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Sample records for chloride concentration case

  1. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  2. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  3. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  4. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Kaifeng; Pan, Dong; Lei, Zongru; Wang, Weilun; Xing, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio) influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses. PMID:28788202

  5. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  6. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comment on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration".

    PubMed

    Voipio, Juha; Boron, Walter F; Jones, Stephen W; Hopfer, Ulrich; Payne, John A; Kaila, Kai

    2014-09-05

    Glykys et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 670) conclude that, rather than ion transporters, "local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration" and thereby determine "the magnitude and direction of GABAAR currents at individual synapses." If this were possible, perpetual ion-motion machines could be constructed. The authors' conclusions conflict with basic thermodynamic principles.

  8. Concentration distribution of methyl chloride in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Rasmussen, L. E.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Dalluge, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron capture gas chromatography techniques were used to obtain measurements of methyl chloride concentrations in the atmosphere, at latitudes ranging from about 65 N to 90 S. Most of the measurements were made over the Pacific Ocean. Average global concentrations within the boundary layer were found to be 815 plus or minus 25 pptv in 1977 and 755 plus or minus 37 pptv in 1978. Lower concentrations were observed above the boundary layer with average values of 629 plus or minus 23 pptv and 618 plus or minus 23 pptv in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Within 20 deg of the equator, the boundary layer concentrations were significantly higher than those above the boundary layer. The sources, the sinks, the budgets, and the latitudinal distributions of methyl chloride are discussed in the paper.

  9. Chloridizing Roasting Process for a Complex Sulfide Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T. K.; Menon, P. R.; Shukla, P. P.; Gupta, C. K.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes a chloridizing roasting process applied to two types of nickel and copper-bearing sulfide concentrates. One was copper rich and the other nickel rich. The paper gives a full account of the process as investigated in various batch roasters, and in multiple hearth and rotary roasters. For commercial viability, the paper finally examines the rotary furnace as the preferred equipment for roasting the types of nickel-copper bearing sulfide concentrates studied here.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of actinide speciation in concentrated chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Runde, W.; Neu, M.P.; Conradson, S.D.; Clark, D.L.; Palmer, P.D.; Reilly, S.D.; Scott, B.L.; Tait, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    The proposed disposal of nuclear waste in geological salt formations, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (USA) and the Gorleben site (Germany), raises a fundamental question: To what degree actinides will be solubilized and mobilized upon interaction with chloride ions? Actinide solubilities in highly concentrated chloride solutions are about one order of magnitude higher than in similar inert electrolyte (NaClO{sub 4}) solutions. This increased solubility is due to interactions between actinide and chloride ions. Contradictory results exist regarding the interaction mechanism between actinide and chloride ions. Specifically, both inner-sphere complex formation and ion pair association have been implicated in the interpretation of spectrophotometric and extraction data. To address this controversy, the authors investigated the interaction between actinide ions in the (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) oxidation states and chloride ions using a multi-method approach. Spectroscopic techniques (TRLFS, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, EXAFS) were used to distinguish between changes in the inner coordination sphere of the actinide ion and effects of ion pairing, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction were used to determine structural details of the actinide chloro complexes formed in solution and solid states.

  11. Occurrence, Distribution, Sources, and Trends of Elevated Chloride Concentrations in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Clark, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    underlies the alluvial aquifer, indicate that leakage from the river and upward flow of saline water in underlying aquifers are not likely sources for the saline water in the alluvial aquifer in Area I. A good comparison was noted for chloride concentrations in Area I and surface geomorphology. In the majority of cases, elevated chloride concentrations occurred in backswamp deposits, with low concentrations (less than 50 milligrams per liter) in areas of active or abandoned channel deposits. The fine-grained, clay-rich deposits associated with backswamp areas likely restrict recharge, induce increased ratios between evapotranspiration and recharge, and experience minimal flushing of salts concentrated during evapotranspiration. In Area II, chloride isoconcentration maps of the underlying upper Claiborne aquifer, in addition to samples from wells completed in the middle and lower Claiborne aquifers, showed a similar chloride distribution to that of the alluvial aquifer with decreasing chloride concentrations to the east of the zone of elevated chloride concentrations, which suggests a deeper source of saline water that affects Tertiary and Quaternary aquifer systems. Mixing curves developed from bromide/chloride ratios in water samples from the alluvial aquifer, Tertiary aquifers, and samples of brine water from the Jurrasic Smackover Formation additionally discounted upward flow of saline water from underlying Tertiary formations as a potential mechanism for salinity in the alluvial aquifer in Area II. A review of information on oil exploration wells in Chicot County revealed that most of these wells were drilled from 1960 to 1980, after the elevated chloride concentrations were detected in the early 1950s. The elongated nature of the zone of elevated chloride concentrations in Area II suggests a line source or linear conduit connection with the source. Maps of a fractured limestone in the Smackover Formation in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana for purpose

  12. Bromate peak distortion in ion chromatography in samples containing high chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pappoe, Michael K; Naeeni, Mohammad Hosein; Lucy, Charles A

    2016-04-29

    In this study, the effect of column overload of the matrix ion, chloride, on the elution peak profiles of trace bromate is investigated. The resultant peak profiles of chloride and bromate are explained on the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms. The Thermo IonPac AS9-HC, AS19 and AS23 columns are recommended by the manufacturer for bromate (a carcinogen) analysis. Under trace conditions, these columns provide baseline resolution of bromate from matrix ions such as chloride (Rs=2.9, 3.3 and 3.2, respectively for the three columns). Injection of 10-300 mM chloride with both hydroxide and carbonate eluents resulted in overload on these columns. On the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms, a deficiency in the local concentration of the more retained eluent in addition to analyte overload leads to fronting of the overloaded analyte peak. The peak asymmetries (B/A10%) for chloride changed from 1.0 (Gaussian) under trace conditions to 0.7 (fronting) at 300 mM Cl(-) for IonPac AS9-HC, 0.9-0.6 for AS19 and 0.8-0.5, for AS23, respectively. The 10mM bromate peak is initially near Gaussian (B/A10%=0.9) but becomes increasingly distorted and pulled back into the chloride peak as the concentration of chloride increased. Increasing the eluent strength reduced the pull-back effect on bromate and fronting in chloride in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure of concentrated aqueous solutions of scandium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, P. R.; Grechin, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    It is shown via X-ray diffraction that aqueous solutions of scandium chloride form ionic associates in a wide range of concentrations. It is established that the Sc3+ ion coordination number increases upon dilution to 8.2 at an unchanged Sc3+-OH2 distance of 0.215 nm. The second coordination sphere of the cation forms at an average distance of 0.420 nm. The number of solvent molecules in the sphere logically increases during dilution. It is concluded that the anion does not form its own sphere in highly concentrated solutions. This coordination sphere begins to form only in solutions with moderate concentrations at a distance of 0.315 nm, and it contains six water molecules in diluted solutions.

  14. Nucleation and growth of zinc from chloride concentrated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Trejo, G.; Ortega B, R.; Meas V, Y.; Ozil, P.; Chainet, E.; Nguyen, B.

    1998-12-01

    The electrodeposition of metals is a complex phenomenon influenced by a number of factors that modify the rates of nucleation and growth and determine the properties of the deposits. In this work the authors study the influence of the zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) concentration on the zinc nucleation process on glassy carbon, in a KCl electrolyte under conditions close to those employed in commercial acid deposition baths for zinc. The electrochemical study was performed using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic current-time transients. The charge-transfer coefficient and the formal potential for ