 47-year–old male firefighter experienced chronic, unresponsive low back pain. Pre- and posttreatment outcome analysis was performed on numeric (0-10) pain scale, functional rating index, and the low back pain Oswestry data. Secondary outcome assessments included a 1-rep maximum leg press, balancing times, push-ups and sit-ups the patient performed in 60 seconds, and radiographic analysis. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated with Pettibon manipulative and rehabilitative techniques. At 4 weeks, spinal decompression therapy was incorporated. After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient's self-reported numeric pain scale had reduced from 6 to 1. There was also overall improvement in muscular strength, balance times, self-rated functional status, low back Oswestry scores, and lumbar lordosis using pre- and posttreatment radiographic information. Conclusion Comprehensive, exercise-based chiropractic management may contribute to an improvement of physical fitness and to restoration of function, and may be a protective factor for low back injury. This case suggests promising interventions with otherwise intractable low back pain using a multimodal chiropractic approach that includes isometric strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and lumbar spinal decompression therapy. PMID:19646377
Globe, Gary A; Morris, Craig E; Whalen, Wayne M; Farabaugh, Ronald J; Hawk, Cheryl
Although a number of guidelines addressing manipulation, an important component of chiropractic professional care, exist, none to date have incorporated a broad-based consensus of chiropractic research and clinical experts representing mainstream chiropractic practice into a practical document designed to provide standardized parameters of care. The purpose of this project was to develop such a document. Development of the document began with seed materials, from which seed statements were distilled. These were circulated electronically to the Delphi panel until consensus was reached, which was considered to be present when there was agreement by at least 80% of the panelists. The panel consisted of 40 clinically experienced doctors of chiropractic, representing 15 chiropractic colleges and 16 states, as well as both the American Chiropractic Association and the International Chiropractic Association. The panel reached 80% consensus of the 27 seed statements after 2 rounds. Specific recommendations regarding treatment frequency and duration, as well as outcome assessment and contraindications for manipulation were agreed upon by the panel. A broad-based panel of experienced chiropractors was able to reach a high level (80%) of consensus regarding specific aspects of the chiropractic approach to care for patients with low back pain, based on both the scientific evidence and their clinical experience.
Walker, Bruce F; French, Simon D; Grant, William; Green, Sally
Chiropractors commonly use a combination of interventions to treat people with low-back pain (LBP). To determine the effects of combined chiropractic interventions (that is, a combination of therapies, other than spinal manipulation alone) on pain, disability, back-related function, overall improvement, and patient satisfaction in adults with LBP, aged 18 and older. We searched: The Cochrane Back Review Group Trials Register (May 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), and MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), CINAHL (from January 1982), MANTIS (from Inception) and the Index to Chiropractic Literature (from Inception) to May 2009. We also screened references of identified articles and contacted chiropractic researchers. All randomised trials comparing the use of combined chiropractic interventions (rather than spinal manipulation alone) with no treatment or other therapies. At least two review authors selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted the data using standardised forms. Both descriptive synthesis and meta-analyses were performed. We included 12 studies involving 2887 participants with LBP. Three studies had low risk of bias. Included studies evaluated a range of chiropractic procedures in a variety of sub-populations of people with LBP.No trials were located of combined chiropractic interventions compared to no treatment. For acute and subacute LBP, chiropractic interventions improved short- and medium-term pain (SMD -0.25 (95% CI -0.46 to -0.04) and MD -0.89 (95%CI -1.60 to -0.18)) compared to other treatments, but there was no significant difference in long-term pain (MD -0.46 (95% CI -1.18 to 0.26)). Short-term improvement in disability was greater in the chiropractic group compared to other therapies (SMD -0.36 (95% CI -0.70 to -0.02)). However, the effect was small and all studies contributing to these results had high risk of bias. There was no difference in medium- and long-term disability. No
Hawk, Cheryl; Schneider, Michael J; Vallone, Sharon; Hewitt, Elise G
Chiropractic care is the most common complementary and integrative medicine practice used by children in the United States, and it is used frequently by children internationally as well. The purpose of this project was to update the 2009 recommendations on best practices for chiropractic care of children. A formal consensus process was completed based on the existing recommendations and informed by the results of a systematic review of relevant literature from January 2009 through March 2015. The primary search question for the systematic review was, "What is the effectiveness of chiropractic care, including spinal manipulation, for conditions experienced by children (<18 years of age)?" A secondary search question was, "What are the adverse events associated with chiropractic care including spinal manipulation among children (<18 years of age)?" The consensus process was conducted electronically, by e-mail, using a multidisciplinary Delphi panel of 29 experts from 5 countries and using the RAND Corporation/University of California, Los Angeles, consensus methodology. Only 2 statements from the previous set of recommendations did not reach 80% consensus on the first round, and revised versions of both were agreed upon in a second round. All of the seed statements in this best practices document achieved a high level of consensus and thus represent a general framework for what constitutes an evidence-based and reasonable approach to the chiropractic management of infants, children, and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shane, Eric R.; Pierce, Kevin M.; Gonzalez, Jannet K.; Campbell, Nathan J.
Objective The purpose of this case series is to report how the symptom section of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) was used to manage athletes with concussions in a high school training room setting and to address the need for SCAT2 baseline measurements. Clinical features During a 4-month period, 3 doctors of chiropractic with certification from the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians managed 15 high school athletes with concussions in a multidisciplinary setting. Fourteen athletes were male American football players, and one was a female volleyball player. Intervention and outcome Of the 15 athletes, 3 athletes had baseline SCAT2 documentation. Athletes were evaluated and returned to play with a graded return to play protocol using the SCAT2 symptoms and serial physical examinations. Once participants were asymptomatic, they began a graded return to play process. A total of 47 SCAT2 tests were performed on the 15 athletes, averaging 3.13 SCAT2 evaluations per patient. Of the 15 athletes evaluated, 6 were managed and cleared for return to play; 2 of the athletes sustained concussions in the last week of the season, thus ending their season; and 3 athletes were cleared by medical doctors. None of the athletes under care reported an adverse event. Conclusion The utilization of the SCAT2 with serial physical examinations provided objective measures for athlete’s injuries, allowing the practitioners to evaluate concussions. More efforts are needed to collect baseline SCAT2 to compare these scores with subsequent SCAT2 scores following athletic injuries. PMID:24396327
French, Simon D; Beliveau, Peter J H; Bruno, Paul; Passmore, Steven R; Hayden, Jill A; Srbely, John; Kawchuk, Greg N
) Neurophysiological mechanisms and effects of spinal manipulative therapy; 8) General mechanisms and effects of spinal manipulative therapy. This project identified research priority areas for the Canadian chiropractic profession. The top three priority areas were all in the area of health services research: 1) Integration of chiropractic care into multidisciplinary settings; 2) Costs and cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care; 3) Effect of chiropractic care on reducing medical services.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern the chiropractic practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for chiropractors are described. Provisions of Title VIII, Articles 130 and 132, of the Education Law are also covered, along with…
Kaptchuk, T J; Eisenberg, D M
Chiropractic is an important component of the US health care system and the largest alternative medical profession. In this overview of chiropractic, we examine its history, theory, and development; its scientific evidence; and its approach to the art of medicine. Chiropractic's position in society is contradictory, and we reveal a complex dynamic of conflict and diversity. Internally, chiropractic has a dramatic legacy of strife and factionalism. Externally, it has defended itself from vigorous opposition by conventional medicine. Despite such tensions, chiropractors have maintained a unified profession with an uninterrupted commitment to clinical care. While the core chiropractic belief that the correction of spinal abnormality is a critical health care intervention is open to debate, chiropractic's most important contribution may have to do with the patient-physician relationship.
Dunn, Andrew S.
Objective: Department of Defense (DoD) chiropractic internships first began in July of 2001. At the time of this study, 30 New York Chiropractic College student interns had completed part of their clinical education within chiropractic clinics at either the National Naval Medical Center or Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the careers of DoD chiropractic internship participants with comparable nonparticipants in terms of demographics, professional activities, income, and satisfaction. Methods: Survey research was employed to gather data from DoD chiropractic internship participants and comparable nonparticipants. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine significant differences with a nominal significance level set as.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in demographics, professional activities, income, or career satisfaction between the 21 DoD chiropractic internship participants (70% response rate) and 35 internship nonparticipants (35% response rate). Conclusions: This study utilized practice parameters as a form of feedback for a comparative analysis of DoD chiropractic internship participants and nonparticipants and found no significant differences between these groups. Limitations of the study may have influenced the results. Opportunities for chiropractic students to train within these settings remains limited and should be further explored, as should additional research into this component of chiropractic clinical education. PMID:18483629
Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R
The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change? Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Schafer, R. C., Ed.
The review covers: (1) the discipline (description, scientific theories and principles, its practice, contributions to the health field, and history); (2) the profession (a doctor profile, patients, students, and the American Chiropractic Association); (3) chiropractic education (colleges, career opportunities, standard basic curriculum,…
Disc herniation is one of the most common causes of low back pain with radicular pain. Among various types of disc herniation, the extraforaminal disc herniation is a rare cause of lumbar radiculopathy. The aim of presenting this case study is to demonstrate the benefits of Chiropractic care including spine and extremity manipulation and rehabilitation in the treatment of a rare case of extraforaminal L4 nerve entrapment causing severe L4 radiculopathy and chronic mild low back pain (LBP). The aim of presenting this case study is to demonstrate the benefits of Chiropractic care including spine and extremity manipulation and rehabilitation in treatment of rare case of extraforaminal L4 nerve entrapment which caused severe L4 radiculopathy and chronic mild low back pain (LBP). A 45-year old female patient arrived at the clinic with chronic mild low back pain and right buttock pain, all of which had presented for two years' duration. During the preceding month, the radicular pain initiated in medium to high intensity, radiating to her right leg following the L4 dermatomal pattern with a periodic tingling sensation in her right foot. A neuro exam demonstrated a proprioception deficit in her right leg. A Romberg test was positive. The patient was treated by low amplitude high velocity spinal and extremity manipulation for 10 consecutive sessions (2 weeks), followed by rehabilitation and exercise therapy including advanced myofascial release therapy for an additional 12 sessions (4 weeks). After treatment, the patient reported a significant improvement in her low back pain and radiculopathy. In addition, she achieved some improvement in balance. It seems that Chiropractic care and rehabilitation therapy may be a safe and effective modality in treatment of an L4 radiculopathy in a patient with an extraforaminal L4 nerve entrapment. Although it is rare, an L4 extraforaminal disc herniation should be considered as a possible cause of symptoms in patients with chronic mild
McMurtry, Angus; Wilson, Kumanan; Clarkin, Chantalle; Walji, Rishma; Kilian, Brendan C; Kilian, Carney C; Lohfeld, Lynne; Alolabi, Bashar; Hagino, Carol; Busse, Jason W
An important influence on parents' decisions about pediatric vaccination (children under 6 years of age) is the attitude of their health care providers, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. Very limited qualitative research exists, however, on how attitudes towards vaccination develop among healthcare professionals in-training. We explored perspective development among three groups of students: medical, chiropractic, and naturopathic. We conducted focus group sessions with participants from each year of study at three different healthcare training programs in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured and open-ended questions were used to elicit dynamic interaction among participants and explore how they constructed their attitudes toward vaccination at the beginning and part way through their professional training. Analyses of verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were conducted both inductively and deductively using questions structured by existing literature on learning, professional socialization and interprofessional relations. We found five major themes and each theme was illustrated with representative quotes. Numerous unexpected insights emerged within these themes, including students' general open-mindedness towards pediatric vaccination at the beginning of their training; the powerful influence of both formal education and informal socialization; uncritical acceptance of the vaccination views of senior or respected professionals; students' preference for multiple perspectives rather than one-sided, didactic instruction; the absence of explicit socio-cultural tensions among professions; and how divergences among professional students' perspectives result from differing emphases with respect to lifestyle, individual choice, public health and epidemiological factors-rather than disagreement concerning the biomedical evidence. This last finding implies that their different perspectives on pediatric vaccination may be complementary
Sherrod, Chuck; Johnson, Dale; Chester, Bruce
One hundred and sixty million office workers (knowledge workers) in the U.S. and 2/3 of the developed countries use computers on a daily basis. Investigate the effectiveness of ergonomic and diversified chiropractic care for the reduction of pain, discomfort and impaired productivity in knowledge workers presenting with neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints. A one-year prospective case series (n=5 applying ergonomic job task analyses and ongoing surveillance at baseline, 8 weeks, 16 weeks and one-year for musculoskeletal discomfort (CMDQ and VAS, quality of life (Rand SF-36, productivity and forward head posture (FHP). CMDQ and VAS scores decreased by 45% (neck) and 80% (upper extremities); productivity increased from 65% to 100%; physical functioning, role physical and role emotional improved for 4 of 5 subjects; body pain and general health improved for 3 of 5. Average FHP changed from 1-inch (baseline) to 1/4-inch (16-weeks) to 1/2-inch (one year). Effectiveness of this intervention for the reduction of risks depended upon the subject's adoption of safe workstyle behaviors and postures. A transtheoretical model (TTM) for behavior change is discussed as a possible methodology to enhance the adoption of safer work habits.
Alcantara, Joel; Alcantara, Joey D; Alcantara, Junjoe
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and accounted for 7.4 million deaths in 2004. By 2030, deaths from cancer have been estimated at 12 million with 30% being preventable. Complementary and alternative medicine remains popular among cancer patients; particularly with chiropractic services. However, the nature of the chiropractic clinical encounter and its reported benefits remains to be fully investigated. Towards these efforts, we begin with a systematic review of the literature on the chiropractic care of patients with cancer. The following electronic databases were searched: MANTIS [1965-2010]; Index to Chiropractic Literature [1984-2010]; Pubmed [1966-2010]; Medline [1965-2010] EMBASE [1974-2010], AMED [1975-2010], CINAHL Plus [1965-2010], Alt-Health Watch [1965-2010] and PsychINFO [1965-2010]. Key words used were "cancer" and "neoplasm" in Boolean combination with "chiropractic." Primary investigation/reports in peer-reviewed English journals involving chiropractic care were reviewed. Our review revealed 60 case reports, 2 case series, 21 commentaries, 2 survey studies, and 2 literature reviews. The case reports were diagnostic with commentaries highlighting the importance of recognizing the patient presenting with NMS complaints due to an underlying neoplasm. The chiropractic clinical encounter prior to cancer diagnosis and subsequent medical referral is poorly characterized in the literature. Patients with cancer seek the care of chiropractors. The literature does not reflect or describe the totality of the chiropractic clinical encounter. We encourage further research in this field.
Rosner, Anthony L
The purpose of this article is to propose a focused assessment of the identity of chiropractic and its profession, triangulating multiple viewpoints converging upon various aspects and definitions of neurology, manual medicine, and alternative or mainstream medicine. Over 120 years since its inception, chiropractic has struggled to achieve an identity for which its foundations could provide optimal health care. Despite recognition of the benefits of spinal manipulation in various government guidelines, advances in US military and Veterans Administration, and persistently high levels of patient satisfaction, the chiropractic profession remains underrepresented in most discussions of health care delivery. Distinguishing characteristics of doctors of chiropractic include the following: (1) they embrace a model of holistic, preventive medicine (wellness); (2) they embrace a concept of neurological imbalance in which form follows function, disease follows disturbed biochemistry, and phenomenology follows physiology; (3) they diagnose, and their institutions of training are accredited by a body recognized by the US Department of Education; (4) they manage patients on a first-contact basis, often as primary care providers in geographical areas that are underserved; (5) the spine is their primary-but not exclusive-area of interaction; (6) they deliver high-velocity, low-amplitude adjustments with a superior safety record compared with other professions; and (7) they use a network of institutions worldwide that have shown increasing commitments to research. This article provides an overview of chiropractic identity from 6 points of view: (1) concepts of manual medicine; (2) areas of interest beyond the spine; (3) concepts of the chiropractic subluxation; (4) concepts of neurology; (5) concepts of mainstream or alternative health care; and (6) concepts of primary care, first-contact provider, or specialist.
Wiberg, Karin R; Wiberg, Jesper M M
The aim of this study was to investigate if the outcome of excessively crying infants treated with chiropractic manipulation (1) was associated with age and/or (2), at least partially, can be explained by age according to the natural decline in crying. This was a retrospective evaluation of clinical records of 749 infants from a private Danish chiropractic practice. All of the infants were healthy, thriving infants born to term within the age of 0 to 3 months who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for excessively crying infants (infantile colic), whose parents sought chiropractic treatment. The infants were treated using chiropractic management as decided by the treating doctor of chiropractic, and changes in crying based upon the parents' report were noted as improved, uncertain, or nonrecovered. Age predictor groups were cross-tabulated against the outcome variables, and difference between classification groups was tested with χ(2) tables and confidence intervals. Slightly older age was found to be linked to excessively crying infants who experienced clinical improvement. However, no apparent link between the clinical effect of chiropractic treatment and a natural decline in crying was found for this group of infants. The findings of this study do not support the assumption that effect of chiropractic treatment of infantile colic is a reflection of the normal cessation of this disorder. Copyright © 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Boysen, James C.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J.
Objective: One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Methods: Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. Results: The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor–patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Conclusion: Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices. PMID:27258817
Keating, Joseph C
Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24
Walker, Bruce F.
The first edition of the Journal of the Chiropractic and Osteopathic College of Australasia was known as COMSIG Review and was published in November, 1992 to coincide with a large conference that COCA had organised in Melbourne. In the first few years the majority of articles were magazine style reviews, similar to these found in the Australian Family Physician. The first Editor was Bruce Walker and subsequent Editors have included John Drinkwater, Stephanie Campbell and John Reggars. The current Editors in Chief, Peter Tuchin and Henry Pollard, are staff members at Macquarie University, Centre of Chiropractic, with a strong background in science and research and both are currently undertaking post-graduate research degrees. Over several years the magazine review style was changed in keeping with a more full journal format. An Editorial Board was formed, comprised of chiropractors, osteopaths and medical practitioners, some of whom are world renowned in their particular field of research. By March, 1996 it was decided to change the name of the journal to Australasian Chiropractic and Osteopathy (ACO). This was a purposeful move to reflect the maturing of the journal and also the growth of the College and in the five years since November 1992, seventy-nine scientific articles have been published. It is anticipated that the journal will continue to be widely distributed throughout the world, with current subscriptions from all Australian undergraduate chiropractic and osteopathic institutions and the vast majority of international undergraduate institutions. ACO is currently indexed with Mantis (formerly Chirolars). The Editorial Panel continue to strive for Australasian Chiropractic and Osteopathy inclusion into Index Medicus and thereby Medline. However, it is recognised that readership of chiropractic journals is very low throughout the world and it is unlikely in the near future that any chiropractic journal other than the Journal of Manipulative and
Vining, Robert D; Salsbury, Stacie A; Cooley, W Carl; Gosselin, Donna; Corber, Lance; Goertz, Christine M
Individuals rehabilitating from complex neurological injury require a multidisciplinary approach, which typically does not include chiropractic care. This study describes inpatients receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation including chiropractic care for brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other complex neurological conditions. Chiropractic services were integrated into Crotched Mountain Specialty Hospital (CMSH) through this project. Patient characteristics and chiropractic care data were collected to describe those receiving care and the interventions during the first 15 months when chiropractic services were available. CMSH, a 62-bed subacute multidisciplinary rehabilitation, skilled nursing facility located in Greenfield, New Hampshire, USA. Patient mean (SD) age (n=27) was 42.8 (13) years, ranging from 20 to 64 years. Males (n=18, 67%) and those of white race/ethnicity (n=23, 85%) comprised the majority. Brain injury (n=20) was the most common admitting condition caused by trauma (n=9), hemorrhage (n=7), infarction (n=2), and general anoxia (n=2). Three patients were admitted for cervical SCI, 1 for ankylosing spondylitis, 1 for traumatic polyarthropathy, and 2 for respiratory failure with encephalopathy. Other common comorbid diagnoses potentially complicating the treatment and recovery process included myospasm (n=13), depression (n=11), anxiety (n=10), dysphagia (n=8), substance abuse (n=8), and candidiasis (n=7). Chiropractic procedures employed, by visit (n=641), included manual myofascial therapies (93%), mechanical percussion (83%), manual muscle stretching (75%), and thrust manipulation (65%) to address patients with spinal-related pain (n=15, 54%), joint or regional stiffness (n= 14, 50%), and extremity pain (n=13, 46%). Care often required adapting to participant limitations or conditions. Such adaptations not commonly encountered in outpatient settings where chiropractic care is usually delivered included the need for lift
Evans, Marion Willard; Ramcharan, Michael; Floyd, Rod; Globe, Gary; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald; Ivie, Ronald
Abstract Objective By nature, chiropractic is a hands-on profession using manipulation applied to the joints with direct skin-to-skin contacts. Chiropractic tables are designed with a face piece to accommodate the prone patient's head in a neutral position and hand rests to allow for relaxed shoulders and upper spine so treatment is facilitated. The purpose of this article is to present a proposed guideline for hand and treatment table surface sanitizing for the chiropractic profession that is evidence-based and can easily be adopted by teaching institutions and doctors in the field. Methods A review of the chiropractic literature demonstrated that pathogenic microbes are present on treatment tables in teaching clinics at multiple facilities, yet no standardized protocols exist in the United States regarding table sanitizing and hand hygiene in chiropractic clinics or education institutions. This article reviews the scientific literature on the subject by using several search engines, databases, and specific reviews of documents pertaining to the topic including existing general guidelines. Results The literature has several existing guidelines that the authors used to develop a proposed protocol for hand and table sanitizing specific to the chiropractic profession. Recommendations were developed and are presented on hand hygiene and table sanitizing procedures that could lower the risk of infection for both clinical personnel and patients in chiropractic facilities. Conclusion This article offers a protocol for hand and table sanitizing in chiropractic clinics and education institutions. The chiropractic profession should consider adoption of these or similar measures and disseminate them to teaching clinics, institutions, and private practitioners. PMID:19646384
Innes, Stanley I; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Walker, Bruce F
Psychological factors, such as intolerance of uncertainty (IU), have been shown to impact on the quality of medical care. However, this psychological measure has not been studied in the chiropractic profession. Our objective was to investigate if higher levels of IU in chiropractic students were related to poor choices of management in specific clinical scenarios. Also, we sought to investigate if levels of IU were related to students' intentions to adopt a prescriptive chiropractic technique system and evaluate their levels of self-belief. Between October and November of 2016, students from two Australian chiropractic programs ( N = 444) answered a questionnaire on measures of IU levels, patient case scenarios for neck and low back pain, and questions about self-ratings of their future chiropractic abilities and perceived need for the adoption of a chiropractic technique system. Associations were tested by the IU score and the therapeutic choices relating to a) a neck pain case scenario, b) a low back pain scenario, c) various technique systems, and d) the self-rated competence level treating the IU score both as a continuous and a categorical variable. There was an overall response rate of 53%. Those students who were high in levels of IU were significantly more likely to make incorrect clinical decisions than those with normal or low levels of IU for the neck pain case scenario. No differences were found on the low back pain scenario, on preferences to use a technique system in the future, or on predicted self-rating of competence after graduation. Psychological factors, such as IU, may have an impact on chiropractic students' clinical decisions. However, it does not impact on all aspects of practice. This finding has implications for chiropractic educators, especially when dealing with neck pain. However, it may be relevant to continue the search for specific personality profiles in relation to various favourable and unfavourable practice patterns, as it is
Ammendolia, Carlo; Taylor, John A M; Pennick, Victoria; Côté, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bombardier, Claire
This study describes instruction provided at chiropractic schools worldwide on the use of spine radiography and compares instruction with evidence-based guidelines for low back pain. Individuals responsible for radiology instruction at accredited chiropractic schools throughout the world were contacted and invited to participate in a Web-based survey. The survey included questions on the role of conventional radiography in chiropractic practice and instruction given to students for its use in patients with acute low back pain. Of the 33 chiropractic schools identified worldwide, 32 (97%) participated in the survey. Consistent with the guidelines, 25 (78%) respondents disagreed that "routine radiography should be used prior to spinal manipulative therapy," 29 (91%) disagreed that there "was a role for full spine radiography for assessing patients with low back pain," and 29 (91%) disagreed that "oblique views should be part of a standard radiographic series for low back pain." However, only 14 (44%) respondents concurred with the guidelines and disagreed with the statement that there "is a role for radiography in acute low back pain in the absence of 'red flags' for serious disease." This survey suggests that many aspects of radiology instruction provided by accredited chiropractic schools appear to be evidence based. However, there appears to be a disparity between some schools and existing evidence with respect to the role of radiography for patients with acute low back pain without "red flags" for serious disease. This may contribute to chiropractic overutilization of radiography for low back pain.
Lisi, Anthony J; Salsbury, Stacie A; Hawk, Cheryl; Vining, Robert D; Wallace, Robert B; Branson, Richard; Long, Cynthia R; Burgo-Black, A Lucille; Goertz, Christine M
The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated care pathway for doctors of chiropractic, primary care providers, and mental health professionals who manage veterans with low back pain, with or without mental health comorbidity, within Department of Veterans Affairs health care facilities. The research method used was a consensus process. A multidisciplinary investigative team reviewed clinical guidelines and Veterans Affairs pain and mental health initiatives to develop seed statements and care algorithms to guide chiropractic management and collaborative care of veterans with low back pain. A 5-member advisory committee approved initial recommendations. Veterans Affairs-based panelists (n = 58) evaluated the pathway via e-mail using a modified RAND/UCLA methodology. Consensus was defined as agreement by 80% of panelists. The modified Delphi process was conducted in July to December 2016. Most (93%) seed statements achieved consensus during the first round, with all statements reaching consensus after 2 rounds. The final care pathway addressed the topics of informed consent, clinical evaluation including history and examination, screening for red flags, documentation, diagnostic imaging, patient-reported outcomes, adverse event reporting, chiropractic treatment frequency and duration standards, tailored approaches to chiropractic care in veteran populations, and clinical presentation of common mental health conditions. Care algorithms outlined chiropractic case management and interprofessional collaboration and referrals between doctors of chiropractic and primary care and mental health providers. This study offers an integrative care pathway that includes chiropractic care for veterans with low back pain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
French, Simon D; Charity, Melanie J; Forsdike, Kirsty; Gunn, Jane M; Polus, Barbara I; Walker, Bruce F; Chondros, Patty; Britt, Helena C
COAST (Chiropractic Observation and Analysis Study) aimed to describe the clinical practices of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Cross-sectional study using the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) methods for general practice. 180 chiropractors in active clinical practice in Victoria were randomly selected from the list of 1298 chiropractors registered on Chiropractors Registration Board of Victoria. Twenty-four chiropractors were ineligible, 72 agreed to participate, and 52 completed the study. Each participating chiropractor documented encounters with up to 100 consecutive patients. For each chiropractor-patient encounter, information collected included patient health profile, patient reasons for encounter, problems and diagnoses, and chiropractic care. Data were collected on 4464 chiropractor-patient encounters from 52 chiropractors between 11 December 2010 and 28 September 2012. In most (71%) encounters, patients were aged 25-64 years; 1% of encounters were with infants (age < 1 year; 95% CI, 0.3%-3.2%). Musculoskeletal reasons for encounter were described by patients at a rate of 60 per 100 encounters (95% CI, 54-67 encounters) and maintenance and wellness or check-up reasons were described at a rate of 39 per 100 encounters (95% CI, 33-47 encounters). Back problems were managed at a rate of 62 per 100 encounters (95% CI, 55-71 encounters). The most frequent care provided by the chiropractors was spinal manipulative therapy and massage. A range of conditions are managed by chiropractors in Victoria, Australia, but most commonly these conditions are musculoskeletal-related. These results can be used by stakeholders of the chiropractic profession in workforce development, education and health care policy.
Ndetan, Harrison T; Rupert, Ronald L; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan P
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence, distribution, severity, risk factors of, and response to musculoskeletal injuries to the low back, hand/wrist, and neck/shoulder among chiropractic students while receiving and/or administering adjustments/manipulation while attending a chiropractic college. The study was an epidemiologic survey of chiropractic students at all levels of training (n = 890) at one chiropractic college. A self-administered anonymous 3-paged questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was divided into sections for collecting data separately on injuries associated with receiving or administering chiropractic adjustments. The response rate was 64.3% with 62.6% male respondents. The overall prevalence of injuries sustained in college was 31.5%, 44.4% of which was exacerbations of prior complaints. Injuries from receiving adjustments/manipulation were most prevalent to neck/shoulder (65.7%), whereas hand/wrist injuries were most common when administering adjustments (45.6%). The risk difference among students receiving adjustments was 81.6/1000 neck/shoulder injuries, and the etiologic fraction was 76.6%. The risk difference was 170/1000 hand/wrist injuries with etiologic fraction of 96.5% among students administering adjustments. Diversified, Gonstead, and upper cervical adjusting techniques were perceived to be the most injury-related. Some students enroll in a chiropractic college with preexisting injuries that can easily be exacerbated. Others sustain new injuries of moderate severity from receiving and administering adjustments. Potential risk factors may include height, body mass index, and nonexercising. The risk factors and mechanisms responsible for the high levels of hand/wrist injuries need further examination. This research identifies an important need to design a comprehensive and logical protocol to prevent injury to chiropractic students.
Goncalves, Guillaume; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
The chiropractic vitalistic approach to the concept of 'subluxation' as a cause of disease lacks both biological plausibility and possibly proof of validity. Nonetheless, some chiropractors purport to prevent disease in general through the use of chiropractic care. Evidence of its effect is needed to be allowed to continue this practice. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to investigate if there is any evidence that spinal manipulations/chiropractic care can be used in primary prevention (PP) and/or early secondary prevention in diseases other than musculoskeletal conditions. We searched PubMed, Embase, Index to Chiropractic Literature , and some specialized chiropractic journals, from inception to October 2017, using terms including: "chiropractic", "subluxation", "wellness", "prevention", "spinal manipulation", "mortality". Included were English language articles that indicated that they studied the clinical preventive effec t of or benefit from manipulative therapy/chiropractic treatment in relation to PP and/or early treatment of physical diseases/morbidity in general, other than musculoskeletal disorders. Also, population studies were eligible. Checklists were designed in relation to the description of the reviewed articles and some basic quality criteria. Outcomes of studies were related to their methodological quality, disregarding results from those unable to answer the research questions on effect of treatment. Of the 13.099 titles scrutinized, 13 articles were included (eight clinical studies and five population studies). These studies dealt with various disorders of public health importance such as diastolic blood pressure, blood test immunological markers, and mortality. Only two clinical studies could be used for data synthesis. None showed any effect of spinal manipulation/chiropractic treatment. We found no evidence in the literature of an effect of chiropractic treatment in the scope of PP or early secondary prevention for
Waits, Bert K.; Demana, Franklin
Presented are two reasons discouraging computer symbol manipulation systems use in school mathematics at present: cost for computer laboratories or expensive pocket computers; and impracticality of exact solution representations. Although development with this technology in mathematics education advances, graphing calculators are recommended to…
Polkinghorn, B S
To present the first reported case of successful chiropractic intervention in treatment of a torn medial meniscus of the knee, the meniscal tear being documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 54-yr-old woman complaining of right knee pain of several months' duration with accompanying marked functional impairment was diagnosed as having a tear in the posterior horn of the ipsilateral medial meniscus, verified by MRI studies of the same. Independent consultation with three medical specialists resulted in the unanimous decision that surgical intervention for the purpose of meniscectomy provided the only therapeutic approach indicated for the problem. However, the patient was reticent to undergo said surgical procedure and chose, instead, to utilize chiropractic care and conservative management in an effort to resolve her condition without having to resort to surgery. The patient received chiropractic treatment to the knee via mechanical force, manually assisted short lever chiropractic adjusting procedures (MFMA) utilizing an Activator Adjusting Instrument. Auxiliary treatment included the use of homeopathic therapy as an adjunct to chiropractic care. Said treatment resulted in a complete resolution of the patient's disability, the patient recovering full function of the knee joint and achieving an asymptomatic status without having to submit to surgical intervention and its possible adverse sequelae. Conservative management of meniscal tears via chiropractic treatment may provide a therapeutically effective and financially cost containing alternative to routine meniscectomy in certain cases involving torn medial menisci of the knee.
Hawk, Cheryl; Schneider, Michael; Ferrance, Randy J; Hewitt, Elise; Van Loon, Meghan; Tanis, Lora
There has been much discussion about the role of chiropractic care in the evaluation, management, and treatment of pediatric patients. To date, no specific guidelines have been adopted that address this issue from an evidence based perspective. Previous systematic reviews of the chiropractic literature concluded that there is not yet a substantial body of high quality evidence from which to develop standard clinical guidelines. The purpose of this project was to develop recommendations on "best practices" related primarily to the evaluation and spinal manipulation aspects of pediatric chiropractic care; nonmanipulative therapies were not addressed in detail. Based on both clinical experience and the results of an extensive literature search, a set of seed documents was compiled to inform development of the seed statements. These were circulated electronically to the Delphi panel until consensus was reached, which was considered to be present when there was agreement by at least 80% of the panelists. A multidisciplinary panel of 37 was made up primarily of doctors of chiropractic with a mean of 18 years in practice, many with post-graduate training in pediatrics. The panel represented 5 countries and 17 states; there were members of the American Chiropractic Association, the International Chiropractors Association, and the International Chiropractic Pediatric Association. The panel reached a minimum of 80% consensus on the 51 seed statements after 4 rounds. A broad-based panel of experienced chiropractors was able to reach a high level (80%) of consensus regarding specific aspects of the chiropractic approach to clinical evaluation, management, and manual treatment for pediatric patients, based on both scientific evidence and clinical experience.
Ali, Maselan; Sufahani, Suliadi; Ahmad, Wan N. A. W.; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Che-Him, Norziha
Words are symbols representing certain aspects of mathematics. The main purpose of this study is to gain insight into students’ symbolic manipulation in calculus among UTHM students. This study make use the various methods in collecting data which are documentation, pilot study, written test and follow up individual interviews. Hence, the results analyzed and interpreted based on action-process-object-schema framework which is based on Piaget’s ideas of reflective abstraction, the concept of relational and instrumental understanding and the zone of proximal development idea. The students’ reply in the interview session is analyzed and then the overall performance is discussed briefly to relate with the students flexibility in symbolic manipulation in linking to the graphical idea, the students interpretation towards different symbolic structure in calculus and the problem that related to overgeneralization in their calculus problems solving.
He, Xiaohua; La Rose, James; Zhang, Niu
Most chiropractic colleges do not offer independent neuroscience courses because of an already crowded curriculum. The Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida has developed and implemented an integrated neuroscience program that incorporates neurosciences into different courses. The goals of the program have been to bring neurosciences to students, excite students about the interrelationship of neuroscience and chiropractic, improve students' understanding of neuroscience, and help the students understand the mechanisms underpinning the chiropractic practice. This study provides a descriptive analysis on how the integrated neuroscience program is taught via students' attitudes toward neuroscience and the comparison of students' perceptions of neuroscience content knowledge at different points in the program. A questionnaire consisting of 58 questions regarding the neuroscience courses was conducted among 339 students. The questionnaire was developed by faculty members who were involved in teaching neuroscience and administered in the classroom by faculty members who were not involved in the study. Student perceptions of their neuroscience knowledge, self-confidence, learning strategies, and knowledge application increased considerably through the quarters, especially among the 2nd-year students. The integrated neuroscience program achieved several of its goals, including an increase in students' confidence, positive attitude, ability to learn, and perception of neuroscience content knowledge. The authors believe that such gains can expand student ability to interpret clinical cases and inspire students to become excited about chiropractic research. The survey provides valuable information for teaching faculty to make the course content more relevant to chiropractic students.
Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather
The purpose of the present study was to examine chiropractic utilization following a sport-related injury among National Team members and other high level Taekwondo athletes. Methods Retrospective surveys were conducted among Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes (Group A, n = 60) competing in a national tournament and National Taekwondo team athletes (Group B, n = 16) at a training camp. Results A response rate of 46.7% (Group A) and 100% (Group B) was achieved. Twenty five percent (n = 4) of Group A athletes reported never seen a doctor of chiropractic (DC) regarding their injuries. Over 12% (n = 2) reported visiting a DC often, while just over 6% (n = 1) reported that they usually visited the DC following an injury. When injured, over 36% (n = 7) of the National Team members visit their family physician, over 15% (n = 3) visit a chiropractor or physiotherapist and the remaining athletes (n = 6) equally visit osteopaths, massage therapists, or athletic therapist following an injury. Conclusion There is a lack of information surrounding chiropractic utilization in the majority of sports and minimal research published regarding the health care utilization of Taekwondo athletes. Chiropractors, and particularly those with extensive athlete contact, should endeavour to further utilization studies. PMID:18516286
Rozmovits, Linda; Mior, Silvano; Boon, Heather
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current safety culture around the use of spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) by regulated health professionals in Canada and to explore perceptions of readiness for implementing formal mechanisms for tracking associated adverse events. Fifty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with professional leaders and frontline practitioners in chiropractic, physiotherapy, naturopathy and medicine, all professions regulated to perform SMT in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario Canada. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded for verbatim transcription. Transcripts were entered into HyperResearch software for qualitative data analysis and were coded for both anticipated and emergent themes using the constant comparative method. A thematic, descriptive analysis was produced. The safety culture around SMT is characterized by substantial disagreement about its actual rather than putative risks. Competing intra- and inter-professional narratives further cloud the safety picture. Participants felt that safety talk is sometimes conflated with competition for business in the context of fee-for-service healthcare delivery by several professions with overlapping scopes of practice. Both professional leaders and frontline practitioners perceived multiple barriers to the implementation of an incident reporting system for SMT. The established 'measure and manage' approach to patient safety is difficult to apply to care which is geographically dispersed and delivered by practitioners in multiple professions with overlapping scopes of practice, primarily in a fee-for-service model. Collaboration across professions on models that allow practitioners to share information anonymously and help practitioners learn from the reported incidents is needed.
Vining, Robert D; Salsbury, Stacie A; Cooley, W Carl; Gosselin, Donna; Corber, Lance; Goertz, Christine M
Objectives Individuals rehabilitating from complex neurological injury require a multidisciplinary approach, which typically does not include chiropractic care. This study describes inpatients receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation including chiropractic care for brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other complex neurological conditions. Design Chiropractic services were integrated into Crotched Mountain Specialty Hospital (CMSH) through this project. Patient characteristics and chiropractic care data were collected to describe those receiving care and the interventions during the first 15 months when chiropractic services were available. Setting CMSH, a 62-bed subacute multidisciplinary rehabilitation, skilled nursing facility located in Greenfield, New Hampshire, USA. Results Patient mean (SD) age (n=27) was 42.8 (13) years, ranging from 20 to 64 years. Males (n=18, 67%) and those of white race/ethnicity (n=23, 85%) comprised the majority. Brain injury (n=20) was the most common admitting condition caused by trauma (n=9), hemorrhage (n=7), infarction (n=2), and general anoxia (n=2). Three patients were admitted for cervical SCI, 1 for ankylosing spondylitis, 1 for traumatic polyarthropathy, and 2 for respiratory failure with encephalopathy. Other common comorbid diagnoses potentially complicating the treatment and recovery process included myospasm (n=13), depression (n=11), anxiety (n=10), dysphagia (n=8), substance abuse (n=8), and candidiasis (n=7). Chiropractic procedures employed, by visit (n=641), included manual myofascial therapies (93%), mechanical percussion (83%), manual muscle stretching (75%), and thrust manipulation (65%) to address patients with spinal-related pain (n=15, 54%), joint or regional stiffness (n= 14, 50%), and extremity pain (n=13, 46%). Care often required adapting to participant limitations or conditions. Such adaptations not commonly encountered in outpatient settings where chiropractic care is usually delivered
Hess, J A; Mootz, R D
Resource-based relative value scales (RBRVS) have become a standard method for identifying costs and determining reimbursement for physician services. Development of RBRVS systems and methods are reviewed, and the RBRVS concept of physician "work" is defined. Results of work and time inputs from chiropractic physicians are compared with those reported by osteopathic and medical specialties. Last, implications for reimbursement of chiropractic fee services are discussed. Total work, intraservice work, and time inputs for clinical vignettes reported by chiropractic, osteopathic, and medical physicians are compared. Data for chiropractic work and time reports were drawn from a national random sample of chiropractors conducted as part of a 1997 workers' compensation chiropractic fee schedule development project. Medical and osteopathic inputs were drawn from RBRVS research conducted at Harvard University under a federal contract reported in 1990. Both data sets used the same or similar clinical vignettes and similar methods. Comparisons of work and time inputs are made for clinical vignettes to assess whether work reported by chiropractors is of similar magnitude and variability as work reported by other specialties. Chiropractic inputs for vignettes related to evaluation and management services are similar to those reported by medical specialists and osteopathic physicians. The range of variation between chiropractic work input and other specialties is of similar magnitude to that within other specialties. Chiropractors report greater work input for radiologic interpretation and lower work input for manipulation services. Chiropractors seem to perform similar total "work" for evaluation and management services as other specialties. No basis exists for excluding chiropractors from using evaluation and management codes for reimbursement purposes on grounds of dissimilar physician time or work estimates. Greater work input by chiropractors in radiology interpretation may
Brown, Richard A
The purpose of this commentary is to explore the concepts underpinning professional identity, assess their relevance to chiropractic, and propose a model by which a strong identity for the chiropractic profession may be achieved. The professional identity of chiropractic has been a constant source of controversy throughout its history. Attempts to establish a professional identity have been met with resistance from internal factions divided over linguistics, philosophy, technique, and chiropractic's place in the health care framework. Consequently, the establishment of a clear identity has been challenging, and the chiropractic profession has failed to capitalize on its potential as the profession of spine care experts. Recent identity consultations have produced similar statements that position chiropractors as spinal health and well-being experts. Adoption of this identity, however, has not been universal, perpetuating the uncertainty with which the public regards the chiropractic profession. To gain public and professional acceptance, chiropractic must be unequivocal in declaring its scope, expertise, and intent. Failure to do so will lead to obscurity as other professions acquire necessary skills and position themselves as the custodians of spine care.
Lawrence, Dana J; Meeker, William C
To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.
Adams, Jon; Peng, Wenbo; Steel, Amie; Lauche, Romy; Moore, Craig; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon; Sibbritt, David
The Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN) practice-based research network (PBRN) cohort was established to provide sustainable infrastructure necessary to address lack of rigorous investigation and to bridge the research-practice gap focused on chiropractic care for future years. This paper presents the profile of chiropractors recruited to the ACORN PBRN, a nationally representative sample of chiropractors working in Australia. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of chiropractors in Australia. All registered chiropractors in Australia were invited to participate in the ACORN study and those who completed a practitioner questionnaire and consent form were included in the PBRN cohort. A total of 1680 chiropractors (36%) were recruited to the cohort database. The average age of the PBRN participants is 41.9 years and 63% are male. The vast majority of the PBRN participants hold a university degree. General practitioners were identified as the most popular referral source for chiropractic care and low back pain and neck pain were the most common conditions 'often' treated by the PBRN chiropractors. The chiropractors in this PBRN cohort rated high velocity, low amplitude adjustment/manipulation/mobilisation as the most commonly used technique/method and soft tissue therapy as the most frequently employed musculoskeletal intervention in their patient management. The ACORN PBRN cohort constitutes the largest coverage of any single healthcare profession via a national voluntary PBRN providing a sustainable resource for future follow-up. The ACORN cohort provides opportunities for further nested substudies related to chiropractic care, chiropractors, their patients and a vast range of broader healthcare issues with a view to helping build a diverse but coordinated research programme and further research capacity building around Australian chiropractic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the
Jaeger, Jason O.; Oakley, Paul A.; Moore, Robert R.; Ruggeroli, Edward P.; Harrison, Deed E.
[Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP® technique mirror image® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the ‘regional interdependence’ model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint. PMID:29410576
Jaeger, Jason O; Oakley, Paul A; Moore, Robert R; Ruggeroli, Edward P; Harrison, Deed E
[Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP ® technique mirror image ® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the 'regional interdependence' model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint.
... visit chiropractors for treatment of low back pain , neck pain, and headaches . NIH: National Center for Complementary and ... of Low-Back... Article: Changes in female veterans' neck pain following chiropractic care at... Article: The Use of ...
Grieves, Brian; Menke, J Michael; Pursel, Kevin J
A managed care organization (MCO) examined differences in allowed cost for managing low back pain by medical providers vs chiropractors in an integrated care environment. The purpose of this study is to provide a retrospective cost analysis of administrative data of chiropractic vs medical management of low back pain in a managed care setting. All patients with a low back pain-related diagnosis presenting for health care from January 2004 to June 2004 who were insured by an MCO in northeast Wisconsin were tracked. The cumulative health care costs incurred by this MCO during the 2-year period from January 2004 to December 2005 related to these back pain diagnoses were collected. Allowed costs of chiropractic treatment were 12% greater than medical primary care and 60% less per case than other types of medical care combined, on a per-case basis: median cost of medical primary care was $365.00, chiropractic care was $417.00, and medical nonprimary care was $669.00. This study of an MCO's low back pain allowed costs may be better redirected to primary care or chiropractic, given equivalent levels of case complexity. This study suggests chiropractic management as less expensive compared with medical management of back pain when care extends beyond primary care. Primary care management alone is virtually indistinguishable from chiropractic management in terms of costs.
Lisi, Anthony J; Khorsan, Raheleh; Smith, Monica M; Mittman, Brian S
In 2004, the US Department of Veterans Affairs expanded its delivery of chiropractic care by establishing onsite chiropractic clinics at select facilities across the country. Systematic information regarding the planning and implementation of these clinics and describing their features and performance is lacking. To document the planning, implementation, key features and performance of VA chiropractic clinics, and to identify variations and their underlying causes and key consequences as well as their implications for policy, practice, and research on the introduction of new clinical services into integrated health care delivery systems. Comparative case study of 7 clinics involving site visit-based and telephone-based interviews with 118 key stakeholders, including VA clinicians, clinical leaders and administrative staff, and selected external stakeholders, as well as reviews of key documents and administrative data on clinic performance and service delivery. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a mixed inductive (exploratory) and deductive approach. Interview data revealed considerable variations in clinic planning and implementation processes and clinic features, as well as perceptions of clinic performance and quality. Administrative data showed high variation in patterns of clinic patient care volume over time. A facility's initial willingness to establish a chiropractic clinic, along with a higher degree of perceived evidence-based and collegial attributes of the facility chiropractor, emerged as key factors associated with higher and more consistent delivery of chiropractic services and higher perceived quality of those services.
Gleberzon, Brian J.
Introduction: The purpose of this article was to perform a narrative review of the chiropractic literature regarding older patients between 2001 and 2010. Methods: A three step search strategy of the literature involved electronic searching, hand searching and reference tracking. Results: One hundred and eighty eight articles germane to chiropractic geriatric practice and education were retrieved. Discussion: Compared to the review of the literature conducted prior to 2000, the number of references on chiropractic geriatric education increased from 3 to 11, the number of demographic studies increased from 9 to 18, the number of case reports increased from 25 to 83, the number of clinical trials increased from 4 to 21 (only two RCTs found) and the number of references on clinical guidelines and general clinical information increased from 18 to 55. Conclusion: This review found 188 retrievable articles available to practitioners to effectively care plan for their older patients, a better than three fold increase in the number of references found during a similar review conducted at the end of the previous decade. However, there is clearly a gap in the evidence base of chiropractic geriatric care, particularly the under-representation of clinical trials of all kinds involving older chiropractic patients. PMID:21629461
Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice. PMID:19066664
Cashley, David G.; Cochrane, Lynda
Objective The purpose of this retrospective case series is to describe treatment outcomes for patients with plantar digital neuralgia (PDN) (Morton’s neuroma) who were treated using foot manipulation. Methods Charts were reviewed retrospectively for patients with a diagnosis of PDN and who received a minimum of 6 treatments consisting of manipulation alone. Visual analogue pain scales (VAS) and pressure threshold meter readings (PTM) were extracted as outcome measures. Results Thirty-eight cases met inclusion criteria. Mean pretreatment duration of pain was 28 months. Mean pretreatment VAS was 69.5/100 mm. Mean pretreatment PTM was 2.54 Kp. By the sixth treatment, 30 (79%) of the 38 patients scored a VAS of 0 mm and a further 4 (10%) were below 10 mm. Contralateral limb PTM showed a mean pre-treatment score of 5.5 Kp, which rose slightly to 5.85 Kp. This compared to a pre-treatment score of 2.54 Kp rising to 5.86 Kp in the affected limb. This represents a 126% increase in the affected side compared to 6.5% in the unaffected limb. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant linear trend between decreasing VAS and manipulation (P < .001). Conclusion The patients with PDN who were included in this case series improved with conservative care that included only foot manipulation. PMID:26257593
Waddell, Roger K.
Abstract Objective To discuss the diagnosis and response to treatment of spasmodic dysphonia in a 25-year-old female vocalist following an auto accident. Clinical Features The voice disorder and neck pain appeared after the traumatic incident. Examination of the cervical spine revealed moderate pain, muscle spasm and restricted joint motion at C-1 and C-5 on the left side. Cervical range of motion was reduced on left rotation. Bilateral manual muscle testing of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, which share innervation with the laryngeal muscles by way of the spinal accessory nerve, were weak on the left side. Pre and post accident voice range profiles (phonetograms) that measure singing voice quality were examined. The pre- and post-accident phonetograms revealed significant reduction in voice intensity and fundamental frequency as measured in decibels and hertz. Intervention and Outcome Low-force chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to C-1 and C-5 was employed. Following a course of care, the patient's singing voice returned to normal, as well as a resolution of her musculo- skeletal complaints. Conclusion It appears that in certain cases, the singing voice can be adversely affected if neck or head trauma is severe enough. This case proposes that trauma with irritation to the cervical spine nerve roots as they communicate with the spinal accessory, and in turn the laryngeal nerves, may be contributory in some functional voice disorders or muscle tension dysphonia. PMID:19674642
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing in popularity, especially within the pediatric population. Research on CAM practitioners and their specialties, such as pediatrics, is lacking. Within the chiropractic profession, pediatrics is one of the most recently established post-graduate specialty programs. This paper describes the demographic and practice characteristics of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate. Methods 218 chiropractors with a pediatric diplomate were invited to complete our survey using either web-based or mailed paper survey methods. Practitioner demographics, practice characteristics, treatment procedures, referral patterns, and patient characteristics were queried with a survey created with the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey©®. Results A total of 135 chiropractors responded (62.2% response rate); they were predominantly female (74%) and white (93%). Techniques most commonly used were Diversified, Activator ®, and Thompson with the addition of cranial and extremity manipulation to their chiropractic treatments. Adjunctive therapies commonly provided to patients included recommendations for activities of daily living, corrective or therapeutic exercise, ice pack\\cryotherapy, and nutritional counseling. Thirty eight percent of respondents' patients were private pay and 23% had private insurance that was not managed care. Pediatrics represented 31% of the survey respondents' patients. Chiropractors also reported 63% of their work time devoted to direct patient care. Health conditions reportedly treated within the pediatric population included back or neck pain, asthma, birth trauma, colic, constipation, ear infection, head or chest cold, and upper respiratory infections. Referrals made to or from these chiropractors were uncommon. Conclusions This mixed mode survey identified similarities and differences between doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate to other surveys of doctors of chiropractic
Lawrence, Dana J
To date, there have been no reports of ethics board approval or informed consent within the chiropractic literature or within chiropractic research. The purpose of this study was to assess the reporting of ethics approval and informed consent in articles published during the 2008 volume year of 3 chiropractic research journals included in PubMed. A quantitative assessment of the articles published in each journal for the 2008 volume year was performed. Information collected included if the article involved human subject research, if it reported ethics board approval, and if informed consent was given to subjects. Data were collected as descriptive statistics (frequency counts and percentages). In aggregate, 50 articles of a total of 143 published involved human subject research (35%). 44 reported ethics board approval (88%), and 28 reported that informed consent had been obtained (56%). Forty-five percent of articles published in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics involved human subject research (39/87), of which 95% reported ethics board approval (37/39) and 64% reported informed consent (25/39); 12.5% of articles from the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association involved human subject research (5/40), of which 80% reported ethics board approval (4/5) and 40% reported informed consent (2/5); and 37.5% of articles published in Chiropractic and Osteopathy involved human subject research (6/16), of which 50% reported ethics board approval (3/6) and 17% reported informed consent (1/6). Overall, most articles reported ethics approval, and more than half reported consent. This was harmonious with research on this topic from other disciplines. This situation indicates a need for continued quality improvement and for better instruction and dissemination of information on these issues to researchers, to manuscript reviewers, to journal editors, and to the readers. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby
Simpson, J. Keith; Losco, Barrett; Young, Kenneth J.
Purpose: This paper reviews the origins of the learned professions, the foundational concepts of professionalism, and the common elements within various healer's oaths. It then reveals the development of the Murdoch Chiropractic Graduate Pledge. Methods: A committee comprised of three Murdoch academics performed literature searches on the topic of professionalism and healer's oaths and utilized the Quaker consensus process to develop the Murdoch Chiropractic Graduate Pledge. Results: The committee in its deliberations utilized over 200 relevant papers and textbooks to formulate the Murdoch Chiropractic Graduate Pledge that was administered to the 2010 Murdoch School of Chiropractic and Sports Science graduates. The School of Chiropractic and Sports Science included professionalism as one of its strategic goals and began the process of curriculum review to align it with the goal of providing a curriculum that recognizes and emphasizes the development of professionalism. Conclusions: The reciting of a healer's oath such as the Hippocratic Oath is widely considered to be the first step in a new doctor's career. It is seen as the affirmation that a newly trained health care provider will use his or her newfound knowledge and skill exclusively for the benefit of mankind in an ethical manner. Born from the very meaning of the word profession, the tradition of recitation of a healer's oath is resurgent in health care. It is important for health care instructors to understand that the curriculum must be such that it contributes positively to the students' professional development. PMID:21048880
Scaringe, John G.
A descriptive case study design using a cross-sectional quantitative survey method was used to investigate the impact of faculty development programs on teaching effectiveness perceived by faculty teaching at chiropractic colleges in the United States. The availability of faculty development programs related to teaching and student learning was…
Lehman, James J.; Conwell, Timothy D.; Sherman, Paul R.
Abstract This commentary provides a narrative review of the literature focusing on the use of a health care informed consent process in the United States. This article reviews the current positions of the World Medical Association, American Medical Association, American Chiropractic Association, Wisconsin and New Jersey State Courts, US Federal Government Office of Health Policy and Clinical Outcomes, and 1 college of chiropractic regarding the doctrine of informed consent. The authors recommend that the chiropractic profession embrace the doctrine of informed consent and promulgate it as a standard of care. The implementation of this doctrine by chiropractic physicians promotes and improves the safety of chiropractic interventions. PMID:19646372
Walker, Bruce F; French, Simon D; Grant, William; Green, Sally
Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled trials. To determine the effects of combined chiropractic interventions on pain, disability, back-related function, overall improvement, and patient satisfaction in adults with low-back pain (LBP). Chiropractors commonly use a combination of interventions to treat people with LBP, but little is known about the effects of this care. We used a comprehensive search strategy. All randomized trials comparing combined chiropractic interventions (rather than spinal manipulation alone) with no treatment or other therapies were included. At least two authors selected studies, assessed bias risk, and extracted data. Descriptive synthesis and meta-analyses were performed. We included 12 studies involving 2887 LBP participants. Three studies had low risk of bias. Included studies evaluated a range of chiropractic procedures in a variety of subpopulations with LBP. For acute and subacute LBP, chiropractic interventions improved short- and medium-term pain (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.25 [95% CI: -0.46 to -0.04] and MD -0.89 [95%CI: -1.60 to -0.18]) compared with other treatments, but there was no significant difference in long-term pain (MD -0.46 [95% CI -1.18 to 0.26]). Short-term improvement in disability was greater in the chiropractic group compared to other therapies (SMD -0.36 [95% CI: -0.70 to -0.02]). However, the effect was small and studies contributing to these results had high risk of bias. There was no difference in medium- and long-term disability. No difference was demonstrated for combined chiropractic interventions for chronic LBP and studies that had a mixed population of LBP. Combined chiropractic interventions slightly improved pain and disability in the short term and pain in the medium term for acute/subacute LBP. However, there is currently no evidence that supports or refutes that these interventions provide a clinically meaningful difference for pain or disability in people with LBP when
Alcantara, Joel; Alcantara, Joey D; Alcantara, Junjoe
Chiropractors have long advocated on the benefits of breastfeeding and given the realized and potential role of chiropractors in the care of infants with breastfeeding difficulties, we performed this review of the literature on the subject to inform clinical practice. For this article, we searched Pubmed [1966-2013], Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System (MANTIS) [1964-2013] and Index to Chiropractic Literature [1984-2013] for the relevant literature. The search terms utilized "breastfeeding", "breast feeding", "breastfeeding difficulties", "breastfeeding difficulty", "TMJ dysfunction", "temporomandibular joint", "birth trauma" and "infants", in the appropriate Boolean combinations. We also examined non-peer-reviewed articles as revealed by Index to Chiropractic Literature and secondary analysis of references. Inclusion criteria for review included breastfeeding difficulties regardless of peer-review and written in the English language. A total of 24 articles met our inclusion criteria. These consisted of 8 case reports, 2 case series, and 3 cohort studies. We were also able to identify 6 manuscripts (5 case reports and a case series) that involved breastfeeding difficulties as a secondary complaint. Our findings reveal a theoretical and clinical framework based on the detection of spinal and extraspinal subluxations involving the cervico-cranio-mandibular complex and assessment of the infant while breastfeeding. Chiropractors care of infants with breastfeeding difficulties by addressing spinal and extraspinal subluxations involving the cervico-cranio-mandibular complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nelson, Craig F; Lawrence, Dana J; Triano, John J; Bronfort, Gert; Perle, Stephen M; Metz, R Douglas; Hegetschweiler, Kurt; LaBrot, Thomas
Background More than 100 years after its inception the chiropractic profession has failed to define itself in a way that is understandable, credible and scientifically coherent. This failure has prevented the profession from establishing its cultural authority over any specific domain of health care. Objective To present a model for the chiropractic profession to establish cultural authority and increase market share of the public seeking chiropractic care. Discussion The continued failure by the chiropractic profession to remedy this state of affairs will pose a distinct threat to the future viability of the profession. Three specific characteristics of the profession are identified as impediments to the creation of a credible definition of chiropractic: Departures from accepted standards of professional ethics; reliance upon obsolete principles of chiropractic philosophy; and the promotion of chiropractors as primary care providers. A chiropractic professional identity should be based on spinal care as the defining clinical purpose of chiropractic, chiropractic as an integrated part of the healthcare mainstream, the rigorous implementation of accepted standards of professional ethics, chiropractors as portal-of-entry providers, the acceptance and promotion of evidence-based health care, and a conservative clinical approach. Conclusion This paper presents the spine care model as a means of developing chiropractic cultural authority and relevancy. The model is based on principles that would help integrate chiropractic care into the mainstream delivery system while still retaining self-identity for the profession. PMID:16000175
Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.
Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434
Bryans, Roland; Decina, Philip; Descarreaux, Martin; Duranleau, Mireille; Marcoux, Henri; Potter, Brock; Ruegg, Richard P; Shaw, Lynn; Watkin, Robert; White, Eleanor
The purpose of this study was to develop evidence-based treatment recommendations for the treatment of nonspecific (mechanical) neck pain in adults. Systematic literature searches of controlled clinical trials published through December 2011 relevant to chiropractic practice were conducted using the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMCARE, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and the Cochrane Library. The number, quality, and consistency of findings were considered to assign an overall strength of evidence (strong, moderate, weak, or conflicting) and to formulate treatment recommendations. Forty-one randomized controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria and scoring a low risk of bias were used to develop 11 treatment recommendations. Strong recommendations were made for the treatment of chronic neck pain with manipulation, manual therapy, and exercise in combination with other modalities. Strong recommendations were also made for the treatment of chronic neck pain with stretching, strengthening, and endurance exercises alone. Moderate recommendations were made for the treatment of acute neck pain with manipulation and mobilization in combination with other modalities. Moderate recommendations were made for the treatment of chronic neck pain with mobilization as well as massage in combination with other therapies. A weak recommendation was made for the treatment of acute neck pain with exercise alone and the treatment of chronic neck pain with manipulation alone. Thoracic manipulation and trigger point therapy could not be recommended for the treatment of acute neck pain. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation, thoracic manipulation, laser, and traction could not be recommended for the treatment of chronic neck pain. Interventions commonly used in chiropractic care improve outcomes for the treatment of acute and chronic neck pain. Increased benefit has been shown in several instances where a multimodal approach to neck pain has been used. © 2014. Published by National
Many of the nation's chiropractic colleges, like other small colleges that rely heavily on tuition, are struggling to stay in business. At the same time that they are working to improve their stature in higher education and broadening their missions to increase their appeal, a number of the colleges are seeing enrollments plummet--and revenues are…
Paulus, Jessica K; Thaler, David E
For patients and health care providers who are considering spinal manipulative therapy of the neck, it is crucial to establish if it is a trigger for cervical artery dissection and/or stroke, and if it is, the magnitude of the risk. We discuss the biological plausibility of how neck manipulation could cause cervical artery dissection. We also discuss how case misclassification threatens the validity of influential published studies that have investigated the relationship between neck manipulation and dissection. Our position is supported by the fact that the largest epidemiologic studies of neck manipulation safety with respect to neurological outcomes have relied on International Classification of Diseases-9 codes for case identification. However, the application of these codes in prior studies failed to identify dissections (rather than strokes in general) and so conclusions from those studies are invalid. There are several methodological challenges to understanding the association between neck manipulation and vertebral artery dissection. Addressing these issues is critical because even a modest association between neck manipulation and cervical artery dissection could translate into a significant number of avoidable dissections given the widespread use of neck manipulation by providers from various backgrounds. We believe that valid case classification, accurate measurement of manipulative procedures, and addressing reverse causation bias should be top priorities for future research.
Haldeman, Scott; Chapman-Smith, David
This editorial reviews the scientific sessions and announces the 4 award-winning scientific articles from the World Federation of Chiropractic 11th Biennial Congress held in Rio de Janeiro from April 6, to 9, 2011, that are published in this issue of the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Senzon, Simon A
The philosophy of chiropractic can be framed as an attempt to correct the problems inherited from the Western Enlightenment. Its origins can be found in the long tradition of Western philosophy. The purpose of this article is to describe in a broad context chiropractic's roots in premodernity and establish the structural and hermeneutical differences between chiropractic's original philosophical ideas and those of premodern philosophers. The worldview or cultural mindset the philosophy arose from must be situated in the context of its time, the birth of the unique postmodern worldview, aperspectival consciousness, and the modern sense of self. This is accomplished by exploring several metatheories about the development of the self through history, with an emphasis on the premodern roots to the chiropractic terms; Universal Intelligence and Innate Intelligence. By contextualizing the philosophy of chiropractic in terms of a structural genealogy of the self and of ideas, a new approach to philosophy in chiropractic emerges. Without accounting for chiropractic's origins as a reflection of the unique time, place, and culture, in terms of the evolution of worldviews through history, any approach to construct or reconstruct a philosophy of chiropractic will potentially miss the seminal feature of chiropractic's emergence.
Adams, Jon; Kawchuk, Greg; Breen, Alexander; De Carvalho, Diana; Eklund, Andreas; Fernandez, Matthew; Funabashi, Martha; Holmes, Michelle M; Johansson, Melker S; de Luca, Katie; Moore, Craig; Pagé, Isabelle; Pohlman, Katherine A; Swain, Michael S; Wong, Arnold Y L; Hartvigsen, Jan
In an evidence-based health care environment, healthcare professions require a sustainable research culture to remain relevant. At present however, there is not a mature research culture across the chiropractic profession largely due to deficiencies in research capacity and leadership, which may be caused by a lack of chiropractic teaching programs in major universities. As a response to this challenge the Chiropractic Academy for Research Leadership, CARL, was created with the aim of develop a global network of successful early-career chiropractic researchers under the mentorship of three successful senior academics from Australia, Canada, and Denmark. The program centres upon an annual week-long program residential that rotates continental locations over the first three-year cycle and between residentials the CARL fellows work on self-initiated research and leadership initiatives. Through a competivite application process, the first cohort was selected and consists of 13 early career researchers from five professions in seven countries who represent diverse areas of interests of high relevance for chiropractic. The first residential was held in Odense, Denmark, with the second being planned in April 2018 in Edmonton, Canada, and the final residential to be held in Sydney, Australia in 2019.
Triano, John J; McGregor, Marion
The use of chiropractic services has stalled while interest in accessing manipulation services is rising. The purpose of this paper is to consider this dilemma in the context of the dynamics of professional socialization, surveys of public attitudes, and a potential strategic action. This is a reflection work grounded in the literature on professional socialization and the attitudes held regarding chiropractic in modern society, to include its members, and in original data on training programs. Data were interpreted on the background of the authors' cross-cultural experiences spanning patient care, research, education, and interprofessional collaboration. Recommendation on a strategic action to counter barriers in patient referrals was synthesized. Professional socialization is the process by which society enables professional privilege. Illustration of typical and divergent professional socialization models emerged that explain cognitive dissonance toward the profession. Questions of trust are commensurate with the experiences during patient encounters rather than with a common identity for the profession. Diversity among encounters perpetuates the uncertainty that affects referral sources. Commonality as an anchor for consistent professional identity and socialization through the content of core chiropractic, defined by training and practice, offers a means to offset uncertainty. Complementary chiropractic, analogous to complementary medicine, provides an outlet under professional socialization for the interests to explore additional methods of care. The practice workplace is an effective lever for altering barriers to the use of services. Clarifying rhetoric through conceptualization of core and complementary practices simplifies the socialization dynamic. Further, it takes advantage of accepted cultural semantics in meaningful analogy while continuing to empower practical diversity in care delivery in response to evolving scientific evidence.
Russell, David G; Glucina, Tanja T; Sherson, Matthew W; Bredin, Melinda
The purpose of this study was to assess public perception of chiropractic public place marketing events. A chiropractic public place marketing program was held at 3 events (a community sports event, an exposition, and a university campus market day) over a 5-month period in Auckland, New Zealand, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were interviewed by chiropractic students. Interview questions were standardized and sought to find out participants' perception of chiropractic and whether it was influenced in a positive or negative manner after their exposure to the marketing program. Three hundred forty-five interviews were completed during 3 events. The minority of participants (15.9%) had a negative view of chiropractic, 29.2% were neutral, and 54.9% had a positive view of chiropractic. Of the responses of those surveyed, 54% did not change their opinion of chiropractic, 44.3% were more positive, and 1.7% were more negative. This study found that direct or indirect exposure to chiropractic public place marketing events may possibly influence the public perception of chiropractic. Because of the limited sample, these findings cannot be extrapolated to other regions or populations. Further studies are needed to test these findings in other world regions and in more controlled environments.
This state-mandated study examined the needs of Iowa chiropractic students and the Iowa demand for chiropractic health care in order to determine the feasibility of establishing a chiropractic forgivable loan program. The project used financial aid data and repayment rate data to evaluate the need for financial aid for chiropractic students;…
Henkin, Alan B; Marchiori, Dennis M
Professionals in chiropractic education retain much of the authority over their work. Their work is impacted, negatively or positively, by their perceptions of their organization's value for their skills and knowledge. Specifically, empowerment and organizational commitment are 2 psychological constructs that may mediate work circumstances and therefore are the focus of this study. The purpose of this study is to explore associations between empowerment and organizational commitment among chiropractic faculty. Study design Full faculty survey utilizing descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis. Surveys were distributed to full- and part-time faculty working in the United States and Canada. The survey included Spreitzer's multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment, Meyer and Allen's multidimensional measure of organizational commitment, and additional survey items focusing on faculty demographics and workplace variables including sex, age, academic rank, employment status, and primary area of work assignment. More than 54% of the study population (N = 609) completed and returned the instrument. A general profile of a chiropractic faculty member emerges as a middle-aged male employed full-time as a teacher in the academic program. Regression analyses suggest that the observed faculty characteristics and the workplace variables are not associated with fit between the faculty member's work role and his/her own beliefs, norms, and behaviors regarding the value of the work-related tasks. The level of institutional commitment experienced by the faculty member was associated with the fit between the task, goal or purpose of the job, and the internal standards held by the individual.
Weeks, William B; Goertz, Christine M; Meeker, William C; Marchiori, Dennis M
The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics, likelihood to use, and actual use of chiropractic care for US survey respondents with positive and negative perceptions of doctors of chiropractic (DCs) and chiropractic care. From a 2015 nationally representative survey of 5422 adults (response rate, 29%), we used respondents' answers to identify those with positive and negative perceptions of DCs or chiropractic care. We used the χ(2) test to compare other survey responses for these groups. Positive perceptions of DCs were more common than those for chiropractic care, whereas negative perceptions of chiropractic care were more common than those for DCs. Respondents with negative perceptions of DCs or chiropractic care were less likely to know whether chiropractic care was covered by their insurance, more likely to want to see a medical doctor first if they were experiencing neck or back pain, less likely to indicate that they would see a DC for neck or back pain, and less likely to have ever seen a DC as a patient, particularly in the recent past. Positive perceptions of chiropractic care and negative perceptions of DCs appear to have greater influence on DC utilization rates than their converses. We found that US adults generally perceive DCs in a positive manner but that a relatively high proportion has negative perceptions of chiropractic care, particularly the costs and number of visits required by such care. Characteristics of respondents with positive and negative perceptions were similar, but those with positive perceptions were more likely to plan to use-and to have already received-chiropractic care. Copyright © 2016 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Villafañe, Jorge H.; Silva, Guillermo B.; Dughera, Andrea
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe management and outcomes of a patient with scoliosis. Clinical Features A 9-year-old female patient with a double curve pattern with Cobb angles of 18° and 24° (thoracic/thoracolumbar) compatible with scoliosis presented for physical therapy treatment. Intervention and Outcome Physiotherapy treatment with a combination of manipulative and rehabilitation techniques was used. After finishing the treatment, the patient had Cobb angles of 7° and 11°, an improvement of 55% and 54%, respectively. After 6 months, these effects were maintained, as the patient had Cobb angles of 11° and 11°. The clinical appearance of the patient improved after the course of care. The patient was evaluated for psychological outcomes by applying the following tests: Scoliosis Research Society 22, Bad Sobernheim Stress, and the Brace Questionnaire The patient had the maximum score in all tests at the conclusion of therapy. Conclusion The patient responded favorably to manipulative and rehabilitation techniques. At the end of care, the patient did not show psychological sequelae with selected outcome measures. PMID:23204954
Johnson, Claire D.; Green, Bart N.
As the diversity of the United States (US) population continues to change, concerns about minority health and health disparities grow. Health professions must evolve to meet the needs of the population. The purpose of this editorial is to review current trends in the diversity of chiropractic students, faculty, and practitioners in the United States. This editorial was informed by a search of the literature, to include PubMed, using the terms chiropractic and diversity, minority, and cultural competency. Demographic information for the chiropractic profession was obtained from the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners and The Chronicle of Higher Education. These data were compared to diversity data for medical doctors and the national and state populations from the American Association of Medical Colleges and the US Census, respectively. Surprisingly little has been published in the peer-reviewed literature on the topic of diversity in the chiropractic profession. For the variables available (sex and race), the data show that proportions in the US chiropractic profession do not match the population. State comparisons to associated chiropractic colleges show similar relationships. No reliable data were found on other diversity characteristics, such as gender identity, religion, and socioeconomic status. The chiropractic profession in the United States currently does not represent the national population with regard to sex and race. Leaders in the profession should develop a strategy to better meet the changing demographics of the US population. More attention to recruiting and retaining students, such as underrepresented minorities and women, and establishing improved cultural competency is needed. PMID:22778525
Kalthoff, Theodore J.
The relationship between student GPAs and scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners tests was investigated in an effort to determine if the chiropractic curriculum was properly preparing students to be licensed. The study found that there was a significant correlation between GPAs and board scores. (Author/MLW)
Lind, Bonnie K.; Diehr, Paula K.; Grembowski, David E.; Lafferty, William E.
Purpose: To describe the use of chiropractic care by urban and rural residents in Washington state with musculoskeletal diagnoses, all of whom have insurance coverage for this care. The analyses investigate whether restricting the analyses to insured individuals attenuates previously reported differences in the prevalence of chiropractic use…
Blum, Charles; Globe, Gary; Terre, Lisa; Mirtz, Timothy A; Greene, Leon; Globe, Denise
This study explores the extent to which consumers seek wellness care when choosing chiropractors whose practice methods are known to include periodic evaluative and interventional methods to maintain wellness and prevent illness. Using an international convenience sample of Sacro-Occipital Technique (SOT) practitioners, 1316 consecutive patients attending 27 different chiropractic clinics in the USA, Europe and Australia completed a one-page survey on intake to assess reason for seeking care. A forced choice response was obtained characterizing the patient's reason for seeking chiropractic care. More than 40% of chiropractic patient visits were initiated for the purposes of health enhancement and/or disease prevention. Although prudence dictates great caution when generalizing from this study, if confirmed by subsequent research among other similar cohorts, the present results may lend support to continued arguments of consumer demand for a more comprehensive paradigm of chiropractic care, beyond routine musculoskeletal complaints, that conceptualizes the systemic, nonspecific effects of the chiropractic encounter in much broader terms.
Abstract Objectives To explicate the relationships among the definitions and practices of chiropractic, wellness and public health and to make recommendations for strengthening these relationships. Background Public health-related topics comprise less than 2% of chiropractic coursework at most chiropractic colleges, and few connections currently exist between chiropractic and public health practice. The concept of well-ness is common to both, and might serve to bridge the gap between the individual health services provided by chiropractors and the community health services provided by public health agencies. Conclusion It is time for chiropractic to join the public health movement to improve the health and promote wellness not just in their patient populations, but in their communities, and demonstrate their commitment to patient wellness by integrating their efforts with the healthcare mainstream. PMID:19674661
Kimura, Melissa Nagare; Russell, Robb; Scaringe, John
The objective of this article is to describe chiropractic professional identity as espoused by the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic. Professional identity is a construct that begins formation prior to career selection, can be considered the backbone of health care education, and has been linked to career success. Los Angeles College of Chiropractic's professional identity is shaped by a philosophy of health care that is focused on vitalism, holism, naturalism, therapeutic conservatism, critical rationalism, phenomenology, humanism, and interprofessionalism. Other distinguishing aspects include portal-of-entry professionals with broad diagnostic skills; a focus on spine care; promotion of public-health; and delivery of manual treatments. The chiropractic professional identity at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic focuses on serving the needs of the people who entrust their health to its graduates and will continue to evolve on the basis of many factors, such as politics, social perceptions, and economic conditions.
Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy; Mir, Tariq A.
This paper explores a real-world fundamental theme under a data science perspective. It specifically discusses whether fraud or manipulation can be observed in and from municipality income tax size distributions, through their aggregation from citizen fiscal reports. The study case pertains to official data obtained from the Italian Ministry of Economics and Finance over the period 2007-2011. All Italian (20) regions are considered. The considered data science approach concretizes in the adoption of the Benford first digit law as quantitative tool. Marked disparities are found, - for several regions, leading to unexpected "conclusions". The most eye browsing regions are not the expected ones according to classical imagination about Italy financial shadow matters.
Davis, Matthew A; Smith, Monica; Weeks, William B
Previous studies suggest a possible association between using chiropractic care and lower influenza vaccination rates. We examined adult influenza vaccination rates for chiropractic patients to determine if they are different than those for users of other complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We used the 2007 National Health Interview Survey to examine influenza vaccination rates among adult respondents who were considered high priority for the influenza vaccine (n=12,164). We separated respondents into clinically meaningful categories according to age and whether or not they had recently used chiropractic care, some other type of CAM, or neither. We used adjusted logistic regression to determine whether user status predicted influenza vaccination. Only 33% of younger and 64% of older high priority Chiropractic Users were vaccinated in 2007; these rates approximated those of Non-CAM Users. However, younger Non-Chiropractic CAM Users were more likely than Non-CAM Users to have been vaccinated (p-value=0.05). In adjusted logistic regressions, we found statistically insignificant differences when comparing Chiropractic Users to Non-CAM Users for younger adults (OR=0.93(95% CI:0.76-1.13), or for older adults OR=0.90 (95% CI:0.64-1.20). Chiropractic Users appear no less likely to be vaccinated for influenza; whereas, younger Non-chiropractic CAM Users are more likely than Non-CAM Users to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Benjamin T; Bonello, Rod; Fernandez-Caamano, Ramon; Eaton, Sharyn; Graham, Petra L; Green, Hilary
The purpose of this study was to describe patient characteristics and summarize their perceptions of chiropractic in Australia. This study is part of a broader study aiming to extend the knowledge of the role of chiropractic within the current health care environment. A 33-item, paper-based, cross-sectional survey of a sample of patients from 100 systematically sampled chiropractic clinics from all the states and territories of Australia was conducted. The survey focused on patient demographics, socioeconomic status, perceived health status, and perceptions of chiropractic and chiropractic services. A total of 486 responses were received (24.3% response rate). Respondents were predominantly female patients (67.1%) of the 45- to 64-year age group. Approximately half of the respondents reported a pretax annual income exceeding $40000. Most patients sought chiropractic services because of musculoskeletal disorders (68.7%) and for general health (21.2%), and personal beliefs motivated most respondents (70.2%) to visit a chiropractor. Most respondents would seek the chiropractic services again (97.5%) and were satisfied with the service received. The results of this study show that the typical chiropractic patient in Australia is a middle-aged woman with a moderate to high income. Although only a small proportion of the Australian population sees a chiropractor, this group seems to be satisfied with the service. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Win, Ni Ni; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi V; Win, Daw Khin
Problem-based learning (PBL) is usually conducted in small-group learning sessions with approximately eight students per facilitator. In this study, we implemented a modified version of PBL involving collaborative groups in an undergraduate chiropractic program and assessed its pedagogical effectiveness. This study was conducted at the International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and involved the 2012 chiropractic student cohort. Six PBL cases were provided to chiropractic students, consisting of three PBL cases for which learning resources were provided and another three PBL cases for which learning resources were not provided. Group discussions were not continuously supervised, since only one facilitator was present. The students' perceptions of PBL in collaborative groups were assessed with a questionnaire that was divided into three domains: motivation, cognitive skills, and perceived pressure to work. Thirty of the 31 students (97%) participated in the study. PBL in collaborative groups was significantly associated with positive responses regarding students' motivation, cognitive skills, and perceived pressure to work (P<0.05). The students felt that PBL with learning resources increased motivation and cognitive skills (P<0.001). The new PBL implementation described in this study does not require additional instructors or any additional funding. When implemented in a classroom setting, it has pedagogical benefits equivalent to those of small-group sessions. Our findings also suggest that students rely significantly on available learning resources.
Weigel, Paula A M; Hockenberry, Jason M; Bentler, Suzanne E; Kaskie, Brian; Wolinsky, Fredric D
The purpose of this study was to define and characterize episodes of chiropractic care among older Medicare beneficiaries and to evaluate the extent to which chiropractic services were used in tandem with conventional medicine. Medicare Part B claims histories for 1991 to 2007 were linked to the nationally representative survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old baseline interviews (1993-1994) to define episodes of chiropractic sensitive care using 4 approaches. Chiropractic and nonchiropractic patterns of service use were examined within these episodes of care. Of the 7447 Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old participants, 971 used chiropractic services and constituted the analytic sample. There were substantial variations in the number and duration of episodes and the type and volume of services used across the 4 definitions. Depending on how the episode was constructed, the mean number of episodes per chiropractic user ranged from 3.74 to 23.12, the mean episode duration ranged from 4.7 to 28.8 days, the mean number of chiropractic visits per episode ranged from 0.88 to 2.8, and the percentage of episodes with co-occurrent use of chiropractic and nonchiropractic providers ranged from 4.9% to 10.9% over the 17-year period. Treatment for back-related musculoskeletal conditions was sought from a variety of providers, but there was little co-occurrent service use or coordinated care across provider types within care episodes. Chiropractic treatment dosing patterns in everyday practice were much lower than that used in clinical trial protocols designed to establish chiropractic efficacy for back-related conditions. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Xue, Charlie CL; Zhang, Anthony L; Lin, Vivian; Myers, Ray; Polus, Barbara; Story, David F
Background There have been no published national studies on the use in Australia of the manipulative therapies, acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy, or on matters including the purposes for which these therapies are used, treatment outcomes and the socio-demographic characteristics of users. Methods This study on the three manipulative therapies was a component of a broader investigation on the use of complementary and alternative therapies. For this we conducted a cross-sectional, population survey on a representative sample of 1,067 adults from the six states and two territories of Australia in 2005 by computer-assisted telephone interviews. The sample was recruited by random digit dialling. Results Over a 12-month period, approximately one in four adult Australians used either acupuncture (9.2%), chiropractic (16.1%) or osteopathy (4.6%) at least once. It is estimated that, adult Australians made 32.3 million visits to acupuncturists, chiropractors and osteopaths, incurring personal expenditure estimated to be A$1.58 billion in total. The most common conditions treated were back pain and related problems and over 90% of the users of each therapy considered their treatment to be very or somewhat helpful. Adverse events are reported. Nearly one fifth of users were referred to manipulative therapy practitioners by medical practitioners. Conclusion There is substantial use of manipulative therapies by adult Australians, especially for back-related problems. Treatments incur considerable personal expenditure. In general, patient experience is positive. Referral by medical practitioners is a major determinant of use of these manipulative therapies. PMID:18377663
Green, B N; Johnson, C D; Keating, J C
Long before technology assessment and continuous quality improvement were in vogue in chiropractic, Ted L. Shrader, D.C., F.I.C.C., was working toward these goals in the profession. Convinced that chiropractic must change from within for the benefit of society, Dr. Shrader has made a career-long commitment to evaluating chiropractic procedures and establishing consensus statements regarding chiropractic principle. Determined in mind, moral by nature, and unobtrusive in manner, Dr. Shrader has been decidedly effective in his endeavors. He has encouraged in chiropractic a mind for critical thinking. The fruits of his labor can be seen today in chiropractic publication, among chiropractic scholars, within the American Chiropractic Association Council on Technique, in conference proceedings, and in our institutions.
Hao, Bo-Chuan; Xie, Ke-Bo
To investigate the therapeutic effects of manipulative reduction for calcaneal fractures. From January 2009 to June 2012, 53 cases (60 affected feet) of Sanders type I-IV calcaneal fractures were treated by manipulative reduction and external fixation with cardboard splint,including 45 males and 8 females with an average age of (33.5 +/- 1.54) years old ranging from 18 to 65. The course of disease ranged 0.5 h to 7 d. Before treatment the feet were swelling, ache and activity limitation in evidence, some feet were wide flat deformity, the cortical bone was broken in the imaging examination. All selected cases were evaluated using Creighton-Nebraska health foundation assessment scale for fractures of calcaneus. All cases were followed up at 12 months after treatment, 13 feet got excellent curative effect, 34 good, 11 moderate and 2 poor. Manipulative reduction for Sanders type I-IV calcaneal fractures could get excellent curative effect. Manipulative reduction for calcaneal fractures could avoid surgical trauma while assure high curative effects. Manipulative reduction is not only economical and easy therapy, but also can restore maximum function of the calcaneus with few complications and facilitate early rehabilitation of ankle and joint function.
Background Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is a common variation of low back pain (LBP), with lifetime prevalence estimates as high as 40%. Often disabling, BRLP accounts for greater work loss, recurrences, and higher costs than uncomplicated LBP and more often leads to surgery with a lifetime incidence of 10% for those with severe BRLP, compared to 1-2% for those with LBP. In the US, half of those with back-related conditions seek CAM treatments, the most common of which is chiropractic care. While there is preliminary evidence suggesting chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy is beneficial for patients with BRLP, there is insufficient evidence currently available to assess the effectiveness of this care. Methods/Design This study is a two-site, prospective, parallel group, observer-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT). A total of 192 study patients will be recruited from the Twin Cities, MN (n = 122) and Quad Cities area in Iowa and Illinois (n = 70) to the research clinics at WHCCS and PCCR, respectively. It compares two interventions: chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) plus home exercise program (HEP) to HEP alone (minimal intervention comparison) for patients with subacute or chronic back-related leg pain. Discussion Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is a costly and often disabling variation of the ubiquitous back pain conditions. As health care costs continue to climb, the search for effective treatments with few side-effects is critical. While SMT is the most commonly sought CAM treatment for LBP sufferers, there is only a small, albeit promising, body of research to support its use for patients with BRLP. This study seeks to fill a critical gap in the LBP literature by performing the first full scale RCT assessing chiropractic SMT for patients with sub-acute or chronic BRLP using important patient-oriented and objective biomechanical outcome measures. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00494065 PMID:21426558
Qi, Yue-Feng; Chen, Fa-Lin; Bao, Shu-Ren; Li, Cheng-Huan; Zhao, Xing-Wei; Liu, Shi-Ming; Chen, Wen-Xue; Li, Ye; Wang, Peng
To explore therapeutic effects of bone setting manipulation for the treatment of over degree II supination-eversion fractures of ankle,and analyze manipulative reduction mechanism. From 2005 to 2008, 95 patients with over degree II supination-eversion fractures of ankle were treated respectively by manipulation and operation. There were 43 cases [11 males and 32 females with an average age of (44.95 +/- 12.65) years] in manipulation group, and 2 cases were degree II, 11 cases were degree III, and 30 cases were degree IV. There were 52 cases [21 males and 31 females with an average age of (39.96 +/- 13.28) years] in operative group,and 6 cases were degree II, 18 cases were degree III, and 28 cases were degree IV. Bone setting manipulation and hard splint external fixation were applied to manipulative group. Operative reduction internal fixation was performed in operative group. X-ray was used to evaluate reduction of fracture before and after treatment, 2 months after treatment. Ankle joint function was evaluated according to Olerud-Molander scoring system after 6 months treatment. All patients were followed up with good reduction. Three cases occurred wound complication in operative group, but not in manipulative group. In manipulation group, 19 cases got excellent results, 20 cases good and 4 cases fair; while in operative group, 30 cases got excellent results, 20 cases good and 2 cases poor. There were no significant differences in fracture reduction and ankle joint function recovery between two groups (P > 0.05). Efficacy of operative treatment was better than that of manipulative treatment at degree IV fracture (P < 0.05). Bone setting manipulation is a good method for treating supination-eversion ankle joint fractures, which has advantages of simple and safe operation, reliable efficacy. For ankle join fracture at degree IV, manipulative reduction should be adopted earlier, and operative treatment also necessary
Mirtz, Timothy A
The philosophy of chiropractic has been a much debated entity throughout the existence of the chiropractic profession. Much criticism has been passed upon the historical philosophy of chiropractic and propagated by contemporary adherents. To date, a new philosophy has not been detailed nor presented that demonstrates principles by which to follow. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the work of Russell Kirk (b.1918, d. 1994), an American political theorist, as a basis for principles to guide the formation of a philosophy of chiropractic medicine (PCM). Each of Kirk's principles will be explained and expounded upon as applicable to a PCM. The addition of the term "medicine" to chiropractic is indicative of a new direction for the profession. The ten principles that provide a foundation for a PCM include: (a) moral order, (b) custom, convention and continuity, (c) prescription, (d) prudence, (e) variety, (f) imperfectability, (g) freedom and property linkage, (h) voluntary community and involuntary collectivism, (i) prudent restraints upon power and human passions, and (j) permanence and change. Each of these principles offers not a dogmatic approach but provides insight into the application of chiropractic medicine to the entire station of the patient and society at large especially that of the economic, social and political. These principles provide direction in not only the approach to the doctor-patient encounter but can be used to visualize the wider world and its potential impact. Instead, these principles examine many tangential issues worthy of discussion that may impact health, social, political, and economic policy and how the chiropractic profession can approach these issues. This paper provides the initial steps in formulating a PCM using principles from a sociological, political and economic standpoint which may impact on how chiropractic medicine approaches the patient and society in totality. In addition, these principles provide the necessary
Wanlass, Paul W; Sikorski, David M; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S
To assess students' opinions of the potential influence of taking elective courses in chiropractic techniques and their future practice preferences. An anonymous, voluntary survey was conducted among graduating students from a doctor of chiropractic program. The survey included questions regarding the chiropractic technique elective courses they had completed and the potential influence of these courses on their chiropractic technique choices in future practice. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 56 surveys distributed, 46 were completed, for a response rate of 82%. More than half of the students reported having taken at least 1 elective course in diversified technique (80%), Cox technique (76%), Activator Methods (70%), or sacro-occipital technique (63%). Less than half of the respondents reported taking technique elective courses in Gonstead or Thompson techniques. More than half of the students stated they were more likely to use Activator (72%), Thompson (68%), diversified (57%), or Cox (54%) techniques in their future practice after taking an elective course in that technique. Females stated that they were more likely to use Activator Methods ( p = .006) in future practice. Chiropractic technique elective courses in the doctor of chiropractic curriculum may influence students' choices of future practice chiropractic technique.
The term subluxation has come to have different meanings for different health care professions in the United States for over the past century. This controversy has resulted in some contention both internal and external to the chiropractic profession. Some current factions within the chiropractic profession hold the term subluxation to be synonymous with the identity of chiropractic itself; however, this term was not solely used by chiropractic during its formative years. The purpose of this article is to look at uses of the term by various professions (osteopathy, medicine, and chiropractic) at the turn of the century, a time in which the chiropractic profession was developing. PMID:22693477
Stason, William B; Ritter, Grant A; Martin, Timothy; Prottas, Jeffrey; Tompkins, Christopher; Shepard, Donald S
Moderately convincing evidence supports the benefits of chiropractic manipulations for low back pain. Its effectiveness in other applications is less well documented, and its cost-effectiveness is not known. These questions led the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) to conduct a two-year demonstration of expanded Medicare coverage for chiropractic services in the treatment of beneficiaries with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions affecting the back, limbs, neck, or head. The demonstration was conducted in 2005-2007 in selected counties of Illinois, Iowa, and Virginia and the entire states of Maine and New Mexico. Medicare claims were compiled for the preceding year and two demonstration years for the demonstration areas and matched comparison areas. The impact of the demonstration was analyzed through multivariate regression analysis with a difference-in-difference framework. Expanded coverage increased Medicare expenditures by $50 million or 28.5% in users of chiropractic services and by $114 million or 10.4% in all patients treated for NMS conditions in demonstration areas during the two-year period. Results varied widely among demonstration areas ranging from increased costs per user of $485 in Northern Illinois and Chicago counties to decreases in costs per user of $59 in New Mexico and $178 in Scott County, Iowa. The demonstration did not assess possible decreases in costs to other insurers, out-of-pocket payments by patients, the need for and costs of pain medications, or longer term clinical benefits such as avoidance of orthopedic surgical procedures beyond the two-year period of the demonstration. It is possible that other payers or beneficiaries saved money during the demonstration while costs to Medicare were increased.
Stason, William B.; Ritter, Grant A; Prottas, Jeffrey; Tompkins, Christopher; Shepard, Donald S.
Background Moderately convincing evidence supports the benefits of chiropractic manipulations for low back pain. Its effectiveness in other applications is less well documented, and its cost-effectiveness is not known. These questions led the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) to conduct a two-year demonstration of expanded Medicare coverage for chiropractic services in the treatment of beneficiaries with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions affecting the back, limbs, neck, or head. Methods The demonstration was conducted in 2005–2007 in selected counties of Illinois, Iowa, and Virginia and the entire states of Maine and New Mexico. Medicare claims were compiled for the preceding year and two demonstration years for the demonstration areas and matched comparison areas. The impact of the demonstration was analyzed through multivariate regression analysis with a difference-in-difference framework. Results Expanded coverage increased Medicare expenditures by $50 million or 28.5% in users of chiropractic services and by $114 million or 10.4% in all patients treated for NMS conditions in demonstration areas during the two-year period. Results varied widely among demonstration areas ranging from increased costs per user of $485 in Northern Illinois and Chicago counties to decreases in costs per user of $59 in New Mexico and $178 in Scott County, Iowa. Conclusion The demonstration did not assess possible decreases in costs to other insurers, out-of-pocket payments by patients, the need for and costs of pain medications, or longer term clinical benefits such as avoidance of orthopedic surgical procedures beyond the two-year period of the demonstration. It is possible that other payers or beneficiaries saved money during the demonstration while costs to Medicare were increased. PMID:26928221
Good, Christopher J
The objective of this paper was to discuss the chiropractic profession's identity and 3 contentious issues related to identity. The various clinical specialties and independent groups in the chiropractic profession are so different in their beliefs, practice styles, and political agendas that a common identity is unlikely to be created. Areas of disagreement, including advanced practice, vertebral subluxation, and the philosophy of chiropractic, continue to separate those in the profession. Doctors of chiropractic should accept that differences within the profession will remain for the foreseeable future and that the profession should allow each group to live peacefully and supportively alongside each other. If the profession embraces the ideals of truth, respect, and tolerance, it can continue to grow and provide diverse health care services well into the future.
Russell, Eric G.
Objective The purpose of this article is to discuss the term wellness in the context of the philosophy of chiropractic. Discussion PubMed and Index to Chiropractic Literature show an upward trend in use of the term wellness. Wellness may be used differently depending upon the profession and may be considered a process by some and an outcome by others. Conclusion There appears to be no consensus on the definition of wellness or how it is being used. Wellness is not exclusive to chiropractic, and wellness is not synonymous with health, although is often used that way. Wellness is a societal trend, and chiropractic as a health care profession may be a good fit for this concept. PMID:22693468
Woodfield, H. Charles; York, Craig; Rochester, Roderic P.; Bales, Scott; Beebe, Mychal; Salminen, Bryan; Scholten, Jeffrey N.
Presented here is a narrative review of upper cervical procedures intended to facilitate understanding and to increase knowledge of upper cervical chiropractic care. Safety, efficacy, common misconceptions, and research are discussed, allowing practitioners, chiropractic students, and the general public to make informed decisions regarding utilization and referrals for this distinctive type of chiropractic care. Upper cervical techniques share the same theoretical paradigm in that the primary subluxation exists in the upper cervical spine. These procedures use similar assessments to determine if spinal intervention is necessary and successful once delivered. The major difference involves their use of either an articular or orthogonal radiograph analysis model when determining the presence of a misalignment. Adverse events following an upper cervical adjustment consist of mild symptomatic reactions of short-duration (< 24-hours). Due to a lack of quality and indexed references, information contained herein is limited by the significance of literature cited, which included non-indexed and/or non-peer reviewed sources. PMID:26136610
Green, Bart N.; Jacobs, Grace E.; Johnson, Claire D.; Phillips, Reed B.
Purpose: The Journal of Chiropractic Education celebrates its 25th anniversary in the year 2011. The purpose of this article is to chronicle the history of the journal, which is unreported at this time. Methods: The entire collection of the journal was reviewed and information pertaining to important events and changes in the format, personnel, and processes of the journal were extracted. This information was used to create a chronology of the journal. The chronology was complemented with information obtained from people who were involved in the evolution of the journal and the Association of Chiropractic Colleges Educational Conferences. Results: Starting as a humble newsletter in 1987 and produced for a small cadre of readers primarily from the United States, the journal is now a full-sized and bound peer-reviewed international journal. Initially cataloged by the Index to Chiropractic Literature and MANTIS, the indexing expanded to interdisciplinary indexing systems such as CINAHL and ultimately PubMed. The journal has grown to serve the needs of chiropractic educators from around the world with representatives on the editorial board from 39 colleges and universities from 15 different countries. The journal has grown in tandem with the profession’s leading education and research conference and has been the primary repository for the scholarship of chiropractic education. Conclusion: The history of the journal represents a significant milestone in the development of the chiropractic profession, particularly the discipline of chiropractic education. The journal has had an interesting history and the future promises to bring more opportunities and challenges to the field of chiropractic education and to the journal. PMID:22069342
Keating, Joseph C; Rehm, William S
Early organization in chiropractic was prompted by the profession’s need to promote itself and to defend against the onslaught of political medicine and organized osteopathy. The first priorities were legal defense against prosecution for unlicensed practice and malpractice insurance. The Universal Chiropractors’ Association (UCA), organized at the Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC) in 1906, sought to meet these needs by insuring its members and by developing a legal department under the supervision of attorney Tom Morris, one time lieutenant governor of Wisconsin. The public relations and marketing needs of chiropractors were largely served by the PSC and its legendary leader. However, as chiropractors increasingly sought to avoid prosecution by passage of chiropractic laws, Palmer’s efforts to direct this legislation so as to limit chiropractors’ scope of practice increasingly alienated many in the profession. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA) was founded in 1922 to provide a broadscope alternative to BJ’s UCA. With Palmer’s departure from the UCA following the neurocalometer debacle, ACA and UCA sought amalgamation. Simultaneously, organized medicine renewed its attack on the profession by introducing basic science legislation, which prompted chiropractors to try to upgrade and standardize chiropractic education. Early efforts to bring about the needed consensus were centered in the International Chiropractic Congress (ICC), particularly its division of state examining boards. In 1930 the ACA and UCA combined to form the National Chiropractic Association (NCA), and by 1934 the ICC had merged with the NCA to form part of its council structure. With this modicum of solidarity the NCA began the process of educational boot-strapping at its 1935 convention in Los Angeles, when its Committee on Education, a forerunner of today’s Council on Chiropractic Education, was proposed by C.O. Watkins of Montana. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5
Weeks, William B; Goertz, Christine M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the per-capita supply of doctors of chiropractic (DCs) or Medicare spending on chiropractic care was associated with opioid use among younger, disabled Medicare beneficiaries. Using 2011 data, at the hospital referral region level, we correlated the per-capita supply of DCs and spending on chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) with several measures of per-capita opioid use by younger, disabled Medicare beneficiaries. Per-capita supply of DCs and spending on CMT were strongly inversely correlated with the percentage of younger Medicare beneficiaries who had at least 1, as well as with 6 or more, opioid prescription fills. Neither measure was correlated with mean daily morphine equivalents per opioid user or per chronic opioid user. A higher per-capita supply of DCs and Medicare spending on CMT were inversely associated with younger, disabled Medicare beneficiaries obtaining an opioid prescription. However, neither measure was associated with opioid dosage among patients who obtained opioid prescriptions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Palmgren, Per J; Sandström, Peter J; Lundqvist, Fredrik J; Heikkilä, Hannu
The objective of this study was to examine alteration in head repositioning accuracy (HRA), range of motion, and pain intensity in patients with chronic cervical pain syndrome without a history of cervical trauma. The study was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Forty-one patients with chronic cervical pain were randomly assigned to either a control group or a chiropractic treatment group. All patients were clinically examined, given general information on cervical pain, and provided with training instructions based on the clinical evaluation. The treatment included sessions with high-velocity and low-amplitude manipulation, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, ischemic compression of myofascial trigger points, and spinal rehabilitation exercises aiming to normalize cervical range of motion (CROM) and HRA. Subjective pain intensity, cervical kinesthetic sensibility, and CROM were recorded before and after the study period. There was no difference between the treatment patients and the control subjects at the beginning with regard to age, sex, subjective pain intensity, range of motion, and HRA. At the 5-week follow-up, the treatment patients showed significant reductions in pain and improvement of all HRA aspects measured whereas the control subjects did not show any reduction in pain and improvement in only one HRA aspect. No significant difference was detected in CROM. The results of this study suggest that chiropractic care can be effective in influencing the complex process of proprioceptive sensibility and pain of cervical origin. Short, specific chiropractic treatment programs with proper patient information may alter the course of chronic cervical pain.
Beyerman, Kathleen L; Palmerino, Mark B; Zohn, Lee E; Kane, Gary M; Foster, Kathy A
To evaluate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulation, manual flexion/distraction, and hot pack application for the treatment of low back pain from osteoarthritis (OA) compared with moist heat alone. Two hundred fifty-two patients with low back pain secondary to OA were randomly assigned to either the treatment group (moist hot pack plus chiropractic care) or the moist heat group subjects, which attended 20 treatment sessions over several weeks. At sessions 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20, they rated pain using a visual analog pain scale, activities of daily living using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire, and a range of motion (ROM) using the J-Tech Dual Digital Inclinometer (JTECH Medical Model no. AA036). Session I ratings indicated that the two groups were equivalent on all pain and flexion scores. The treatment group reported greater and more rapid pain reduction and greater and more rapid ROM improvement than the moist heat group. The treatment group also had greater improvements than the moist heat group in daily living activities in 4 of the 9 areas measured. Chiropractic care combined with heat is more effective than heat alone for treating OA-based lower back pain. Pain reduction occurs more rapidly and to a greater degree, and ROM increases more rapidly and to a greater degree.
Bolton, Philip S; Budgell, Brian
While spinal manipulation is widely seen as a reasonable treatment option for biomechanical disorders of the spine, such as neck pain and low back pain, the use of spinal manipulation to treat non-musculoskeletal complaints remains controversial. This controversy is due in part to the perception that there is no robust neurobiological rationale to justify using a biomechanical treatment of the spine to address a disorder of visceral function. This paper therefore looks at the physiological evidence that spinal manipulation can impact visceral function. A structured search was conducted, using PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature, to construct of corpus of primary data studies in healthy human subjects of the effects of spinal manipulation on visceral function. The corpus of literature is not large, and the greatest number of papers concerns cardiovascular function. Authors often attribute visceral effects of spinal manipulation to somato-autonomic reflexes. While this is not unreasonable, little attention is paid to alternative mechanisms such as somato-humoural pathways. Thus, while the literature confirms that mechanical stimulation of the spine modulates some organ functions in some cohorts, a comprehensive neurobiological rationale for this general phenomenon has yet to appear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fachinatto, Ana Paula A; Duprat, André de Campos; Silva, Marta Andrada E; Bracher, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho; Benedicto, Camila de Carvalho; Luz, Victor Botta Colangelo; Nogueira, Maruan Nogueira; Fonseca, Beatriz Suster Gomes
This study investigated the effect of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on the singing voice of male individuals. Randomized, controlled, case-crossover trial. Twenty-nine subjects were selected among male members of the Heralds of the Gospel. This association was chosen because it is a group of persons with similar singing activities. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: (A) chiropractic SMT procedure and (B) nontherapeutic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) procedure. Recordings of the singing voice of each participant were taken immediately before and after the procedures. After a 14-day period, procedures were switched between groups: participants who underwent SMT on the first day were subjected to TENS and vice versa. Recordings were subjected to perceptual audio and acoustic evaluations. The same recording segment of each participant was selected. Perceptual audio evaluation was performed by a specialist panel (SP). Recordings of each participant were randomly presented thus making the SP blind to intervention type and recording session (before/after intervention). Recordings compiled in a randomized order were also subjected to acoustic evaluation. No differences in the quality of the singing on perceptual audio evaluation were observed between TENS and SMT. No differences in the quality of the singing voice of asymptomatic male singers were observed on perceptual audio evaluation or acoustic evaluation after a single spinal manipulative intervention of the thoracic and cervical spine. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hando, Ben R; Rhon, Daniel I; Boyles, Robert E; Whitman, Julie M; English, Jenny L
Case series study. Although there have been no reported complications from translational manipulation under anesthesia (tMUA) for individuals with adhesive capsulitis (AC) there are no cases reporting surgical findings post tMUA. Also, there are no studies evaluating health care utilization following tMUA. The purpose of this study was to: (1) report clinical outcomes following tMUA, (2) describe relevant health care costs and utilization following tMUA, and (3) summarize findings from two cases receiving joint arthroscopy following tMUA. Fourteen Individuals with AC underwent tMUA. Range of motion (ROM) and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) values were collected at baseline and six weeks follow-up. Shoulder-related health care cost and utilization were analyzed for a five-year period following tMUA. Two additional patients with AC underwent tMUA followed by arthroscopic assessment for evidence of iatrogenic injury. Thirteen patients completed the six-week follow-up. Mean change scores for ROM and SPADI values were flexion; +38.5°, abduction; +71.1°, external rotation (shoulder abducted); +49.8°, internal rotation (shoulder abducted); +26.6°, SPADI scores; +44.4. 13 patient records were analyzed for health care utilization. Ten of the 13 patients utilized no additional shoulder-related health care. Surgical evaluation revealed no evidence of iatrogenic injury. Clinical outcomes were similar to previous studies. Utilization data indicated that for the majority of patients, little shoulder-related health care was utilized. Surgical evaluation provided further evidence that tMUA performed by a physical therapist is safe. Future research will be required to establish a causal relationship between tMUA and the results observed in this study. Therapy, Level 4.
Tian, Gang; Shen, Mao-rong; Jiang, Wei-guo; Xie, Fu-rong; Wei, Wen-wu
To compare clinical effects of spinal leveraging manipulation and medicine for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis in pain and function. From July 2010 to June 2013, 38 patients with degenerative scoliosis were randomly divided into spinal leveraging manipulation group and medicine group by coin tossing. In manipulation group, there were 9 males and 11 females aged from 58 to 74 years old with an average of (66.63±7.73), the courses of diseases ranged from 3 to 8 months with an average of (5.65±2.58), spinal leveraging manipulation(following meridian to straighten tendon,relieving spasm, osteopathy and massage, clearing and activating the channels and collaterals) were performed for 30 min, once a day, 4 days for a period treatment, totally 9 courses. In medicine group, there were 8 males and 10 females aged from 57 to 70 years old with an average of (63.51±6.61) the courses of diseases ranged from 3 to 5 months with an average of (4.82±1.43), celecoxib with eperisone hydrochloride were orally taken, 4 days for a period treatment, totally 9 courses. VAS score, Cobb angle and ODI score were measured. After treatment, VAS score in manipulation group was (5.38±0.99), (6.36±1.31) in medicine group,and had significant meaning (t=2.618, P<0.05); there was significant differences in Cobb angle between manipulation group (16.51±4.89)° and medicine group (19.85±5.03) °(t=2.074,P<0.05); and had obviously meaning in ODI score between manipulation group (20.20±2.93) and medicine group (26.01±3.11) (t=5.592, P<0.05). Spinal leveraging manipulation for degenerative scoliosis could regulate muscle balance on both side of spine, correct coronal imbalances in spine, recover normal sequence of spine, reduce and remove opperssion and stimulation of nerve root, relieve pain in leg and waist and further improve quality of life.
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South... District of South Dakota in United States of America v. Chiropractic Associates Ltd, of South Dakota, (CASD... terms for chiropractic services. Copies of the Complaint, proposed Final Judgment, and Competitive...
Walton, E. V.; Brzozowski, Walter T.
The effects of chiropractic treatment on children with learning and behavioral problems was investigated with 24 elementary and secondary level students, 12 receiving regular chiropractic treatment and 12 receiving medication. Results indicated that chiropractic treatment was more effective for the wide range symptoms common in the neurological…
Puhl, Aaron A; Reinhart, Christine J; Doan, Jon B; McGregor, Marion; Injeyan, H Stephen
The objectives of this study were to determine if faction membership among Canadian doctors of chiropractic (DCs) is associated with differences in educational program characteristics among English-speaking Canadian and United States chiropractic colleges and to determine if those differences are expressed in terms of surveyed attitudes and behaviors regarding treatment efficacy, radiographic imaging, vaccinations, and interprofessional referrals. This study also aims to identify if educational programs may be a potential source of multiple professional identities. A randomly selected sample of Canadian DCs, stratified across the English-speaking provinces, was surveyed by mail. Survey items included school of graduation, self-categorization by chiropractic subgroup, perceptions of condition-specific treatment efficacy, use of plain film radiographic imaging, vaccination attitudes/behaviors, and patient referral patterns. Self-categorization by chiropractic subgroup included: the unorthodox faction (associates the chiropractic subluxation as an encumbrance to the expression of health) and the orthodox perspective (associates with musculoskeletal joint dysfunction, public health, and lifestyle concerns). For data analysis, chiropractic schools were divided into 2 groups according to location: English-speaking Canada and the US. The US was further clustered into liberal ("interested in mixing elements of modern and alternative therapies into the practice of chiropractic") and conservative categories ("chiropractors who believe in continuing the traditions of chiropractic"). Of 740 deliverable questionnaires, 503 were returned for a response rate of 68%. χ(2) Testing revealed significant differences in self-categorized faction membership associated with the clustering of colleges based on ideological viewpoints (χ(2) = 27.06; P = .000). Descriptive results revealed a relationship between school of origin and perceived treatment efficacy, use of radiographic imaging
This paper summarizes several unsuccessful attempts to develop Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) manipulations for aqueous samples during the first 5 years of our research. The first part of the paper explores irradiation as a sterilization technique to discern if sam...
Satsangi, Rajiv; Miller, Bridget
The past four decades have generated significant research toward improving the academic outcomes of students with disabilities, especially in the field of mathematics. In this effort, the role of technology in the classroom, both high- and low-tech, has garnered significant attention. For students with disabilities, the use of manipulatives is a…
Luck, C. L.; Lee, S.
This paper investigates the topology of self-motion manifolds for serial redundant manipulators with revolute joints in the presence of joint limits. It is known that the preimages of singular taskpoints divide the configuration space into regions where self-motion manifolds are homotopic.
Busse, Jason W; Jacobs, Craig; Ngo, Trung; Rodine, Robert; Torrance, David; Jim, Janey; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Petrisor, Brad; Drew, Brian; Bhandari, Mohit
Questionnaire survey. To elicit orthopedic surgeons' attitudes toward chiropractic. Orthopedic surgeons and chiropractors often attend to similar patient populations, but little is known about the attitudes of orthopedic surgeons toward chiropractic. We administered a 43-item cross-sectional survey to 1000 Canadian and American orthopedic surgeons that inquired about demographic variables and their knowledge and use of chiropractic. Imbedded in our survey was a 20-item chiropractic attitude questionnaire (CAQ). 487 surgeons completed the survey (response rate, 49%). North American orthopedic surgeons' attitudes toward chiropractic were diverse, with 44.5% endorsing a negative impression, 29.4% holding favorable views, and 26.1% being neutral. Approximately half of respondents referred patients for chiropractic care each year, mainly due to patient request.The majority of surgeons believed that chiropractors provide effective therapy for some musculoskeletal complaints (81.8%), and disagreed that chiropractors could provide effective relief for nonmusculoskeletal conditions (89.5%). The majority endorsed that chiropractors provide unnecessary treatment (72.7%), engage in overly-aggressive marketing (63.1%) and breed dependency in patients on short-term symptomatic relief (52.3%). In our adjusted generalized linear model, older age (-2.62 points on the CAQ for each 10 year increment; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.74 to -1.50), clinical interest in foot and ankle (-2.77; 95% CI = -5.43 to -0.10), and endorsement of the research literature (-4.20; 95% CI = -6.29 to -2.11), the media (-3.05; 95% CI = -5.92 to -0.19), medical school (-7.42; 95% CI = -10.60 to -4.25), or 'other' (-4.99; 95% CI = -8.81 to -1.17) as a source of information regarding chiropractic were associated with more negative attitudes; endorsing a relationship with a specific chiropractor (5.05; 95% CI = 3.00 to 7.10) or residency (3.79;95% CI = 0.17 to 7.41) as sources of information regarding
Goertz, Christine M; Long, Cynthia R; Vining, Robert D; Pohlman, Katherine A; Kane, Bridget; Corber, Lance; Walter, Joan; Coulter, Ian
Low back pain is highly prevalent and one of the most common causes of disability in U.S. armed forces personnel. Currently, no single therapeutic method has been established as a gold standard treatment for this increasingly prevalent condition. One commonly used treatment, which has demonstrated consistent positive outcomes in terms of pain and function within a civilian population is spinal manipulative therapy provided by doctors of chiropractic. Chiropractic care, delivered within a multidisciplinary framework in military healthcare settings, has the potential to help improve clinical outcomes for military personnel with low back pain. However, its effectiveness in a military setting has not been well established. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate changes in pain and disability in active duty service members with low back pain who are allocated to receive usual medical care plus chiropractic care versus treatment with usual medical care alone. This pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial will enroll 750 active duty service members with low back pain at three military treatment facilities within the United States (250 from each site) who will be allocated to receive usual medical care plus chiropractic care or usual medical care alone for 6 weeks. Primary outcomes will include the numerical rating scale for pain intensity and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire at week 6. Patient reported outcomes of pain, disability, bothersomeness, and back pain function will be collected at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks from allocation. Because low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability among U.S. military personnel, it is important to find pragmatic and conservative treatments that will treat low back pain and preserve low back function so that military readiness is maintained. Thus, it is important to evaluate the effects of the addition of chiropractic care to usual medical care on low back pain and disability. The trial discussed in this
Cunningham, Christine M; Larzelere, Elizabeth D; Arar, Ilija
As human tissue pathology slides become increasingly difficult to obtain, other methods of teaching microscopy in educational laboratories must be considered. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our students' satisfaction with newly implemented computer imagery based laboratory instruction and to obtain input from their perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of computerized vs. traditional microscope laboratories. This undertaking involved the creation of a new computer laboratory. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7(th)ed, was chosen as the required text which gave students access to the Robbins Pathology website, including complete content of text, Interactive Case Study Companion, and Virtual Microscope. Students had experience with traditional microscopes in their histology and microbiology laboratory courses. Student satisfaction with computer based learning was assessed using a 28 question survey which was administered to three successive trimesters of pathology students (n=193) using the computer survey website Zoomerang. Answers were given on a scale of 1-5 and statistically analyzed using weighted averages. The survey data indicated that students were satisfied with computer based learning activities during pathology laboratory instruction. The most favorable aspect to computer imagery was 24-7 availability (weighted avg. 4.16), followed by clarification offered by accompanying text and captions (weighted avg. 4.08). Although advantages and disadvantages exist in using conventional microscopy and computer imagery, current pathology teaching environments warrant investigation of replacing traditional microscope exercises with computer applications. Chiropractic students supported the adoption of computer-assisted instruction in pathology laboratories.
Strickland, Tricia K.
This case study analyzed the impact of a concrete manipulative program on the understanding of quadratic expressions for a high school student with a learning disability. The manipulatives were utilized as part of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration (CRA-I) intervention in which participants engaged in tasks requiring them to…
Kinsinger, Stuart; Soave, David
The purposes of this study were to survey Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited chiropractic colleges in North America and to describe curricular details on the teaching of bioethics. A custom-designed survey was sent to chiropractic colleges. Total number of contact hours, whether the ethics was a stand-alone course or integrated elsewhere, type of instructor, and if there was a required or recommended course text were queried. Of 19 surveys sent by mail, 15 surveys were returned. The average time in ethics instruction was 18.7 hours including lecture format, small group tutorial, and self-study. Chiropractic ethics education includes 8 areas of content (boundaries, law and jurisprudence, professionalism, basic ethic tenets/principles, ethical codes of conduct, prevention of financial and of sexual abuse, and resolving an ethical dilemma). Some colleges include content taught to students under the domain of law and jurisprudence. The results of this survey indicate that there are opportunities to further develop the educational ethics program at Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited colleges. All colleges currently offer bioethics teaching. An expanded role for this content is recommended so as to offer optimal benefit for students and practitioners. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Blum, Charles; Globe, Gary; Terre, Lisa; Mirtz, Timothy A.; Greene, Leon; Globe, Denise
Introduction This study explores the extent to which consumers seek wellness care when choosing chiropractors whose practice methods are known to include periodic evaluative and interventional methods to maintain wellness and prevent illness. Methods Using an international convenience sample of Sacro-Occipital Technique (SOT) practitioners, 1316 consecutive patients attending 27 different chiropractic clinics in the USA, Europe and Australia completed a one-page survey on intake to assess reason for seeking care. A forced choice response was obtained characterizing the patient’s reason for seeking chiropractic care. Results More than 40% of chiropractic patient visits were initiated for the purposes of health enhancement and/or disease prevention. Conclusion Although prudence dictates great caution when generalizing from this study, if confirmed by subsequent research among other similar cohorts, the present results may lend support to continued arguments of consumer demand for a more comprehensive paradigm of chiropractic care, beyond routine musculoskeletal complaints, that conceptualizes the systemic, nonspecific effects of the chiropractic encounter in much broader terms. PMID:18769601
Senzon, Simon A.
Objective The philosophy of chiropractic can be framed as an attempt to correct the problems inherited from the Western Enlightenment. Its origins can be found in the long tradition of Western philosophy. The purpose of this article is to describe in a broad context chiropractic’s roots in premodernity and establish the structural and hermeneutical differences between chiropractic’s original philosophical ideas and those of premodern philosophers. Discussion The worldview or cultural mindset the philosophy arose from must be situated in the context of its time, the birth of the unique postmodern worldview, aperspectival consciousness, and the modern sense of self. This is accomplished by exploring several metatheories about the development of the self through history, with an emphasis on the premodern roots to the chiropractic terms; Universal Intelligence and Innate Intelligence. By contextualizing the philosophy of chiropractic in terms of a structural genealogy of the self and of ideas, a new approach to philosophy in chiropractic emerges. Conclusion Without accounting for chiropractic’s origins as a reflection of the unique time, place, and culture, in terms of the evolution of worldviews through history, any approach to construct or reconstruct a philosophy of chiropractic will potentially miss the seminal feature of chiropractic’s emergence. PMID:22693478
Marziani, Jessica A
The nontraditional therapies of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine and chiropractic care are adjunct treatments that can be used in conjunction with more conventional therapies to treat a variety of medical conditions. Nontraditional therapies do not need to be alternatives to Western medicine but, instead, can be used simultaneously. Exotic animal practitioners should have a basic understanding of nontraditional therapies for both client education and patient referral because they can enhance the quality of life, longevity, and positive outcomes for various cases across multiple taxa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hall, Michael W.; Jensen, Anne M.
Objective Pulse oximetry is used regularly to assess oxygen saturation levels. The objective of this commentary is to discuss a rationale for using pulse oximetry in chiropractic practice. Discussion Pulse oximetry may offer doctors of chiropractic a way to monitor patients' oxygen saturation levels. Quantification of saturation values with heart rate may give clinical aid to the management of chiropractic patients. Markedly reduced saturation levels may necessitate medical referral, whereas mildly reduced levels could lead to changes in chiropractic management. Conclusions Pulse oximetry has the potential to be an integral part of chiropractic practice. PMID:23204957
DeVocht, James W; Smith, Dean L; Long, Cynthia R; Corber, Lance; Kane, Bridget; Jones, Thomas M; Goertz, Christine M
Chiropractic care is commonly used to treat musculoskeletal conditions and has been endorsed by clinical practice guidelines as being evidence-based and cost-effective for the treatment of patients with low back pain. Gaps in the literature exist regarding the physiological outcomes of chiropractic treatment. Previous pilot work has indicated the possibility of improvements in response time following the application of chiropractic treatment. However, it is unknown whether or not chiropractic treatment is able to improve reaction and response times in specific populations of interest. One such population is the U.S. military special operation forces' (SOF) personnel. This study is a randomized controlled trial of 120 asymptomatic volunteer SOF personnel. All participants are examined by a study doctor of chiropractic (DC) for eligibility prior to randomization. The participants are randomly allocated to either a treatment group receiving four treatments of chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) over 2 weeks or to a wait-list control group. The wait-list group does not receive any treatment but has assessments at the same time interval as the treatment group. The outcome measures are simple reaction times for dominant hand and dominant foot, choice reaction time with prompts calling for either hand or either foot, response time using Fitts' law tasks for small movements involving eye-hand coordination, and brief whole body movements using the t-wall, a commercially available product. At the first visit, all five tests are completed so that participants can familiarize themselves with the equipment and protocol. Assessments at the second and the final visits are used for data analysis. SOF personnel are highly motivated and extremely physically fit individuals whose occupation requires reaction times that are as quick as possible during the course of their assigned duties. A goal of CMT is to maximize the functionality and integration of the neuromusculoskeletal
Background There is increasing interest by chiropractors in North America regarding integration into mainstream healthcare; however, there is limited information about attitudes towards the profession among conventional healthcare providers, including orthopaedic surgeons. Methods We administered a 43-item cross-sectional survey to 1000 Canadian and American orthopaedic surgeons that inquired about demographic variables and their attitudes towards chiropractic. Our survey included an option for respondants to include written comments, and our present analysis is restricted to these comments. Two reviewers, independantly and in duplicate, coded all written comments using thematic analysis. Results 487 surgeons completed the survey (response rate 49%), and 174 provided written comments. Our analysis revealed 8 themes and 24 sub-themes represented in surgeons' comments. Reported themes were: variability amongst chiropractors (n = 55); concerns with chiropractic treatment (n = 54); areas where chiropractic is perceived as effective (n = 43); unethical behavior (n = 43); patient interaction (n = 36); the scientific basis of chiropractic (n = 26); personal experiences with chiropractic (n = 21); and chiropractic training (n = 18). Common sub-themes endorsed by surgeon's were diversity within the chiropractic profession as a barrier to increased interprofessional collaboration, endorsement for chiropractic treatment of musculoskeletal complaints, criticism for treatment of non-musculoskeletal complaints, and concern over whether chiropractic care was evidence-based. Conclusions Our analysis identified a number of issues that will have to be considered by the chiropractic profession as part of its efforts to further integrate chiropractic into mainstream healthcare. PMID:21970333
Mullin, Linda; Alcantara, Joel; Barton, Derek; Dever, Lydia
A survey of midwives' knowledge and views about chiropractic. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. An anonymous on-line self-administered survey. United States midwives. Respondent demographics, professional training, personal and professional clinical experience, opinions on safety of chiropractic, and scope of chiropractic practice. A total of 187 midwife respondents completed the questionnaire resulting in a superficial response rate of 2.1%. Responders were certified nurse-midwives and had some form of training regarding chiropractic. The responders were aware that chiropractors worked with "birthing professionals" and attended to patients with both musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal disorders. A vast majority indicated a positive personal and professional clinical experience with chiropractic and that chiropractic was safe for pregnant patients and children. There is great awareness of and positive personal and professional experience with chiropractic on the part of midwives who participated in this survey. We encourage further research in this field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Newton-Leo, Linda; King-Isaacs, Debra; Lichti, Janice
This study was a preliminary investigation into the knowledge of and current attitudes towards the chiropractic profession by medical practitioners with varying years of clinical experience. A questionnaire was designed and mailed to seventy general practitioners in Downsview, Ontario who agreed to participate in the study. Twenty-six were returned for a response rate of 37%. The data were analyzed and responses from doctors with differing years of practice experience were compared using the chi square statistic. When comparing attitudes towards the chiropractic profession between medical practitioners with greater and less than 15 years of clinical experience a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.0005). However, no significant differences were observed in terms of their interaction with or knowledge of the chiropractic profession. Further, 88% of respondents reported that they had referred a patient to a chiropractor. The limitations of the study and suggestions for improvement are discussed.
Background Evidence-based clinical practice (EBCP) is an accepted practice for informed clinical decision making in mainstream health care professions. EBCP augments clinical experience and can have far reaching effects in education, policy, reimbursement and clinical management. The proliferation of published research can be overwhelming—finding a mechanism to identify literature that is essential for practitioners and students is desirable. The purpose of this study was to survey leaders in the chiropractic profession on their opinions of essential literature for doctors of chiropractic, faculty, and students to read or reference. Methods Deployment of an IRB exempted survey occurred with 68 academic and research leaders using SurveyMonkey®. Individuals were solicited via e-mail in August of 2011; the study closed in October of 2011. Collected data were checked for citation accuracy and compiled to determine multiple responses. A secondary analysis assessed the scholarly impact and Internet accessibility of the recommended literature. Results Forty-three (43) individuals consented to participate; seventeen (17) contributed at least one article of importance. A total of 41 unique articles were reported. Of the six articles contributed more than once, one article was reported 6 times, and 5 were reported twice. Conclusions A manageable list of relevant literature was created. Shortcomings of methods were identified, and improvements for continued implementation are suggested. A wide variety of articles were reported as “essential” knowledge; annual or bi-annual surveys would be helpful for the profession. PMID:24289298
Yang, Hwan-Seo; Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil
Cervical intradural disc herniation (IDH) is an extremely rare condition, comprising only 0.27% of all disc herniations. Three percent of IDHs occur in the cervical, 5% in the thoracic, and over 92% in the lumbar spinal canal. There have been a total of 31 cervical IDHs reported in the literature. The pathogenesis and imaging characteristics of IDH are not fully understood. A preoperative diagnosis is key to facilitating prompt intradural exploration in patients with ambivalent findings, as well as in preventing reoperation. The purpose of reporting our case is to remind clinicians to consider the possibility of cervical IDH during spinal manipulation therapy in patient with chronic neck pain.The patient signed informed consent for publication of this case report and any accompanying image. The ethical approval of this study was waived by the ethics committee of Chonbuk National University Hospital, because this study was case report and the number of patients was <3.A 32-year-old man was transferred our emergency department with progressive quadriparesis. He had no history of trauma, but had received physical therapy with spinal manipulation for chronic neck pain over the course of a month. The day prior, he had noticed neck pain and tingling in the bilateral upper and lower extremities during the manipulation procedure. The following day, he presented with bilateral weakness of all 4 extremities, which rendered him unable to walk. Neurological examination demonstrated a positive Hoffmann sign and ankle clonus bilaterally, hypoesthesia below the C5 dermatome, 3/5 strength in the bilateral upper extremities, and 2/5 strength in the lower extremities. This motor weakness was progressive, and he further complained of voiding difficulty.Urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed large, central disc herniations at C4-C5 and C5-C6 that caused severe spinal cord compression and surrounding edema. We performed C4-C5-C6 anterior cervical
Gatterman, Meridel I; Dobson, Thomas P; LeFevbre, Ron
Chiropractic quality assurance involves development of both clinical guidelines and standards. Confusion generated by poor differentiation of guidelines from standards contributes to mistrust of the guideline development process. Guidelines are considered to be recommendations that allow for flexibility and individual patient differences. Standards are more binding and require a high level of supporting evidence. While guidelines serve as educational tools to improve the quality of practice, standards that outline minimum competency are used more as administrative tools on which to base policy. Barriers to development of clinical guidelines and standards include fear that they will create prescriptive “cookbook” practice, and the distrust that guidelines are developed primarily for cost containment. Clinicians also criticize guidelines developed by academics that don't relate to practice, and those based on evidence that lacks clinical relevance. Conflicting guidelines perceived to be based on strong bias or conflict of interest are also suspect. To reduce barriers to acceptance and implementation, guidelines should be inclusive, patient-centered, and based on a variety of evidence and clinical experience.
Public Perceptions of Doctors of Chiropractic: Results of a National Survey and Examination of Variation According to Respondents' Likelihood to Use Chiropractic, Experience With Chiropractic, and Chiropractic Supply in Local Health Care Markets.
Weeks, William B; Goertz, Christine M; Meeker, William C; Marchiori, Dennis M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether general perceptions of doctors of chiropractic (DCs) varied according to likeliness to use chiropractic care, whether particular demographic characteristics were associated with chiropractic care use, and whether perception of DCs varied according to the per-capita supply of DCs in local health care markets. We performed a secondary analysis of results from a 26-item nationally representative survey of 5422 members of The Gallup Panel that was conducted in the spring of 2015 (response rate, 29%) that sought to elicit the perceptions and use of DCs by US adults. We compared survey responses across: (1) respondents who had different likelihoods to use DCs for treatment of neck or back pain and (2) respondents who had different experiences using DCs. We linked respondents' zip codes to hospital referral regions for which we had the per-capita supply of DCs. Using the χ(2) test, we examined relationships between likeliness to use a DC, experience using a DC, respondent demographic variables, perceptions of DCs, and the per-capita supply of DCs in the local health care market. Most (61.4%) respondents believed that chiropractic care was effective at treating neck and back pain, 52.6% thought DCs were trustworthy, and 24.2% thought chiropractic care was dangerous; however, as respondents' likelihood to use a DC increased, perceptions of effectiveness and trustworthiness increased, and perceptions of danger decreased. Of all 5422 survey respondents, 744 or 13.7% indicated that they had seen a DC within the last 12 months. As one moved from distant to more recent experience using a DC, respondents were more likely to be female, married, white, and employed; those who had a distant history of using a DC were older and more likely to be retired than the other groups. A higher per-capita supply of DCs was associated with higher utilization rates and showed a more favorable regard for DCs. US adults often use chiropractic
Gaucher-Peslherbe, P L
D.D. Palmer has been a much ignored man in the discipline he founded. The same applies to several early concepts he used to develop from a mere healer's background: D.D. Palmer invested them with an entirely different meaning. When considered, they help to understand the inner logic that allowed for chiropractic survival. There was an alchemy in the creation of chiropractic and the senior Palmer was the alchemist. He has not been recognized even within his own profession for the self-taught scholar and clinician that he was, knowledgeable about the various medical and scientific theories of his time.
Bayard, D. S.; Wen, J. T.
A new class of asymptotically stable adaptive control laws is introduced for application to the robotic manipulator. Unlike most applications of adaptive control theory to robotic manipulators, this analysis addresses the nonlinear dynamics directly without approximation, linearization, or ad hoc assumptions, and utilizes a parameterization based on physical (time-invariant) quantities. This approach is made possible by using energy-like Lyapunov functions which retain the nonlinear character and structure of the dynamics, rather than simple quadratic forms which are ubiquitous to the adaptive control literature, and which have bound the theory tightly to linear systems with unknown parameters. It is a unique feature of these results that the adaptive forms arise by straightforward certainty equivalence adaptation of their nonadaptive counterparts found in the companion to this paper (i.e., by replacing unknown quantities by their estimates) and that this simple approach leads to asymptotically stable closed-loop adaptive systems. Furthermore, it is emphasized that this approach does not require convergence of the parameter estimates (i.e., via persistent excitation), invertibility of the mass matrix estimate, or measurement of the joint accelerations.
Hennius, Bjorn J
Two recent surveys of chiropractors in Great Britain suggest that there are discrepancies between chiropractic practice as defined in regulatory guidelines and day-to-day chiropractic clinical practice and there is in general a paucity of information regarding the characteristics of contemporary chiropractic practice in the United Kingdom. This field study describes the daily practice of a contemporary British UK-trained chiropractor. The fieldwork took place during the spring and summer of 2008 when the author spent one day per week observing consultations and interviewing patients in a chiropractic clinic. The chiropractor was subjected to interviews on two occasions. The author also registered as a patient. Field notes were taken by the author, interviews were recorded and the transcripts were corrected and analysed by the author. A total of 25 patients took part in the study. The interaction that took place between patients and staff in reception could be considered as a prelude to consultation facilitating the transformation from individual to patient and back to individual. Coupled with the continuous physical contact between the chiropractor and each patient there was a substantial amount of verbal and non-verbal communication throughout treatment visits. The patients presented with predominantly musculo-skeletal pain and the majority had consulted the chiropractor as a result of recommendations from others in their close social environment. The majority of the interviewed patients had either an inaccurate or at best rudimentary understanding of the mechanisms of chiropractic treatment. A few of the interviewed patients indicated that they had at first experienced concerns about the nature of chiropractic treatment or getting undressed. The author was able to gain some insight into how the chiropractor's experiences, opinions and beliefs had shaped his approach to chiropractic treatment and how this formed the basis of his clinical modus operandi. Although
Background Two recent surveys of chiropractors in Great Britain suggest that there are discrepancies between chiropractic practice as defined in regulatory guidelines and day-to-day chiropractic clinical practice and there is in general a paucity of information regarding the characteristics of contemporary chiropractic practice in the United Kingdom. This field study describes the daily practice of a contemporary British UK-trained chiropractor. Methods The fieldwork took place during the spring and summer of 2008 when the author spent one day per week observing consultations and interviewing patients in a chiropractic clinic. The chiropractor was subjected to interviews on two occasions. The author also registered as a patient. Field notes were taken by the author, interviews were recorded and the transcripts were corrected and analysed by the author. Results A total of 25 patients took part in the study. The interaction that took place between patients and staff in reception could be considered as a prelude to consultation facilitating the transformation from individual to patient and back to individual. Coupled with the continuous physical contact between the chiropractor and each patient there was a substantial amount of verbal and non-verbal communication throughout treatment visits. The patients presented with predominantly musculo-skeletal pain and the majority had consulted the chiropractor as a result of recommendations from others in their close social environment. The majority of the interviewed patients had either an inaccurate or at best rudimentary understanding of the mechanisms of chiropractic treatment. A few of the interviewed patients indicated that they had at first experienced concerns about the nature of chiropractic treatment or getting undressed. The author was able to gain some insight into how the chiropractor's experiences, opinions and beliefs had shaped his approach to chiropractic treatment and how this formed the basis of his clinical
Wotherspoon, Sheena E; McCarthy, Peter W
There are many professional associations representing chiropractors and chiropractic in the United Kingdom (UK). Each has its unique selling points (USPs) and chiropractors can choose to join as many as they like; however, cost of membership has to be weighed against perceived benefits. The predictors of UK chiropractic association membership and motivational factors to join these associations, have not formally been identified. This research study aimed to identify some of the factors and motivations in Welsh Institute of Chiropractic (WIOC) Alumni regarding their decision to join (or not) a UK chiropractic professional association. An online survey instrument, comprising 23 questions, was administered from November-December 2015 via a link announced on 'The WIOC Alumni' Facebook group (N = 655), the active platform for the WIOC Alumni Organisation. One hundred forty-eight respondents (approximately 22.6 % of 'The WIOC Alumni' Facebook group membership) completed the survey. Ten factors were reported to be important in decision making: 'promoting public awareness of chiropractic' (91.2 %), 'access to professional indemnity insurance' (89.2 %), 'overall professionalism of the association' (87.2 %), 'the identity of the association' (77.7 %), 'positive attitude to research' (77.0 %), 'workplace support and advice' (68.9 %), 'access to events \\ courses \\ seminars' (64.2 %), 'Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities' (62.2 %), 'cost of membership' (59.5 %) and 'addresses my area of interest' (56.1 %). 'Many of my friends have joined' (71.6 %) was considered unimportant, whereas 'Lobbying: Influencing policy' and 'career development' were considered important by almost twice as many as those that consider them unimportant (45.3 %: 25.7 % and 43.9 %: 27.0 % respectively), 'requirement of employment' and 'associations newsletter' were seen as unimportant by roughly twice as many as those considering them important (44.6 %: 28.4 % and
Votova, Kristine; Penning, Margaret J; Zheng, Chi; Brackley, Moyra E
This article examines trends in and predictors of publicly subsidized chiropractic use from 1991 to 2000, a decade characterized by health care system reforms throughout North America. The sample included adults age 50+ who visited a publicly subsidized chiropractor in the Canadian province of British Columbia during the study period. Administrative claims data for chiropractic service use were drawn from the Medical Services Plan (MSP) Master file in the British Columbia Linked Health Data resource. The MSP Master file contains claims reported for every provincially insured medical service and supplementary health benefit including chiropractic visits. Joinpoint regression analyses demonstrate that while annual rates of chiropractic users did not change over the decade, visit rates decreased during this period. Predictors of a greater number of chiropractic visits include increasing age, female gender, urban residence, low to moderate income, and use of chiropractic services earlier in the decade. The trend toward decreasing visit rates over the 1990s both conflicts with and is consistent with findings from other North American chiropractic studies using similar time periods. Results indicating that low and moderate income and advancing age predict more frequent chiropractic service are novel. However, given that lower income and older individuals were exempted from chiropractic service limits during this period, these results suggest support for the responsive nature of chiropractic use to financial barriers.
Abstract Objective This review was conducted to analyze the law for the practice of chiropractic throughout the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine the legal ability of the Doctor of Chiropractic in each jurisdiction to provide primary care service as described by the 1996 Institute of Medicine Definition of Primary Care. Method The practice acts for each State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were reviewed for language that would permit the chiropractic doctor to meet the 9 criteria of primary care practice described by the Institute of Medicine. Forty-four practice acts were cross referenced with the results of a scope of practice survey of State Boards of Chiropractic in 1999. Results The review of the practice acts and the survey on chiropractic scope of practice revealed a varied degree of chiropractic scope of practice with 23 of 53 of the jurisdictions limiting the ability of the chiropractic doctor to fully provide IOM defined primary care. Conclusion The varied practice act definitions for chiropractic practice throughout the United States the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands reveal an inability of the chiropractic profession to respond to a call for a standard nationally-based primary-care policy that could be readily achieved by all chiropractic practitioners throughout the Union. This void of primary-care qualification in many State and Commonwealth practice acts will need to be addressed by the leaders of the profession if government entities and national third party organizations are to utilize chiropractic health care services to the standard of chiropractic education and clinical experience. The need for a broad range chiropractic scope of practice model practice act is suggested. PMID:19674578
Istiandaru, A.; Istihapsari, V.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Hendroanto, A.
A manipulative is a teaching aid designed such that students could understand mathematical concepts by manipulating it. This article aims to provide an insight to the characteristics of manipulatives produced in the mathematics laboratory of Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. A case study was conducted to observe the existing manipulatives produced during the latest three years and classified the manipulatives based on the characteristics found. There are four kinds of manipulatives: constructivism manipulative, virtual manipulative, informative manipulative, and game-based manipulative. Each kinds of manipulative has different characteristics and impact towards the mathematics learning.
von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.
Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…
Wen, J. T.; Bayard, D. S.
A new class of exponentially stabilizing control laws for joint level control of robot arms is introduced. It has been recently recognized that the nonlinear dynamics associated with robotic manipulators have certain inherent passivity properties. More specifically, the derivation of the robotic dynamic equations from the Hamilton's principle gives rise to natural Lyapunov functions for control design based on total energy considerations. Through a slight modification of the energy Lyapunov function and the use of a convenient lemma to handle third order terms in the Lyapunov function derivatives, closed loop exponential stability for both the set point and tracking control problem is demonstrated. The exponential convergence property also leads to robustness with respect to frictions, bounded modeling errors and instrument noise. In one new design, the nonlinear terms are decoupled from real-time measurements which completely removes the requirement for on-line computation of nonlinear terms in the controller implementation. In general, the new class of control laws offers alternatives to the more conventional computed torque method, providing tradeoffs between robustness, computation and convergence properties. Furthermore, these control laws have the unique feature that they can be adapted in a very simple fashion to achieve asymptotically stable adaptive control.
Wang, Di; Luo, Jie; Li, Jia-Dong; Pei, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Wei
To study the clinical efficacy of sacral manual therapy in the treatment of coccygodynia. From November 2013 to July 2015, 184 patients with sacrococcygeal pain were divided into treatment group and control group. There were 26 males and 65 females in the treatment group, with an average age of (39.63±11.62) years old. In the control group, there were 31 males and 62 females, with an average age of (41.47±11.56) years old. The patients in the treatment group were treated with sacrococcygeal massage therapy, 3 times a week for 2 weeks. The patients in the control group were treated with Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel, 2 times a day for 2 weeks. The VAS pain score, score in rating scale of sacrococcygeal pain and degree of tenderness were obtained on the first day of treatment, 2, 7, 14 days and 3 months after treatment to evaluate clinical results. When comparing the VAS pain score of sacrococcygeal pain within the two groups, the differences began to reach statistical significance on the second day( P <0.001). The chagne of VAS pain scores, the change of scores in rating scale of sacrococcygeal pain and the degree of tenderness in the treatment group were all significontly larger that those in the contral group from the second day. The curative effect of sacral manipulation group is better than that of Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel group in the treatment of sacrococcygeal pain.
Triano, John J; Goertz, Christine; Weeks, John; Murphy, Donald R; Kranz, Karl C; McClelland, George C; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah; Morgan, William; Nelson, Craig F
This report describes the process, participation, and recommendations of a set of consensus conferences on strategy for professional growth that emphasized elements of public trust and alignment between the chiropractic profession and its stakeholders. In February and August 2006, an invitational group of leaders in the chiropractic profession convened an ad hoc Chiropractic Strategic Planning Conference. Public notice was given and support solicited through the Foundation of Chiropractic Education and Research. A series of international and interdisciplinary speakers gave presentations on the shifting of external social dynamics and medical culture, illuminating opportunities for the profession to extend its privilege and service. A systematic round-robin discussion was followed by group breakout sessions to develop recommendations on priorities for the profession to respond to challenges and opportunities. Recommendations were reviewed by the group as a whole and voted to consensus requiring more than 70% agreement. Participants determined a series of recommendations within 5 key domains for improving health professions practice: education, research, regulation, workplace, and leadership. The action steps proposed by the Strategic Planning Committee are first steps to provide better service to the public while making use of the inherent strengths of the profession. Copyright (c) 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Parkinson, Lynne; Sibbritt, David; Bolton, Philip; van Rotterdam, Joan; Villadsen, Inger
The usefulness of chiropractic for treatment of low back pain is a contentious issue. Chiropractors advocate holism and general well-being as a key principle on which they base their clinical practice, yet the quality of life, lifestyle, health and economic impacts of chiropractic intervention for back pain in adults have rarely been investigated. This article provides an overview of chiropractic principles and practices, together with the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications between 2000 and 2010 retrieved from MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. This review sought to determine the benefits of chiropractic treatment and care to well-being, and to what extent chiropractic treatment and care improve quality of life. Of 1,165 articles, 12 articles were retained, representing six studies (four randomised controlled trial, two observational) of varying quality. There was a high degree of inconsistency and lack of standardisation in measurement instruments and outcome measures. Three studies reported reduced use of other/extra treatments as a positive outcome; two studies reported a positive effect of chiropractic intervention on pain, and two studies reported a positive effect on disability. The six studies reviewed concentrated on the impact of chiropractic care on physical health and disability, rather than the wider holistic view which was the focus of this study. It is difficult, therefore, to defend any conclusion about the impact of chiropractic intervention on the quality of life, lifestyle, health and economic impact on chiropractic patients presenting with back pain.
Background In Sweden, chiropractic is not included in mainstream health care. In Norway chiropractic is a recognized health care profession. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of chiropractic among Swedish and Norwegian General Practitioners (GPs). Methods Eight hundred surveys in each country were distributed randomly by post to Swedish and Norwegian GPs offices. The survey contained two main sections: Experiences and opinions about chiropractic and referral patterns. The data were then described and compared between the countries. Results In Sweden the response rate was 44.8% and in Norway 45.3%. More than half of the Swedish GPs participating in this study stated that they had poor knowledge about chiropractic, while just a tenth of Norwegian GPs stated the same. Nearly all Norwegian GPs had some experience of chiropractic treatment whilst a fairly large number of the Swedish GPs said that they had no experience at all of chiropractic. It was twice as common for GPs in Norway to refer patients to a chiropractor as compared to Sweden. However, Swedish and Norwegian GPs agreed that chiropractors were competent to treat musculo-skeletal conditions with an adequate education to be part of mainstream medicine. Conclusions Swedish and Norwegian GPs agree that chiropractors are competent to treat musculoskeletal conditions. However, there are many differences in GPs perceptions of chiropractic between the two countries and the overall picture indicates that chiropractic is more accepted and recognised as a health care profession in Norway. PMID:24128386
Russo, Giancarlo; Remonato, Alessandro; Remonato, Roberto; Zanier, Emiliano
Context • Pregnancy causes physiological alterations to the visual system, particularly in relation to retinal vascularization, with a consequent increase of intraocular pressure, and to the lacrimal fluid, with a consequent ocular dryness, which both can lead to a reduction in visual acuity. Numerous case reports refer to the employment of hypnotic treatment in cases of myopia, but the literature does not report any case of decreased visual acuity postpartum that was treated with hypnosis. Objective • For women with visual disorders that had appeared during pregnancy or were preexisting, the study intended to evaluate the benefits of treatment of the diaphragm by hypnotherapy and osteopathy to modify intracorporeal pressure and restore the women's visual function. Design • The research team performed a case study. Setting • The setting was a private osteopathic clinic. Participant • The participant was a 35-y-old woman lacking visual acuity postpartum. Intervention • The study took place during a period of 1 d. The participant first took part in a hypnotherapy session, the first intervention, and then participated in an osteopathic session, the second intervention. Outcome Measures • For the first evaluation of visual function at baseline, 3 tests were performed: (1) a visual acuity test; (2) a cover test for near and distance vision; and (3) a test for near point convergence. The visual function evaluation (all 3 tests) occurred after the 2 types of treatment (T1, T2). Finally, a visual function evaluation (all 3 tests) occurred at a follow-up session 1 mo after the end of treatment (T3). Results • The intervention produced a significant improvement in visual acuity, due to the multidisciplinary approach of treatment with hypnotherapy and osteopathy, and achieved a result that was maintained in the medium term. Conclusions • Hypnosis and osteopathy produced a significant improvement in visual acuity and the result was maintained in the medium
Murphy, Donald R; Schneider, Michael J; Perle, Stephen M; Bise, Christopher G; Timko, Michael; Haas, Mitchell
The purported relationship between cervical manipulative therapy (CMT) and stroke related to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) has been debated for several decades. A large number of publications, from case reports to case-control studies, have investigated this relationship. A recent article suggested that case misclassification in the case-control studies on this topic resulted in biased odds ratios in those studies. Given its rarity, the best epidemiologic research design for investigating the relationship between CMT and VAD is the case-control study. The addition of a case-crossover aspect further strengthens the scientific rigor of such studies by reducing bias. The most recent studies investigating the relationship between CMT and VAD indicate that the relationship is not causal. In fact, a comparable relationship between vertebral artery-related stroke and visits to a primary care physician has been observed. The statistical association between visits to chiropractors and VAD can best be explained as resulting from a patient with early manifestation of VAD (neck pain with or without headache) seeking the services of a chiropractor for relief of this pain. Sometime after the visit the patient experiences VAD-related stroke that would have occurred regardless of the care received. This explanation has been challenged by a recent article putting forth the argument that case misclassification is likely to have biased the odds ratios of the case-control studies that have investigated the association between CMT and vertebral artery related stroke. The challenge particularly focused on one of the case-control studies, which had concluded that the association between CMT and vertebral artery related stroke was not causal. It was suggested by the authors of the recent article that misclassification led to an underestimation of risk. We argue that the information presented in that article does not support the authors' claim for a variety of reasons, including the
Anderson-Peacock, Elizabeth; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Bryans, Roland; Danis, Normand; Furlan, Andrea; Marcoux, Henri; Potter, Brock; Ruegg, Rick; Gross Stein, Janice; White, Eleanor
OBJECTIVE To provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the chiropractic cervical treatment of adults with acute or chronic neck pain not due to whiplash. This is a considerable health concern considered to be a priority by stakeholders, and about which the scientific information was poorly organized. OPTIONS Cervical treatments: manipulation, mobilization, ischemic pressure, clinic- and home-based exercise, traction, education, low-power laser, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, pillows, pulsed electromagnetic therapy, and ultrasound. OUTCOMES The primary outcomes considered were improved (reduced and less intrusive) pain and improved (increased and easier) ranges of motion (ROM) of the adult cervical spine. EVIDENCE An “extraction” team recorded evidence from articles found by literature search teams using 4 separate literature searches, and rated it using a Table adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. The searches were 1) Treatment; August, 2003, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ICL, The Cochrane Library (includes CENTRAL), and EBSCO, identified 182 articles. 2) Risk management (adverse events); October, 2004, identified 230 articles and 2 texts. 3) Risk management (dissection); September, 2003, identified 79 articles. 4) Treatment update; a repeat of the treatment search for articles published between September, 2003 and November, 2004 inclusive identified 121 articles. VALUES To enable the search of the literature, the authors (Guidelines Development Committee [GDC]) regarded chiropractic treatment as including elements of “conservative” care in the search strategies, but not in the consideration of the range of chiropractic practice. Also, knowledge based only on clinical experience was considered less valid and reliable than good-caliber evidence, but where the caliber of the relevant evidence was low or it was non-existent, unpublished clinical experience was considered to be equivalent to
Ward, Kevin P.
Basic science curricula at most chiropractic colleges consist of courses (eg, general anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, etc) that are taught as stand-alone content domains. The lack of integration between basic science disciplines causes difficulties for students who need to understand how the parts function together as an integrated whole and apply this understanding to solving clinical problems. More horizontally integrated basic science curricula could be achieved by several means: integrated Part I National Board of Chiropractic Examiners questions, a broader education for future professors, an increased emphasis on integration within the current model, linked courses, and an integrated, thematic basic science curriculum. Horizontally integrating basic science curricula would require significant efforts from administrators, curriculum committees, and instructional faculty. Once in place this curriculum would promote more clinically relevant learning, improved learning outcomes, and superior vertical integration. PMID:21048882
Senzon, Simon A.
Objective The purpose of this article is to trace the foundations of DD Palmer's sense of self and philosophy of chiropractic to its sources in modern Western philosophy as well as current metatheories about modernity. Discussion DD Palmer's sense of self was indicative of a modern self. A modern self is characterized as a self that developed after the Western Enlightenment and must come to terms with the insights of modernity such as Cartesian dualism, Spinoza's substance, Rousseau's expressivism, and Kant's critiques. It is argued that Palmer's philosophy can be viewed as part of the this tradition alongside his involvement in the 19th century American metaphysical religious culture, which was itself a response to these challenges of the modern self of modernity. Conclusion Palmer's development of chiropractic and its philosophy was a reaction to the challenges and promises of modernity. PMID:22693479
Ward, Kevin P
Basic science curricula at most chiropractic colleges consist of courses (eg, general anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, etc) that are taught as stand-alone content domains. The lack of integration between basic science disciplines causes difficulties for students who need to understand how the parts function together as an integrated whole and apply this understanding to solving clinical problems. More horizontally integrated basic science curricula could be achieved by several means: integrated Part I National Board of Chiropractic Examiners questions, a broader education for future professors, an increased emphasis on integration within the current model, linked courses, and an integrated, thematic basic science curriculum. Horizontally integrating basic science curricula would require significant efforts from administrators, curriculum committees, and instructional faculty. Once in place this curriculum would promote more clinically relevant learning, improved learning outcomes, and superior vertical integration.
Senzon, Simon A
The purpose of this article is to trace the foundations of DD Palmer's sense of self and philosophy of chiropractic to its sources in modern Western philosophy as well as current metatheories about modernity. DD Palmer's sense of self was indicative of a modern self. A modern self is characterized as a self that developed after the Western Enlightenment and must come to terms with the insights of modernity such as Cartesian dualism, Spinoza's substance, Rousseau's expressivism, and Kant's critiques. It is argued that Palmer's philosophy can be viewed as part of the this tradition alongside his involvement in the 19th century American metaphysical religious culture, which was itself a response to these challenges of the modern self of modernity. Palmer's development of chiropractic and its philosophy was a reaction to the challenges and promises of modernity.
In this paper the discourse over identity and cultural authority within the profession of chiropractic in the United States has been analyzed using critical discourse analysis. As the profession struggles to construct one singular image, versions of self must be internally debated and also shaped in consideration of larger, external forces. The dilemma of remaining tied to a marginal professional status must be balanced against considerations of integration. Written texts from chiropractic journals and newspapers are analyzed in a multidimensional approach that considers the rhetorical devices and thematic issues of identity construction; the representation of various voices within the discourse (both heard and unheard); and the extent to which external pressures affect the projection of cultural authority for the profession. A heterogeneous discourse characterized by conflict was found, with discrepancies between everyday chiropractors in actual practice versus academic chiropractors and leaders particularly over the idea, practice and significance of science for the profession. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0107 TITLE: Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment for...February 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment for Low Back Pain, Military Readiness and Smoking Cessation in Military Active...Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment (or ACT). the most significant work during the last reporting period was the finalization of the protocol for ACT1
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0107 TITLE: Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment for...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment for Low Back Pain, Military Readiness and Smoking Cessation...the Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment (or ACT). The most significant work during the last reporting period has occurred in the ACT 1 (RCT which is
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0107 TITLE: Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment for...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 February 2013 – 14 February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This study is comprised of three trials, referred to as the Assessment of Chiropractic Treatment (ACT). The
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South... proposed Final Judgment in United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota., Civil Action No... SOUTH DAKOTA SOUTHERN DIVISION UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff, v. CHIROPRACTIC ASSOCIATES, LTD. OF...
Cox, J M; Hazen, L J; Mungovan, M
A computed tomography (CT)-confirmed L5-S1 disk protrusion is reported to be reduced following chiropractic adjustment, as seen on repeat CT scanning. Correlation of the CT reports with the patient's symptoms before and after manipulation is reported. A 38-yr-old female was treated for low back pain and right lower extremity first sacral dermatome sciatica. CT confirmed disk herniations at both the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels were found. Motor weakness of the right gluteus maximus muscle was found and extremely tight hamstring muscles accompanying positive straight leg signs were elicited. A clinical and imaging diagnosis of an L5-S1 disk herniation was made. Distraction type chiropractic manipulation, electrical stimulation, exercises, nutrition advice and low back wellness class were administered with complete relief of sciatic pain and nearly complete relief of low back pain. Chiropractic distraction manipulation is an effective treatment of lumbar disk herniation, if the chiropractor is observant during its administration for patient tolerance to manipulation under distraction and any signs of neurological deficit demanding other types of care.
Ball, Jennette J.; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina L.; Zumpano, Michael P.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the first comprehensive description of gross anatomy course design in chiropractic colleges internationally and to provide baseline data for future investigation, future comparison with other health care professions, and identification of trends. Methods: A 72-question cross-sectional electronic survey was sent to the anatomy department chair at 36 chiropractic colleges internationally using Zoomerang, a web-based survey instrument. To augment the survey response data, public sources of data also were collected. Results: Forty-four percent of the electronic surveys were returned and information was gathered for 31 institutions from public sources. These results indicate (1) the most common degrees held by anatomy faculty were MS and PhD in anatomy, and DC degrees; (2) 75% of institutions utilized human cadavers and 75% presented laboratory anatomical demonstrations; (3) 62% used PowerPoint and 100% provided students with copies of lecture presentations; (4) 88% required attendance in laboratory and 50% in lecture; (5) 69% issued one grade for lecture and laboratory; (6) 100% of laboratory examinations were anatomical identification; and (7) 80% of written examinations were multiple-choice format. Conclusions: While individual variations existed, chiropractic institutions internationally have similar gross anatomy faculty, course design, delivery methods, and assessment methods. PMID:23362365
Seaman, David R.; Soltys, Jonathan R.
Objective The purpose of this commentary is to discuss potential 5 factors within straight chiropractic philosophy and practice that may prevent Medicare compliance. Discussion The national Medicare Benefit Policy Manual and the Florida Local Coverage Determination were reviewed to identify documentation and conceptual issues regarding chiropractic practice. Five Medicare positions were contrasted with tenets of straight chiropractic philosophy. Based on Medicare’s documentation requirements, Medicare defines subluxation and chiropractic practice from the perspective of treating spinal pain and related functional disability. In contrast, traditional straight chiropractic philosophy is not based on the treatment of spinal pain and disability or other symptomatic presentations. In this context, 5 potential areas of conflict are discussed. Conclusion The Medicare version of chiropractic practice is not consistent with traditional straight chiropractic philosophy, which may play a role in preventing Medicare compliance. The chiropractic profession may need to consider the fashion in which “philosophy” as it relates to technique and practice is presented to students and doctors to facilitate compliance with the documentation requirements of Medicare. PMID:25067928
Bowden, Briana S; Ball, Lisa
The purpose of this study was to assess nurse practitioner (NP) and physician assistant (PA) students' views of chiropractic. As the role of these providers progresses in primary care settings, providers' views and knowledge of chiropractic will impact interprofessional collaboration and patient outcomes. Understanding how NP and PA students perceive chiropractic may be beneficial in building integrative health care systems. This descriptive quantitative pilot study utilized a 56-item survey to examine attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of NP and PA students in their 2nd year of graduate studies. Frequencies and binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine responses to survey totals. Ninety-two (97%) students completed the survey. There were conflicting results as to whether participants viewed chiropractic as mainstream or alternative. The majority of participants indicated lack of awareness regarding current scientific evidence for chiropractic and indicated a positive interest in learning more about the profession. Students who reported prior experience with chiropractic had higher attitude-positive responses compared to those without experience. Participants were found to have substantial knowledge deficits in relation to chiropractic treatments and scope of practice. The results of this study emphasize the need for increased integrative initiatives and chiropractic exposure in NP and PA education to enhance future interprofessional collaboration in health care.
Ebrall, Phillip; Draper, Barry; Repka, Adrian
To describe a formal process designed to determine the nature and extent of change that may enhance the depth of student learning in the pre-professional, clinical chiropractic environment. Project teams in the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) School of Health Sciences and the Division of Chiropractic explored questions of clinical assessment in several health care disciplines of the School and the issue of implementing change in a manner that would be embraced by the clinicians who supervise student-learning in the clinical environment. The teams applied to RMIT for grant funding within the Learning and Teaching Investment Fund to support two proposed studies. Both research proposals were fully funded and are in process. The genesis of this work is the discovery that the predominant management plan in the chiropractic teaching clinics is based on diagnostic reductionism. It is felt this is counter-productive to the holistic dimensions of chiropractic practice taught in the classroom and non-supportive of chiropractic's paradigm shift towards wellness. A need is seen to improve processes around student assessment in the contemporary work-integrated learning that is a prime element of learning within the clinical disciplines of the School of Health Sciences, including chiropractic. Any improvements in the manner of clinical assessment within the chiropractic discipline will need to be accompanied by improvement in the training and development of the clinicians responsible for managing the provision of quality patient care by Registered Chiropractic Students.
Background Chiropractic in Australia has seen many changes over the past 30 years. Some of these changes have advanced the professional status of chiropractic, improved undergraduate training and paved the way for a research culture. Unfortunately, other changes or lack of changes, have hindered the growth, public utilisation and professional standing of chiropractic in Australia. This article explores what influences have impacted on the credibility, advancement and public utilisation of chiropractic in Australia. Discussion The 1970's and 1980's saw a dramatic change within the chiropractic profession in Australia. With the advent of government regulation, came government funded teaching institutions, quality research and increased public acceptance and utilisation of chiropractic services. However, since that time the profession appears to have taken a backward step, which in the author's opinion, is directly linked to a shift by sections of the profession to the fundamentalist approach to chiropractic and the vertebral subluxation complex. The abandonment, by some groups, of a scientific and evidenced based approach to practice for one founded on ideological dogma is beginning to take its toll. Summary The future of chiropractic in Australia is at a crossroads. For the profession to move forward it must base its future on science and not ideological dogma. The push by some for it to become a unique and all encompassing alternative system of healthcare is both misguided and irrational. PMID:21599991
Bakkum, Barclay W.; Nolan, Delores Bakkum
Objective The purpose of this article is to relate information about the life of Dr William Ivens and describe the worldwide effort led by him to establish a chiropractic hospital at the Palmer School of Chiropractic. Discussion Dr William Ivens, a colorful politician and chiropractor from Winnipeg, Canada, was the driving force behind the idea of establishing a chiropractic hospital at the Palmer School of Chiropractic in Davenport, IA, during the late 1930s. With the blessings of Dr BJ Palmer, president of the Palmer School of Chiropractic, Dr Ivens led an aggressive, worldwide campaign to raise the funds necessary to establish what was to be called the Fountain Head Chiropractic Hospital. During the tumultuous years of 1937-1942, this campaign successfully raised the target sum of $50 000, thought necessary to create the hospital, but the idea never became a reality. These funds were eventually used to purchase the Clear View Sanitarium, a chiropractic psychiatric facility, in Davenport, IA, in 1952. Conclusion Dr William Ivens stands as a prime example of a relatively small, but dedicated, number of chiropractors during the mid-20th century who not only believed in, but toiled for, the idea of chiropractic care being given in an in-patient setting. PMID:22693476
www.journalchiromed.com Journal of Chiropractic Medicine (2010) 9, 17–21Resolution of low back and radicular pain in a 40-year-old male United States...Navy Petty Officer after collaborative medical and chiropractic care☆ Gregory R. Lillie DC, MS⁎ Chiropractic Physician, Naval Branch Health Clinic...Military personnel; ChiropracticObjective: The aim of this study is to describe the interdisciplinary care, including chiropractic services, in a military
Young, Kenneth J
Over the past 20 years, various authors have addressed the question of the future of chiropractic. Most were positive about the future, with some advocating evidence-based practice and integration with mainstream healthcare, some advocating continued separation with an emphasis on subluxation-based care or the traditional/historical paradigm of chiropractic, and some calling for tolerance and unity. No papers were found specifically inquiring about the future of chiropractic radiology. The study population consisted of all current members of the American Chiropractic College of Radiology (ACCR), estimated at 190 people, known as chiropractic radiologists or Diplomates of the American Chiropractic Board of Radiology (DACBRs). An internet-based, anonymous survey using SurveyMonkey was implemented, supplemented by hard copies distributed at a conference. The main point of interest for this paper is the final item of the overall questionnaire. This item inquired about the future of chiropractic radiology. Thematic analysis was used on the responses, coded in both constructionist and inductive ways to extract both a general outlook and more specific themes. The inductive themes were also assigned secondarily to a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. The overall response rate to the survey was 38% (73/190); within the group of respondents, 71 of 73 (98%) answered the item that is the subject of this paper. Opinions on the outlook for chiropractic radiology in the future were more negative than positive, with 14 respondents giving a positive outlook, 26 negative, and 14 non-committal. 28 respondents advocated integration with the wider healthcare community, 11 recommended emphasising separateness or a focus on working within chiropractic, and 15 did not express an opinion on this issue. Ten strengths were noted, 11 weaknesses, 57 opportunities, and 30 threats. The increasing necessity of demonstrating evidence for diagnostic and therapeutic
Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Hartling, Lisa; Tsuyuki, Ross; Vohra, Sunita
The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate attitudes and opinions of doctors of chiropractic (DCs) specializing in pediatric care toward patient safety. The Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was adapted for providers who use spinal manipulation therapy and sent out to 2 US chiropractic organizations' pediatric council members (n = 400) between February and April 2014. The survey measured 12 patient safety dimensions and included questions on patient safety items and quality issues, information exchange, and overall clinic ratings. Data analyses included a percent composite average and a nonrespondent analysis. The response rate was 29.5% (n = 118). Almost one- third of respondents' patients were pediatric (≤17 years of age). DCs with a pediatric certification were 3 times more likely to respond (P < .001), but little qualitative differences were found in responses. The patient safety dimensions with the highest positive composite percentages were Organizational Learning (both administration and clinical) and Teamwork (>90%). Patient Care Tracking/Follow-up and Work Pressure and Pace were patient safety dimensions that had the lowest positive composite scores (<85%). The responses also indicated that there was concern regarding information exchange with insurance/third-party payors. Two quality issues identified for improvement were (1) updating a patient's medication list and (2) following up on critically abnormal results from a laboratory or imaging test within 1 day. The average overall patient safety rating score indicated that 83% of respondents rated themselves as "very good" or "excellent." Compared with 2014 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality physician referent data from medical offices, pediatric DCs appear to have more positive patient safety attitudes and opinions. Future patient safety studies need to prospectively evaluate safety performance with direct feedback
Senzon, Simon A
The purpose of this commentary is to describe the conflicts in the history of chiropractic's professionalization and conflict through the path of increasing educational standards and accreditation using the lens of developmental structuralism. Within the story of chiropractic's professionalization and accreditation lie the battles between competing worldviews. Gibbons proposed 4 periods of chiropractic's educational history; this article proposes a fifth period along with a new methodological approach to explore the complexity of chiropractic's history. The methodology draws upon constructive developmental psychology and proposes 5 levels of thinking common to the individuals from chiropractic's history. By using a psychological framework to analyze historical events, it appears that the battle within chiropractic education continues at present. Several important issues are explored: the Council on Chiropractic Education's origins in the medical paradigm and rational thinking, the pre-rational, rational, and post-rational critics of the Council on Chiropractic Education, the schools of thought that were reified or emerged from the history, as well as the more recent legal, economic, and social pressures, which helped to shape chiropractic's accreditation and professionalization. A transrational approach, one that includes the partial truths of all perspectives, is a first step to allow for a richer understanding of how the interior worldviews, individual actions, and the exterior forces (legal, economic, political, and educational) brought forth the chiropractic clashes together. Viewing the conflicts within chiropractic from this approach may foster new educational structures to evolve.
Stainsby, Brynne E; Clarke, Michelle C S; Egonia, Jade R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different reported methods used to teach spinal manipulative therapy to chiropractic students. For this best-evidence literature synthesis, 5 electronic databases were searched from 1900 to 2015. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Scientifically admissible studies were synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. Twenty articles were critically appraised, including 9 randomized clinical trials, 9 cohort studies, and 2 systematic reviews/meta-analyses. Eleven articles were accepted as scientifically admissible. The type of teaching method aids included a Thrust in Motion cervical manikin, instrumented cardiopulmonary reanimation manikin, padded contact with a load cell, instrumented treatment table with force sensor/transducer, and Dynadjust instrument. Several different methods exist in the literature for teaching spinal manipulative therapy techniques; however, future research in this developing area of chiropractic education is proposed. It is suggested that various teaching methods be included in the regular curricula of chiropractic colleges to aid in developing manipulation skills, efficiency, and knowledge of performance.
Stainsby, Brynne E.; Clarke, Michelle C.S.; Egonia, Jade R.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different reported methods used to teach spinal manipulative therapy to chiropractic students. Methods: For this best-evidence literature synthesis, 5 electronic databases were searched from 1900 to 2015. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Scientifically admissible studies were synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. Results: Twenty articles were critically appraised, including 9 randomized clinical trials, 9 cohort studies, and 2 systematic reviews/meta-analyses. Eleven articles were accepted as scientifically admissible. The type of teaching method aids included a Thrust in Motion cervical manikin, instrumented cardiopulmonary reanimation manikin, padded contact with a load cell, instrumented treatment table with force sensor/transducer, and Dynadjust instrument. Conclusions: Several different methods exist in the literature for teaching spinal manipulative therapy techniques; however, future research in this developing area of chiropractic education is proposed. It is suggested that various teaching methods be included in the regular curricula of chiropractic colleges to aid in developing manipulation skills, efficiency, and knowledge of performance. PMID:26998630
Spears, Lolita G.
Abstract Objective Primary dysmenorrhea and related issues are discussed as they influence the gynecological and social health of females during adolescence, adulthood, and senior maturity. Health practitioners are exposed to multiple approaches towards the management of menstrual pain. Clinical and social viewpoints target the causation, development, diagnosis, manifestation and management of primary dysmenorrhea. This narrative review includes the topic of the doctor-patient relationship in efforts of cultivating effectively communicative health practitioners. Controversial topics related to primary dysmenorrhea and the quality of life for women are addressed. Data Sources A search for literature reviews, case studies, laboratory research, and clinical trials from 1985–2004 was performed using the MEDLINE database. Sources of additional information included textbooks, national organizational literature and contemporary articles. Discussion Menstrual pain is a prevalent experience yet it is socially taboo for conversation; as such, it poses a hindrance to its management. The communication between the doctor and patient is a critical barrier point between establishing a diagnosis and determining an appropriate treatment plan. A multi-disciple treatment plan varies as much as patients themselves vary in personal experiences, needs, and preferences. Conclusions Medicinal prophylactics, physical therapeutics, non-acidic diets, herbal supplements, eastern therapies and the chiropractic manual adjustments of the spine are effective methods for the management of primary dysmenorrhea. The non-invasive management of primary dysmenorrhea includes the chiropractic adjustment with complimentary modalities, and other alternative health care practices. Medicinal prophylactics are invasive and pose a higher risk to long-term chemical exposure, side effects or irreversible conditions. PMID:19674650
Schrum, Phillip B.; Cohen, George H.
Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.
Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.
Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.
Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Palomeque-del-Cerro, Luis; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Miangolarra-Page, Juan C
Our aim was to report changes in neck pain at rest, active cervical range of motion, and neck pain at end-range of cervical motion after a single thoracic spine manipulation in a case series of patients with mechanical neck pain. Seven patients with mechanical neck pain (2 men, 5 women), 20 to 33 years old, were included. All patients received a single thoracic manipulation by an experienced manipulative therapist. The outcome measures of these cases series were neck pain at rest, as measured by a numerical pain rating scale; active cervical range of motion; and neck pain at the end of each neck motion (eg, flexion or extension). These outcomes were assessed pre treatment, 5 minutes post manipulation, and 48 hours after the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis was made with parametric tests. Within-group effect sizes were calculated using Cohen d coefficients. A significant (P < .001) decrease, with large within-group effect sizes (d > 1), in neck pain at rest were found after the thoracic spinal manipulation. A trend toward an increase in all cervical motions (flexion, extension, right or left lateral flexion, and right or left rotation) and a trend toward a decrease in neck pain at the end of each cervical motion were also found, although differences did not reach the significance (P > .05). Nevertheless, medium to large within-group effect sizes (0.5 < d < 1) were found between preintervention data and both postintervention assessments in both active range of motion and neck pain at the end of each neck motion. The present results demonstrated a clinically significant reduction in pain at rest in subjects with mechanical neck pain immediately and 48 hours following a thoracic manipulation. Although increases in all tested ranges of motion were obtained, none of them reached statistical significance at either posttreatment point. The same was found for pain at the end of range of motion for all tested ranges, with the exception of pain at the end of forward
Misfeld, Martin; Brereton, R John L; Sweetman, Elizabeth A; Doig, Gordon S
Neurologic complications after coronary artery bypass grafting remain a concern. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is a surgical strategy proposed to decrease this risk. Use of an off-pump anaortic technique, which leaves the ascending aorta untouched, may result in further reductions. This systematic review of all published evidence compares neurologic complications after anaortic off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting versus that with aortic manipulation. PubMed and Embase were searched up to August 2008. Experts were contacted, and reference lists of retrieved articles were hand searched. The search process was not limited to English-language sources. Observational studies comparing standard off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting technique with anaortic technique were eligible for inclusion if they reported neurologic complications (stroke and transient ischemic attack). Meta-analysis was conducted to assess differences between groups with regard to neurologic complications. Electronic search identified 1428 abstracts, which resulted in retrieval and detailed review of 331 full-text articles. Eight observational studies reported neurologic complications in 5619 anaortic off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting cases and 5779 cases with aortic manipulation. Postsurgical neurologic complications were significantly lower in anaortic off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting cases (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.72; I(2) = 0.8%; P = .0008). Avoidance of aortic manipulation during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting decreases neurologic complications relative to standard technique in which the ascending aorta is manipulated. In patients at high risk for stroke or transient ischemic attack, we recommend avoidance of aortic manipulation during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, Matthew A; Sirovich, Brenda E; Weeks, William B
To investigate national utilization and expenditures on chiropractic care between 1997 and 2006. The nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We performed descriptive analyses and generated national estimates from data obtained from U.S. adult (>or=18 years) MEPS respondents who reported having visited a chiropractor (annual sample size between 789 and 1,082). For each year, we examined the estimated total national expenditure, the total number of U.S. adults who received chiropractic care, the total number of ambulatory visits to U.S. chiropractors, and the inflation-adjusted charges and expenditures per U.S. adult chiropractic patient. The total number of U.S. adults who visited a chiropractor increased 57 percent from 7.7 million in 2000 to 12.1 million in 2003. From 1997 to 2006, the inflation-adjusted national expenditures on chiropractic care increased 56 percent from U.S.$3.8 billion to U.S.$5.9 billion. Inflation-adjusted total mean expenditures per patient and expenditures per office visit remained unchanged. The large increase in U.S. adult expenditures on chiropractic care between 1997 and 2006 was due to a 57 percent increase in the total number of U.S. adult chiropractic patients that occurred from 2000 to 2003. From 2003 to 2006, the total number of U.S. adult chiropractic patients has remained stable.
Zhang, John; Snyder, Brian J
To study the effects of 4 weeks of low-force chiropractic adjustments on body surface electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Thirty-five chiropractic students randomly assigned into control (17 subjects) and experimental groups (28 subjects). A triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was used for EMF detection. The subjects' body surface EMF was determined in the prone position before and after the chiropractic adjustment. A Toftness low-force chiropractic adjustment was applied to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral areas as determined by the practitioner. Heart rate variability analysis was recorded once a week to determine autonomic nervous system activity in both the control and experimental groups. The EMF on the subjects' body surface decreased after chiropractic adjustment at the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions in all 6 visits during the 4-week treatment period. The EMF showed a downtrend over the 4-week period after the low-force adjustment. The same changes were not observed in the control group. The chiropractic adjustment group had a slight decrease in heart rate over the 4-week treatment period, and no significant change was observed in the control group. Heart rate variability analysis did not show consistent changes before and after the low-force adjustments during the treatment period. Low-force chiropractic adjustment in the cervical and thoracic areas resulted in a consistent reduction of the body surface EMF after 4 weeks of active treatment. No statistically significant differences were found in the heart rate and heart rate variability in the 4-week study.
Kazemi, Mohsen; Pichini, Alessandro; Scappaticci, Steven; Savic, Mitchell
To investigate the degree of knowledge chiropractic fourth year interns and post-graduate chiropractic residents have in regard to concussion diagnosis and management. A survey modified from a study conducted by Boggild and Tator (2012), was administered to fourth year chiropractic interns and post-graduate residents via SurveyMonkey.com. Chiropractic fourth year interns and postgraduate chiropractic specialty college residents scored 5.2 and 5.25 out of 9 respectively, which compares well with Bogglid and Tator's reports on medical students and residents. Several knowledge gaps were identified in the sample population. The results from this survey show that the concussion knowledge among Canadian fourth year chiropractic interns and specialty college residents compares favorably with the knowledge of fourth year medical students and residents in diagnosing and managing concussions. Chiropractors appear to possess the skills and knowledge to diagnose and manage concussion equal to their medical counterparts. However, knowledge gaps regarding concussion diagnosis and management were found among chiropractic students and residents.
The life and contribution to chiropractic science of Dr. Ronald Gitelman is reviewed. Sources for this article included review of the notes prepared by Dr. Joseph Keating in his "biography" of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC); review of the important articles published by Dr. Gitelman; review of the important projects undertaken by him along with various colleagues; notes from reminiscences obtained from many of these colleagues and discussions with his family. Dr. Gitelman's academic career spanned from 1963 to the late 1980's. During that time, he made foundational contributions to the development of chiropractic science including: developing the Archives (1974), the first collection of scientific articles supporting chiropractic science (which was subsequently published as the Chiropractic Archives Research Collection (CRAC)); delivering one of the few chiropractic papers at the seminal NINCDS conference (1975) and, developing the collaboration between CMCC and Dr. Kirkaldy-Willis at the University of Saskatoon (1976). He practiced in Toronto from 1961 to 2007. Dr. Gitelman was a pioneer in the development of chiropractic science. He died on October 7, 2012.
Kazemi, Mohsen; Pichini, Alessandro; Scappaticci, Steven; Savic, Mitchell
Objectives: To investigate the degree of knowledge chiropractic fourth year interns and post-graduate chiropractic residents have in regard to concussion diagnosis and management. Methods: A survey modified from a study conducted by Boggild and Tator (2012), was administered to fourth year chiropractic interns and post-graduate residents via SurveyMonkey.com. Results: Chiropractic fourth year interns and postgraduate chiropractic specialty college residents scored 5.2 and 5.25 out of 9 respectively, which compares well with Bogglid and Tator’s reports on medical students and residents. Several knowledge gaps were identified in the sample population. Conclusion: The results from this survey show that the concussion knowledge among Canadian fourth year chiropractic interns and specialty college residents compares favorably with the knowledge of fourth year medical students and residents in diagnosing and managing concussions. Chiropractors appear to possess the skills and knowledge to diagnose and manage concussion equal to their medical counterparts. However, knowledge gaps regarding concussion diagnosis and management were found among chiropractic students and residents. PMID:28065987
Funk, Matthew F; Lisi, Anthony J
The purpose of this study is to document and describe the policies governing conflict of interest (COI) among select organizations and institutions offering chiropractic continuing education. Surveys were sent to the following: all North American chiropractic colleges; major national chiropractic organizations; and state chiropractic organizations in states with more than 3500 licensed Doctors of Chiropractic. Each organization or institution was surveyed regarding written and verbal COI policies. Half of the respondents in this survey indicated that they had written policies for management of COI, whereas half did not. None included most of the common elements typically outlined in continuing medical education COI policies. Content varied among the policies available for review. Relevant financial interest is the issue most often defined, and respondents generally prohibit presenters from selling products or services directly during presentations. Overall, these results suggest that processes for managing COI in chiropractic CE are less robust than those previously described for continuing medical education. This study provides preliminary insight into the status of COI management in chiropractic CE.
Gleberzon, Brian J.
Introduction: the purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative audit of the jurisprudence and business management courses offered at a number of different accredited chiropractic colleges. Methods: Faculty members responsible for teaching students jurisprudence and/or business management courses at a number of accredited colleges were contacted and asked to electronically submit their course outlines for review. Results: Of the 62 different topics delivered at the 11 chiropractic colleges surveyed, not one topic was taught at all of them. The following topics were taught at 10 of the 11 respondent chiropractic colleges: business plan development; ethics and codes of conduct and; office staff/employees. Several topics were only taught at one accredited chiropractic college. Conclusion: While most chiropractic colleges provide some education in the areas of jurisprudence and business management, it would appear that there is no consensus opinion or ‘model curriculum’ on these topics towards which chiropractic programs may align themselves. Based on a literature search, this study is the first of its kind. A more extensive study is required, as well as a Delphi process to determine what should be taught to chiropractic students with respect to jurisprudence and business management in order to protect the public interest. PMID:20195426
Gleberzon, Brian J
the purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative audit of the jurisprudence and business management courses offered at a number of different accredited chiropractic colleges. Faculty members responsible for teaching students jurisprudence and/or business management courses at a number of accredited colleges were contacted and asked to electronically submit their course outlines for review. Of the 62 different topics delivered at the 11 chiropractic colleges surveyed, not one topic was taught at all of them. The following topics were taught at 10 of the 11 respondent chiropractic colleges: business plan development; ethics and codes of conduct and; office staff/employees. Several topics were only taught at one accredited chiropractic college. While most chiropractic colleges provide some education in the areas of jurisprudence and business management, it would appear that there is no consensus opinion or 'model curriculum' on these topics towards which chiropractic programs may align themselves. Based on a literature search, this study is the first of its kind. A more extensive study is required, as well as a Delphi process to determine what should be taught to chiropractic students with respect to jurisprudence and business management in order to protect the public interest.
Bednarz, Edward M; Lisi, Anthony J
Objective : The purpose of this study is to describe the state of chiropractic continuing education vis-à-vis interprofessional education (IPE) with medical doctors (MD) in a survey of a sample of US doctors of chiropractic (DC) and through a review of policies. Methods : Forty-five chiropractors with experience in interprofessional settings completed an electronic survey of their experiences and perceptions regarding DC-MD IPE in chiropractic continuing education (CE). The licensing bodies of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia were queried to assess the applicability of continuing medical education (CME) to chiropractic relicensure. Results : The majority (89.1%) of survey respondents who attend CE-only events reported that they rarely to never experienced MD-IPE at these activities. Survey respondents commonly attended CME-only events, and 84.5% stated that they commonly to very commonly experienced MD-IPE at these activities. More than half (26 of 51) of the licensing bodies did not provide sufficient information to determine if CME was applicable to DC relicensure. Thirteen jurisdictions (25.5%) do not, and 12 jurisdictions (23.5%) do accept CME credits for chiropractic relicensure. Conclusion : The majority of integrated practice DCs we surveyed reported little to no IPE occurring at CE-only events, yet significant IPE occurring at CME events. However, we found only 23.5% of chiropractic licensing bodies allow CME credit to apply to chiropractic relicensure. These factors may hinder DC-MD IPE in continuing education.
Quon, Jeffrey A; Bishop, Paul B; Arthur, Brian
The aim of this study was to determine if effectiveness differs between community-based doctors of chiropractic administering standardized evidence-based care that includes high-velocity low-amplitude spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for acute low back pain (LBP). A secondary analysis of randomized controlled trial and observational pilot study data was performed with nonrandom allocation to 4 DCs. Patients included those with Quebec Task Force categories less than or equal to 2 and acute LBP of 2 to 4 weeks' duration. The intervention provided was clinical practice guidelines-based care including high-velocity low-amplitude SMT. Primary outcomes included changes from baseline in modified Roland Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) at 24 weeks. Comparisons of simple main effects at 24 weeks and of marginal main effects in repeated-measures analyses were performed. Between groups, adjusted point-specific differences in RDQ change were minimally clinically important but not statistically significant at 24 weeks (largest pairwise difference, -3.1; 95% confidence interval, -6.3 to 0.1; overall P = .10). However, in optimal analyses that considered the repeated nature of the measurements for each outcome, significant differences in marginal mean RDQ changes were found between groups (largest pairwise difference, -3.8; 95% confidence interval, -4.9 to 2.6; overall P = .03). Overall, DCs differed modestly in their effectiveness in improving LBP-specific disability. The point estimates mirrored typically reported effect sizes from recent systematic reviews of SMT; however, confidence limits did not exclude clinically negligible effects. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Keele STarT Back Tool was designed for primary care medical physicians in the UK to determine the risk for persistent disabling pain in patients with musculoskeletal pain and to tailor treatments accordingly. In medical and physical therapy settings, STarT Back Tool's tailored care plans improved patients' low back pain outcomes and lowered costs. Review studies using the STarT Back Tool in chiropractic patient populations. PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and Science Direct databases were searched. Articles written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals, that studied the STarT Back Tool in patients seeking chiropractic care were included. Seven articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STarT Back Tool was feasibly incorporated into 19 chiropractic clinics in Denmark. Total STarT Back 5-item score correlated moderately with total Bournemouth Questionnaire score. Two studies reported that the STarT Back Tool's predictive ability was poor, while another reported that the tool predicted outcomes in patients scoring in the medium and high risk categories who completed the STarT Back 2 days after their initial visit. A study examining Danish chiropractic, medical and physical therapy settings revealed that only baseline episode duration affected STarT Back's prognostic ability across all care settings. The tool predicted pain and disability in chiropractic patients whose episode duration was at least 2 weeks, but not in patients with an episode duration <2 weeks. While the STarT Back Tool can be incorporated into chiropractic settings and correlates with some elements of the Bournemouth Questionnaire, its prognostic ability is sometimes limited by the shorter low back pain episodes with which chiropractic patients often present. It may be a better predictor in patients whose episode duration is at least 2 weeks. Studies examining outcomes of stratified care in chiropractic patients are needed.
Pohlman, Katherine A; Potocki, Eric N; Lawrence, Dana J
The purpose of this study was to conduct a bibliographic analysis and assessment of the literature published in the Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics (JCCP). The content of the 13 existing issues of the JCCP (1996-2007) were assessed. Articles were categorized by type, and information concerning author affiliation, academic/professional background and gender were tabulated. A second-level analysis applied specific criteria checklists to applicable articles to determine the quality rating of each paper. There were 72 articles included in the analysis, of which 46% were case reports, 17% editorials, 13% case series, 10% narrative literature reviews, 10% commentaries, 4% "other," and 1% cross-sectional studies. Seventy-five percent of the authors were "private practitioners." A certification in chiropractic pediatrics was held by 43% of the authors; 65% of the authors were females, and 83% of the articles had a single author. After applying the checklist to specific articles, 13 articles (18%) scored 40% or better (range of 40%-67%), whereas 59 articles (82%) scored less than 40%. The findings of this analysis suggest there is room for improvement in article type and publication quality of papers in the JCCP.
Chapman, Peter D; Stomski, Norman J; Losco, Barrett; Walker, Bruce F
Trivial pain or minor soreness commonly follows neck manipulation and has been estimated at one in three treatments. In addition, rare catastrophic events can occur. Some of these incidents have been ascribed to poor technique where the neck is rotated too far. The aims of this study were to design an instrument to measure competency of neck manipulation in beginning students when using a simulation mannequin, and then examine the suitability of using a simulation mannequin to teach the early psychomotor skills for neck chiropractic manipulative therapy. We developed an initial set of questionnaire items and then used an expert panel to assess an instrument for neck manipulation competency among chiropractic students. The study sample comprised all 41 fourth year 2014 chiropractic students at Murdoch University. Students were randomly allocated into either a usual learning or mannequin group. All participants crossed over to undertake the alternative learning method after four weeks. A chi-square test was used to examine differences between groups in the proportion of students achieving an overall pass mark at baseline, four weeks, and eight weeks. This study was conducted between January and March 2014. We successfully developed an instrument of measurement to assess neck manipulation competency in chiropractic students. We then randomised 41 participants to first undertake either "usual learning" (n = 19) or "mannequin learning" (n = 22) for early neck manipulation training. There were no significant differences between groups in the overall pass rate at baseline (χ(2) = 0.10, p = 0.75), four weeks (χ(2) = 0.40, p = 0.53), and eight weeks (χ(2) = 0.07, p = 0.79). This study demonstrates that the use of a mannequin does not affect the manipulation competency grades of early learning students at short term follow up. Our findings have potentially important safety implications as the results indicate that students could initially
In this paper, the argument will be made that present day “chiropractic philosophy” must be rejected as a professional obstacle. It is an unscientific relic of D.D. Palmer’s personal religious beliefs. A philosophy of chiropractic can only emerge from the application of philosophy of science to our scientific and clinical practices. This new philosophy should incorporate the general healing perspective of the ancient Coan tradition which will be described. This perspective can be made distinctively chiropractic by a synthesis with D.D. Palmer’s principle of Tone. Discussion will focus on how our philosophy can be developed to guide us into the 21st century.
Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire
Social justice in public health involves the process and product of a community acting to fairly distribute advantages and burdens to improve the health of its population and to reasonably take care of the disadvantaged. Although publications are available about chiropractic public health history, programs, and policy, the potential role of chiropractic in social justice has received little attention. This article discusses Beauchamp's 4 principles of social justice and suggests actions that the chiropractic profession may consider to participate in the practice of social justice in the field of public health. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Parrish, Debra; Noonan, Bridget
A growing number of research misconduct cases handled by the Office of Research Integrity involve image manipulations. Manipulations may include simple image enhancements, misrepresenting an image as something different from what it is, and altering specific features of an image. Through a study of specific cases, the misconduct findings associated with image manipulation, detection methods and those likely to identify such manipulations, are discussed. This article explores sanctions imposed against guilty researchers and the factors that resulted in no misconduct finding although relevant images clearly were flawed. Although new detection tools are available for universities and journals to detect questionable images, this article explores why these tools have not been embraced.
Brijlall, D.; Niranjan, C.
Multiple Intelligence Theory suggests that individuals perceive knowledge in eight different ways. This article reports on a study that explored the role of manipulatives in the teaching and learning of trigonometric ratios in grade 10. The approach attempts in addressing three domains of the Multiple Intelligence Theory (linguistic/verbal…
SPAR Aerospace Limited's "Canadarm," Canada's contribution to the space shuttle. It is a crane which can operate as a 50 foot extension of an astronaut's arm. It can lift 65,000 pounds in space and retrieve satellites for repair, etc. Redesigned versions have energy and mining applications. Some of its hardware has been redeveloped for use as a Hydro manipulator in a nuclear reactor where it is expected to be extremely cost effective.
Young, Kenneth J.; Siordia, Lawrence
Objective The purpose of this study was to track the graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC) radiology residency program, review their scholarly productivity, and report those involved in teaching and leadership positions. Methods Former LACC residents’ career information was identified through publicly available electronic documents including Web sites and social media. PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature databases were searched for chiropractic graduate job surveys, and proportional comparisons were made between the career paths of LACC radiology residency graduates and those of non–residency-trained chiropractors. Results Of 47 former LACC residents, 28 (60%) have or previously had careers in tertiary (chiropractic) education; and 12 (26%) have attained a department chair position or higher at tertiary teaching institutions. Twenty-two (47%) have or previously had private radiology practices, whereas 11 (23%) have or previously had clinical chiropractic practices. Often, residency graduates hold or have held 2 of these positions at once; and one, all 3. Chapters or books were authored by 13 (28%). Conclusion Radiology residency LACC graduates are professionally active, particularly in education, and demonstrate scholarly productivity. PMID:23966885
Globe, Gary; Redwood, Daniel; Brantingham, James W; Hawk, Cheryl; Terre, Lisa; Globe, Denise; Mayer, Stephan
Over the past decade, chiropractic colleges have introduced clinical prevention services (CPS) training. This has included an updated public health curriculum and procedures for student interns to determine the need for preventive services and to provide these services directly or through referral to other health professionals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a program to train chiropractic interns to deliver CPS to patients. Program evaluation used retrospective chart review, comparing the proportion of patients receiving CPS recommendations before and after implementation of the program. The main outcome measures were the percentage of appropriate CPS recommendations based upon chart reviews. Chart reviews in 2006 indicated appropriate CPS recommendations in 47.4% of cases (295/623). Chart reviews in 2007, after an additional year of sustained implementation of procedures to ensure intern and faculty accountability, showed appropriate counseling recommendations in 87% of files (137/156). Requiring interns to attend didactic presentations on CPS had no measurable effect on their performance. Major improvements occurred after a series of clinically relevant training interventions; new forms and audit procedures were implemented to increase intern and clinical faculty accountability.
Evans, Marion W; Campbell, Alan; Husbands, Chris; Breshears, Jennell; Ndetan, Harrison; Rupert, Ronald
Vinyl chiropractic tables have been found to harbor pathogenic bacteria, but wiping with a simple disinfection agent can significantly reduce the risk of bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of microbes and other allergens or pathogens on cloth chiropractic tables. Cloth-covered tables in a chiropractic college teaching clinic were selected. Samples were taken from the facial piece and hand rests with RODAC plates containing nutrient agar, followed by confirmatory testing when indicated. Numerous microbacteria strains were found, including Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium. Allergen-producing molds, including Candida, were also found. Cloth tables were shown to contain pathogenic microbacteria and allergens. The chiropractic profession should establish an infection control protocol relevant to treatment tables and discard use of cloth-covered treatment tables in this process.
Evans, Marion W.; Campbell, Alan; Husbands, Chris; Breshears, Jennell; Ndetan, Harrison; Rupert, Ronald
Abstract Objective Vinyl chiropractic tables have been found to harbor pathogenic bacteria, but wiping with a simple disinfection agent can significantly reduce the risk of bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of microbes and other allergens or pathogens on cloth chiropractic tables. Methods Cloth-covered tables in a chiropractic college teaching clinic were selected. Samples were taken from the facial piece and hand rests with RODAC plates containing nutrient agar, followed by confirmatory testing when indicated. Results Numerous microbacteria strains were found, including Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium. Allergen-producing molds, including Candida, were also found. Conclusion Cloth tables were shown to contain pathogenic microbacteria and allergens. The chiropractic profession should establish an infection control protocol relevant to treatment tables and discard use of cloth-covered treatment tables in this process. PMID:19674718
Millar, Neil; Budgell, Brian S.; Kwong, Alice
In this pilot study, a collection of peer-reviewed articles from the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association was analyzed by computer to identify the more commonly occurring words and phrases. The results were compared to a reference collection of general English in order to identify the vocabulary which is distinctive of chiropractic. From texts with a combined word count in excess of 280,000, it was possible to identify almost 2,500 words which were over-represented in the chiropractic literature and therefore likely to hold special importance within this domain. Additionally, readability statistics were calculated and suggest that the peer-reviewed chiropractic literature is approximately as challenging to read as that of nursing, public health and midwifery. Certain words widely considered to be of importance to the profession, for example “subluxation and adjustment,” were not particularly prevalent in the literature surveyed. PMID:21403783
Lorence, Julie; Lawrence, Dana J.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.
Objective: Our purpose was to describe the financial knowledge, habits and attitudes of chiropractic students. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey to measure basic financial knowledge, current financial habits, risk tolerance, and beliefs about future income among 250 students enrolled in business courses at one US chiropractic college. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: We received 57 questionnaires (23% response rate). Most respondents would accumulate over $125,000 in student loan debt by graduation. Financial knowledge was low (mean 77%). Most respondents (72%) scored as average financial risk takers. Chiropractic students reported recommended short-term habits such as having checking accounts (90%) and health insurance (63%) or paying monthly bills (88%) and credit cards (60%). Few saved money for unplanned expenses (39%) or long-term goals (26%), kept written budgets (32%), or had retirement accounts (19%). Conclusion: These chiropractic students demonstrated inadequate financial literacy and did not engage in many recommended financial habits. PMID:24587498
Miners, Andrew L.
A literature search and narrative review was carried out with the intent of determining the current level of knowledge regarding the chiropractic treatment of athletes for the purpose of sport performance enhancement. Of the fifty-nine relevant articles retrieved, only 7 articles of variable quality were obtained which specifically investigated/discussed chiropractic treatment and its involvement in sport performance enhancement. The role of the chiropractor in sport, unsubstantiated claims of performance enhancement, theories of how chiropractic treatment may influence sport performance, and the available evidence for the benefit of chiropractic treatment on sport performance are reviewed and discussed. Areas and directions for future studies are postulated. At this time there is insufficient evidence to convincingly support the notion that treatment provided by chiropractors can directly improve sport performance. PMID:21120012
Meeker, William C.; Watkins, R.W.; Kranz, Karl C.; Munsterman, Scott D.; Johnson, Claire
Objective This report summarizes the closing plenary session of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges Educational Conference—Research Agenda Conference 2014. The purpose of this session was to examine patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations from various speakers’ viewpoints and to discuss how chiropractic could possibly work within, and successfully contribute to, the changing health care environment. Discussion The speakers addressed the complex topic of patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations and provided suggestions for what leadership strategies the chiropractic profession may need to enhance chiropractic participation and contribution to improving our nation’s health. Conclusion There are many factors involved in the complex topic of chiropractic inclusion in health care models. Major themes resulting from this panel included the importance of building relationships with other professionals, demonstrating data and evidence for what is done in chiropractic practice, improving quality of care, improving health of populations, and reducing costs of health care. PMID:25431542
Mattox, Ross; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E; Welk, Aaron B; Kettner, Norman W
The purpose of this case series is to describe the use of diagnostic ultrasound (US) in the detection of occult rib and costal cartilage fractures presenting as chest wall pain to a chiropractic clinic. Three patients presented with chest wall pain and tenderness. Two of the patients presented with acute chest wall injury and 1 carried a previous diagnosis of rib fracture after trivial trauma 2 months earlier. Diagnostic US was selected as a non-ionizing imaging tool for these patients after negative digital radiography studies. All fractures were considered isolated as there was no associated injury, such as pneumothorax. Both of the acute cases were followed up to complete healing (evidence of osseous union) using US. All patients eventually achieved pain-free status. In these cases, US was more sensitive than radiography for diagnosing these cases of acute rib and costal cartilage fractures. Early recognition of rib injury could avoid potential complications from local manipulative therapy.
Johnson, Claire; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Christensen, Mark G; Hyland, John K; Mrozek, John P; Zuker, R Fred; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Perle, Stephen M; Oyelowo, Tolu
The purpose of this article is to provide expert viewpoints on the topic of diversity in the chiropractic profession, including cultural competency, diversity in the profession, educational and clinical practice strategies for addressing diversity, and workforce issues. Over the next decades, changing demographics in North America will alter how the chiropractic profession functions on many levels. As the population increases in diversity, we will need to prepare our workforce to meet the needs of future patients and society.
Wangler, Martin; Zaugg, Beatrice; Faigaux, Eric
The purpose of this survey was to assess the use of and the attitude toward prescribing medication among doctors of chiropractic in 1 of 26 Swiss cantons. A Likert scale electronic questionnaire was sent to licensed doctors of chiropractic of the canton of Berne (n = 47). Percentages, mean values, and standard deviations were calculated. A follow-up survey was used to assess comments from the main survey. A probability value of P < .05 indicated a statistically significant difference. The response rate was 77%. Forty-one percent of the respondents stated that medications are a necessary component of the chiropractic treatment. Although 92% actively prescribe medication at least once a week, this is significantly less than asked for by their patients (P < .01). Seventy-two percent of the doctors of chiropractic rated the present privilege to prescribe nonprescription medications as an advantage for chiropractic care. Fifty-eight percent thought that chiropractic should aim at expanding the options of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, and muscle relaxants that can be prescribed. Ninety-one percent agreed on continuing education in pharmacology. Despite prescribing medication at least once a week, less than half of Bernese doctors of chiropractic perceived medications as a necessary component of their treatment, mainly using them to help patients who cannot sleep because of pain and to speed up recovery. When asked if they would be allowed to prescribe medications of the "B-list," the majority would want structured continuing education. Limited medication prescription was judged as an advantage for the chiropractic profession by this group of survey participants. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Paria Majd; Greiner, Mary V; Duma, Elena M
We report on a 21-day-old infant with healing posterior rib fractures that were noted after a chiropractic visit for colic. Chiropractors are the third largest group of health care professionals in the United States, and colic is the leading complaint for pediatric chiropractic care. Rib fractures, specifically when posterior, are traditionally considered to be secondary to nonaccidental trauma. Thorough investigation is necessary to rule out bone fragility and genetic disorders, but patient history is key when evaluating unexplained fractures.
Yang, Si-Dong; Chen, Qian; Ding, Wen-Yuan
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) resulting from acute lumbar disc herniation due to spinal massage is extremely rare. We present a case of CES caused by the acute worsening of a lumbar disc herniation after a vigorous back massage that included spinal manipulation. After vigorous back massage with spinal manipulation performed by a massage therapist, a 38-yr-old male patient experienced CES with severe numbness in both lower limbs, inability to walk due to weakness of bilateral lower limbs, and incontinence of urine and feces. The magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography scan results showed that the L4-5 disc herniated down into the spinal canal, extensively compressing the ventral dural sac. The patient was successfully treated with an emergency operation including laminectomy, spinal canal decompression, discectomy, interbody fusion, and pedicle screw fixation. The muscle power in both lower limbs of the patient recovered rapidly to support standing only 1 wk later. Moreover, he regained continence of urine and feces. In conclusion, this case brings us novel knowledge that spinal massage or manipulation may worsen pre-existing disc herniation causing CES, and a timely emergency surgery is necessary and effective for treatment of CES-related symptoms.
Kawchuk, Gregory Neil
The McAndrews Leadership Lecture was developed by the American Chiropractic Association to honor the legacy of Jerome F. McAndrews, DC, and George P. McAndrews, JD, and their contributions to the chiropractic profession. This article is an edited and truncated version of the McAndrews Leadership Lecture given by Dr Greg Kawchuk on February 27, 2016, in Washington, DC, at the National Chiropractic Leadership Conference. This was the second McAndrews lecture in this annual series.
Wong, Jessica J.; Di Loreto, Luciano; Kara, Alim; Yu, Kavan; Mattia, Alicia; Soave, David; Weyman, Karen; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah
Objective: To assess second-year medical students’ views on chiropractic. Methods: A three-step triangulation approach was designed, comprising a 53-item survey, nine key informant interviews and one focus group of 8 subjects. ANOVA was used to assess attitude-response survey totals over grouping variables. Constant comparison method and NVivo was used for thematic analysis. Results: 112 medical students completed the survey (50% response rate). Subjects reporting no previous chiropractic experience/exposure or interest in learning about chiropractic were significantly more attitude-negative towards chiropractic. Thematically, medical students viewed chiropractic as an increasingly evidence-based complementary therapy for low back/chronic pain, but based views on indirect sources. Within formal curriculum, they wanted to learn about clinical conditions and benefits/risks related to treatment, as greater understanding was needed for future patient referrals. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of exposure to chiropractic within the formal medical curriculum to help foster future collaboration between these two professions. PMID:23482682
Williams, Shawn P; Zipp, Genevieve P
The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency of burnout among doctors of chiropractic in the United States. Using a nonprobability convenience sampling methodology, we e-mailed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and a sociodemographic questionnaire to a randomized sample of licensed doctors of chiropractic (n = 8000). The survey return rate was 16.06%. Twenty-one percent of the participants had high emotional exhaustion (EE), 8% had low personal accomplishment, and 8% had high depersonalization. Significant differences (P < .001) were found in the level of EE, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment as a function of sex, time dedicated to clinical care and administrative duties, source of reimbursement, the type of practice setting, the nature of practitioners' therapeutic focus, the location of chiropractic college, self-perception of burnout, the effect of suffering from a work-related injury, the varying chiropractic philosophical perspectives, and the public's opinion of chiropractic. Although doctors of chiropractic in the United States who responded to the survey had a relatively low frequency of burnout, higher levels of EE remain workplace issues for this professional group. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G; Parkin-Smith, Gregory F; Nedkoff, Lee; Fisher, Colleen
Practice-based data collection can offer insight into the nature of chiropractic practice and contribute to resolving the conundrum of the chiropractic profession's role in contemporary healthcare, subsequently informing care service policy. However, there is little formal data available about chiropractic practice to inform decision-makers about the nature and role of chiropractic within the context of a modern multidisciplinary healthcare context in Australia, particularly at a local and regional level. This was a mixed-methods data transformation model (qualitative to quantitative) pilot study the purpose of which was to provide a critique of the research design and collect data from a selected sample of chiropractic practices in Western Australia, with a view to offer recommendations related to the design, feasibility and implementation of a future confirmatory study. A narrative critique of the research methods of this pilot study is offered in this paper covering: (a) practice and patient recruitment, (b) enrollment of patients, (c) data collection methods, (d) acceptability of the study methods, (e) sample size calculations, and (f) design critique. The result of this critique provides a sensible sample size estimate and recommendations as to the design and implementation of a future confirmatory study. Furthermore, we believe that a confirmatory study is not only feasible, but indeed necessary, with a view to offer meaningful insight into chiropractic practice in Western Australia. ACTRN12616000434493 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). Registered 5 April 2016. First participant enrolled 01 July 2014, retrospectively registered.
Lehman, James J.; Suozzi, Paul J.; Simmons, George R.; Jegtvig, Shereen K.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine chiropractic patients' perceptions of chiropractors serving as primary care providers and having a limited prescriptive authority. Methods Four doctors of chiropractic in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, NM, participated in surveying their patients during the summer of 2008. The chiropractors distributed the questionnaires consecutively to chiropractic patients. Patients answered questions regarding their perceptions of their chiropractors, use of chiropractic care, and medications for pain. The participating chiropractors collected the completed patient questionnaires and mailed them to the primary investigator. Results The chiropractic providers collected 275 chiropractic patient questionnaires. The number of patient questionnaires collected by each of the 4 participating chiropractors ranged from 35 to 100. The patients primarily sought care for the management and treatment of pain (98.5%), and 57.5% considered that their chiropractors were “primary care providers.” Eighty-five percent preferred that their chiropractor be qualified to prescribe medications and provide hands-on treatment, whereas 97.5% perceived their chiropractors to be chiropractic physicians. Conclusions This small group of chiropractic patients from 4 offices in New Mexico perceived that their doctors of chiropractic were physicians and primary care providers, and 85% preferred that their chiropractor treat patients with limited prescriptive authority when appropriately trained. PMID:22027203
Avrahami, Daniel; Pajaczkowski, Jason A.
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic rehabilitation of a master's-level athlete with proximal femoral stress fracture and provide a brief discussion of stress fracture pathology. Clinical Features A 41-year-old female master's-level endurance athlete presented with chronic groin pain later diagnosed and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging as a stress fracture of the femoral neck. After diagnosis, the patient was referred to a doctor of chiropractic at week 1 of the non–weight-bearing physical rehabilitation process. At that time, the patient presented with sharp and constant groin pain rated 6/10 on a numeric rating scale. Intervention and Outcome This patient avoided weight-bearing activity for 8 weeks while cross-training and was able to return to her sport after this period. The patient was progressed through a series of non–weight-bearing strengthening exercises for the lower extremity. Myofascial release therapy was performed on the gluteal, hip flexor, and groin muscle groups to improve range of motion. Motion palpation testing the lumbar and sacroiliac joints was performed during each session, and manipulative therapy was performed when necessary. The patient was seen once a week for 8 weeks. Reevaluation was performed at week 8; at that time, the patient reported no groin pain (0/10). The patient was discharged from care and referred back to the supervising physician for clearance to return to sporting activities. One month after discharge, she reported that she was pain free and had fully returned to sport activities. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the importance of a through clinical history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging in the accurate diagnosis of a patient with chronic groin pain and that chiropractic care can contribute to rehabilitation programs for these injuries. PMID:23843760
Kirstukas, S J; Backman, J A
To measure the applied loading to human subjects during the reinforced unilateral thoracic manipulation. Biomechanical descriptive study. The National College of Chiropractic Clinical Biomechanical Laboratory in Lombard, Illinois. Seven men, ages 24 to 47, with no positive responses regarding muscle relaxants or thoracic spinal fractures, surgeries, or pain. We measured the contact pressure distribution at the physician-subject contact region and extracted three biomechanical parameters. From the measured time-dependent support force magnitudes, we extracted five additional biomechanical parameters. In the application of the reinforced unilateral manipulative treatment, the physician establishes contact and applies a near-static preload force of 250 to 350 N. The dynamic portion of the typical thrust is preceded by a 22% decrease in force magnitude, and the peak thrust magnitude is linearly related to the preload force magnitude. We estimate that the peak contact pressure beneath the chiropractor's pisiform can exceed 1000 kPa, with the highest pressures transmitted over areas as small as 3.6 cm2, depending on manipulative style. This work represents the first attempt at performing simultaneous measurements of the physician-applied loading and table force response and measuring the contact pressure distribution at the physician-patient contact region during chiropractic manipulation. This type of work will lead to a better understanding of the relationship between the dynamic physician-applied normal forces and the resulting load response at the table and gives us additional outcome parameters to quantify manipulative technique.
Sagrera Ferrándiz, J
Even though many massage techniques are called chiromassage, this term must be used to describe a technique created by its inventor, Dr. Ferrándiz, who based on knowledge from German, Swiss and Oriental techniques, developed his own technique and in order to differentiate it from other techniques, gave it the name chiro-meaning hand-massage; which is to say massage using hands, without the use of any apparatus. Once this clarification has been made, the author analyzes the parts which compose a good chiromassage: 1) preparatory exercises: exploration, initial contact, magnetic sedative passes, etc. 2) kneading: in order to distort and elongate muscle fibers, 3) specific exercises: distinct one for each individual case, and 4) finalizing exercises: vibrations, drumming with one's fingers, venal drainage and magnetic sedative passes.
Lumen, Nicolaas; Hoebeke, Piet; Troyer, Bart De; Ysebaert, Barbara; Oosterlinck, Willem
We retrospectively analyzed cases of anastomotic urethroplasty for posttraumatic urethral strictures that were done at our center. Surgical and functional outcomes were evaluated. The impact of previous urethral manipulations was assessed. Between 1993 and 2006, 61 males were treated with anastomotic urethroplasty because of urethral trauma after pelvic fracture. Mean followup was 67 months (range 19 to 173). In 21 of the 61 cases (34.4%) urethral manipulation had been performed previously (secondary cases) but had failed. All patients were treated via the perineal approach. In 9 patients (14.8%) recurrence was reported. The recurrence rate was higher in patients who underwent former treatment than in primary patients (19% vs 12.5%). Posttraumatic impotence was reported by 20 patients (32.8%) but in 2 erectile function was restored after treatment. One patient had minor stress incontinence. In 2 secondary cases the rectum was injured during the procedure but could be repaired. Anastomotic urethroplasty via the perineal approach is an excellent treatment for posttraumatic urethral stricture. Results are good at long-term followup. Although statistical significance has not been attained, failures and complications seem to be higher in patients who have already undergone failed urethroplasty.
Théroux, Jean; Stomski, Norman; Losco, Christine Dominique; Khadra, Christelle; Labelle, Hubert; Le May, Sylvie
The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials of spinal manipulative therapy for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Search strategies were developed for PubMed, CINHAL, and CENTRAL databases. Studies were included through June 2016 if they were prospective trials that evaluated spinal manipulative therapy (eg, chiropractic, osteopathic, physical therapy) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Data were extracted and assessed by 2 independent reviewers. Cochrane risk of bias tools were used to assess the quality of the included studies. Data were reported qualitatively because heterogeneity prevented statistical pooling. Four studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. The findings of the included studies indicated that spinal manipulative therapy might be effective for preventing curve progression or reducing Cobb angle. However, the lack of controls and small sample sizes precluded robust estimation of the interventions' effect sizes. There is currently insufficient evidence to establish whether spinal manipulative therapy may be beneficial for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The results of the included studies suggest that spinal manipulative therapy may be a promising treatment, but these studies were all at substantial risk of bias. Further high-quality studies are warranted to conclusively determine if spinal manipulative therapy may be effective in the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Senzon, Simon A
The purpose of this article is to explore the postmodern, postrational, and postconventional core of DD Palmer's self-sense and philosophy. DD Palmer's self and philosophy can be viewed as a reaction to the self of modernity and its challenges of a fracture between mind and body, spirit, and nature. It is argued that Palmer's solution to these vexing problems facing the modern self was to use postrational and postconventional logic to overcome the dualisms. His philosophy resonates with similar postrational approaches, most notably, the German idealist Schelling. It is argued that Palmer was one of the first postrational individuals in America and that chiropractic was an attempt at the first postrational health profession.
Senzon, Simon A.
Objective The purpose of this article is to explore the postmodern, postrational, and postconventional core of DD Palmer's self-sense and philosophy. Discussion DD Palmer's self and philosophy can be viewed as a reaction to the self of modernity and its challenges of a fracture between mind and body, spirit, and nature. It is argued that Palmer's solution to these vexing problems facing the modern self was to use postrational and postconventional logic to overcome the dualisms. His philosophy resonates with similar postrational approaches, most notably, the German idealist Schelling. Conclusion It is argued that Palmer was one of the first postrational individuals in America and that chiropractic was an attempt at the first postrational health profession. PMID:22693480
Bröder, Arndt; Malejka, Simone
The experimental manipulation of response biases in recognition-memory tests is an important means for testing recognition models and for estimating their parameters. The textbook manipulations for binary-response formats either vary the payoff scheme or the base rate of targets in the recognition test, with the latter being the more frequently applied procedure. However, some published studies reverted to implying different base rates by instruction rather than actually changing them. Aside from unnecessarily deceiving participants, this procedure may lead to cognitive conflicts that prompt response strategies unknown to the experimenter. To test our objection, implied base rates were compared to actual base rates in a recognition experiment followed by a post-experimental interview to assess participants' response strategies. The behavioural data show that recognition-memory performance was estimated to be lower in the implied base-rate condition. The interview data demonstrate that participants used various second-order response strategies that jeopardise the interpretability of the recognition data. We thus advice researchers against substituting actual base rates with implied base rates.
Kenya, Amilliah W.; Hart, John F.; Vuyiya, Charles K.
Objective: This study compared National Board of Chiropractic Examiners part I test scores between students who did and did not serve as tutors on the subject matter. Methods: Students who had a prior grade point average of 3.45 or above on a 4.0 scale just before taking part I of the board exams were eligible to participate. A 2-sample t-test was used to ascertain the difference in the mean scores on part I between the tutor group (n = 28) and nontutor (n = 29) group. Results: Scores were higher in all subjects for the tutor group compared to the nontutor group and the differences were statistically significant (p < .01) with large effect sizes. Conclusion: The tutors in this study performed better on part I of the board examination compared to nontutors, suggesting that tutoring results in an academic benefit for tutors themselves. PMID:26998665
Holt, Kelly R; Noone, Paul L; Short, Krystal; Elley, C Raina; Haavik, Heidi
The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fall risk factors in older chiropractic patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients and to see whether a history of falling was related to quality-of-life status. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 12 chiropractic practices throughout Auckland, New Zealand, and Melbourne, Australia. The study involved gaining a profile of health status, fall history, and fall risk from active chiropractic patients who were 65 years or older. One hundred ten older chiropractic patients were approached, and 101 agreed to participate in this study (response rate, 91.8%). Thirty-five percent of participants had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months. Of those that had fallen, 80% had at least a minor injury, with 37% of fallers requiring medical attention and 6% suffering a serious injury. The prevalence of most fall risk factors was consistent with published data for community-dwelling older adults. Quality of life of older chiropractic patients appeared to be good, but fallers reported a lower physical component summary score compared with nonfallers (P = .04). A portion of the older chiropractic patients sampled in this study had a substantial risk of falling. This risk could be assessed on a regular basis for the presence of modifiable fall risk factors, and appropriate advice, given when fall risks are identified. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gordon, Judith S; Istvan, Joseph; Haas, Mitchell
There is a sizeable and growing body of empirical literature on the effects of physician advice to quit smoking. Because of the association between tobacco use and the health problems that may provoke referral to chiropractic care, doctors of chiropractic (DCs) may be able to give patients personalized proximal health feedback that may motivate them to quit. However, DCs have not been utilized in this role. The primary aim of this study was to design and refine a brief office-based tobacco intervention for use within chiropractic settings. This study was conducted in 20 private chiropractic practices in 2 phases: (a) intervention development, in which we created and focus tested practitioner and patient materials, and (b) feasibility, in which we evaluated the impact of the intervention on 210 tobacco-using chiropractic patients. Analyses were conducted on 156 patients who exclusively smoked cigarettes. Using an intent-to-treat approach, assuming all nonresponders to be smokers, 13 (8.3%) reported 7-day abstinence at 6 weeks, 22 (14.1%) at the 6-month follow-up, and 35 (22.4%) at the 12-month assessment. Eleven participants (7.1%) reported prolonged abstinence at the 6-month follow-up, and 15 (9.6%) reported prolonged abstinence at 12 months. To our knowledge, this is the first study to refine a brief office-based treatment for tobacco dependence for use in chiropractic settings. The results of this study were promising and will lead to a randomized clinical trial. If found to be effective, this model could be disseminated to chiropractic practitioners throughout the United States.
Salvatori, Renata; Rowe, Robert H; Osborne, Raine; Beneciuk, Jason M
Case report. Thoracic spine thrust manipulation has been shown to be an effective intervention for individuals experiencing mechanical neck pain. The patient was a 46-year-old woman referred to outpatient physical therapy 2 months following multiple-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. At initial evaluation, primary symptoms consisted of frequent headaches, neck pain, intermittent referred right elbow pain, and muscle fatigue localized to the right cervical and upper thoracic spine regions. Initial examination findings included decreased passive joint mobility of the thoracic spine, limited cervical range of motion, and limited right shoulder strength. Outcome measures consisted of the numeric pain rating scale, the Neck Disability Index, and the global rating of change scale. Treatment consisted of a combination of manual therapy techniques aimed at the thoracic spine, therapeutic exercises for the upper quarter, and patient education, including a home exercise program, over a 6-week episode of care. Immediate reductions in cervical-region pain (mean ± SD, 2.0 ± 1.1) and headache (2.0 ± 1.3) intensity were reported every treatment session immediately following thoracic spine thrust manipulation. At discharge, the patient reported 0/10 cervical pain and headache symptoms during all work-related activities. From initial assessment to discharge, Neck Disability Index scores improved from 46% to 16%, with an associated global rating of change scale score of +7 ("a very great deal better"). This case report describes the immediate and short-term clinical outcomes for a patient presenting with symptoms of neck pain and headache following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgical intervention. Clinical rationale and patient preference aided the decision to incorporate thoracic spine thrust manipulation as a treatment for this patient. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4.
Stainsby, Brynne E; Porr, Jason T C; Kim, Peter; Collinge, Ashley M; Hunter, Julie C
The purpose of this study was to investigate if Canadian doctors of chiropractic consider using wellness strategies after functional recovery in acute and chronic conditions. This study also attempted to determine if there is a difference in the use of wellness management strategies between broad and narrow scope practitioners. Forty-one practicing, licensed chiropractors were recruited to complete an interview survey regarding 2 mock clinical case presentations. Interviews were recorded, and influential words or word pairings were identified. Investigators formulated criteria to divide practitioners into broad scope (mixers) and narrow scope (straights). Data were analyzed using Crawdad Analysis Software (version 1.2). All subjects indicated that they would provide information regarding public health and wellness strategies to a patient after functional resolution of the presenting chronic or acute complaints. The responses of broad scope (mixer) chiropractors appeared to be focused on the patient specifically, whereas narrow scope (straight) responses appeared to be more varied when analyzed for noun and noun-pair influence. This study of practicing, licensed Canadian chiropractors suggests that wellness strategies may be commonly considered in practice. All subjects in this study reported a number of strategies to educate patients regarding wellness after functional recovery of a complaint. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sociological studies of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) occupations have documented the professionalisation strategies these groups use to establish boundaries between themselves and their competitors, including seeking educational accreditation and statutory regulation/licensure. Chiropractic has been particularly successful at professionalising and in Australia and the UK it is taught within public universities. Recent events have threatened chiropractic's university foothold, however, showing that professionalisation needs to be understood as an ongoing process of negotiation. Based on interviews with chiropractors in Australia and the UK, this paper examines the professionalisation strategies deployed by chiropractors within and outside of the university. Highly divergent strategies are identified across different sectors of the profession, relating to defining the chiropractic paradigm, directing education and constructing professional identity. In each domain, chiropractic academics tended to prioritise building the evidence base and becoming more aligned with medicine and other allied health professions. Although some practitioners supported this agenda, others strove to preserve chiropractic's vitalistic philosophy and professional distinction. Following Bourdieu, these intra-professional struggles are interpreted as occurring within a field in which chiropractors compete for different forms of capital, pulled by two opposing poles. The differing orientations and strategies pursued at the two poles of the field point to a number of possible futures for this CAM profession, including a potential split within the profession itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Todd, Angela J; Carroll, Matthew T; Mitchell, Eleanor K L
The purpose of this study is to review the available literature that describes forces of the most commonly used chiropractic techniques for children. Review of the English-language literature using search terms Chiropract* and technique, protocol, or approach in databases PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine, and Index to Chiropractic Literature and direct contact with authors of articles and book chapters. Eleven articles that discussed the 7 most commonly used pediatric chiropractic techniques and the forces applied were identified. Chiropractic techniques reviewed described forces that were modified based on the age of the patient. Force data for mechanically assisted devices were varied, with the minimum force settings for some devices outside the age-specific safe range recommended in the literature when not modified in some way. This review found that technique selection and application by chiropractors treating infants and young children are typically modified in force and speed to suit the age and development of the child. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kindermann, Sylvia L; Hou, Qingjiang; Miller, Ross M
To compare the influence of employer-sponsored, on-site chiropractic care against community-obtained care on health care utilization. This was a retrospective claims analysis of members of a single employee health plan receiving chiropractic care on-site or off-site from 2010 to 2012. Utilization differences were evaluated by having 1 health care event or more, including radiology or clinical visits. There were 876 on-site and 759 off-site participants. The off-site group received more radiology services overall (55.5% vs 38.2%; P < 0.001) including magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and radiograph (all P < 0.0001); had higher outpatient (P < 0.0001) and emergency department (P = 0.022) utilization; and demonstrated greater use of chiropractic care and physical therapy (both P < 0.0001). Compared with off-site care, on-site chiropractic services are associated with lower health care utilization. These results support the value of chiropractic services offered at on-site health centers.
Goto, Viviane; Frange, Cristina; Andersen, Monica L; Júnior, José M S; Tufik, Sergio; Hachul, Helena
Insomnia is a frequent postmenopausal symptom and may be due to hormonal changes, depressive states related to this period of life, hot flashes or nocturia. Chiropractic care has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of these symptoms. The aim of this study was to review chiropractic interventions in postmenopausal women as a possible management approach to menopausal symptoms and insomnia. A PubMed search was conducted by cross-referencing the key words insomnia, sleep, and menopause with chiropractic. The search used an end date of January 2014 and retrieved 17 articles. Three articles were eligible for the study. All epidemiological data from large surveys demonstrated a lack of evidence for chiropractic intervention as a complementary and alternative therapeutic method in the management of menopausal symptoms and insomnia. There is no evidence for the effectiveness of chiropractic intervention as a complementary and alternative therapy for menopausal symptoms and insomnia. Further studies with proper methodological designs are warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Hecimovich, Mark D.; Volet, Simone E.
Purpose: One important objective of chiropractic education is to foster student professional confidence and competence in patient communication and clinical skills. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the extant literature on this topic, stressing the significance of building students' confidence for effective practice and the need for more research in this area. Methods: The authors reviewed MEDLINE and ERIC from 1980 through 2008 using several key words pertinent to confidence and health care. Three distinct, but interrelated, bodies of literature were assessed, including professional confidence in health care research, the nature and development of confidence in educational psychology research, and fostering professional confidence in chiropractic education. Results: It was apparent through the review that chiropractic education has developed educational methods and opportunities that may help develop and build student confidence in patient communication and clinical skills. However, there has not been sufficient research to provide empirical evidence of the impact. Conclusion: Fostering chiropractic students' development of confidence in what they say and do is of paramount importance not only to them as new practitioners but more importantly to the patient. There is no doubt that a better understanding of how confidence can be developed and consolidated during tertiary study should be a major goal of chiropractic education PMID:19826543
Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.; Lisi, Anthony J.; Tucker, John
Objective To summarize scholarly literature that describes practice, utilization, and/or policy of chiropractic services within international active duty and/or veteran health care environments. Data Sources PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched from their starting dates through June 2009. Review Methods All authors independently reviewed each of the articles to verify that each met the inclusion criteria. Citations of included papers and other pertinent findings were logged in a summary table. Results Thirteen articles were included in this study. Integration of chiropractic care into military or veteran health care systems has been described in 3 systems: the United States Department of Defense, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Canadian Forces. Conclusion Chiropractic services seem to be included successfully within military and veteran health care facilities. However, there is a great need for additional written evaluation of the processes, policies, practices, and effectiveness of chiropractic services in these environments. PMID:19714234
Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark
Objective The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ2 test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p < .001) and received a significantly greater mean VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods. PMID:24350945
As exhibited throughout the medical literature over many decades, there is a lack of uniformity in the manner in which spine pain patients have historically qualified for and received manipulation under anesthesia (MUA). Also, for different professions that treat the same types of spinal conditions via the same means, fundamental MUA decision points vary within the published protocols of different professional associations. The more recent chiropractic literature communicates that the evidence to support the efficacy of MUA of the spine remains largely anecdotal. In addition, it has been reported that the types of spinal conditions most suitable for MUA are without clear-cut consensus, with various indications for MUA of the low back resting wholly upon the opinions and experiences of MUA practitioners. This article will provide a narrative review of the MUA literature, followed by a commentary about the current lack of high quality research evidence, the anecdotal and consensus basis of existing clinical protocols, as well as related professional, ethical and legal concerns for the chiropractic practitioner. The limitations of the current medical literature related to MUA via conscious/deep sedation need to be recognized and used as a guide to clinical experience when giving consideration to this procedure. More research, in the form of controlled clinical trials, must be undertaken if this procedure is to remain a potential treatment option for chronic spine pain patients in the chiropractic clinical practice. PMID:23672974
Branson, Richard A
The purpose of this article is to describe a model of chiropractic integration developed over a 10-year period within a private hospital system in Minnesota. Needs were assessed by surveying attitudes and behaviors related to chiropractic and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of physicians associated with the hospital. Analyzing referral and utilization patterns assessed chiropractic integration into the hospital system. One hundred five surveys were returned after 2 mailings for a response rate of 74%. Seventy-four percent of respondents supported integration of CAM into the hospital system, although 45% supported the primary care physician as the gatekeeper for CAM use. From 2006 to 2008, there were 8294 unique new patients in the chiropractic program. Primary care providers (medical doctors and physician assistants) were the most common referral source, followed by self-referred patients, sports medicine physicians, and orthopedic physicians. Overall examination of the program identified that facilitators of chiropractic integration were (1) growth in interest in CAM, (2) establishing relationships with key administrators and providers, (3) use of evidence-based practice, (4) adequate physical space, and (5) creation of an integrated spine care program. Barriers were (1) lack of understanding of chiropractic professional identity by certain providers and (2) certain financial aspects of third-party payment for chiropractic. This article describes the process of integrating chiropractic into one of the largest private hospital systems in Minnesota from a business and professional perspective and the results achieved once chiropractic was integrated into the system. This study identified key factors that facilitated integration of services and demonstrates that chiropractic care can be successfully integrated within a hospital system.
Shin, Chul-ho; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Gi Duck
[Purpose] This study examined spinal shape in professional golfers with chronic back pain, and analyzed the effects of a 4-week regimen of semi-weekly manipulation and corrective core exercises on spinal shape. [Subjects] Two golfers with chronic back pain. [Methods] The pelvis and spinal vertebrae were corrected using the Thompson “drop” technique. Angle and force were adjusted to place the pelvis, lumbar spine, and thoracic vertebrae in neutral position. The technique was applied twice weekly after muscle massage in the back and pelvic areas. The golfers performed corrective, warmup stretching exercises, followed by squats on an unstable surface using the Togu ball. They then used a gym ball for repetitions of hip rotation, upper trunk extension, sit-ups, and pelvic anterior-posterior, pelvic left-right, and trunk flexion-extension exercises. The session ended with cycling as a cool-down exercise. Each session lasted 60 minutes. [Results] The difference in height was measured on the left and right sides of the pelvic bone. The pelvic tilt changed significantly in both participants after the 4-week program. [Conclusion] In golfers, core muscles are critical and are closely related to spinal deformation. Core strengthening and spinal correction play a pivotal role in the correction of spinal deformation. PMID:26504350
Gleberzon, Brian; Lameris, Marlee; Schmidt, Catherine; Ogrady, Jillian
The Palmers espoused anti-vaccination opinions in the early part of the 20(th) century, rejecting the germ theory of disease in favor of a worldview that a subluxation-free spine, achieved by spinal adjustments, would result in an unfettered innate intelligence; this, along with other healthful lifestyle choices, would allow a person to thwart disease by marshaling the body's natural recuperative abilities. Some chiropractors continue to staunchly champion the Palmer postulates, while others do not. At the national level, advocacy organizations publish conflicting position statements. We explore how this divisiveness has impacted chiropractic ideology, perceptions among students and practitioners, politics and issues of jurisprudence as reflected by the evolution of a standard of chiropractic practice in at least one Canadian province (Ontario). We opine that the chiropractic profession should champion a health promotion and disease prevention approach to vaccination, which would allow it to align itself with the broader healthcare community while not abandoning its traditional tenets.
Krause, Curt A; Kaspin, Lisa; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M
Chiropractic care offered at an on-site health center could reduce the economic and clinical burden of musculoskeletal conditions. A retrospective claims analysis and clinical evaluation were performed to assess the influence of on-site chiropractic services on health care utilization and outcomes. Patients treated off-site were significantly more likely to have physical therapy (P < 0.0001) and outpatient visits (P < 0.0001). In addition, the average total number of health care visits, radiology procedures, and musculoskeletal medication use per patient with each event were significantly higher for the off-site group (all P < 0.0001). Last, headache, neck pain, and low back pain-functional status improved significantly (all P < 0.0001). These results suggest that chiropractic services offered at on-site health centers may promote lower utilization of certain health care services, while improving musculoskeletal function.
Vuskovic, Marko I.
Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.
Pierce, Todd P; Issa, Kimona; Festa, Anthony; Scillia, Anthony J; McInerney, Vincent K; Mont, Michael A
Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) can help patients regain an adequate range of motion (ROM) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although there are studies reporting that MUA can assist in improving ROM, there is a paucity of studies regarding whether requiring an MUA is associated with an increased risk of revision. The purpose of this study was to assess the: (1) incidence of revision TKA and (2) outcomes of those undergoing MUA and compare it with a matched cohort who did not require MUA. A prospectively collected database of two high-volume institutions was assessed for patients who required a single MUA following TKA between 2005 and 2011. We found a total of 138 knees with a mean 8.5-year follow-up post-MUA. We compared this with a matched cohort (1:1) who underwent TKA during this same time period but did not require an MUA. Incidence of revision surgery and clinical outcomes were compared between the two cohorts. Within the MUA cohort, nine knees underwent revision, which was similar to the matched cohort that had seven revisions (93 vs. 95%; p = 0.6). The mean KSS-functional (88 vs. 90 points; p = 0.15) and clinical scores (87 vs. 89 points; p = 0.1) were similar between the two cohorts. Undergoing an MUA was not associated with an increased risk of revision TKA. If patients require MUA, they may still achieve satisfactory outcomes. This information can be used in educating patients so they may be able to formulate their expectations following their MUA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Murphy, Donald R; Schneider, Michael J; Seaman, David R; Perle, Stephen M; Nelson, Craig F
Background The chiropractic profession has succeeded to remain in existence for over 110 years despite the fact that many other professions which had their start at around the same time as chiropractic have disappeared. Despite chiropractic's longevity, the profession has not succeeded in establishing cultural authority and respect within mainstream society, and its market share is dwindling. In the meantime, the podiatric medical profession, during approximately the same time period, has been far more successful in developing itself into a respected profession that is well integrated into mainstream health care and society. Objective To present a perspective on the current state of the chiropractic profession and to make recommendations as to how the profession can look to the podiatric medical profession as a model for how a non-allopathic healthcare profession can establish mainstream integration and cultural authority. Discussion There are several key areas in which the podiatric medical profession has succeeded and in which the chiropractic profession has not. The authors contend that it is in these key areas that changes must be made in order for our profession to overcome its shrinking market share and its present low status amongst healthcare professions. These areas include public health, education, identity and professionalism. Conclusion The chiropractic profession has great promise in terms of its potential contribution to society and the potential for its members to realize the benefits that come from being involved in a mainstream, respected and highly utilized professional group. However, there are several changes that must be made within the profession if it is going to fulfill this promise. Several lessons can be learned from the podiatric medical profession in this effort. PMID:18759966
Zhang, John; Snyder, Brian J; Vernor, Lori
The purpose of this study was to investigate the body surface electromagnetic field (EMF) changes using a sensitive magnetometer before and after a specific Toftness chiropractic adjustment in asymptomatic human subjects. Forty-four subjects were randomly assigned into control (20 subjects) and experimental groups (24 subjects) in a pre and post-test design. The Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer FGM-5DTAA (Walker Scientific, Worcester, Massachusetts) with five digit display and resolution of 1 nanotesla (nT) was used for EMF detection. The EMF in the research room and on the adjustment table was monitored and recorded. The subjects' body surface (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral areas) EMF was determined in the prone position before and after the chiropractic adjustment. A low force Toftness chiropractic adjustment was applied to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral areas as determined by the practitioner. The EMF in the research room was recorded as 41611 nT at the Z axis (earth field), 13761 nT at the X axis and 7438 nT at the Y axis. The EMF on the adjusting table changed minimally during the 15 minute observation period. The EMF on the subjects' body surface decreased at 4 spinal locations after chiropractic adjustment. The EMF (mean +/- SD in nT) decreased significantly at the cervical region from 42449 +/- 907 to 41643 +/- 1165 (p < 0.01) and at the sacral regions from 43206 +/- 760 to 42713 +/- 552 (p < 0.01). The EMF at the lumbar and thoracic regions decreased but did not reach a statistically significant level. No significant changes of the body surface EMF were found in the control group. A low force Toftness chiropractic adjustment in the cervical and sacral areas resulted in a significant reduction of the cervical and sacral surface EMF. No significant body surface EMF changes were observed in the lumbar and thoracic regions. The mechanisms of the EMF reduction after chiropractic adjustment are not known.
Leach, Robert A; Cossman, Ronald E; Yates, Joyce M
The purpose of this study was to determine the familiarity with and stated advocacy of Healthy People 2010 objectives by member doctors of the Mississippi Chiropractic Association. Peer experts established face validity of a questionnaire regarding the Leading Health Indicators. This survey was distributed to 157 Mississippi Chiropractic Association members in 2009 during a conference and a follow-up by postal mail. Most doctors of chiropractic in the sample (n = 68, or 43% response) consider themselves wellness-oriented health care providers. Forty-two percent had read, 29% had not read, and another 29% were unsure whether they had read the Healthy People 2010 national objectives. Almost half (44%) strongly or somewhat agreed that their office practice reflects support for the Healthy People 2010 objective. In contrast, 27% disagree and 29% were unsure if their practice reflects the Healthy People 2010 objectives. There were differences between support and practice behaviors for some of the objectives. Chiropractors who have read the objectives tend to be more supportive of the national goals. Doctors of chiropractic in this sample are supportive of most Leading Health Indicators, and the majority reports that they incorporate these public health goals into their practices. Familiarity with reading the Health People objectives seems to be related to reported practice behaviors. There is a need to improve the percentage of practicing doctors of chiropractic who are familiar with Healthy People objectives. Future health education initiatives may assist doctors of chiropractic in further incorporating public health objectives into their practice behaviors and improving quality health care. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Walker, Bruce F; Losco, Barrett; Clarke, Brenton R; Hebert, Jeff; French, Simon; Stomski, Norman J
Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR
Williams, Shawn; Zipp, Genevieve P; Cahill, Terrence; Parasher, Raju K
The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of burnout among doctors of chiropractic (DCs) in the New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania geographical region and compare these results with burnout data from other health care professions. This exploratory study applied cross-sectional data collection methods. Using nonprobability convenience sampling, a New York-New Jersey-Pennsylvania chiropractic governance body provided contact information of a randomized sample of licensed DCs from their membership directory. Participants included any DC licensed to practice chiropractic whose primary occupation encompassed the chiropractic profession. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and a demographic questionnaire were e-mailed to a randomized sample of licensed DCs. Of the 772 surveys deployed, 90 returned the survey with usable data. Nearly 40% of the DCs reported a moderate (24%) or high (18%) level of emotional exhaustion, whereas the majority of respondents scored a high (72%) level of personal accomplishment. In total, only 2 participants (2%) met the criteria for high burnout, whereas 42 participants (47%) were low. Statistically significant relationships (P < .001) were found between burnout subscales and the effect of time dedicated to administrative duties, the type of practice setting, the varying chiropractic philosophical perspectives, the public's opinion of chiropractic, and the effect of suffering from a work-related injury. When compared with data from previously published studies using the MBI-HSS for other health professions (ie, medical, nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and dentistry), the values for DCs were significantly lower. The sample of DCs in this study fared more favorably on all 3 dimensions of burnout. They reported lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores and higher personal accomplishment scores than their medical, nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and
Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand
Garner, Michael J; Aker, Peter; Balon, Jeff; Birmingham, Michael; Moher, David; Keenan, Dirk; Manga, Pran
This study was part of a larger demonstration project integrating chiropractic care into publicly funded Canadian community health centers. This pre/post study investigated the effectiveness of chiropractic care in reducing pain and disability as well as improving general health status in a unique population of urban, low-income, and multiethnic patients with musculoskeletal (MSK) complaints. All patients who presented to one of two community health center-based chiropractic clinics with MSK complaints between August 2004 and December 2005 were recruited to participate in this study. Outcomes were assessed by a general health measure (Short Form-12), a pain scale (VAS), and site-specific disability indexes (Roland-Morris Questionnaire and Neck Disability Index), which were administered before and after a 12-week treatment period. Three hundred twenty-four patients with MSK conditions were recruited into the study, and 259 (80.0%) of them were followed to the study's conclusion. Clinically important and statistically significant positive changes were observed for all outcomes (Short Form-12: physical composite score mean change = 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.8-6.0; VAS: current pain mean change = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.9-2.6; Neck Disability Index: mean change = 6.8, 95% CI = 5.4-8.1; Roland-Morris Questionnaire: mean change = 4.3, 95% CI = 3.6-5.1). No adverse events were reported. Patients of low socioeconomic status face barriers to accessing chiropractic services. This study suggests that chiropractic care reduces pain and disability as well as improves general health status in patients with MSK conditions. Further studies using a more robust methodology are needed to investigate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of introducing chiropractic care into publicly funded health care facilities.
Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N R
Objective : We assessed the level of students' test anxiety, and the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Methods : We recruited 166 third-quarter students. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was administered to all participants. Total scores from written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were used as response variables. Results : Multiple regression analysis shows that there was a modest, but statistically significant negative correlation between TAI scores and written exam scores, but not OSCE scores. Worry and emotionality were the best predictive models for written exam scores. Mean total anxiety and emotionality scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, but not worry scores. Conclusion : Moderate-to-high test anxiety was observed in 85% of the chiropractic students examined. However, total test anxiety, as measured by the TAI score, was a very weak predictive model for written exam performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that replacing total anxiety (TAI) with worry and emotionality (TAI subscales) produces a much more effective predictive model of written exam performance. Sex, age, highest current academic degree, and ethnicity contributed little additional predictive power in either regression model. Moreover, TAI scores were not found to be statistically significant predictors of physical exam skill performance, as measured by OSCEs.
Konrad, Thomas R; Fletcher, Grant S; Carey, Timothy S
Despite the fact that chiropractic physicians (DCs) are growing in number and legitimacy in the community of health care professionals, little recent research describes how their relationships with medical doctors (MDs) affect their job and career perceptions. This study explores interprofessional relations by identifying factors associated with variations in how DCs evaluate their interaction with MDs. It also adapts a previously validated multifaceted measure of MD job satisfaction for use with DCs. Cross-sectional survey of 311 DC physicians in North Carolina. The hypothesized multifaceted nature of DC job satisfaction was confirmed. Four distinct job facets and global career satisfaction were measured effectively in DCs. DCs' career satisfaction is related to satisfaction with compensation, intrinsic motivation of relating to patients, and having positive relationships with DC colleagues. DCs report referring patients to MDs more often than they report MDs referring patients to them. Satisfaction with relationships between DCs and MDs is relatively low and is strongly linked to the quantity of referrals from MDs and the perception that MDs practice collaboratively with DCs. However, DCs' global career satisfaction is unrelated to their relationships with MDs. Global career satisfaction of DCs is relatively high and unaffected by the low level of satisfaction DCs report having with their relationships with MDs. These findings suggest that despite increasing interaction and interdependence, DCs' relationship with MDs is of minor importance in their professional self-image.
Meyer, Anne-Laure; Meyer, Amanda; Etherington, Sarah; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Functional Neurology (FN), a seemingly attractive treatment approach used by some chiropractors, proposes to have an effect on a multitude of conditions but some of its concepts are controversial. A scoping review was performed to describe, in the context of chiropractic manual therapy, 1) the FN theories, and 2) its clinical applications (i.e. its indications, examination procedures, treatment modalities, treatment plans, and clinical outcomes) using four sources: i) one key textbook, ii) the scientific peer-reviewed literature, iii) websites from chiropractors using FN, and iv) semi-structured interviews of chiropractors using FN. The scientific literature was searched in PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus, completed by a hand search in the journal Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics (November 2016 and March 2017, respectively). The only textbook on the topic we found was included and articles were chosen if they had an element of manual therapy. There was no restriction for study design but discussion papers were excluded. Websites were found in Google using the search term "Functional Neurology". Chiropractors, known to use FN, were invited based on their geographical location. Theories were mainly uncovered in the textbook as were all aspects of the clinical applications except treatment plans. The other three sources were used for the five aspects of clinical applications. Results were summarized and reported extensively in tables. Eleven articles were included, five websites scrutinized, and four semi-structured interviews performed. FN is based on the belief that reversible lesions in the nervous system are the cause of a multitude of conditions and that specific clusters of neurons can be positively affected by manipulative therapy, but also by many other stimuli. Diagnostic procedures include both conventional and unusual tests, with an interpretation specific to FN. Initial treatment is intense and clinical outcomes reported as positive
The purpose of this case series was to describe the short-term and long-term clinical effects of a manual technique for treating osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain. This study measured of the immediate effect and long-term effect by using a case series of different groups of subjects. Knee OA and activity restriction in patients were evaluated by using the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) Grading Scale and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) index. In the intervention, lower limb muscles were squeezed by hand for 20 seconds. Each squeeze was performed for both lower limbs. Passive range-of-motion (ROM) exercise was performed on the knee joint. In one set of cases, immediate effects were measured after a one-time treatment with pretreatment and posttreatment outcome measures. Eleven people with knee OA participated in the study. On a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, muscle stiffness, and muscular hemodynamics for estimation of muscle blood flow were recorded before and after the squeeze-hold treatment. In another set of cases, the treatment was given to all patients once a week for 6 months, and long-term effects were measured. Data on 5 subjects with knee OA were collected for 6 months after initial treatment. The VAS for pain and JKOM were recorded every month for 6 months. For immediate effects, the VAS was 69 ± 21 mm before treatment and 26 ± 22 mm after treatment. Muscle stiffness was 8.8 ± 3.6 (absolute number) before treatment and 3.5 ± 2.1 after treatment. Tissue (muscle) oxygen saturation was 60.1 ± 5.7% before treatment and 65.3 ± 4.8% after treatment. Total hemoglobin was 24.3 ± 3.3 (absolute number) before treatment and 25 ± 2.3 after treatment. A tendency for reduction in OA knee pain and muscle stiffness was observed, and a tendency for increase was observed in the blood flow in the muscle. For long-term effects in all 5 participants (any K/L grade, any JKOM score), OA knee pain and JKOM score improved gradually through 6 months. The
Page, Stacey A
Chiropractic's success as a health care profession is evidenced in part by the rising number of practitioners. Paradoxically, this success may start to cost the profession, as the number of consumers may not be increasing proportionally. Fewer patients mean less income for practitioners. Some chiropractors are responding to these pressures by marketing health products, and services. To describe the extent to which Alberta chiropractors with websites sold health products and the extent to which fee discounts/service inducements were advertised. To consider these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics. Chiropractic websites in the province of Alberta were identified using the online Telus Business Finder and cross-referenced with the Yellow Pages print directories. The websites were searched and an inventory of the health products for sale was recorded. Fee discounts and service inducements were also recorded. 56 websites were identified and reviewed. Just under two-thirds of the chiropractic websites surveyed contained information on health products for sale. Orthotics were sold most often (N = 29 practices; 51.8%), followed by pillows and supports (N = 15: 26.8%), vitamins/nutritional supplements (N = 15; 26.8%) and exercise/rehabilitation products (N = 10; 17.9%). Nine practices (16.1%) offered some type of inducement to potential customers. These included discounts on treatment packages (N = 2; 3.6%), free gait/ posture analyses (N = 2; 3.6%) and free general consultations with the chiropractors (N = 3; 5.4%) The marketing of health care products and services by chiropractors in Alberta is common. Such practices raise ethical considerations for the profession. Professional guidelines vary on the acceptability of these practices. Consumer and practitioner perspectives and practices regarding retailing need to be further examined.
Eberhart, Catherine A; Martel, Stacie S
The purpose of this study is to determine attitudes of doctors of chiropractic regarding the importance of staff training in specific skill areas to inform the curriculum management process of a chiropractic technology program. A survey was distributed to registrants of a chiropractic homecoming event. On a 5-point Likert scale, respondents were asked to rate the degree of importance that staff members be trained in specific skills. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test differences between groups based on years in practice and level of staff training. Doctors place a high level of importance on oral communication skills and low importance on nutrition and physical examinations. Comparing groups based on years in practice revealed differences in the areas of passive physiotherapies (F = 3.61, p = .015), legal issues/regulations (F = 3.01, p = .032), occupational safety and health regulation (F = 4.27, p = .006), and marketing (F = 2.67, p = .049). Comparing groups based on level of staff training revealed differences in the areas of occupational safety and health regulations (F = 4.56, p = .005) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (F = 4.91, p = .003). With regard to their assistants, doctors of chiropractic tend to place high importance on office skills requiring effective communication and place less importance on clinical skills such as physical examinations and physiotherapy.
Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.
Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…
A study at one institution found significant correlations between students' scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners test and academic achievement data. Results indicate that it is not always course subject matter that influences the relationship between course grade and board scores, but may instead be the ability to assimilate…
Duray, Stephen M.; Mekow, Craig L.
Chiropractic and medical colleges have experienced a significant increase in the number of female applicants in recent years, a percentage of whom are pregnant or become pregnant following admission. It is therefore important to ask the question: How do institutions that educate future health care providers address the issue of pregnancy and the…
Waigandt, Alex; And Others
A survey was conducted to determine the patient's perception of treatment received from clinicians at the Texas Chiropractic College Clinic in Pasadena, Texas. A questionnaire designed to assess various aspects of the school's clinical and dispensary services was administered to 79 patients who had completed their treatment prescriptions. The…
Meyer, Amanda J.; Stomski, Norman J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Armson, Anthony J.
Ubiquitous smartphone ownership and reduced face-to-face teaching time may lead to students making greater use of mobile technologies in their learning. This is the first study to report on the prevalence of mobile gross anatomy software applications (apps) usage in pre-clinical chiropractic students and to ascertain if a relationship exists…
Brown, Douglas M.
This paper profiles Dr. Lyman Johnston and his contributions in the field of chiropractic research. Postural concepts, diagnostic instruments, therapeutic devices and treatment protocols are reviewed. Set out and briefly discussed are the Posturometer, Pyramidal Man, anterior-posterior gravity line, Postural Spinal Index, tension master, Spine Power Belt and the Mini-Gym. ImagesFigure 1
Keating, Joseph C
John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38
Michalowski, Martin; Wilk, Szymon; Tan, Xing; Michalowski, Wojtek
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) implement evidence-based medicine designed to help generate a therapy for a patient suffering from a single disease. When applied to a comorbid patient, the concurrent combination of treatment steps from multiple CPGs is susceptible to adverse interactions in the resulting combined therapy (i.e., a therapy established according to all considered CPGs). This inability to concurrently apply CPGs has been shown to be one of the key shortcomings of CPG uptake in a clinical setting1. Several research efforts are underway to address this issue such as the K4CARE2 and GuideLine INteraction Detection Assistant (GLINDA)3 projects and our previous research on applying constraint logic programming to developing a consistent combined therapy for a comorbid patient4. However, there is no generalized framework for mitigation that effectively captures general characteristics of the problem while handling nuances such as time and ordering requirements imposed by specific CPGs. In this paper we propose a first-order logic-based (FOL) approach for developing a generalized framework of mitigation. This approach uses a meta-algorithm and entailment properties to mitigate (i.e., identify and address) adverse interactions introduced by concurrently applied CPGs. We use an illustrative case study of a patient suffering from type 2 diabetes being treated for an onset of severe rheumatoid arthritis to show the expressiveness and robustness of our proposed FOL-based approach, and we discuss its appropriateness as the basis for the generalized theory.
Blanchette, Marc-André; Rivard, Michèle; Dionne, Clermont E; Cassidy, J David
The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of Canadian doctors of chiropractic (DCs) associated with the number of patients referred by medical doctors (MDs). Secondary data analyses were performed on the 2011 cross-sectional survey of the Canadian Chiropractic Resources Databank. The Canadian Chiropractic Resources Databank survey included 81 questions about the practice of DCs. Of the 6533 mailed questionnaires, 2529 (38.7%) were returned and 489 did not meet our inclusion criteria. Our analyzed sample included 2040 respondents. Bivariate analyses were conducted between predetermined potential predictors and the annual number of patients referred by MDs, and negative binomial multivariate regression was performed. On average, DCs reported receiving 15.6 (standard deviation, 31.3) patient referrals from MDs per year and nearly one-third did not receive any. The type of clinic (multidisciplinary with MD), the province of practice (Atlantic provinces), the number of treatments provided per week, the number of practicing hours, rehabilitation and sports injuries as the main sector of activity, prescription of exercises, use of heat packs and ultrasound, and the percentage of patients referred to other health care providers were associated with a higher number of MD referrals to DCs. The percentage of patients with somatovisceral conditions, using a particular chiropractic technique (hole in one and Thompson), taking his/her own radiographs, being the client of a chiropractic management service, and considering maintenance/wellness care as a main sector of activity were associated with fewer MD referrals. Canadian DCs who interacted with other health care workers and who focus their practice on musculoskeletal conditions reported more referrals from MDs. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Sara Dawn; Beran, Tanya N
The purpose of this study was to describe the current scope of practice of chiropractic radiologists by identifying frequent tasks conducted as well as those conditions most often seen and those that present the greatest risk of harm to patients. A mixed-methods approach was used. An online survey was conducted with 91 diplomates listed with the American Chiropractic Board of Radiology. Participants rated the frequency of tasks they perform and conditions they see on a 5-point scale from "never" to "daily." They also rated the level of risk each condition presents to patients on a 5-point scale from "no risk" to "severe risk." Frequency and risk ratings were then presented in rank order to 22 subject matter experts at 3 focus groups. The most frequent task reported was writing radiology reports (mean [SD], 4.29 [1.58]). Ratings of the frequency of conditions seen in practice and the risk they present to patients were ranked from the highest to lowest for frequency and risk separately. The most frequent conditions seen were reportedly those with structural or joint derangement; the highest risk conditions seen are those that are systemic. Focus group members recommended that some conditions receive higher rankings and that certain conditions be recategorized for future practice analyses. This study helps to define the current scope of practice of chiropractic radiologists and identify frequent tasks and conditions. These results inform the development of a new test outline for Part I of the chiropractic radiology certification examination to ensure that examinees are tested on the most important conditions chiropractic radiologists see in practice. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of chiropractic practice laws in the United States. This survey is an update and expansion of 3 original surveys conducted in 1987, 1992, and 1998. A cross-sectional survey of licensure officials from the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards e-mail list was conducted in 2011 requesting information about chiropractic practice laws and 97 diagnostic, evaluation, and management procedures. To evaluate content validity, the survey was distributed in draft form at the fall 2010 Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards regional meeting to regulatory board members and feedback was requested. Comments were reviewed and incorporated into the final survey. A duplicate question was imbedded in the survey to test reliability. Partial or complete responses were received from 96% (n = 51) of the jurisdictions in the United States. The states with the highest number of services that could be performed were Missouri (n = 92), New Mexico (n = 91), Kansas (n = 89), Utah (n = 89), Oklahoma (n = 88), Illinois (n = 87), and Alabama (n = 86). The states with the highest number of services that cannot be performed are New Hampshire (n = 49), Hawaii (n = 47), Michigan (n = 42), New Jersey (n = 39), Mississippi (n = 39), and Texas (n = 30). The scope of chiropractic practice in the United States has a high degree of variability. Scope of practice is dynamic, and gray areas are subject to interpretation by ever-changing board members. Although statutes may not address specific procedures, upon challenge, there may be a possibility of sanctions depending on interpretation. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article provides a brief review of the history and origins of the Journal of Chiropractic Humanities. The reason for starting the journal, its purpose, and a timeline from 1991 to 2009 are offered. PMID:22693460
Blanchette, Marc-André; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Borges Da Silva, Roxane; Boruff, Jill; Harrison, Pamela; Bussières, André
Background Context Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and among the most common reasons for seeking primary sector care. Chiropractors, physical therapists and general practitioners are among those providers that treat LBP patients, but there is only limited evidence regarding the effectiveness and economic evaluation of care offered by these provider groups. Purpose To estimate the clinical effectiveness and to systematically review the literature of full economic evaluation of chiropractic care compared to other commonly used care approaches among adult patients with non-specific LBP. Study Design Systematic reviews of interventions and economic evaluations. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was conducted to identify 1) pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and/or 2) full economic evaluations of chiropractic care for low back pain compared to standard care delivered by other healthcare providers. Studies published between 1990 and 4th June 2015 were considered. Primary outcomes included pain, functional status and global improvement. Study selection, critical quality appraisal and data extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers. Data from RCTs with low risk of bias were included in a meta-analysis to determine effect estimates. Cost estimates of full economic evaluations were converted to 2015 USD and results summarized using Slavin’s qualitative best-evidence synthesis. Results Six RCTs and three full economic evaluations were scientifically admissible. Five RCTs with low risk of bias compared chiropractic care to exercise therapy (n = 1), physical therapy (n = 3) and medical care (n = 1). Overall, we found similar effects for chiropractic care and the other types of care and no reports of serious adverse events. Three low to high quality full economic evaluations studies (one cost-effectiveness, one cost-minimization and one cost-benefit) compared chiropractic to medical care. Given the divergent
Humphreys, B Kim; Peterson, Cynthia K
In 2007, chiropractic became 1 of the 5 medical professions in Switzerland. This required a new chiropractic program that was fully integrated within a Swiss medical school. The purpose of this article was to discuss the Master in Chiropractic Medicine (MChiroMed) program at the University of Zürich, including advantages, opportunities, and challenges. In 2008, the MChiroMed program began with its first student cohort. The MChiroMed program is a 6-year Bologna model 2-cycle (bachelor and master) "spiral curriculum," with the first 4 years being fully integrated within the medical curriculum. A review of the main features of the curriculum revealed the advantages, opportunities, and challenges of this program in comparison with other contemporary chiropractic educational programs. Advantages and opportunities include an integrated curriculum within a university, medical school, and musculoskeletal hospital, with their associated human and physical resources. Many opportunities exist for high-level research collaborations. The rigorous entrance qualifications and small student cohorts result in bright, motivated, and enthusiastic students; appropriate assessments; and timely feedback on academic and clinical subjects. Early patient contact in hospitals and clinical facilities encourages the integration of academic theory and clinical practice. The main challenges faced by this program include difficulty recruiting a sufficient number of students because of the rigorous entrance requirements and curriculum overload resulting from undertaking a full medical curriculum and chiropractic modules. The MChiroMed program is a unique chiropractic curriculum that integrates medical and chiropractic education within a spiral curriculum at a world-class Swiss university medical school. The expectation is that graduates, with their expanded diagnostic and therapeutic knowledge, skills, and experience, will become future experts in primary spine care in Switzerland. It is hoped
Goyal, Kanu; Goyal, Manu; Narkeesh, Kanimozhi; John Samuel, Asir; Sharma, Sorabh; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Arumugam, Narkeesh
Abnormal uterine bleeding is characterized by painful and/or excessive menorrhea, chronic pelvic pain due to the endometriosis (Em). Osteopathic treatment is commonly used in the gynecological dysfunctions. The aim of the present case study was to explore the effect of osteopathic treatment (OT) for a woman with abnormal uterine bleeding related pain and quality of life (QoL). We reported a case of 29 year old female who presented with chief complaints of increased flow during periods, lower abdominal pain, leukorrhoea, lower back pain and with occasional constipation for the last 3 years. Patient is a mother of 6 years old male child born with normal delivery. On diagnostic ultrasonography the uterus was found bulky with insignificant endometriosis and no other abnormality was detected. She did not have any relevant past medical and surgical history. The pre and post osteopathic treatment measurements were measured using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the health related quality of life (HR-QoL) questionnaire called short form Endometriosis Health Profile Questionnaire (EHP) - 5. In the present case the pain due to the endometriosis was treated with the osteopathic treatment consists of all the major diaphragms' release (release of pelvic diaphragm, abdominal diaphragm, thoracic outlet release and hyoid diaphragm) during the first session and in the second session gastro-esophageal (GE) junction release, sigmoid colon release, cranial therapy to the occiput, sacral release and dural tube rocking. Following that improvement of pain from VAS 8.3/10 to 3.9/10 and QoL improvement from EHP-5, 72/100 to 26/100 was noted. Osteopathic manipulative approach (OMA) in the patient with Em might improve the abnormal uterine bleeding related pain and health related quality of life (HR-QoL). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Senzon, Simon A.
Objective The purpose of this commentary is to describe the conflicts in the history of chiropractic’s professionalization and conflict through the path of increasing educational standards and accreditation using the lens of developmental structuralism. Discussion Within the story of chiropractic’s professionalization and accreditation lie the battles between competing worldviews. Gibbons proposed 4 periods of chiropractic’s educational history; this article proposes a fifth period along with a new methodological approach to explore the complexity of chiropractic’s history. The methodology draws upon constructive developmental psychology and proposes 5 levels of thinking common to the individuals from chiropractic’s history. By using a psychological framework to analyze historical events, it appears that the battle within chiropractic education continues at present. Several important issues are explored: the Council on Chiropractic Education's origins in the medical paradigm and rational thinking, the pre-rational, rational, and post-rational critics of the Council on Chiropractic Education, the schools of thought that were reified or emerged from the history, as well as the more recent legal, economic, and social pressures, which helped to shape chiropractic's accreditation and professionalization. Conclusion A transrational approach, one that includes the partial truths of all perspectives, is a first step to allow for a richer understanding of how the interior worldviews, individual actions, and the exterior forces (legal, economic, political, and educational) brought forth the chiropractic clashes together. Viewing the conflicts within chiropractic from this approach may foster new educational structures to evolve. PMID:25431541
Moreau, William J; Nabhan, Dustin C; Roecker, Christopher; Kimura, Melissa Nagare; Klein, Andrew; Guimard, Brett; Pierce, Kevin; Helma, Patrick; Nelson, Robert; Bahr, Kelly Shockley; Nelson, Laney; Williams, Perry
The purpose of this paper is to present a position statement of best practices for the provision of a safe and high-quality pre-participation examination (PPE) and to provide recommendations on education requirements for doctors of chiropractic providing the PPE. In 2014, the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians (ACBSP) Board of Directors identified a need to review and update the ACBSP position statements and practice guidelines in order to be current with evolving best practices. Twelve ACBSP certificants, 10 Diplomates of the ACBSP, and 2 Certified Chiropractic Sports Physicians, met in April 2015 to author a pre-participation position statement using an expert consensus process. Panel members excluded anyone with commercial conflicts of interest and included individuals with expertise in clinical sports medicine and the performance of PPEs. A literature review was performed and circulated in advance for use by the panel in addressing the topic. The position statement was written through a consensus process and accepted by the ACBSP Board of Directors in May of 2015. The ACBSP Position Statement on Pre-participation Examinations identifies the qualifications and best practices for doctors of chiropractic to perform a PPE. This position statement states that doctors of chiropractic with post graduate education and current Diplomates of the ACBSP or Certified Chiropractic Sports Physicians certification have the prerequisite education and qualifying skills to perform PPEs.
Moreau, William J.; Nabhan, Dustin C.; Roecker, Christopher; Kimura, Melissa Nagare; Klein, Andrew; Guimard, Brett; Pierce, Kevin; Helma, Patrick; Nelson, Robert; Bahr, Kelly Shockley; Nelson, Laney; Williams, Perry
Objective The purpose of this paper is to present a position statement of best practices for the provision of a safe and high-quality pre-participation examination (PPE) and to provide recommendations on education requirements for doctors of chiropractic providing the PPE. Methods In 2014, the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians (ACBSP) Board of Directors identified a need to review and update the ACBSP position statements and practice guidelines in order to be current with evolving best practices. Twelve ACBSP certificants, 10 Diplomates of the ACBSP, and 2 Certified Chiropractic Sports Physicians, met in April 2015 to author a pre-participation position statement using an expert consensus process. Panel members excluded anyone with commercial conflicts of interest and included individuals with expertise in clinical sports medicine and the performance of PPEs. A literature review was performed and circulated in advance for use by the panel in addressing the topic. The position statement was written through a consensus process and accepted by the ACBSP Board of Directors in May of 2015. Results The ACBSP Position Statement on Pre-participation Examinations identifies the qualifications and best practices for doctors of chiropractic to perform a PPE. Conclusion This position statement states that doctors of chiropractic with post graduate education and current Diplomates of the ACBSP or Certified Chiropractic Sports Physicians certification have the prerequisite education and qualifying skills to perform PPEs. PMID:26778931
Ward, John S.; Coats, Jesse; Sorrels, Kenneth; Walters, Mathew; Williams, Trevor
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of engaging in a series of larger studies measuring the effect of sacroiliac joint manipulation on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology. Methods Twelve college students engaged in a baseline 90-second gait analysis at 1.5 mph using infrared VICON cameras. Following this, they underwent a prone heel comparison test for functional leg length inequality. Upon examination, participants were then classified as follows: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Participants in each of the 2 short leg branches of this study were then randomized to receive either chiropractic manipulative therapy to the posterior superior iliac spine on the short limb side or no manipulation. Recruitment was ongoing for this pilot study until 1 participant was recruited in each of the following 5 comparative study groups: left short leg—manipulation, left short leg—no manipulation (control 1), right short leg—manipulation, right short leg—no manipulation (control 2), and no short leg (control 3). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Data were then grouped and submitted to a blinded biomechanist to determine if there were any unique biomechanical differences between the groups. Results No statistically significant differences were measured because of this being a pilot study with a small sample size. Conclusions The data from this study indicate that a series of larger studies with this design is feasible. PMID:24396314
Deschenes, Beth K; Zafereo, Jason
Patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) may present with accompanying symptoms of hyperalgesia, allodynia, heaviness in the arm, and non-segmental pain that do not appear to be related to a peripheral spinal nerve. These findings may suggest the presence of central or autonomic nervous system involvement, requiring a modified management approach. The purpose of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with signs of CR and upper extremity (UE) hyperalgesia who had a significant decrease in her UE pain and hypersensitivity after a single thoracic spine manipulation (TSM). A 48-year-old female presented to physical therapy with acute neck pain radiating into her left UE that significantly limited her ability to sleep and work. After a single TSM, the patient demonstrated immediate and lasting reduction in hyperalgesia, hypersensitivity to touch, elimination of perceived heaviness and coldness in her left UE, and improved strength in the C6-8 myotome, allowing for improved functional activity capacity and tolerance to a multi-modal PT program. Based on these results, clinicians should consider the early application of TSM in patients with CR who have atypical, widespread, or severe neurological symptoms that limit early mobilization and tolerance to treatment at the painful region.
allowing it to interpret online kinesthetic data, addressing two objectives: • Grasp classification: Distinguish between successful and unsuccessful...determining the grasp outcome before the grasping process is complete, by using the entire time series or kinesthetic signature of the grasping process. As...the grasp proceeds and additional kinesthetic data accumulates, the confidence also increases. In some cases Manipulation Capabilities with Simple Hands
... Library Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library What is Osteopathic Medicine? Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Page Content Nearly every day, medical science unveils new discoveries from brain scans to anti- ...
Abstract Objective To describe a case report of the use of 3 treatment methods for treatment of cervical radiculitis; manual intermittent traction, instrumental chiropractic spinal manipulation, and interferential therapy. Clinical Features A 54-year-old man experienced neck and left arm pain with positive orthopedic tests indicating cervical spinal nerve root involvement; he was diagnosed with cervical radiculitis Intervention and Outcome The patient received 10 treatments over a period of 8 weeks. Instrumental spinal manipulation, manual intermittent traction, and interferential therapy were integrated as a treatment plan for the patient. The patient's condition appeared to resolve. Outcome measures were evaluated at baseline, weeks 3, 5, and 8. Neck Disability Index scores were 32%, 14%, 8%, and 4% respectively, and the Visual Analog Scales were 8.5/10, 2.0/10, 1.0/10, and 0.5/10. The symptoms of cervical radiculitis was resolved in an 8 week period after 10 treatments. Conclusion The integration of instrumental spinal manipulation, manual intermittent traction, and interferential may work well together for patients with similar signs and symptoms as presented in this case. PMID:19674652
Zhang, John; Snyder, Brian J; Vernor, Lori
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the body surface electromagnetic field (EMF) changes using a sensitive magnetometer before and after a specific Toftness chiropractic adjustment in asymptomatic human subjects. Method Forty-four subjects were randomly assigned into control (20 subjects) and experimental groups (24 subjects) in a pre and post-test design. The Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer FGM-5DTAA (Walker Scientific, Worcester, Massachusetts) with five digit display and resolution of 1 nanotesla (nT) was used for EMF detection. The EMF in the research room and on the adjustment table was monitored and recorded. The subjects’ body surface (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral areas) EMF was determined in the prone position before and after the chiropractic adjustment. A low force Toftness chiropractic adjustment was applied to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral areas as determined by the practitioner. Results The EMF in the research room was recorded as 41611 nT at the Z axis (earth field), 13761 nT at the X axis and 7438 nT at the Y axis. The EMF on the adjusting table changed minimally during the 15 minute observation period. The EMF on the subjects’ body surface decreased at 4 spinal locations after chiropractic adjustment. The EMF (mean ± SD in nT) decreased significantly at the cervical region from 42449 ± 907 to 41643 ± 1165 (p < 0.01) and at the sacral regions from 43206 ± 760 to 42713 ± 552 (p < 0.01). The EMF at the lumbar and thoracic regions decreased but did not reach a statistically significant level. No significant changes of the body surface EMF were found in the control group. Conclusion A low force Toftness chiropractic adjustment in the cervical and sacral areas resulted in a significant reduction of the cervical and sacral surface EMF. No significant body surface EMF changes were observed in the lumbar and thoracic regions. The mechanisms of the EMF reduction after chiropractic adjustment are not known. PMID
de Zoete, Annemarie; Ostelo, Raymond; Knol, Dirk L; Algra, Paul R; Wilmink, Jan T; van Tulder, Maurits W
A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in 2 sessions. It is important to know whether it is possible to accurately detect "specific findings" on lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) images and whether the results of different observers are comparable. Health care providers frequently use magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic process of patients with low back pain. The use of MR scans is increasing. This leads to an increase in costs and to an increase in risk of inaccurately labeling patients with an anatomical diagnosis that might not be the actual cause of symptoms. A set of 300 blinded MR images was read by medical radiologists, chiropractors, and chiropractic radiologists in 2 sessions. Each assessor read 100 scans in round 1 and 50 scans in round 2. The reference test was an expert panel.For all analyses, the magnetic resonance imaging findings were dichotomized into "specific findings" or "no specific findings." For the agreement, percentage agreement and κ values were calculated and for validity, sensitivity, and specificity. Sensitivity analysis was done for classifications A and B (prevalence of 31% and 57%, respectively). The intraobserver κ values for chiropractors, chiropractic radiologists, and medical radiologists were 0.46, 0.49, and 0.69 for A and 0.55, 0.75, and 0.64 for B, respectively.The interobserver κ values were lowest for chiropractors (0.28 for A, 0.37 for B) and highest for chiropractic radiologists (0.50 for A, 0.49 for B).The sensitivities of the medical radiologists, chiropractors, and chiropractic radiologists were 0.62, 0.71, and 0.75 for A and 0.70, 0.74, 0.84 for B, respectively.The specificities of medical radiologists, chiropractic radiologists, and chiropractors were 0.82, 0.77, and 0.70 for A and 0.74, 0.52, and 0.61 for B, respectively. Agreement and validity of MR image readings of chiropractors and chiropractic and medical radiologists is modest at best. This study supports recommendations in
Charity, Melanie J; Britt, Helena C; Walker, Bruce F; Gunn, Jane M; Forsdike-Young, Kirsty; Polus, Barbara I; French, Simon D
COAST (Chiropractic Observational and Analysis STudy) reported the clinical practices of chiropractors. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the chiropractic patient demographic and health characteristics; 2) describe patient-stated reasons for visiting a chiropractor; 3) describe chiropractic patient lifestyle characteristics; 4) compare, where possible, chiropractic patient characteristics to the general Australian population. Fifty-two chiropractors in Victoria, Australia, provided information for up to 100 consecutive encounters. If patients attended more than once during the 100 encounters, only data from their first encounter were included in this study. Where possible patient characteristics were compared with the general Australian population. Data were collected from December 2010 to September 2012. Data were provided for 4464 encounters, representing 3287 unique individuals. The majority of chiropractic encounters were for musculoskeletal conditions or for wellness/maintenance. The majority of patient comorbidities were musculoskeletal, circulatory or endocrine/metabolic in nature. Eight hundred chiropractic patients (57 %, 95 % CI: 53-61) described their self-reported health as excellent or very good and 138 patients (10 %, 95 % CI: 8-12) as fair or poor. Seventy-one percent of adult male patients (18 years and older), and 53 % of adult female patients, were overweight or obese. Fourteen percent (n = 188, 95 % CI: 12-16) were current smokers and 27 % (n = 359, 95 % CI: 24-31) did not meet Australian alcohol consumption guidelines. Less than half of the chiropractic patients participated in vigorous exercise at least twice per week. Approximately 20 % ate one serving of vegetables or less each day, and approximately 50 % ate one serve of fruit or less each day. Compared to the general Australian population, chiropractic patients were less likely to smoke, less likely to be obese and more likely to describe their health in positive terms
Page, Stacey A.
Background Chiropractic’s success as a health care profession is evidenced in part by the rising number of practitioners. Paradoxically, this success may start to cost the profession, as the number of consumers may not be increasing proportionally. Fewer patients mean less income for practitioners. Some chiropractors are responding to these pressures by marketing health products, and services Objectives To describe the extent to which Alberta chiropractors with websites sold health products and the extent to which fee discounts/service inducements were advertised. To consider these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics. Methods Chiropractic websites in the province of Alberta were identified using the online Telus Business Finder and cross-referenced with the Yellow Pages print directories. The websites were searched and an inventory of the health products for sale was recorded. Fee discounts and service inducements were also recorded. Results 56 websites were identified and reviewed. Just under two-thirds of the chiropractic websites surveyed contained information on health products for sale. Orthotics were sold most often (N = 29 practices; 51.8%), followed by pillows and supports (N = 15: 26.8%), vitamins/nutritional supplements (N = 15; 26.8%) and exercise/rehabilitation products (N = 10; 17.9%). Nine practices (16.1%) offered some type of inducement to potential customers. These included discounts on treatment packages (N = 2; 3.6%), free gait/ posture analyses (N = 2; 3.6%) and free general consultations with the chiropractors (N = 3; 5.4%) Conclusions The marketing of health care products and services by chiropractors in Alberta is common. Such practices raise ethical considerations for the profession. Professional guidelines vary on the acceptability of these practices. Consumer and practitioner perspectives and practices regarding retailing need to be further examined. PMID:17657302
The purpose of this study was to construct a substantive framework of the manner in which the Danish government interacts with the Danish chiropractic profession and influences professional practice. An exploratory, qualitative study was performed using a substantive grounded theory (GT) approach. Unstructured, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted during the years 2012 and 2013 and thematically analyzed. Six people were interviewed for this study including a gatekeeper and witness to legislative history, a previous chiropractic political representative and witness to legislative history, a previous Department of Health negotiator and previous administrator of chiropractic affairs and witness to legislative history, a current administrator of chiropractic affairs, an active chiropractic political representative and witness to legislative history, and a chief negotiator for Danish Regional Health Care Services. Open and axial coding yielded 2 themes centering on licensing chiropractors in Denmark and the resultant developmental issues encountered. Through further selective coding, the GT core construct, "chiropractic practice in the Danish heath care system" emerged. The GT highlights the tension between the strategic political importance of legislation and the restrictive nature of the overly specific act currently regulating chiropractic practice. Moreover, the GT also revealed the perceived negative effect that the National Board of Health may exert on clinical practice due to its conservative interpretation of the act. The Danish government is perceived to act as a countervailing power related to chiropractic practice. The derived substantive GT suggests that the Danish government's dualistic action relative to the Danish chiropractic community may inhibit the spontaneous evolution of contemporary Danish chiropractic practice. Although historically narrow legislation may limit chiropractic practice, conservative interpretations by the Danish
Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Vosko, Andrew M; Brash, Marissa; Ph, Dr; Philips, Michael A
High levels of stress and fatigue are associated with decreased academic success, well-being, and quality of life. The objective of this research was to quantify levels of perceived stress and fatigue among chiropractic students to identify sources of and student coping mechanisms for perceived stress and fatigue and to identify the relationship between students' perceived stress and fatigue. A survey comprised of the Perceived Stress Scale, the Undergraduate Sources of Stress Survey, and the Piper Fatigue Scale was administered to chiropractic students in their 2nd, 5th, and 8th trimesters of doctoral study. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear correlation tests. Students reported having moderate to high levels of stress and fatigue, with higher levels of stress and fatigue seen in women than in men. A nonsignificant difference among stress scores and a significant difference among fatigue scores were observed based on program term. Levels of stress predicted levels of fatigue, and stress was strongly correlated with psychological health, relationships with family members, mood, and need for learning accommodations. Fatigue was strongly correlated with psychological health, academic demands, and conflicts between studies and other activities. There are differences in the reporting of perceived stress and fatigue levels in this chiropractic student population based on gender. The correlation between fatigue and stress also suggests that measures that may alleviate one may likely affect the other.
Palmgren, Per J.; Liljedahl, Matilda; Lindquist, Ingrid; Laksov, Klara Bolander
Objective: There has been increasing scholarly interest in the role of environments in health care professional education, and the value of these has been widely acknowledged as an influential factor in educational quality. However, little is known about how teachers experience the environment, and there is a recognizable absence of a perspective from chiropractic and physiotherapy faculties. The aim of this study was to explore and contrast chiropractic and physiotherapy teachers' experiences and conceptualizations of the meaning of the educational environment. Methods: In this qualitative study, we performed semistructured interviews with 14 teachers, purposefully selected to obtain richness, variation, and breadth in the data. The data were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Results: The most noteworthy findings were, first, that chiropractic teachers experienced the meaning of the environment as motivating a vocational practice and modeling ideal, supporting and managing stressed students, and including students in the community of chiropractors. Physiotherapy teachers experienced the meaning of the environment as putting the pedagogical vision into practice, balancing students' expectations, and providing the prerequisites to grow within the profession. Second, both groups of teachers held common conceptualizations of the constituents of the environment as physical, organizational, relational, communicational, and pedagogical; however, they attached different connotations to these dimensions. Conclusion: The findings conveyed a variance in the experience of the meaning of the educational environment that can be attributed to contextual and cultural differences. PMID:29257707
Young, Kenneth J
Increasing the diversity of practitioner and patient populations has been identified as a worthy goal in the chiropractic profession, which has predominantly white male practitioners and white female patients in the USA. Toward that end, 'diversity' has been the topic of several papers and was the theme of a 2012 conference of chiropractic educators. However, generally just the microcosm of the interactions of practitioners with patients or teachers with students has been discussed. The macrocosm of larger societal issues and government policies has not been broached. Examples of issues and policies that affect diversity within a profession include portrayals of, and value judgements on diversity by the media and politicians, as well as public funding for healthcare and education. Diversity was defined in this paper to mean differences in race, sex, sexual orientation, economic status, ethnicity, religion and other life circumstances in a population. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of evidence that social issues and government policy affect the diversity of practitioners and patients, and to suggest that the barriers to diversity present in these realms be addressed with a cogent, profession-wide effort in order to help increase the diversity of people involved with chiropractic.
Corcoran, Kelsey L; Dunn, Andrew S; Green, Bart N; Formolo, Lance R; Beehler, Gregory P
To determine if U.S. female veterans had demonstrable improvements in neck pain after chiropractic management at a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of medical records from female veterans attending a VA chiropractic clinic for neck pain from 2009 to 2015. Paired t-tests were used to compare baseline and discharge numeric rating scale (NRS) and Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire (NBQ) scores with a minimum clinically important difference (MCID) set at a 30% change from baseline. Thirty-four veterans met the inclusion criteria and received a mean of 8.8 chiropractic treatments. For NRS, the mean score improvement was 2.7 (95%CI, 1.9-3.5, p < .001). For the NBQ, the mean score improvement was 13.7 (95%CI, 9.9-17.5, p < .001). For the MCID, the average percent improvement was 45% for the NRS and 38% for the NBQ. Female veterans with neck pain experienced a statistically and clinically significant reduction in NRS and NBQ scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moreau, William J.; Nabhan, Dustin C.; Walden, Taylor
Objective The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge base and clinical practices regarding concussion by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. Methods A 21-item survey was distributed to the 312 attendees of the 2014 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians Sports Sciences Symposium. Results were measured by frequency analysis and descriptive statistics for all surveys completed by sports-certified chiropractors. Results Seventy-six surveys were returned by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. All (N = 76) 100% of respondents believe that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with training in concussion. The respondents actively assess and manage concussion in adults (96%), adolescents (95%), and children (75%). A majority (79%) of respondents believe that the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool–3 represents a current standard of care for the sideline evaluation of the athlete who possibly has sustained a sport concussion. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that manual therapies may be appropriate in certain circumstances in adults (80%) and minors (80%). Conclusion This cross section of certified sports chiropractors strongly believes that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with specific training in concussion. A high percentage of the sports-certified chiropractors who responded assess and manage sport concussion in their practice, and many of them endorse the use of the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool–3 as a sideline assessment tool. PMID:26778930
Hansen, Daniel T
The chiropractic profession has recently begun to proactively address the problems identified by the health care industry. Prompted by rising health care costs, careful analysis revealed that the major culprit was the variance in the delivery of health care. Concerned with outside regulation, health professionals, both in the USA and Canada, are generating clinical guidelines that will serve as templates for the development of standards of care. More specifically, the chiropractic profession is identifying and establishing standards of practice. This in part is due to published data illustrating the variations in treatment frequencies between geographic locations. Acknowledging these variations will enable the identification of solutions. The solutions will be formulated from a growing knowledge base comprised of printed literature and the opinions of recognized experts through consensus panels. The result is the creation of practice standards and guidelines that will serve to answer concerns of accountability and ultimately to protect the public. The process from the creation to the implementation of the guidelines is necessarily detailed; but can be enhanced by the use of clinical algorithms. Clinical algorithms describe a step wise procedure to patient management that may impact upon patient care, health care costs and outcome measures. As chiropractic achieves greater visibility, it will be expected to perform at the same level of accountability as the other health provider groups. Each chiropractor should understand the process and its limitations, and be prepared to contribute in the development, distribution and implementation of reasonable practice guidelines.
Shaw, Kathy; Rabatsky, Ali; Dishman, Veronica; Meseke, Christopher
Objective : This study investigated the effect of completion of course prerequisites, undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate degree, and study habits on the performance of students in the biochemistry course at Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida. Methods : Students self-reported information regarding academic preparation at the beginning of the semester using a questionnaire. Final exam grade and final course grade were noted and used as measures of performance. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine if number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate GPA, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program were associated significantly with the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course. Results : The number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program did not significantly affect the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course, but undergraduate GPA did. Subsequent univariate analysis and Tukey's post hoc comparisons revealed that students with an undergraduate GPA in the 3.5 to 3.99 range earned significantly higher final course grades than students with an undergraduate GPA in the 2.5 to 2.99 range. Conclusion : No single variable was determined to be a factor that determines student success in biochemistry. The interrelationship between the factors examined warrants further investigation to understand fully how to predict the success of a student in the biochemistry course.
Alcantara, Joel; Plaugher, Gregory; Van Wyngarden, Darwin L
To describe the chiropractic care of a patient medically diagnosed with Bell's palsy and discuss issues clinically relevant to this disorder, such as its epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, care, and prognosis. A 49-year-old woman with a medical diagnosis of Bell's palsy sought chiropractic care. Her symptoms included right facial paralysis, extreme phonophobia, pain in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and neck pain. Signs of cervical vertebral and TMJ subluxations included edema, tenderness, asymmetry of motion and posture, and malalignment detected from plain film radiographs. The patient was cared for with full spine contact-specific, high-velocity, low-amplitude adjustments (Gonstead Technique) to sites of vertebral and occipital subluxations. The patient's left TMJ was also adjusted. The initial symptomatic response to care was positive, and the patient made continued improvements during the 6 months of care. There are indications that patients suffering from Bell's palsy may benefit from a holistic chiropractic approach that not only includes a focus of examination and care of the primary regional areas of complaint (eg, face, TMJ) but also potentially from significant vertebral subluxation concomitants.
Moreau, William J; Nabhan, Dustin C; Walden, Taylor
The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge base and clinical practices regarding concussion by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. A 21-item survey was distributed to the 312 attendees of the 2014 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians Sports Sciences Symposium. Results were measured by frequency analysis and descriptive statistics for all surveys completed by sports-certified chiropractors. Seventy-six surveys were returned by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. All (N = 76) 100% of respondents believe that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with training in concussion. The respondents actively assess and manage concussion in adults (96%), adolescents (95%), and children (75%). A majority (79%) of respondents believe that the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 represents a current standard of care for the sideline evaluation of the athlete who possibly has sustained a sport concussion. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that manual therapies may be appropriate in certain circumstances in adults (80%) and minors (80%). This cross section of certified sports chiropractors strongly believes that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with specific training in concussion. A high percentage of the sports-certified chiropractors who responded assess and manage sport concussion in their practice, and many of them endorse the use of the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 as a sideline assessment tool.
Descarreaux, Martin; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Drolet, Marc; Papadimitriou, Stanislas; Teasdale, Normand
To document the potential role of maintenance chiropractic spinal manipulation to reduce overall pain and disability levels associated with chronic low-back conditions after an initial phase of intensive chiropractic treatments. Thirty patients with chronic nonspecific low-back pain were separated into 2 groups. The first group received 12 treatments in an intensive 1-month period but received no treatment in a subsequent 9-month period. For this group, a 4-week period preceding the initial phase of treatment was used as a control period to examine the sole effect of time on pain and disability levels. The second group received 12 treatments in an intensive 1-month period and also received maintenance spinal manipulation every 3 weeks for a 9-month follow-up period. Pain and disability levels were evaluated with a visual analog scale and a modified Oswestry questionnaire, respectively. The 1-month control period did not modify the pain and disability levels. For both groups, the pain and disability levels decreased after the intensive phase of treatments. Both groups maintained their pain scores at levels similar to the postintensive treatments throughout the follow-up period. For the disability scores, however, only the group that was given spinal manipulations during the follow-up period maintained their postintensive treatment scores. The disability scores of the other group went back to their pretreatment levels. Intensive spinal manipulation is effective for the treatment of chronic low back pain. This experiment suggests that maintenance spinal manipulations after intensive manipulative care may be beneficial to patients to maintain subjective postintensive treatment disability levels. Future studies, however, are needed to confirm the finding in a larger group of patients with chronic low-back pain.
Kania-Richmond, Ania; Weeks, Laura; Scholten, Jeffrey; Reney, Mikaël
Practice based research networks (PBRNs) are increasingly used as a tool for evidence based practice. We developed and tested the feasibility of using software to enable online collection of patient data within a chiropractic PBRN to support clinical decision making and research in participating clinics. To assess the feasibility of using online software to collect quality patient information. The study consisted of two phases: 1) Assessment of the quality of information provided, using a standardized form; and 2) Exploration of patients' perspectives and experiences regarding online information provision through semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was descriptive. Forty-five new patients were recruited. Thirty-six completed online forms, which were submitted by an appropriate person 100% of the time, with an error rate of less than 1%, and submitted in a timely manner 83% of the time. Twenty-one participants were interviewed. Overall, online forms were preferred given perceived security, ease of use, and enabling provision of more accurate information. Use of online software is feasible, provides high quality information, and is preferred by most participants. A pen-and-paper format should be available for patients with this preference and in case of technical difficulties.
Kania-Richmond, Ania; Weeks, Laura; Scholten, Jeffrey; Reney, Mikaël
Background: Practice based research networks (PBRNs) are increasingly used as a tool for evidence based practice. We developed and tested the feasibility of using software to enable online collection of patient data within a chiropractic PBRN to support clinical decision making and research in participating clinics. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using online software to collect quality patient information. Methods: The study consisted of two phases: 1) Assessment of the quality of information provided, using a standardized form; and 2) Exploration of patients’ perspectives and experiences regarding online information provision through semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was descriptive. Results: Forty-five new patients were recruited. Thirty-six completed online forms, which were submitted by an appropriate person 100% of the time, with an error rate of less than 1%, and submitted in a timely manner 83% of the time. Twenty-one participants were interviewed. Overall, online forms were preferred given perceived security, ease of use, and enabling provision of more accurate information. Conclusions: Use of online software is feasible, provides high quality information, and is preferred by most participants. A pen-and-paper format should be available for patients with this preference and in case of technical difficulties. PMID:27069272
Strkalj, Goran; Schroder, Tania; Pather, Nalini; Solyali, Veli
Anatomy has been at the foundation of medical students' training. In recent decades, medical programs in many countries have undergone major reform in both pedagogy and content. These reforms generated intense debates, focusing mainly on the way the new programs affected medical graduates' knowledge of anatomy and their clinical capabilities. Anatomy, however, is not only core to medicine, but also to a number of allied and complementary health disciplines. While the evaluation of anatomy teaching and learning in the medical programs has been heavily scrutinized, anatomy education in the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions, including those, such as chiropractic, in which anatomy has traditionally been one of the main preclinical subjects, has been less frequently evaluated. The study aimed to make a preliminary assessment of the final year chiropractic students' knowledge of anatomy using the "carpal bone test." The testing was conducted on the final-year chiropractic students at Macquarie University in 2009. In this test, the students were given 5 minutes to label an illustration of the bony skeleton of the carpal region. The results of this assessment were then compared to results of previously published surveys using the "carpal bone test." A total of 84 students participated in the study. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of students identified all eight bones, while 60% of students identified five or more carpal bones. The most frequent correctly identified bone was the pisiform, followed by the scaphoid bone (82% and 74% of students, respectively). The trapezium and trapezoid bones were least frequently identified: both by 52% of students each. These results were generally better than those of the previously tested final-year medical students. The importance of anatomy in chiropractors' education has been generally acknowledged. This study suggests that the comparatively high number of hours devoted to anatomy in Macquarie University
Polus, Barbara I; Paterson, Charlotte; van Rotterdam, Joan; Vindigni, Dein
Improving the health of Indigenous Australians remains a major challenge. A chiropractic service was established to evaluate this treatment option for musculoskeletal illness in rural Indigenous communities, based on the philosophy of keeping the community involved in all the phases of development, implementation, and evaluation. The development and integration of this service has experienced many difficulties with referrals, funding and building sustainability. Evaluation of the program was a key aspect of its implementation, requiring an appropriate process to identify specific problems and formulate solutions to improve the service. We used the normalisation process model (May 2006) to order the data collected in consultation meetings and to inform our strategy and actions. The normalisation process model provided us with a structure for organising consultation meeting data and helped prioritise tasks. Our data was analysed as it applied to each dimension of the model, noting aspects that the model did not encompass. During this process we reworded the dimensions into more everyday terminology. The final analysis focused on to what extent the model helped us to prioritise and systematise our tasks and plans. We used the model to consider ways to promote the chiropractic service, to enhance relationships and interactions between clinicians and procedures within the health service, and to avoid disruption of the existing service. We identified ways in which chiropractors can become trusted team members who have acceptable and recognised knowledge and skills. We also developed strategies that should result in chiropractic practitioners finding a place within a complex occupational web, by being seen as similar to well-known occupations such as physiotherapy. Interestingly, one dimension identified by our data, which we have labelled 'emancipatory', was absent from the model. The normalisation process model has resulted in a number of new insights and questions. We
Alcantara, Joel; Ohm, Jeanne; Kunz, Derek
With continued popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for children, their safety and effectiveness are of high concern for both CAM and conventional therapy providers. Chiropractic is the most popular form of practitioner-based CAM therapies for children. The objective of this study was to describe the practice of pediatric chiropractic, including its safety and effectiveness. This study used a cross-sectional survey. A practice-based research network was used for this study. Participants were chiropractors and parents of pediatric patients (aged < or =18 years) attending chiropractic visits ranging from one to 12 visits. This is a survey study. No interventions were rendered in the completion of this study. Demographics, clinical presentations, treatment-associated aggravations, complications and improvements. The indicated primary reason for chiropractic care of children was "wellness care." With respect to condition-based presentations, musculoskeletal conditions were the most common, in addition to nonmusculoskeletal conditions of childhood. The most common techniques used were diversified technique, Gonstead technique, Thompson technique, and activator methods. Treatment-associated complications were not indicated by the chiropractic and parent responders. Chiropractor responders indicated three adverse events per 5,438 office visits from the treatment of 577 children. The parent responders indicated two adverse events from 1,735 office visits involving the care of 239 children. Both sets of responders indicated a high rate of improvement with respect to the children's presenting complaints, in addition to salutary effects unrelated to the children's initial clinical presentations.
Fredericks, Marcel; Kondellas, Bill; Hang, Lam; Fredericks, Janet; Ross, Michael WV
Objective The purpose of this article is to present select concepts and theories of bureaucratic structures and functions so that chiropractic physicians and other health care professionals can use them in their respective practices. The society-culture-personality model can be applied as an organizational instrument for assisting chiropractors in the diagnosis and treatment of their patients irrespective of locality. Discussion Society-culture-personality and social meaningful interaction are examined in relationship to the structural and functional aspects of bureaucracy within the health care institution of a society. Implicit in the examination of the health care bureaucratic structures and functions of a society is the focus that chiropractic physicians and chiropractic students learn how to integrate, synthesize, and actualize values and virtues such as empathy, integrity, excellence, diversity, compassion, caring, and understanding with a deep commitment to self-reflection. Conclusion It is essential that future and current chiropractic physicians be aware of the structural and functional aspects of an organization so that chiropractic and other health care professionals are able to deliver care that involves the ingredients of quality, affordability, availability, accessibility, and continuity for their patients. PMID:22693481
The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.
Gorrell, Lindsay M; Beath, Kenneth; Engel, Roger M
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different cervical manipulation techniques for mechanical neck pain (MNP). Participants with MNP of at least 1 month's duration (n = 65) were randomly allocated to 3 groups: (1) stretching (control), (2) stretching plus manually applied manipulation (MAM), and (3) stretching plus instrument-applied manipulation (IAM). MAM consisted of a single high-velocity, low-amplitude cervical chiropractic manipulation, whereas IAM involved the application of a single cervical manipulation using an (Activator IV) adjusting instrument. Preintervention and postintervention measurements were taken of all outcomes measures. Pain was the primary outcome and was measured using visual analogue scale and pressure pain thresholds. Secondary outcomes included cervical range of motion, hand grip-strength, and wrist blood pressure. Follow-up subjective pain scores were obtained via telephone text message 7 days postintervention. Subjective pain scores decreased at 7-day follow-up in the MAM group compared with control (P = .015). Cervical rotation bilaterally (ipsilateral: P = .002; contralateral: P = .015) and lateral flexion on the contralateral side to manipulation (P = .001) increased following MAM. Hand grip-strength on the contralateral side to manipulation (P = .013) increased following IAM. No moderate or severe adverse events were reported. Mild adverse events were reported on 6 occasions (control, 4; MAM, 1; IAM, 1). This study demonstrates that a single cervical manipulation is capable of producing immediate and short-term benefits for MNP. The study also demonstrates that not all manipulative techniques have the same effect and that the differences may be mediated by neurological or biomechanical factors inherent to each technique. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda
It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics…
Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu
Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available.
Caplan, R L
This paper is divided into three main parts. The first part describes chiropractic in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. While harassment by the medical profession largely characterized the 1960s, the health care environment of the 1970s was more favorable. However, during the 1980s, the spread of prospective payment schemes and the intensification of competition have largely hurt the development of chiropractic. All three possibilities: co-optation, subordination and nationalization are problematic as far as chiropractic is concerned. In light of these prospects, this paper makes four policy recommendations: research, education, alliance-building and politics (or REAP). The paper concludes with a brief discussion of each one.
Poulsen, Erik; Christensen, Henrik W; Overgaard, Søren; Hartvigsen, Jan
The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA) and first-time diagnosis of hip OA in consecutive patients presenting to chiropractic practices in Denmark and to report the components of the initial treatment rendered by the chiropractic practitioner. A total of 2000 patient records and 1000 radiographs were reviewed retrospectively in 20 chiropractic clinics throughout Denmark. Information obtained included patients' primary complaint, physical examination and radiographic findings of hip OA, and treatment. Subsequently, the 20 clinics participated in a prospective survey where they collected equivalent information over a 2-week period. Retrospective review of records revealed that 1.4% of patients in Danish chiropractic practice had signs of clinical hip OA. Of these, 59% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA. Prospective data collection revealed that 3.4% of new patients had signs of clinical hip OA. Fifty-four percent of these demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA, and of these 70% were diagnosed as having OA of the hip for the first time. Initial treatment involved manual treatment and advice on over-the-counter pain medication and/or supplements. Of all 1000 retrospectively reviewed radiographs in patients 40 years or older, 19.2% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA. Osteoarthritis of the hip is diagnosed and managed in primary care chiropractic practice in Denmark; however, it is likely underdiagnosed. In those newly presenting to chiropractic practitioners, first-time diagnosis with clinical and radiographic signs of hip OA appears to be common. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, D T; Adams, A H; Meeker, W C; Phillips, R B
With the advent of health care's "era of accountability", the chiropractic profession is now faced with generating implicit standards and guidelines for care or having it done for us by outside agencies. Already we see chiropractic groups in individual states and provinces being pressured into naive efforts of guideline development. Current knowledge and experience are available through recent health care literature that clearly defines the structure and process of guideline development and offers suggestions on how to measure outcomes of those processes. In addition, the United States Congress has directed a new federal agency to oversee this activity and monitor outcomes of quality improvement programs. The time has come for the chiropractic profession to define its exact role in health care delivery and develop implicit standards of care and practice guidelines. This sentinel effort should be managed by a commissioned body of empaneled experts that generally represent the academic and clinical chiropractic profession. A protocol for selection of these panelists and the panel chairperson needs to be developed and memorialized. Appropriate methodology (with definitions) needs to be developed for the process of standards/guideline development. Adherence to the accepted structure and process of guideline development will ensure the continuity of this dynamic process in the coming generations. This proposal offers a preliminary definition of the structure and process, including a "seed" policy statement and decision flow chart, specific to guideline development. Once the structure and process of guideline development for chiropractic are defined, the profession can then present this product to federal and state agencies, private sector health care purchasers, patient advocacy groups and other stakeholders of chiropractic care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Weeks, William B; Whedon, James M; Toler, Andrew; Goertz, Christine M
The purposes of this study were to examine the direct costs associated with Medicare's 2005-2007 "Demonstration of Expanded Coverage of Chiropractic Services" (Demonstration) and their drivers, to explore practice pattern variation during the Demonstration, and to describe scenarios of cost implications had provider behavior and benefit coverage been different. Using Medicare Part B data from April 1, 2005, and March 31, 2007, and 2004 Rural Urban Continuum Codes, we conducted a retrospective analysis of traditionally reimbursed and expanded chiropractic services provided to patients aged 65 to 99 years who had a neuromusculoskeletal condition. We compared chiropractic care costs, supply, and utilization patterns for the 2-year periods before, during, and after the Demonstration for 5 Chicago area counties that participated in the Demonstration to those for 6 other county aggregations-urban or rural counties that participated in the Demonstration; were designated comparison counties during the Demonstration; or were neither participating nor comparison counties during the Demonstration. When compared with other groups, doctors of chiropractic in 1 region (Chicago area counties) billed more aggressively for expanded services and were reimbursed significantly more for traditionally reimbursed chiropractic services provided before, during, and after the Demonstration. Costs would have been substantially lower had doctors of chiropractic in this 1 region had responded similarly to those in other demonstration counties. We found widespread geographic variation in practice behavior and patterns. Our findings suggest that Medicare might reduce the risk of accelerated costs associated with the introduction of a new benefit by applying appropriate limits to the frequency of use and overall costs of those benefits, particularly in highly competitive markets. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights reserved.
Degree of vertical integration between the undergraduate program and clinical internship with respect to lumbopelvic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught at the canadian memorial chiropractic college.
Vermet, Shannon; McGinnis, Karen; Boodham, Melissa; Gleberzon, Brian J
The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught in the undergraduate program used for patients with lumbopelvic conditions are expected to be utilized by students during their clinical internship program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or are being used by the clinical faculty. A confidential survey was distributed to clinical faculty at the college. It consisted of a list of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used for lumbopelvic conditions taught at that college. Clinicians were asked to indicate the frequency with which they performed or they required students to perform each item. Seventeen of 23 clinicians responded. The following procedures were most likely required to be performed by clinicians: posture; ranges of motion; lower limb sensory, motor, and reflex testing; and core orthopedic tests. The following were less likely to be required to be performed: Waddell testing, Schober's test, Gillet tests, and abdominal palpation. Students were expected to perform (or clinicians performed) most of the mobilization (in particular, iliocostal, iliotransverse, and iliofemoral) and spinal manipulative therapies (in particular, the procedures referred to as the lumbar roll, lumbar pull/hook, and upper sacroiliac) taught at the college. This study suggests that there was considerable, but not complete, vertical integration between the undergraduate and clinical education program at this college.
Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship with Respect to Lumbopelvic Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College
Vermet, Shannon; McGinnis, Karen; Boodham, Melissa; Gleberzon, Brian J.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught in the undergraduate program used for patients with lumbopelvic conditions are expected to be utilized by students during their clinical internship program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or are being used by the clinical faculty. Methods: A confidential survey was distributed to clinical faculty at the college. It consisted of a list of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used for lumbopelvic conditions taught at that college. Clinicians were asked to indicate the frequency with which they performed or they required students to perform each item. Results: Seventeen of 23 clinicians responded. The following procedures were most likely required to be performed by clinicians: posture; ranges of motion; lower limb sensory, motor, and reflex testing; and core orthopedic tests. The following were less likely to be required to be performed: Waddell testing, Schober's test, Gillet tests, and abdominal palpation. Students were expected to perform (or clinicians performed) most of the mobilization (in particular, iliocostal, iliotransverse, and iliofemoral) and spinal manipulative therapies (in particular, the procedures referred to as the lumbar roll, lumbar pull/hook, and upper sacroiliac) taught at the college. Conclusion: This study suggests that there was considerable, but not complete, vertical integration between the undergraduate and clinical education program at this college. PMID:20480014
Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker. However, other nudges influence decision-making in ways that do not involve providing more and better information. Nudges of this sort raise concerns about manipulation. This paper will focus on noninformational nudges that operate by changing the salience of various options. It will survey two approaches to understanding manipulation, one which sees manipulation as a kind of pressure, and one that sees it as a kind of trickery. On the pressure view, salience nudges do not appear to be manipulative. However, on the trickery view (which the author favors), salience nudges will be manipulative if they increase the salience so that it is disproportionate to that fact's true relevance and importance for the decision at hand. By contrast, salience nudges will not be manipulative if they merely highlight some fact that is true and important for the decision at hand. The paper concludes by providing examples of both manipulative and nonmanipulative salience nudges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Constantinou, Constantinos P.
We compare the effect of experimenting with physical or virtual manipulatives on undergraduate students' conceptual understanding of heat and temperature. A pre-post comparison study design was used to replicate all aspects of a guided inquiry classroom except the mode in which students performed their experiments. This study is the first on physical and virtual manipulative experimentation in physics in which the curriculum, method of instruction, and resource capabilities were explicitly controlled. The participants were 68 undergraduates in an introductory course and were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. Conceptual tests were administered to both groups to assess students' understanding before, during, and after instruction. The result indicates that both modes of experimentation are equally effective in enhancing students' conceptual understanding. This result is discussed in the context of an ongoing debate on the relative importance of virtual and real laboratory work in physics education.
All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.
Rodríguez-van Lier, María Esperanza; Simón, Luis Manuel Hernández; Gómez, Rosa Estela López; Escalante, Ignacio Peón
There are various models of health care, such as the epidemiological, psychosocial, sociological, economic, systemic of Neuman, cognitive medicine or ecological, ayurvedic, supraparadigmatic among others. All of them are seeking to combine one or more elements to integrate a model of health care. The article presents a systemic approach to health care with complementary medicines such as rehabilitative acupuncture, homeopathy and chiropractic through the application of a method of holistic care and integrated approach. There was a participatory action research in January 2012 to January 2013, with a comprehensive approach in 64 patients using the clinical method. We included the environmental aspects, biological, emotional, and behavioral to identify, recognize and integrate the form of manifestation of the disease. Later, it was ordered in a coherent way the etiologic factors, precipitating factors and identified the vulnerability of the patients as well as the structural alterations, classifying them in immediate, mediate and late. Referred to the three disciplines: rehabilitative acupuncture, homeopathy and chiropractic to be seen doing references and against-references between them, evaluating the current state of health and each meeting by noting the clinical and behavioral changes submitted and thus the area of attention to which would be forwarded to continue their treatment. 64 patients rotated by the 3 areas taking an average of 30 meetings with rehabilitative acupuncture, 12 with homeopathy and 10 with chiropractic. The changes were submitted clinical attitudinal, behavioral, clinical and organic. The model of care was multifaceted and interdisciplinary with a therapeutic approach of individualization and a holistic view to carry out a comprehensive diagnosis and provide quality health care to the population.
Myburgh, Corrie; Boyle, Eleanor; Larsen, Johanne Brinch; Christensen, Henrik Wulff
Perceived value is the key ingredient to carving and maintaining a competitive business niche. The opportunities to interact with consumers to understand and enhance perceived value are termed 'touch points'. Due to the out-of-pocket expense incurred by patients, Danish chiropractors are subject to consumer trends and behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to explore and describe consumer touch points relevant to perceived value through healthcare journeys in chiropractic practices. We designed a convergent parallel, mixed methods study. Our purposive sampling framework identified 11 chiropractic clinics from which we collected observational field notes, video recordings and face-to-face interviews. Data was collected between April 14(th) and June 26(th) 2014. We described the exteriors and interiors of all participant clinics, interviewed 32 staff members, 12 new patients and 36 follow-up patients and finally video recorded 11 new and 24 follow-up consultations. Categorization and analysis led to the emergence six consumer touch point themes: 'the internet', 'the physical environment', 'practice models', 'administrative staff', 'the consultation sequence and timing' and 'a consultation that adds value'. The Internet functions as a tool when choosing/confirming a clinic as appropriate, developing and initial image and managing appointments. The administrative hub appears integral to the shaping of positive consumer experiences outside of the consultation. Clinic location, practice model and interior design may contribute to context effects and thus may influence value perception during the clinical encounter. The duration of hands-on treatment received from the chiropractor is not an apparent consumer focus point. Rather, through a seven stage clinical procedure patients value consultations with clinicians who demonstrate professional competence by effective communication diagnosis/management and facilitating satisfactory treatment outcomes. At least six
Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy; Peng, Wenbo; Steel, Amie; Moore, Craig; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G; Sibbritt, David
This paper reports the profile of the Australian chiropractic workforce and characteristics of chiropractic care from a large nationally-representative sample of practitioners. A 21-item questionnaire examining practitioner, practice and clinical management characteristics was distributed to all registered chiropractors (n = 4,684) in Australia in 2015 via both online and hard copy mail out. The survey attracted a response rate of 43% (n = 2,005), and the sample is largely representative of the national chiropractic workforce on a number of key indicators. The average age of the chiropractors was 42.1 years, nearly two-thirds are male, and the vast majority hold a bachelor degree or higher qualification. Australian chiropractors are focused upon treating people across a wide age range who mainly present with musculoskeletal conditions. Australian chiropractors have referral relationships with a range of conventional, allied health and complementary medicine (CAM) providers. The chiropractic profession represents a substantial component of the contemporary Australian health care system with chiropractors managing an estimated 21.3 million patient visits per year. While the Australian chiropractic workforce is well educated, research engagement and research capacity remains sub-optimal and there is much room for further capacity building to help chiropractic reach full potential as a key integrated profession within an evidence-based health care system. Further rich, in-depth research is warranted to improve our understanding of the role of chiropractic within the Australian health care system.
Terre, Lisa; Globe, Gary; Pfefer, Mark T
Although family violence has been identified as a major public health issue, it has received little attention in the chiropractic literature. Accordingly, this article provides a conceptual overview on family violence, discusses the role of chiropractors in its detection, and raises several issues germane to chiropractic education that deserve further attention in future chiropractic publications. A selective review of the empirical literature on family violence was conducted with a focus on issues relevant to chiropractic training and professional identity. Extrapolating from the research, several models for medical training and continuing education have been proposed that emphasize a multidisciplinary, developmental approach to infusing knowledge, skill building, and mentored practice experiences into professional education experiences. As chiropractors become more mainstream portal-of-entry providers, there is a clear need to translate the didactics of family violence into the clinical setting. Clinical education may provide students the opportunity to master basic competencies for managing challenging family violence problems. The clinical environment may be appropriate for inculcating skills commensurate with those of other primary care providers. Yet, the extent to which training priorities and approaches extrapolated from other health care disciplines should be accepted wholesale by the chiropractic profession merits further discussion, including issues around the professional identity of chiropractic, the impact of accreditation standards and practice guidelines on actual professional practice behaviors, and the possible limits and unintended consequences associated with expanding the traditional chiropractic scope of practice from a specialty to a primary care profession.
Rudmann, A. A.
Reliable, low-cost coupler alines and grasps moving and rotating objects. Coupling mechanism may be used in handling of radio-active materials or in underwater explorations and other remote manipulators.
Page, Stacey A; Mbadiwe, Chinyere; McMorland, D Gordon; Grod, Jaroslaw P
This study describes the opinions and behaviors of chiropractic patients in a large, western Canadian urban center regarding the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic. A brief, descriptive survey consisting of both fixed-choice and open-ended questions was distributed by clinic reception staff at 4 chiropractic offices in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Each practice sold a range of health products, including those relating to musculoskeletal care and nutrition, and served between 275 and 320 clients per week. After a 10-week recruitment interval between January and March 2013, a convenience sample of 103 chiropractic patients was obtained. Most patients supported the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic (n = 101; 98.1%), and most had made health product purchases from a doctor of chiropractic at some point (n = 73; 70.9%). Products relating to muscular care, exercise/rehabilitation products, and pillows were purchased most often (>40%). Consumers were most supportive of doctors of chiropractic selling products they perceived to be directly related to musculoskeletal care. Some participants believed that there should be limits placed on the range of products sold including the products had to be consistent with the practitioner's area of expertise and had to have some demonstrated level of effectiveness. Primary reasons for health product purchase included the doctor's recommendations, convenience, and perception that the product would improve well-being (>50%). This study found that chiropractic patients were supportive of health product sales by doctors of chiropractic, assuming certain conditions were met. Consumers believed that product sales should be undertaken with integrity and should be consistent with the doctor's area of expertise. Consumer beliefs appeared to impact their purchasing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barker, G. R.
Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)
Chiacchio, P.; Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.; Siciliano, B.
The definition of manipulability ellipsoids for dual robot systems is given. A suitable kineto-static formulation for dual cooperative robots is adopted which allows for a global task space description of external and internal forces, and relative velocities. The well known concepts of force and velocity manipulability ellipsoids for a single robot are formally extended and the contributions of the two single robots to the cooperative system ellipsoids are illustrated. Duality properties are discussed. A practical case study is developed.
Page, Stacey A; Grod, Jaroslaw P
This study describes the extent to which chiropractors with Web sites practicing in Canada advertise health products for sale and considers this practice in the context of chiropractic codes of ethics and conduct. Chiropractic Web sites in Canada were identified using a public online business directory (Canada 411). The Web sites were searched, and an inventory of the health products for sale was taken. The influences of type of practice and province of practice on the sale of health product were assessed. Textual comments about health product marketing were summarized. National and provincial codes of ethics were reviewed, and the content on health product advertising was summarized. Two hundred eighty-seven Web sites were reviewed. Just more than half of the Web sites contained information on health products for sale (n = 158, 54%). Orthotics were advertised most often (n = 136 practices, 47%), followed by vitamins/nutritional supplements (n = 53, 18%), pillows and supports (n = 40, 14%), and exercise/rehabilitation products (n = 20, 7%). Chiropractors in solo or group chiropractic practices were less likely to advertise health products than those in multidisciplinary practice (P < .001), whereas chiropractors in BC were less likely to advertise nutritional supplements (P < .01). Provincial codes of ethics and conduct varied in their guidelines regarding health product sales. Variations in codes of ethics and in the proportions of practitioners advertising health products for sales across the country suggest that opinions may be divided on the acceptability of health product sales. Such practices raise questions and considerations for the chiropractic profession.
Schutz, Christine M; Dalton, Leanne; Tepe, Rodger E
This study was designed to extend research on the relationship between chiropractic students' learning and study strategies and national board examination performance. Sixty-nine first trimester chiropractic students self-administered the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). Linear trends tests (for continuous variables) and Mantel-Haenszel trend tests (for categorical variables) were utilized to determine if the 10 LASSI subtests and 3 factors predicted low, medium and high levels of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) Part 1 scores. Multiple regression was performed to predict overall mean NBCE examination scores using the 3 LASSI factors as predictor variables. Four LASSI subtests (Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, Test Strategies) and one factor (Goal Orientation) were significantly associated with NBCE examination levels. One factor (Goal Orientation) was a significant predictor of overall mean NBCE examination performance. Learning and study strategies are predictive of NBCE Part 1 examination performance in chiropractic students. The current study found LASSI subtests Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, and Test Strategies, and the Goal-Orientation factor to be significant predictors of NBCE scores. The LASSI may be useful to educators in preparing students for academic success. Further research is warranted to explore the effects of learning and study strategies training on GPA and NBCE performance.
Grod, J P; Sikorski, D; Keating, J C
To determine the presence or absence of claims for the clinical art of chiropractic that are not currently justified by available scientific evidence or are intrinsically untestable. A survey of patient education and promotional material produced by national, state, and provincial societies and research agencies in Canada and the United States. Patient brochures were solicited from the 3 largest provincial, 3 largest state, and the 3 largest national professional associations in the United States and Canada. Similar requests were made of 2 research agencies supported by the national associations. Brochures were reviewed for the presence or absence of unsubstantiated claims. Of the 11 organizations sampled, 9 distribute patient brochures. Of these 9 organizations, all distribute patient brochures that make claims for chiropractic services that have not been scientifically validated. The largest professional associations in the United States and Canada distribute patient brochures that make claims for the clinical art of chiropractic that are not currently justified by available scientific evidence or that are intrinsically untestable. These assertions are self-defeating because they reinforce an image of the chiropractic profession as functioning outside the boundaries of scientific behavior.
Evans, Marion Willard; Perle, Stephen M; Ndetan, Harrison
The Internet has become a common source of information for patients wishing to learn about health information. Previous studies found information related to back pain poor and often contradictory to current guidelines. Wellness has become a common topic in the field of chiropractic and accrediting agencies have standards on delivery of wellness-based content in college curricula as well as directives for clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the information on the Internet using the terms "chiropractic wellness," or "wellness chiropractic". Five commonly used search engines were selected and the first 10 sites found using the strategy above were evaluated by two raters. Demographic assessments of the sites were made along with whether they were Health on the Net Foundation (HON) certified, contained standard wellness content, mentioned any Healthy People Focus Areas, and other chiropractic topics. Kappa statistics compared inter-rater agreement. Potential patients appeared to be the audience 87% of the time and a private doctor of chiropractic appeared to be the typical site owner. The sites usually promoted the provider. No sites displayed HON certification logo nor did any appear to meet the HON certification criteria. Twenty-six sites (55%) promoted regular physical activity in some manner and 18 (38%) had information on health risks of tobacco. Four (9%) had mental health or stress-reduction content but none had information supportive of vaccination. Some had information contradictory to common public health measures. Patients searching the Internet for chiropractic wellness information will often find useless information that will not help them maintain health or become well. Most simply market the chiropractic practice or allow for a patients to provide personal information in exchange for more 'wellness' information. More research should be done on how providers determine site content, pay any attention to the
Young, Kenneth J.
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate publicly available information of chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection to identify links between chiropractic technique systems and to describe claims made of the health effects of the osseous misalignment component of the chiropractic subluxation and radiographic paradigms. Methods The Internet and publicly available documents were searched for information representing chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Key phrases including chiropractic, x-ray, radiography, and technique were identified from a Google search between April 2013 and March 2014. Phrases in Web sites and public documents were examined for any information about origins and potential links between these techniques, including the type of connection to BJ Palmer, who was the first chiropractor to advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Quotes were gathered to identify claims of health effects from osseous misalignment (subluxation) and paradigms of radiography. Techniques were grouped by region of the spine and how they could be traced back to B.J Palmer. A genealogy model and summary table of information on each technique were created. Patterns in year of origination and radiographic paradigms were noted, and percentages were calculated on elements of the techniques’ characteristics in comparison to the entire group. Results Twenty-three techniques were identified on the Internet: 6 full spine, 17 upper cervical, and 2 techniques generating other lineage. Most of the upper cervical techniques (14/16) traced their origins to a time when the Palmer School was teaching upper cervical technique, and all the full spine techniques (6/6) originated before or after this phase. All the technique systems’ documents attributed broad health effects to their methods. Many (21/23) of the techniques used spinal realignment on radiographs as one of their outcome
Young, Kenneth J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate publicly available information of chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection to identify links between chiropractic technique systems and to describe claims made of the health effects of the osseous misalignment component of the chiropractic subluxation and radiographic paradigms. The Internet and publicly available documents were searched for information representing chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Key phrases including chiropractic, x-ray, radiography, and technique were identified from a Google search between April 2013 and March 2014. Phrases in Web sites and public documents were examined for any information about origins and potential links between these techniques, including the type of connection to BJ Palmer, who was the first chiropractor to advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Quotes were gathered to identify claims of health effects from osseous misalignment (subluxation) and paradigms of radiography. Techniques were grouped by region of the spine and how they could be traced back to B.J Palmer. A genealogy model and summary table of information on each technique were created. Patterns in year of origination and radiographic paradigms were noted, and percentages were calculated on elements of the techniques' characteristics in comparison to the entire group. Twenty-three techniques were identified on the Internet: 6 full spine, 17 upper cervical, and 2 techniques generating other lineage. Most of the upper cervical techniques (14/16) traced their origins to a time when the Palmer School was teaching upper cervical technique, and all the full spine techniques (6/6) originated before or after this phase. All the technique systems' documents attributed broad health effects to their methods. Many (21/23) of the techniques used spinal realignment on radiographs as one of their outcome measures. Chiropractic
Background The Internet has become a common source of information for patients wishing to learn about health information. Previous studies found information related to back pain poor and often contradictory to current guidelines. Wellness has become a common topic in the field of chiropractic and accrediting agencies have standards on delivery of wellness-based content in college curricula as well as directives for clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the information on the Internet using the terms "chiropractic wellness," or "wellness chiropractic". Methods Five commonly used search engines were selected and the first 10 sites found using the strategy above were evaluated by two raters. Demographic assessments of the sites were made along with whether they were Health on the Net Foundation (HON) certified, contained standard wellness content, mentioned any Healthy People Focus Areas, and other chiropractic topics. Kappa statistics compared inter-rater agreement. Results Potential patients appeared to be the audience 87% of the time and a private doctor of chiropractic appeared to be the typical site owner. The sites usually promoted the provider. No sites displayed HON certification logo nor did any appear to meet the HON certification criteria. Twenty-six sites (55%) promoted regular physical activity in some manner and 18 (38%) had information on health risks of tobacco. Four (9%) had mental health or stress-reduction content but none had information supportive of vaccination. Some had information contradictory to common public health measures. Conclusions Patients searching the Internet for chiropractic wellness information will often find useless information that will not help them maintain health or become well. Most simply market the chiropractic practice or allow for a patients to provide personal information in exchange for more 'wellness' information. More research should be done on how providers determine site
Buehler, M.T.; Hrejsa, A.F.
X-raying the entire spinal column in the standing position in a single exposure (mainly the AP projection) is an often-used chiropractic radiography procedure which has also found some application in medical scoliosis screening program. Aside from any controversy of clinical objectives or medical necessity, the primary agreed-upon requisite for such procedure is twofold; achieving the best possible film image quality with the least amount of radiation exposure to the patient. A popular method of accomplishing this objective is by the use of collimator-attached devices designed to selectively filter the primary x-ray beam in accordance with regional variations of body thicknessmore » and/or density. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of a new lead-acrylic filter system under specialized chiropractic conditions. In comparison to other available systems, it was concluded that this new system; a) is generally equivalent in its radiation dose reduction capabilities; b) is capable of producing full spine radiographs with good to above average image quality; and c) is appreciably easier to use.« less
Bifero, Antonio E; Prakash, Jaya; Bergin, Jeff
Our goal was to enumerate the microbial flora on the headrest, armrest, and thoracic portion of chiropractic adjusting tables to determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and identify the potential for nosocomial transmission. Defined portions of the headrest, armrest, and thoracoabdominal pieces from 9 chiropractic adjusting tables were randomly sampled using the ACT II culture transport system (Remel, Lenexa, KS). Samples were incubated using standard culture techniques for bacteriology and mycology that included 15 mL of heart infusion agar at 35 degrees C for 24 hours and 15 mL of Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30 degrees C up to 7 days. Identification of microorganisms by biochemical analysis yielded a wide variety of gram-positive (G+) and gram-negative (G-) cocci and bacilli as well as standard fungi. Many were of the genus Staphylococcus. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were recovered from 2 separate tables. This study supports a growing consensus that those outpatient facilities that do not adhere to strict infection control protocols may become ecological reservoirs of potentially harmful human pathogens.
Tunning, Michael J.; Derby, Dustin C.; Krell-Mares, Kelly A.; Barber, Michelle R.
Objective: Professional demands have led to health-care educator specialization in research or patient care. The academy movement is an avenue that attempts to return prestige and importance to improved instruction. The authors performed a needs analysis of selected faculty at 3 chiropractic colleges to assess the need for, and willingness to participate in, an academy of educators program. Methods: An expert-developed, pretested survey was deployed using SurveyMonkey. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were used to address 3 research questions related to the academy of educators program. Results: The study achieved a 53% response rate and reflected that an overwhelming majority of chiropractic faulty members (89%) reported the need for an academy of educators. The study found no significant differences between faculty ranks, years of experience, and participation willingness. Conclusion: A structured approach, such as an academy, to foster professional teaching development may create positive outcomes for an institution. Faculty educators were willing to engage in an efficient program that may improve teaching methods and create opportunities for collaborative working relationships, which signals the potential for wide acceptance of the program. PMID:28768113
Gleberzon, Brian J.
Introduction: The process by which the jurisprudence course was restructured at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College is chronicled. Method: A Delphi process used to restructure the course is described, and the results of a student satisfaction survey are presented. Results: When asked “I think this material was clinically relevant,” over 81% of the 76 students who respondents strongly agreed or agreed with this statement; 100% of students agreed or strongly agreed that scope of practice; marketing, advertising and internal office promotion; record keeping; fee schedules; malpractice issues and; professional malpractice issues and negligence was clinically relevant. When asked “I think this material was taught well,” a minimum of 89% of students agreed or strongly agreed with this statement. Discussion: This is the first article published that described the process by which a jurisprudence course was developed and assessed by student survey. Summary: Based on a survey of student perceptions, restructuring of the jurisprudence course was successful in providing students with clinically relevant information in an appropriate manner. This course may serve as an important first step in development a ‘model curriculum’ for chiropractic practice and the law courses in terms of content, format and assessment strategies. PMID:20195427
Seaman, David R.; Palombo, Adam D.
Objective This article presents an overview of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a collection of risk factors that can lead to diabetes, stroke, and heart disease. The purposes of this article are to describe the current literature on the etiology and pathophysiology of insulin resistance as it relates to MetS and to suggest strategies for dietary and supplemental management in chiropractic practice. Methods The literature was searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Web site of the American Heart Association, from the earliest date possible to May 2014. Review articles were identified that outlined pathophysiology of MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and relationships among diet, supplements, and glycemic regulation, MetS, T2DM, and musculoskeletal pain. Results Metabolic syndrome has been linked to increased risk of developing T2DM and cardiovascular disease and increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. Insulin resistance is linked to musculoskeletal complaints both through chronic inflammation and the effects of advanced glycosylation end products. Although diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the most well-known diseases that can result from MetS, an emerging body of evidence demonstrates that common musculoskeletal pain syndromes can be caused by MetS. Conclusions This article provides an overview of lifestyle management of MetS that can be undertaken by doctors of chiropractic by means of dietary modification and nutritional support to promote blood sugar regulation. PMID:25225471
Leach, Robert A; Yates, Joyce M
The purpose of this pilot novel chiropractic health education intervention was to gather preliminary evidence regarding possible benefits from recreational youth soccer and nutrition education in overweight women. A secondary purpose was to determine whether some nutrition knowledge is an independent predictor of changes in body mass index (BMI). A quiz developed and validated on separate age and sex appropriate blinded cohorts was used on study participants-22 volunteers of 57 eligible fourth-grade, overweight female Mississippi public school students. At the beginning of a 5-month study period, a 15-minute baseline nutrition intervention, grounded in Social Cognitive Theory and based on the United States Department of Agriculture's "My Tips for Families" information, was applied in a chiropractic clinic. Subjects were then randomized to 2 months of recreational soccer (n = 14) or waiting list control (n = 8). No preintervention differences were found in height, weight, BMI, or age. Higher follow-up BMI scores were found in both groups, and no significant differences between groups were found, possibly because of the small sample sizes and the short 8-week soccer intervention period. Gains in nutrition knowledge were sustained (P < .002); however, there was no association between nutrition knowledge and follow-up BMI (r = -.185; P < .462). Minimal nutrition education alone may be an ineffective intervention for overweight children. The study provides an example of how youth soccer may benefit overweight children.
Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G; Parkin-Smith, Gregory F
A definitive diagnosis in chiropractic clinical practice is frequently elusive, yet decisions around management are still necessary. Often, a clinical impression is made after the exclusion of serious illness or injury, and care provided within the context of diagnostic uncertainty. Rather than focussing on labelling the condition, the clinician may choose to develop a defendable management plan since the response to treatment often clarifies the diagnosis. This paper explores the concept and elements of defensive problem-solving practice, with a view to developing a model of agile, pragmatic decision-making amenable to real-world application. A theoretical framework that reflects the elements of this approach will be offered in order to validate the potential of a so called '3-Questions Model'; Clinical decision-making is considered to be a key characteristic of any modern healthcare practitioner. It is, thus, prudent for chiropractors to re-visit the concept of defensible practice with a view to facilitate capable clinical decision-making and competent patient examination skills. In turn, the perception of competence and trustworthiness of chiropractors within the wider healthcare community helps integration of chiropractic services into broader healthcare settings.
Dagenais, Simon; Brady, O'Dane; Haldeman, Scott; Manga, Pran
Although chiropractors in the United States (US) have long suggested that their approach to managing spine pain is less costly than other health care providers (HCPs), it is unclear if available evidence supports this premise. A systematic review was conducted using a comprehensive search strategy to uncover studies that compared health care costs for patients with any type of spine pain who received chiropractic care or care from other HCPs. Only studies conducted in the US and published in English between 1993 and 2015 were included. Health care costs were summarized for studies examining: 1. private health plans, 2. workers' compensation (WC) plans, and 3. clinical outcomes. The quality of studies in the latter group was evaluated using a Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) list. The search uncovered 1276 citations and 25 eligible studies, including 12 from private health plans, 6 from WC plans, and 7 that examined clinical outcomes. Chiropractic care was most commonly compared to care from a medical physician, with few details about the care received. Heterogeneity was noted among studies in patient selection, definition of spine pain, scope of costs compared, study duration, and methods to estimate costs. Overall, cost comparison studies from private health plans and WC plans reported that health care costs were lower with chiropractic care. In studies that also examined clinical outcomes, there were few differences in efficacy between groups, and health care costs were higher for those receiving chiropractic care. The effects of adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, or other factors between study groups were unclear. Although cost comparison studies suggest that health care costs were generally lower among patients whose spine pain was managed with chiropractic care, the studies reviewed had many methodological limitations. Better research is needed to determine if these differences in health care costs were attributable to the
Mandolesi, Sandro; Marceca, Giuseppe; Moser, Jon; Niglio, Tarcisio; d'Alessandro, Aldo; Ciccone, Matteo Marco; Zito, Annapaola; Mandolesi, Dimitri; d'Alessandro, Alessandro; Fedele, Francesco
The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical and X-ray results of the Upper Cervical Chiropractic care through the specific adjustments (corrections) of C1-C2 on patients with chronic venous cerebral-spinal insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied a sample of 77 patients before and after the Upper Cervical Chiropractic care, and we analyzed: A) The change of the X-ray parameters; B) The clinical results using a new set of questions. The protocol of the C1- C2 upper Cervical Chiropractic treatment, specific for these patients, lasts four months. From a haemodynamic point of view we divided the patients in 3 types: Type 1 - purely vascular with intravenous alterations; Type 2 - "mechanical" with of external venous compressions; Type 3 - mixed. We found an improvement in all kinds of subluxations after the treatment with respect to the pre-treatment X-ray evaluation, with a significant statistical difference. The differences between the clinical symptoms before and after the specific treatment of C1-C2 are statistically significant with p<0.001 according to the CHI-Square test revised by Yates. The preliminary X-ray and clinical improvements of the Upper Cervical Chiropractic corrections on C1- C2 on these patients with CCSVI and MS encourage us to continue with our studies. We believe that the Upper Cervical correction on C1-C2 could be the main non-invasive treatment of the CCSVI mechanical type in patients with MS. Further studies are required to evaluate the correlation between the Upper Cervical Chiropractic correction on C1-C2 on the cerebral venous drainage and the cerebro-spinal fluid.
Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.
The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.
Goertz, R.C.; Thompson, Wm.M.; Olsen, R.A.
A remote control manipulator is described in which the master and slave arms are electrically connected to produce the desired motions. A response signal is provided in the master unit in order that the operator may sense a feel of the object and may not thereby exert such pressures that would ordinarily damage delicate objects. This apparatus will permit the manipulation of objects at a great distance, that may be viewed over a closed TV circuit, thereby permitting a remote operator to carry out operations in an extremely dangerous area with complete safety.
Saxler, G; Schopphoff, E; Quitmann, H; Quint, U
Severe complications after cervical spine manipulation are rare. As experts for medical treatment errors, we received between July 2002 and February 2004 cases with serious complications in the central nervous system after manipulation. 5 vertebral artery dissections with subsequent brain infarction were registered. In all cases, the patients showed complete persisting remission of symptoms. In addition, a kinematic estimation model was developed to study the possible causes of vertebral artery damage. We were able to demonstrate that material extension is dependent on cervical rotation and the "free length" of the vertebral artery in the upper cervical spine.
Gaze, Eric C.
We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…
Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.
Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.
Lewis, Anne C.
This article discusses the issue of trust in the education system. What is different about the issue of trust in the education system is the assault upon it, sometimes overt but most often subtle. There is a difference between strong criticism and willful manipulation. The nation's schools are responding to the former--perhaps too slowly for…
This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…
Curl, D D; Stanwood, G
Localized inflammatory conditions (eg, synovitis and capsulitis) of the temporomandibular joint are commonly seen in clinical practice. Regardless of their frequency of occurrence, these conditions must be differentially diagnosed from conditions that also may cause pain in the temporomandibular joint region. Capsulitis or synovitis should be considered if such pain is present and historical, physical, and laboratory findings do not indicate a referred pain phenomena or systemic, tumorous, or infectious involvement. This article reviews the clinical characteristics, etiology, physical examination methods, treatment, and prognosis for capsulitis and synovitis, and three cases that illustrate these conditions are reported.
Innes, Stanley I; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Walker, Bruce F
Evidence suggests that a students' beliefs already prior to entering a program may be important as a determinant in sustaining unsuitable health care beliefs. Our objectives were to investigate the proportion of Australian chiropractic students who hold non-evidence-based beliefs in the first year of study and the extent to which they may be involved in non-musculoskeletal health conditions. Finally, to see if this proportion varies over the course of the chiropractic program. In 2016, students from two Australian chiropractic programs answered a questionnaire on how often they would give advice on five common health conditions in their future practices as well as their opinion on whether chiropractic spinal adjustments could prevent or help seven health-related conditions. From a possible 831 students, 444 responded (53%). Students were highly likely to offer advice (often/quite often) on a range of non-musculoskeletal conditions. The proportions were lowest in first year and highest the final year. Also, high numbers of students held non-evidence-based beliefs about 'chiropractic spinal adjustments' which tended to occur in gradually decreasing in numbers in sequential years, except for fifth year when a reversal of the pattern occurred. New strategies are required for chiropractic educators if they are to produce graduates who understand and deliver evidence-based health care and able to be part of the mainstream health care system.
Bussières, André E; Al Zoubi, Fadi; Stuber, Kent; French, Simon D; Boruff, Jill; Corrigan, John; Thomas, Aliki
Evidence-based practice (EBP) gaps are widespread across health disciplines. Understanding factors supporting the uptake of evidence can inform the design of strategies to narrow these EBP gaps. Although research utilization (RU) and the factors associated with EBP have been reported in several health disciplines, to date this area has not been reviewed comprehensively in the chiropractic profession. The purpose of this review was to report on the current state of knowledge on EBP, RU, and knowledge translation (KT) in chiropractic. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was used to systematically select and summarize existing literature. Searches were conducted using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms from the earliest date available in each database to May 2015. Quantitative and thematic analyses of the selected literature were conducted. Nearly 85 % (56/67) of the included studies were conducted in Canada, USA, UK or Australia. Thematic analysis for the three categories (EBP, RU, KT) revealed two themes related to EBP (attitudes and beliefs of chiropractors; implementation of EBP), three related to RU (guideline adherence; frequency and sources of information accessed; and perceived value of websites and search engines), and three related to KT (knowledge practice gaps; barriers and facilitators to knowledge use; and selection, tailoring, and implementation of interventions). EBP gaps were noted in the areas of assessment of activity limitation, determination of psychosocial factors influencing pain, general health indicators, establishing a prognosis, and exercise prescription. While most practitioners believed EBP and research to be important and a few studies suggested that traditional and online educational strategies could improve patient care, use of EBP and guideline adherence varied widely. Findings suggest that the majority of chiropractors hold favourable attitudes and beliefs toward EBP. However, much remains to be done for
Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Hartling, Lisa; Vohra, Sunita
Patient safety performance can be assessed with several systems, including passive and active surveillance. Passive surveillance systems provide opportunity for health care personnel to confidentially and voluntarily report incidents, including adverse events, occurring in their work environment. Active surveillance systems systematically monitor patient encounters to seek detailed information about adverse events that occur in work environments; unlike passive surveillance, active surveillance allows for collection of both numerator (number of adverse events) and denominator (number of patients seen) data. Chiropractic manual therapy is commonly used in both adults and children, yet few studies have been done to evaluate the safety of chiropractic manual therapy for children. In an attempt to evaluate this, this study will compare adverse event reporting in passive versus active surveillance systems after chiropractic manual therapy in the pediatric population. This cluster randomized controlled trial aims to enroll 70 physicians of chiropractic (unit of randomization) to either passive or active surveillance system to report adverse events that occur after treatment for 60 consecutive pediatric (13 years of age and younger) patient visits (unit of analysis). A modified enrollment process with a two-phase consent procedure will be implemented to maintain provider blinding and minimize dropouts. The first phase of consent is for the provider to confirm their interest in a trial investigating the safety of chiropractic manual therapy. The second phase ensures that they understand the specific requirements for the group to which they were randomized. Percentages, incidence estimates, and 95% confidence intervals will be used to describe the count of reported adverse events in each group. The primary outcome will be the number and quality of the adverse event reports in the active versus the passive surveillance group. With 80% power and 5% one-sided significance
Blanchette, Marc-André; Bussières, André; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Boruff, Jill; Harrison, Pamela
Chiropractic care is a common treatment for low back pain (LBP). Previous studies have failed to clarify the relative cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care in comparison with other commonly used approaches because previous attempts to synthetize the economic literature has only included partial economic evaluations. The objective of this project is to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care compared to other commonly used care approaches among adult patients with non-specific LBP. Two systematic reviews will be conducted to identify 1) randomized controlled trials and 2) full economic evaluations of chiropractic care for low back pain compared to standard care provided by other healthcare providers. We will conduct searches in specialized electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and full economic evaluations published between 1990 and 2014 using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms. This will be supplemented by a search of the gray literature. Citations, abstracts, and relevant papers will be screened for eligibility by two reviewers independently. Studies will be critically appraised using 1) the Cochrane risk of bias tool and 2) the Drummond (BMJ) checklist. Results will be summarized using Slavin's qualitative best-evidence synthesis approach. Data relating to the primary outcomes of the effectiveness study will be evaluated for inclusion in meta-analyses. The costs will be standardized to the same currency (USD) and adjusted to the same year for inflation. The incremental cost-effectiveness, incremental net benefit, and relevant confidant intervals will be recalculated in order to facilitate comparison between studies. Our review will evaluate both the clinical effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness associated with chiropractic care for LBP. A more precise estimate of the cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care for LBP relative to other forms of conservative care is needed for decision-makers and
A manipulator is described for performing, within an entirely enclosed cell containling radioactive materials, various mechanical operations. A rod with flexible fingers is encompassed by a tubular sleeve shorter than the rod. Relative movement between the rod and sleeve causes the fingers to open and close. This relative movement is effected by relative movement of permanent magnets in magnetic coupling relation to magnetic followers affixed to the ends of the rod and sleeve. The rod and its sleeve may be moved as a unit axially or may be rotated by means of the magnetic couplings. The manipulator is enclosed within a tubular member which is flexibly sealed to an opening in the cell. (AEC)
A method and apparatus is disclosed for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.
Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan
The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.
the Poisson form of the equations can also be generated by manipulating the computational space , so forcing functions become superfluous . The...ABSTRACT Unstructured methods for region discretization have become common in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis because of certain benefits...application of Winslow elliptic smoothing equations to unstructured meshes. It has been shown that it is not necessary for the computational space of
Goertz, R.C.; Grimson, J.H.; Kohut, F.A.
A remote-control manipulator comprising two stationary master units, two slave units on a movable vehicle, and electrical connections between the master and slave units is reported. The slave units are side by side with a minimum over-all width, which is made feasible by an arrangement of transducers producing most movements of each slave unit to one side of the support of said slave unit.
Singleton, Russell M.
A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.
Palmgren, Per J; Laksov, Klara Bolander
The educational environment has a significant impact on students' behavior, sense of well-being, and academic advancement. While various research methodologies have been used to explore the educational environment, there is a paucity of studies employing qualitative research methods. This study engages in an in-depth exploration of chiropractic students' experiences of the meaning of the educational environment. A qualitative approach was employed by interviewing 26 students in four focus group interviews at two different points in time. A conventional manifest and latent content analysis was chosen to investigate and interpret the experiences of the educational environment in an undergraduate chiropractic training institution in Sweden. The analysis resulted in five overarching themes: Personal growth; Being part of a community; A place of meaningfulness; Trust in a regulated system; and Scaffolding relationships. Early in the training, the meaning of the educational environment was experienced as part of a vocational community and the scaffolding of intra-institutional relationships. In later stages, the environment was experienced in terms of personal growth - balancing academic pressures and progress within the professional community - thus laying the foundations for autonomy and motivation. During the clinical training, the environment was experienced as where learning happens, thus creating a place of meaningfulness. Throughout the training, the formal and clinical environments were experienced as isolating, with little bridging between the two. A regulated system - conveying an operative organization with clear communication regarding what to expect - was experienced as important for an apt educational environment. We found that experiences of an educational environment are dynamic and change over time. When restructuring or evaluating curriculums, educational managers can consider the emerged themes as constituting facets relating to the educational
Alexander, Michelle; Marten, Mathew; Stewart, Ella; Serafin, Stanley; Štrkalj, Goran
Cadavers play an important role in anatomy education. In Australia, bodies for anatomy education are acquired only through donations. To gain insight into educational dynamics in an anatomy laboratory as well as to facilitate body donation programs and thanksgiving ceremonies, it is important to understand students' attitudes toward body donation. In this cross-sectional study, the attitudes of Macquarie University's first, second, and fifth year chiropractic students toward body donation were investigated. Macquarie University chiropractic students have a four semester long anatomy program, which includes cadaver-based instruction on prosected specimens. A questionnaire was used to record respondents' demographics and attitudes toward body donation: personal, by a relative, and by a stranger. It was found that ethnicity and religion affect attitudes toward body donation, with Australian students being more willing to donate a stranger's body and atheists and agnostics being more willing to donate in general. Furthermore, willingness to donate one's own or a family member's body decreases as year of study increases, suggesting a possible negative impact of exposure to cadavers in the anatomy laboratory. This was only true, however, after controlling for age. Thus, the impact of viewing and handling prosected specimens, which is the norm in anatomy classes in Australia, may not be as strong as dissecting cadavers. It is suggested that anatomists and educators prepare students for cadaver-based instruction as well as exhibit sensitivity to cultural differences in how students approach working with cadavers, when informing different communities about body donation programs and in devising thanksgiving ceremonies. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Rix, Jacqueline; Dewhurst, Philip; Cooke, Caroline; Newell, David
To investigate the potential association of novel academic and nonacademic factors with chiropractic student academic performance. Students enrolled into year 1 of a chiropractic master's degree (MChiro) at our college were selected for this study. Data collected included demographics, attendance, virtual learning environment use, additional learning needs, previous degree qualifications, and summative marks. Differences between students who had to take an examination more than once (resit) and nonresit students were explored using t test and χ 2 analysis. Relationships between attendance and end-of-year marks were explored using regression analysis. Male students outperformed female students in four of the six units and as the total year average. Students who attended <80% of classes were more likely to have a resit in one or more units (relative risk [ RR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-4.9). Students who performed poorly (<70%) in the semester 1 unit of a course on human structure and failed the semester 1 practical assessment of a course on clinical management were significantly more likely to have one or more resit assessments in semester 2 units ( RR = 3.5 [95% CI, 2.2-5.7]; RR = 3.2 [95% CI, 2.0-4.9]). Attendance and unit 105 were independent predictors of one or more resits at the end-of-year ( R 2 = 0.86, p < .001). Attendance and first semester summative marks were associated with end-of-year performance. As such, these markers of performance may be used to flag struggling students in the program.
Rix, Jacqueline; Dewhurst, Philip; Cooke, Caroline; Newell, David
Objective: To investigate the potential association of novel academic and nonacademic factors with chiropractic student academic performance. Methods: Students enrolled into year 1 of a chiropractic master's degree (MChiro) at our college were selected for this study. Data collected included demographics, attendance, virtual learning environment use, additional learning needs, previous degree qualifications, and summative marks. Differences between students who had to take an examination more than once (resit) and nonresit students were explored using t test and χ2 analysis. Relationships between attendance and end-of-year marks were explored using regression analysis. Results: Male students outperformed female students in four of the six units and as the total year average. Students who attended <80% of classes were more likely to have a resit in one or more units (relative risk [RR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–4.9). Students who performed poorly (<70%) in the semester 1 unit of a course on human structure and failed the semester 1 practical assessment of a course on clinical management were significantly more likely to have one or more resit assessments in semester 2 units (RR = 3.5 [95% CI, 2.2–5.7]; RR = 3.2 [95% CI, 2.0–4.9]). Attendance and unit 105 were independent predictors of one or more resits at the end-of-year (R2 = 0.86, p < .001). Conclusion: Attendance and first semester summative marks were associated with end-of-year performance. As such, these markers of performance may be used to flag struggling students in the program. PMID:29332429
DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Hondras, Maria A.; Long, Cynthia R.; Schaeffer, Wally; Thomann, Lauren; Spector, Michael; Stanford, Clark M.
Background Temporomandibular pain has multiple etiologies and a range of therapeutic options. In this pilot study, the authors assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to evaluate chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods The authors assigned 80 participants randomly into one of the following four groups, all of which included a comprehensive self-care program: reversible interocclusal splint therapy (RIST), Activator Method Chiropractic Technique (AMCT) (Activator Methods International, Phoenix), sham AMCT and self-care only. They made assessments at baseline and at month 2 and month 6, including use of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Results The authors screened 721 potential participants and enrolled 80 people; 52 participants completed the six-month assessment. The adjusted mean change in current pain over six months, as assessed on the 11-point numerical rating scale, was 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1-3.0) for RIST, 1.7 (0.9-2.5) for self-care only, 1.5 (0.7-2.4) for AMCT and 1.6 (0.7-2.5) for sham AMCT. The authors also assessed bothersomeness and functionality. Conclusions The authors found the study design and methodology to be manageable. They gained substantial knowledge to aid in conducting a larger study. AMCT, RIST and self-care should be evaluated in a future comparative effectiveness study. Practical Implications. This pilot study was a necessary step to prepare for a larger study that will provide clinicians with information that should be helpful when discussing treatment options for patients with TMD. PMID:24080932
Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop
We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525
Cox, Jocelyn; Davidian, Christine; Mior, Silvano
Spinal pain in the paediatric population is a significant health issue, with an increasing prevalence as they age. Paediatric patients attend for chiropractor care for spinal pain, yet, there is a paucity of quality evidence to guide the practitioner with respect to appropriate care planning. A retrospective chart review was used to describe chiropractic management of paediatric neck pain. Two researchers abstracted data from 50 clinical files that met inclusion criteria from a general practice chiropractic office in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Data were entered into SPSS 15 and descriptively analyzed. Fifty paediatric neck pain patient files were analysed. Patients' age ranged between 6 and 18 years (mean 13 years). Most (98%) were diagnosed with Grade I-II mechanical neck pain. Treatment frequency averaged 5 visits over 19 days; with spinal manipulative therapy used in 96% of patients. Significant improvement was recorded in 96% of the files. No adverse events were documented. Paediatric mechanical neck pain appears to be successfully managed by chiropractic care. Spinal manipulative therapy appears to benefit paediatric mechanical neck pain resulting from day-today activities with no reported serious adverse events. Results can be used to inform clinical trials assessing effectiveness of manual therapy in managing paediatric mechanical neck pain.
Ward, John; Sorrels, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Deleon, Carlos; Daigneault, Paige
The purpose of this study was to pilot test our study procedures and estimate parameters for sample size calculations for a randomized controlled trial to determine if bilateral sacroiliac (SI) joint manipulation affects specific gait parameters in asymptomatic individuals with a leg length inequality (LLI). Twenty-one asymptomatic chiropractic students engaged in a baseline 90-second walking kinematic analysis using infrared Vicon® cameras. Following this, participants underwent a functional LLI test. Upon examination participants were classified as: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Half of the participants in each short leg group were then randomized to receive bilateral corrective SI joint chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Pre- versus post-intervention gait data were then analyzed within treatment groups by an individual who was blinded to participant group status. For the primary analysis, all p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Within groups, no differences in measured gait parameters were statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. The protocol of this study was acceptable to all subjects who were invited to participate. No participants refused randomization. Based on the data collected, we estimated that a larger main study would require 34 participants in each comparison group to detect a moderate effect size.
Young, Kenneth J; Bakkum, Barclay W; Siordia, Lawrence
Chiropractic first adopted the X-ray in 1910 for the purpose of demonstrating tiny misalignments of spinal bones, theorised to cause all disease, which they called chiropractic subluxations. This paper explores the apparent contradiction and resultant controversy of a system of natural healing adopting a medical technology. It centres on the actions of B.J. Palmer, the first chiropractor to use X-rays. It also clarifies details of Palmer's decision to incorporate the technology and interprets the change in the sociological context of boundary work. The continuing use of the subluxation paradigm for radiography by chiropractors has had a lingering effect on the profession, a metaphorical hangover of vitalism that is not consistent with modern healthcare practice. As a result of this conflict, arguments within the profession on the use of X-rays contribute to the continuing schism between evidence-based and subluxation-based chiropractors.
This study describes a model for statistically analyzing follow-up numeric-based chiropractic spinal assessments for an individual patient based on his or her own baseline. Ten mastoid fossa temperature differential readings (MFTD) obtained from a chiropractic patient were used in the study. The first eight readings served as baseline and were compared to post-adjustment readings. One of the two post-adjustment MFTD readings fell outside two standard deviations of the baseline mean and therefore theoretically represents improvement according to pattern analysis theory. This study showed how standard deviation analysis may be used to identify future outliers for an individual patient based on his or her own baseline data. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eklund, Andreas; Bergström, Gunnar; Bodin, Lennart; Axén, Iben
Psychological, behavioral and social factors have long been considered important in the development of persistent pain. Little is known about how chiropractic low back pain (LBP) patients compare to other LBP patients in terms of psychological/behavioral characteristics. In this cross-sectional study, the aim was to investigate patients with LBP as regards to psychosocial/behavioral characteristics by describing a chiropractic primary care population and comparing this sample to three other populations using the MPI-S instrument. Thus, four different samples were compared. A: Four hundred eighty subjects from chiropractic primary care clinics. B: One hundred twenty-eight subjects from a gainfully employed population (sick listed with high risk of developing chronicity). C: Two hundred seventy-three subjects from a secondary care rehabilitation clinic. D: Two hundred thirty-five subjects from secondary care clinics. The Swedish version of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI-S) was used to collect data. Subjects were classified using a cluster analytic strategy into three pre-defined subgroups (named adaptive copers, dysfunctional and interpersonally distressed). The data show statistically significant overall differences across samples for the subgroups based on psychological and behavioral characteristics. The cluster classifications placed (in terms of the proportions of the adaptive copers and dysfunctional subgroups) sample A between B and the two secondary care samples C and D. The chiropractic primary care sample was more affected by pain and worse off with regards to psychological and behavioral characteristics compared to the other primary care sample. Based on our findings from the MPI-S instrument the 4 samples may be considered statistically and clinically different. Sample A comes from an ongoing trial registered at clinical trials.gov; NCT01539863 , February 22, 2012.
personnel as a special service of the Physical Therapy Department. Chiropractic services have been available at NMCSD since 2003. A single DC provides...man- agement. Physical therapy and referral to a pain clinic may also be prescribed as a component of UMC. UMC providers report prescription medication...Reed National Military Medical Center. www.wrnmmc. capmed.mil/SitePages/home.aspxl. Accessed 18 Jun 2015. 33. An American Physical Therapy
Marchand, Aurélie M
Few studies have addressed the practice of chiropractic care of children in Europe. No systematic classification of conditions currently exists in chiropractic pediatrics. The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics of clinical chiropractic practice, including the age of pediatric patients, the number of reports of negative side effects (NSEs), the opinions of doctors of chiropractic on treatment options by patient age groups, the conditions seen and the number of treatment sessions delivered by conditions and by patient age. An Internet cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 European countries with 4109 doctors of chiropractic invited to reply. The 19 national associations belonging to the European Chiropractic Union and the Danish Chiropractic Association were asked to participate. Respondents were asked to self-report characteristics of their practices. Of the 956 (23.3%) participating chiropractors, 921 reported 19821 pediatric patients per month. Children represented 8.1% of chiropractors' total patient load over the last year. A total of 557 (534 mild, 23 moderate, and 0 severe) negative (adverse) side effects were reported for an estimated incidence of 0.23%. On the given treatment statements, chiropractors reported varying agreement and disagreement rates based on patient age. The 8309 answers on conditions were grouped into skeletal (57.0%), neurologic (23.7%), gastrointestinal (12.4%), infection (3.5%), genitourinary (1.5%), immune (1.4%), and miscellaneous conditions (0.5%). The number of treatment sessions delivered varied according to the condition and the patient age. This study showed that European chiropractors are active in the care of pediatric patients. Reported conditions were mainly skeletal and neurologic complaints. In this survey, no severe NSEs were reported, and mild NSEs were infrequent. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Page, Stacey A; Grod, Jaroslaw P; McMorland, D Gordon
The purpose of this study is to describe the practices and perspectives of doctors of chiropractic in Alberta, Canada, regarding the sale of health products. This practice is considered in terms of ethical principles and professional practice standards. Chiropractic Web sites in Alberta were identified using the publically available Web site of the Alberta College and Association of Chiropractors. A random sample of chiropractors was drawn and mailed a brief 4-page survey and return envelope. There was a follow-up mail out to nonrespondents 3 weeks later. Practitioners provided responses regarding their personal and professional characteristics and their perspectives and practices regarding health product sales. A total of 265 responses were received (response rate, 51.2%). Most practitioners endorsed health product sales by chiropractors (95%), and most were engaged in the practice (89%). Orthotics (77%) and pillows (69%) were sold most often, followed by nutritional supplements (68%), hot/cold packs (68%), and vitamins (52%). Some respondents identified areas of potential ethical concern, including product safety and efficacy, professional influence on consumer product purchase, and potential conflict of interest. Codes of ethics and conduct offer some guidance to practitioners, but their awareness of standards varied. The chiropractic profession within Alberta condones product sales, and most of its membership engages in the practice. Individual members differ in their perspectives on this practice and in their awareness of the national code of ethics and conduct. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bussières, André E.; Terhorst, Lauren; Leach, Matthew; Stuber, Kent; Evans, Roni; Schneider, Michael J.
Objectives: To identify Canadian chiropractors’ attitudes, skills and use of evidence based practice (EBP), as well as their level of awareness of previously published chiropractic clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Methods: 7,200 members of the Canadian Chiropractic Association were invited by e-mail to complete an online version of the Evidence Based practice Attitude & utilisation SurvEy (EBASE); a valid and reliable measure of participant attitudes, skills and use of EBP. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 554 respondents. Most respondents (>75%) held positive attitudes toward EBP. Over half indicated a high level of self-reported skills in EBP, and over 90% expressed an interest in improving these skills. A majority of respondents (65%) reported over half of their practice was based on evidence from clinical research, and only half (52%) agreed that chiropractic CPGs significantly impacted on their practice. Conclusions: While most Canadian chiropractors held positive attitudes towards EBP, believed EBP was useful, and were interested in improving their skills in EBP, many did not use research evidence or CPGs to guide clinical decision making. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the low response rate. PMID:26816412
Gleberzon, Brain J
In a previous article, the author reported on the recommendations gathered from student projects between 1996 and 1999 investigating their preferences for including certain chiropractic Name technique systems into the curriculum at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC). These results were found to be congruent with the professional treatment technique used by Canadian chiropractors. This article reports on the data obtained during the 2000 and 2001 academic years, comparing these results to those previously gathered. In addition, because of the implementation of a new curriculum during this time period, there was unique opportunity to observe whether or not student perceptions differed between those students in the `old' curricular program, and those students in the `new' curricular program. The results gathered indicate that students in both curricular programs show an interest in learning Thompson Terminal Point, Activator Methods, Gonstead, and Active Release Therapy techniques in the core curriculum, as an elective, or during continuing educational programs provided by the college. Students continue to show less interest in learning CranioSacral Therapy, SacroOccipital Technique, Logan Basic, Applied Kinesiology and Chiropractic BioPhysics. Over time, student interest has moved away from Palmer HIO and other upper cervical techniques, and students show a declining interest in being offered instruction in either Network Spinal Analysis or Torque Release Techniques. Since these findings reflect the practice activities of Canadian chiropractors they may have implications not only towards pedagogical decision-making processes at CMCC, but they may also influence professional standards of care.
Lawrence, Dana J; Meeker, William C
This commentary reports on the advances that have occurred over the 10-year period since the first National Workshop to Develop the Chiropractic Research Agenda was held and introduces the second set of white papers that were produced as a result of the 10th annual Research Agenda Conference. Four working groups were convened to update the original 5 white papers that represented the most significant results from the first workshop in 1996. Each group was to review the first report, examine the action steps and recommendations that were published in each report to see how much had been completed in the past decade, and develop new action steps and recommendations for the future. Four new articles were developed, each updating and adding significant amounts of new research to the original versions. New action steps and recommendations will help move the profession forward into the future. Chiropractic scientists have worked diligently over the past decade to address the recommendations noted in the first set of white papers. Despite significant advances in knowledge and scientific capacity, the chiropractic profession is still confronted with a large number of research challenges.
Garcia, Erin C
Burkholderia thailandensis is a Gram-negative bacterium endemic to Southeast Asian and northern Australian soils. It is non-pathogenic; therefore, it is commonly used as a model organism for the related human pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. thailandensis is relatively easily genetically manipulated and a variety of robust genetic tools can be used in this organism. This unit describes protocols for conjugation, natural transformation, mini-Tn7 insertion, and allelic exchange in B. thailandensis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Singh, Inderjeet; Amara, Yacine; Melingui, Achille; Mani Pathak, Pushparaj; Merzouki, Rochdi
Research on continuum manipulators is increasingly developing in the context of bionic robotics because of their many advantages over conventional rigid manipulators. Due to their soft structure, they have inherent flexibility, which makes it a huge challenge to control them with high performances. Before elaborating a control strategy of such robots, it is essential to reconstruct first the behavior of the robot through development of an approximate behavioral model. This can be kinematic or dynamic depending on the conditions of operation of the robot itself. Kinematically, two types of modeling methods exist to describe the robot behavior; quantitative methods describe a model-based method, and qualitative methods describe a learning-based method. In kinematic modeling of continuum manipulator, the assumption of constant curvature is often considered to simplify the model formulation. In this work, a quantitative modeling method is proposed, based on the Pythagorean hodograph (PH) curves. The aim is to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of the shape of the continuum manipulator with variable curvature, allowing the calculation of its inverse kinematic model (IKM). It is noticed that the performances of the PH-based kinematic modeling of continuum manipulators are considerable regarding position accuracy, shape reconstruction, and time/cost of the model calculation, than other kinematic modeling methods, for two cases: free load manipulation and variable load manipulation. This modeling method is applied to the compact bionic handling assistant (CBHA) manipulator for validation. The results are compared with other IKMs developed in case of CBHA manipulator.
Alcantara, Joel; Lamont, Andrea E; Ohm, Jeanne; Alcantara, Junjoe
To characterize pediatric chiropractic and assess pediatric quality of life (QoL). A prospective cohort. Setting/Locations: Individual offices within a practice-based research network located throughout the United States. A convenience sample of children (8-17 years) under chiropractic care and their parents. Chiropractic spinal adjustments and adjunctive therapies. Survey instrument measuring sociodemographic information and correlates from the clinical encounter along with the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-25 to measure QoL (i.e., depression, anxiety, and pain interference). Sociodemographic and clinical correlates were analyzed using descriptive statistics (i.e., frequencies/percentages, means, and standard deviations). The PROMIS-25 data were analyzed using scoring manuals, converting raw scores to T score metric (mean = 50; SD = 10). A generalized linear mixed model was utilized to examine covariates (i.e., sex, number of visits, and motivation for care) that may have played an important role on the PROMIS outcome. The original data set consisted of 915 parent-child dyads. After data cleaning, a total of 881 parents (747 females, 134 males; mean age = 42.03 years) and 881 children (467 females and 414 males; mean age = 12.49 years) comprised this study population. The parents were highly educated and presented their child for mainly wellness care. The mean number of days and patient visits from baseline to comparative QoL measures was 38.12 days and 2.74 (SD = 2.61), respectively. After controlling for the effects of motivation for care, patient visits, duration of complaint, sex, and pain rating, significant differences were observed in the probability of experiencing problems (vs. no reported problems) across all QoL domains (Wald = 82.897, df = 4, p < 0.05). Post hoc comparisons demonstrated the children were less likely to report any symptoms of depression (Wald = 6.1474, df = 1
Saporito, Richard P
The number of households in the United States that are not proficient in the English language is growing and presenting a challenge to the health care system. Over nineteen percent of the US population speak a language other than English in the home. This increase in language discordance generates a greater need to find and implement accommodations in the clinical setting to insure accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment as well as provide for patient safety. The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of patients accessing the chiropractic college teaching clinics who are not proficient in the English language and to what extent the colleges provide accommodations for that language disparity. The clinic directors and deans of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges were surveyed via an on-line survey engine. The survey queried the percentage of the patient population that is not English language proficient, the accommodations the college currently has in place, if the college has a language specific consent to treat document and if the college has a written policy concerning patients without English proficiency. Fifty percent of the contacted chiropractic colleges responded to the survey. In the respondent college clinics 16.5% of the patient population is not proficient in English, with over 75% speaking Spanish. All but one of the respondents provide some level of accommodation for the language non-concordance. Forty five percent of the responding colleges employ a language specific consent to treat form. The implementation of accommodations and the use of a language specific consent to treat form is more prevalent at colleges with a higher percentage of non-English speaking patients. The percentage of patients with limited English proficiency accessing services at the teaching clinics of the chiropractic colleges mirrors the numbers in the general population. There is a wide disparity in the accommodations that the individual colleges make
Haavik, Heidi; Murphy, Bernadette A; Kruger, Jennifer
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation of pregnant women can alter pelvic floor muscle function as measured using ultrasonographic imaging. In this preliminary, prospective, comparative study, transperineal ultrasonographic imaging was used to assess pelvic floor anatomy and function in 11 primigravid women in their second trimester recruited via notice boards at obstetric caregivers, pregnancy keep-fit classes, and word of mouth and 15 nulliparous women recruited from a convenience sample of female students at the New Zealand College of Chiropractic. Following bladder voiding, 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography was performed on all participants in the supine position. Levator hiatal area measurements at rest, on maximal pelvic floor contraction, and during maximum Valsalva maneuver were collected before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention. Levator hiatal area at rest increased significantly (P < .05) after spinal manipulation in the pregnant women, with no change postmanipulation in the nonpregnant women at rest or in any of the other measured parameters. Spinal manipulation of pregnant women in their second trimester increased the levator hiatal area at rest and thus appears to relax the pelvic floor muscles. This did not occur in the nonpregnant control participants, suggesting that it may be pregnancy related. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hawk, Cheryl; Schneider, Michael; Evans, Marion Willard; Redwood, Daniel
The purposes of this project were to develop consensus definitions for a set of best practices that doctors of chiropractic may use for promoting health and wellness and preventing disease and to describe the appropriate components and procedures for these practices. A multidisciplinary steering committee of 10 health care professionals developed seed statements based on their clinical experience and relevant literature. A Delphi consensus process was conducted from January to July 2011, following the RAND methodology. Consensus was reached when at least 80% of the panelists were in agreement. There were 44 Delphi panelists (36 doctors of chiropractic, 6 doctors of philosophy, 1 doctor of naturopathy, 1 registered nurse). The statements developed defined the terms and practices for chiropractic care to promote health and wellness and prevent disease. This document describes the procedures and features of wellness care that represent a reasonable approach to wellness care and disease prevention in chiropractic clinical practice. This living document provides a general framework for an evidence-based approach to chiropractic wellness care. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.
Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge Nationalmore » Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.« less
Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.
An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electricmore » field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.« less
Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.
Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel
The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.
Zollinger, William T.
Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.
Subliminal advertising techniques have increased in usage and are commonly accepted, particularly regarding cigarette smoking. Considering the high cost of such subliminal methods, their use can be justified only by tangible results, measured by an increase in cigarette sales. The results of our studies confirm the physiological and psychological effects of subliminal stimulation that have already been reported in the specialized literature. Our research on smoking prevention led us to study the sophisticated advertising strategies used by the tobacco industry. We have shown that revealing the subliminal stimuli-at least the visual ones-is extremely useful for teenagers. The enlightened teenager becomes able to recognize the subliminal manipulation concealed in advertising, and the risk of becoming its victim. Such educational efforts have their merits, particularly at the school level.
Holt, W.E.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.
An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member. 41 figs.
Holt, William E.; Kuban, Daniel P.; Martin, H. Lee
An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member.
The patent covers a remote-control manipulator in which a tool is carried on a tube at an end thereof angularly related to the main portion of the tube and joined thereto by a curved section. The main portion of the tube is mounted for rotation and axial shifting in a wall separating safe and dangerous areas. The tool is actuated to grasp and release an object in the dangerous area by means of a compound shaft extending through the tube, the shaft having a flexible section extending through the curved section of the tube. The tool is moved about in the dangerous area by rotation and axial movement of the main portion of the tube. Additional movement of the tool is obtained through axial shifting of the shaft with respect to the tube through which it extends. (AEC)
Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G; Parkin-Smith, Gregory F; Nedkoff, Lee; Fisher, Colleen
This paper reports the quantitative outcomes of a mixed-methods pilot study of the characteristics and demographics of chiropractic practices and patients in Western Australia. This was a mixed-methods data transformation model (qualitative to quantitative) pilot study. A non-random sample of chiropractic practices across Western Australia was recruited and data collected anonymously from consecutive new patients using an online platform. Data covered practice and patient demographics and characteristics, alongside quality of life measures. A descriptive quantitative analysis characterised the sample, and the patient population was stratified by main reason for presentation to compare characteristics according to the presence of secondary complaints. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the odds of a secondary complaint for various combinations of main complaints, from univariate logistic regression models. Of the 539 registered practitioners in WA in July 2014, 33 agreed to participate, from 20 different practices. Ten participating practices provided data on 325 adult new patients. The recruited practices (metropolitan n = 8, regional n = 2) had a positive response rate of 79.7 % ( n = 301 metropolitan and n = 24 regional patients), mean age 36.3 years (range 18-74) (53.2 % female). Spinal problems were reported as the main reason for consultation by 67 % and as secondary reasons by 77.2 % of patients. People presented primarily for health maintenance or a general health check in 11.4 %, and as a secondary reason 14.8 %. There were 30 % of people below societal norms for the SF-12 Physical Component Score (mean 47.19, 95 % CI; 46.27-48.19) and 86 % for the Mental Component Score (mean 36.64, 95 % CI; 35.93-37.65), Pain Impact Questionnaire mean scores were 54.60 (95 % CI; 53.32-55.88). Patients presented to chiropractors in Western Australia with a fairly wide range of conditions, but primarily spinal and musculoskeletal
The author presents a novel approach to adaptive control of manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The central concept in this approach is the utilization of the manipulator inverse as a feedforward controller. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller which behaves as the inverse of the manipulator at any operating point; the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. The controller gains are then updated by an adaptation algorithm derived from MRAC (model reference adaptive control) theory to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal are also used to enhance closed-loop stability and to achieve faster adaptation. The proposed control scheme is computationally fast and does not require a priori knowledge of the complex dynamic model or the parameter values of the manipulator or the payload.
Moetteli, John B. (Inventor)
A device for manipulating a workpiece in space includes a fixture, a stanchion assembly, a manipulation mechanism, an actuation mechanism, and a reaction mechanism. The fixture has an end onto which the workpiece affixes. The stanchion assembly has an upper and a lower end. The manipulation mechanism connects the fixture and the upper end of the stanchion assembly. The lower end of the stanchion assembly mounts, via probe and a socket, to a structure. The actuation mechanism operably connects to the manipulation mechanism, and moves the fixture in space. The reaction mechanism provides a point through which force inputs into the actuation mechanism may react.
Rumrill, Phillip D
The article describes non-manipulation quantitative designs of two types, correlational and causal comparative studies. Both of these designs are characterized by the absence of random assignment of research participants to conditions or groups and non-manipulation of the independent variable. Without random selection or manipulation of the independent variable, no attempt is made to draw causal inferences regarding relationships between independent and dependent variables. Nonetheless, non-manipulation studies play an important role in rehabilitation research, as described in this article. Examples from the contemporary rehabilitation literature are included. Copyright 2004 IOS Press
Tan, David L.
Examined relationship between grades, academic performance, and career success in case of nontraditional, health-related educational institution (Palmer College of Chiropractic). Found direct relationship between entering grade point average and subsequent college performance. Relationship between good grades in professional schools and career…
Herbison, Ryan; Lagrue, Clement; Poulin, Robert
The observation that certain species of parasite my adaptively manipulate its host behaviour is a fascinating phenomenon. As a result, the recently established field of 'host manipulation' has seen rapid expansion over the past few decades with public and scientific interest steadily increasing. However, progress appears to falter when researchers ask how parasites manipulate behaviour, rather than why. A vast majority of the published literature investigating the mechanistic basis underlying behavioural manipulation fails to connect the establishment of the parasite with the reported physiological changes in its host. This has left researchers unable to empirically distinguish/identify adaptive physiological changes enforced by the parasites from pathological side effects of infection, resulting in scientists relying on narratives to explain results, rather than empirical evidence. By contrasting correlative mechanistic evidence for host manipulation against rare cases of causative evidence and drawing from the advanced understanding of physiological systems from other disciplines it is clear we are often skipping over a crucial step in host-manipulation: the production, potential storage, and release of molecules (manipulation factors) that must create the observed physiological changes in hosts if they are adaptive. Identifying these manipulation factors, via associating gene expression shifts in the parasite with behavioural changes in the host and following their effects will provide researchers with a bottom-up approach to unraveling the mechanisms of behavioural manipulation and by extension behaviour itself.
Schneider, Michael J; Brach, Jennifer; Irrgang, James J.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Delitto, Anthony
Objective This is an observational prospective cohort study to explore the treatment effect of mechanical vs. manual manipulation for acute low back pain. Methods Ninety two patients with a history of acute low back pain were recruited from 3 private chiropractic offices, 2 of which utilized manual lumbar manipulation and 1 used mechanical instrument manipulation (Activator) as their primary modes of treatment. The chiropractors used their “treatment as usual” protocols for a maximum of 8 visits or 4 weeks, which ever occurred first. Primary outcome measures were changes in Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores from baseline to 4 weeks. The linear regression models were adjusted for baseline NPRS and ODI scores, age, and treatment expectancy. Results Comparison of baseline characteristics did not show any significant differences between the groups except for age (38.4 vs. 49.7 years; p < .001) and treatment expectancy (5.7 vs. 6.3; p = .003). Linear regression revealed significantly lower NPRS scores in the manual manipulation group at four weeks [β = −1.2; 95% CI (−2.1, −.28)] but no significant difference in ODI scores between the two groups at four weeks [β = 1.5; 95% CI (−8.3, 2.4)]. Treatment expectancy, but not age, was found to have a significant main effect on both NPRS and ODI scores at 4 weeks. Exploratory analysis of the clinical patterns of care between the clinicians revealed significant differences in treatment frequency, duration, modality and radiograph usage between the 2 cohorts. Conclusions This study highlights the challenges inherent with conducting research that allows for “treatment-as-usual”. The data and experience derived from this investigational study will be used to design a future randomized clinical trial in which tighter controls will be imposed on the treatment protocol. PMID:20350672
Palmgren, Per J; Sundberg, Tobias; Laksov, Klara Bolander
The aim of the study was twofold: (1) to compare the perceived educational environment at 2 points in time and (2) to longitudinally examine potential changes in perceptions of the educational environment over time. The validated Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), a 50-item, self-administered Likert-type inventory, was used in this prospective study. Employing convenience sampling, undergraduate chiropractic students were investigated at 2 points in time: 2009 (n = 124) and 2012 (n = 127). An analysis of 2 matching samples was performed on 27% (n = 34) of the respondents in 2009. A total of 251 students (79%) completed the inventory, 83% (n = 124) in 2009 and 75% (n = 127) in 2012. The overall DREEM scores in both years were excellent: 156 (78%) and 153 (77%), respectively. The students' perceptions of teachers differed significantly between the 2 cohort years, decreasing from 77% to 73%. Three items received deprived scores: limited support for stressed students, authoritarian teachers, and an overemphasis on factual learning; the latter significantly decreased in 2012. In the longitudinal sample these items also displayed scores below the expected mean. Students viewed the educational environment as excellent both in 2009 and 2012. The perceptions of teachers declined with time; however, this could be attributed to teachers' new roles. Certain aspects of the educational environment factored prominently during the comparative points in time, as well as longitudinally, and these ought to be further investigated and addressed to provide an enhanced educational environment.
Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Hartling, Lisa; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Vohra, Sunita
A reporting and learning system is a method of monitoring the occurrence of incidents that affect patient safety. This cross-sectional survey asked pediatric chiropractors about factors that may limit their participation in such a system. The list of potential barriers for participation was developed using a systematic approach. All members of the 2 pediatric councils associated with US national chiropractic organizations were invited to complete the survey (N = 400). The cross-sectional survey was created using an online survey tool (REDCap) and sent directly to member emails addressed by the respective executive committees. Of the 400 potential respondents, 81 responded (20.3%). The most common limitations to participating were identified as time pressure (96%) and patient concerns (81%). Reporting and learning systems have been utilized to increase safety awareness in many high-risk industries. To be successful, future patient safety studies with pediatric chiropractors need to ensure these barriers are understood and addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Homb, Nicole M; Sheybani, Shayan; Derby, Dustin; Wood, Kurt
Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the association of a clinical documentation quality improvement program using audit-feedback with clinical compliance to indicators of quality chart documentation. Methods : This was an analysis of differences between adherence to quality indicators of chiropractic record documentation and audit-feedback intervention (feedback report only vs. feedback report with one-on-one educational consultation) at different campuses. Comparisons among groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey or Dunnett post hoc tests, and Cohen's d effect size estimates. Results : There was a significant increase in the mean percentile compliance in 2 of 5 compliance areas and 1 of 11 compliance objectives. Campus B demonstrated significantly higher levels of compliance relative to campus A and/or campus C in 5 of 5 compliance areas and 7 of 11 compliance objectives. Across-campus comparisons indicated that the compliance area Review (Non-Medicare) Treatment Plan [F(2,18) = 17.537, p < .001] and compliance objective Treatment Plan Goals [F(2,26) = 5.653, p < .001] exhibited the highest practical importance for clinical compliance practice. Conclusions : Feedback of performance improved compliance to indicators of quality health record documentation, especially when baseline adherence is relatively low. Required educational consultations with clinicians combined with audit-feedback were no more effective at increasing compliance to indicators of quality health record documentation than audit-feedback alone.
Jay, T C; Jones, S L; Coe, N; Breen, A C
Chiropractic services are commonly used by workers with musculoskeletal problems, especially low back and neck complaints. Research into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach is, however, difficult to design without prior pilot studies. This study followed 32 workers with these complaints attending one such service and used five measures of outcome over a 6-month period. These measured pain (VAS), disability (FLP), quality of life (SF-36), perceived benefit and satisfaction with care. Additionally, sickness costs to the companies were recorded over two years encompassing the study period. Treatment utilization was also monitored. Over half the population were chronic sufferers. The effect sizes were large for pain and for seven out of eight dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire at 6-month follow-up, although not for disability (FLP). High levels of satisfaction and perceived improvement were reported and sickness costs to the companies fell. However, the sample size in this pilot study was small and did not include controls. We would, therefore, recommend a full cost-effectiveness study incorporating a randomized trial in this area.
Palmgren, Per J.; Sundberg, Tobias; Laksov, Klara Bolander
Objective The aim of the study was twofold: (1) to compare the perceived educational environment at 2 points in time and (2) to longitudinally examine potential changes in perceptions of the educational environment over time. Methods The validated Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), a 50-item, self-administered Likert-type inventory, was used in this prospective study. Employing convenience sampling, undergraduate chiropractic students were investigated at 2 points in time: 2009 (n = 124) and 2012 (n = 127). An analysis of 2 matching samples was performed on 27% (n = 34) of the respondents in 2009. Results A total of 251 students (79%) completed the inventory, 83% (n = 124) in 2009 and 75% (n = 127) in 2012. The overall DREEM scores in both years were excellent: 156 (78%) and 153 (77%), respectively. The students' perceptions of teachers differed significantly between the 2 cohort years, decreasing from 77% to 73%. Three items received deprived scores: limited support for stressed students, authoritarian teachers, and an overemphasis on factual learning; the latter significantly decreased in 2012. In the longitudinal sample these items also displayed scores below the expected mean. Conclusion Students viewed the educational environment as excellent both in 2009 and 2012. The perceptions of teachers declined with time; however, this could be attributed to teachers' new roles. Certain aspects of the educational environment factored prominently during the comparative points in time, as well as longitudinally, and these ought to be further investigated and addressed to provide an enhanced educational environment. PMID:26023892
Hester, Hilary; Cunliffe, Christina; Hunnisett, Adrian
Objective : Stress encompasses academic issues, such as time management, increased work load, and new subject matter, but cannot be separated from stressors, such as social adjustment and financial pressure. Our study investigated whether perceived level of academic or practical attainment and the method of study were associated with the amount of perceived stress during students" studies. Methods : A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was piloted and distributed to 134 students at a chiropractic college at the end of a lecture. Results : The survey had a response rate of 81%. Students in their fourth year consistently reported the highest perceived levels of stress, with 81% feeling that their ability to study was affected by their financial situation and 56% felt overwhelmed at their ability to cope with their college workload. All year groups were stressed during their course of studies, but the stressor varies depending on the year of study. Conclusions : Year 4 consistently demonstrated the highest levels of stress. All students, regardless of year group, experienced varying degrees of stress while studying and the central stressor changed depending on the time position within the course.
Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.
Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350
Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Sutton, Ronald E.
The images of photography have been manipulated almost from the moment of their discovery. The blending together in the studio and darkroom of images not found in actual scenes from life has been a regular feature of modern photography in both art and advertising. Techniques of photograph manipulation include retouching; blocking out figures or…
Whillier, Stephney; Au, Kent; Feng, Louie; Su, Helen
The shift toward evidence-based health care has reoriented tertiary clinical education in a way that necessitates and incorporates research. This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. Research attributes of chiropractic students were assessed in this cross-sectional study using a validated and modified academic self-concept analysis scale. Students in first and final year were assessed in 4 domains: creativity, motivation, self-regulation, and general intellectual ability. Univariable differences were assessed using Welch 2-sample t tests, and multivariable analysis was carried out with multiple linear regression models. The response rate was 71% (n = 165). First- and fifth-year students scored highly on all 4 domains (80% to 96%). Compared to first-year students, fifth-year students rated themselves significantly lower in 3 of the domains: general intellectual abilities (t = -2.01; p = 0.047), motivation (t = -4.82; p < 0.001), and creativity (t = -3.00; p = 0.003). Research suitability is high in chiropractic students. Both cohorts scored high in all domains despite the disparity between first and fifth years. First-year students outperformed fifth-year students in 3 domains, indicating a potential decline in the inclination to do research over time. However, unaccounted factors, such as the Dunning-Kruger effect, life changes, and "burnout," may have contributed to these differences. Future studies should include questions about stress, fatigue, clinical orientation, and educational environment to inform the interpretation of findings.
Frutiger, Martin; Tuchin, Peter Jeffery
Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide a best-synthesis summary of the literature for effective workplace health promotion interventions (WHPI) for work-related mechanical neck pain (MNP) and to determine the congruence between knowledge of WHPI for work-related MNP and coverage of MNP in the chiropractic postgraduate program at Macquarie University. Methods: A literature review was undertaken to determine effective WHPI for work-related MNP. We searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro (from 1991 to 2016) for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The PRISMA (2009) 27-item checklist was used to critically appraise included articles. Lectures, tutorials, and assessment tasks within the chiropractic postgraduate program were mapped to the literature review findings and analyzed. Results: There was moderate-quality evidence for multidimensional WHPI, including aspects of mental and physical functioning, activity performance and modifications, and environmental modifications, to reduce MNP and disability in workers, particularly in the long term. Education on coverage of MNP and effective WHPI for MNP was inadequately covered although congruent with synthesis of current literature. Education on body functions and structures and personal factors were the most commonly covered components. Conclusion: Multidimensional WHPI, focusing on physical, mental, and environmental modifications, appear to reduce self-reported MNP primarily in office workers. There is adequate congruence between the chiropractic postgraduate program at Macquarie University and the published literature on some WHPI. However, there is inadequate coverage on aspects of MNP and effective WHPI for MNP, particularly those focusing on activity and participation and environmental factors. PMID:28742974
Whillier, Stephney; Au, Kent; Feng, Louie; Su, Helen
Objective: The shift toward evidence-based health care has reoriented tertiary clinical education in a way that necessitates and incorporates research. This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. Methods: Research attributes of chiropractic students were assessed in this cross-sectional study using a validated and modified academic self-concept analysis scale. Students in first and final year were assessed in 4 domains: creativity, motivation, self-regulation, and general intellectual ability. Univariable differences were assessed using Welch 2-sample t tests, and multivariable analysis was carried out with multiple linear regression models. Results: The response rate was 71% (n = 165). First- and fifth-year students scored highly on all 4 domains (80% to 96%). Compared to first-year students, fifth-year students rated themselves significantly lower in 3 of the domains: general intellectual abilities (t = −2.01; p = 0.047), motivation (t = −4.82; p < 0.001), and creativity (t = −3.00; p = 0.003). Conclusion: Research suitability is high in chiropractic students. Both cohorts scored high in all domains despite the disparity between first and fifth years. First-year students outperformed fifth-year students in 3 domains, indicating a potential decline in the inclination to do research over time. However, unaccounted factors, such as the Dunning-Kruger effect, life changes, and “burnout,” may have contributed to these differences. Future studies should include questions about stress, fatigue, clinical orientation, and educational environment to inform the interpretation of findings. PMID:28768108
Frutiger, Martin; Tuchin, Peter Jeffery
The purpose of this study was to provide a best-synthesis summary of the literature for effective workplace health promotion interventions (WHPI) for work-related mechanical neck pain (MNP) and to determine the congruence between knowledge of WHPI for work-related MNP and coverage of MNP in the chiropractic postgraduate program at Macquarie University. A literature review was undertaken to determine effective WHPI for work-related MNP. We searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro (from 1991 to 2016) for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The PRISMA (2009) 27-item checklist was used to critically appraise included articles. Lectures, tutorials, and assessment tasks within the chiropractic postgraduate program were mapped to the literature review findings and analyzed. There was moderate-quality evidence for multidimensional WHPI, including aspects of mental and physical functioning, activity performance and modifications, and environmental modifications, to reduce MNP and disability in workers, particularly in the long term. Education on coverage of MNP and effective WHPI for MNP was inadequately covered although congruent with synthesis of current literature. Education on body functions and structures and personal factors were the most commonly covered components. Multidimensional WHPI, focusing on physical, mental, and environmental modifications, appear to reduce self-reported MNP primarily in office workers. There is adequate congruence between the chiropractic postgraduate program at Macquarie University and the published literature on some WHPI. However, there is inadequate coverage on aspects of MNP and effective WHPI for MNP, particularly those focusing on activity and participation and environmental factors.
Dane, Andrew B; Teh, Elaine; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E; Ying, Pee Kui
The aim of this study was to investigate if there were differences in the two-point discrimination (2-PD) of fingers among students at different stages of a chiropractic program. This study measured 2-PD thresholds for the dominant and nondominant index finger and dominant and nondominant forearm in groups of students in a 4-year chiropractic program at the International Medical University in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Measurements were made using digital calipers mounted on a modified weighing scale. Group comparisons were made among students for each year of the program (years 1, 2, 3, and 4). Analysis of the 2-PD threshold for differences among the year groups was performed with analysis of variance. The mean 2-PD threshold of the index finger was higher in the students who were in the higher year groups. Dominant-hand mean values for year 1 were 2.93 ± 0.04 mm and 1.69 ± 0.02 mm in year 4. There were significant differences at finger sites (P < .05) among all year groups compared with year 1. There were no significant differences measured at the dominant forearm between any year groups (P = .08). The nondominant fingers of the year groups 1, 2, and 4 showed better 2-PD compared with the dominant finger. There was a significant difference (P = .005) between the nondominant (1.93 ± 1.15) and dominant (2.27 ± 1.14) fingers when all groups were combined (n = 104). The results of this study demonstrated that the finger 2-PD of the chiropractic students later in the program was more precise than that of students in the earlier program. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pursel, Kevin J; Jacobson, Martin; Stephenson, Kathy
The purpose of this study is to describe a reimbursement model that was developed by one Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) to transition from fee-for-service to add a combination of pay for performance and reporting model of reimbursement for chiropractic care. The previous incentive program used by the HMO provided best-practice education and additional reimbursement incentives for achieving the National Committee for Quality Assurance Back Pain Recognition Program (NCQA-BPRP) recognition status. However, this model had not leveled costs between doctors of chiropractic (DCs). Therefore, the HMO management aimed to develop a reimbursement model to incentivize providers to embrace existing best-practice models and report existing quality metrics. The development goals included the following: it should (1) be as financially predictable as the previous system, (2) cost no more on a per-member basis, (3) meet the coverage needs of its members, and (4) be able to be operationalized. The model should also reward DCs who embraced best practices with compensation, not simply tied to providing more procedures, the new program needed to (1) cause little or no disruption in current billing, (2) be grounded achievable and defined expectations for improvement in quality, and (3) be voluntary, without being unduly punitive, should the DC choose not to participate in the program. The generated model was named the Comprehensive Chiropractic Quality Reimbursement Methodology (CCQRM; pronounced "Quorum"). In this hybrid model, additional reimbursement, beyond pay-for-procedures will be based on unique payment interpretations reporting selected, existing Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) codes, meaningful use of electronic health records, and achieving NCQA-BPRP recognition. This model aims to compensate providers using pay-for-performance, pay-for-quality reporting, pay-for-procedure methods. The CCQRM reimbursement model was developed to address the current needs of one
Dennis, Alyssa K; Oakley, Paul A; Weiner, Michael T; VanVranken, Tara A; Shapiro, David A; Harrison, Deed E
[Purpose] To present a case of the therapeutic reversal of a cervical kyphosis into a lordosis in a patient who presented with neck pain and headaches. [Subject and Methods] A 24-year-old male irritated his neck while dancing. Upon examination it was revealed he had an excessive, 45 mm forward head translation and a 15° cervical kyphosis from C3-C6. The patient was treated with Chiropractic BioPhysics ® methods aimed at restoring the cervical lordosis by mirror image ® , neck extension exercises, cervical extension traction, and spinal manipulative therapy. [Results] After two weeks of treatments the patient reported a complete resolution of neck pain. After 24 treatments over 10-weeks, a lateral radiograph demonstrated the restoration of a cervical lordosis and a complete reduction of forward head translation. [Conclusion] This case demonstrates that a cervical kyphosis may be reversed into a lordosis in as little as 10-weeks by specific care incorporating cervical extension protocols. This case also supports the biomechanical literature that suggests those with cervical kyphosis may be predisposed to spinal injury. We suggest that correcting even asymptomatic patients with obvious cervical spine deformity should be accomplished prior to future injury and/or degenerative changes.
Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.
Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.
Gravagne, Ian A; Walker, Ian D
Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.
Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.
Katzschmann, Robert K.; Marchese, Andrew D.
Abstract This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities. PMID:27625916
Dailey, Jason I
As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and professional development. Yet manipulation need not be a skill necessary to practice medicine, and steps should be taken by both individuals and institutions to combat the view that the way medicine must be practiced "in the real world" is somehow different from what one's affective moral sense implores.
Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.
Yang, Feng; Li, Wen-Xiong; Liu, Zhu; Liu, Li
Cervical spondylosis is a very common disorder and cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is the most common form of spinal degenerative disease. Its clinical manifestations focus on pain and numbness of the neck and arm as well as restricted movement of the neck, which greatly affect the patient's life and work. The orthopedic of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory holds that the basic pathologic change in spinal degenerative diseases is the imbalance between the dynamic system and the static system of the cervical spine. Based on this theory, some Chinese physicians have developed a balance chiropractic therapy (BCT) to treat CSR, which has been clinically examined for more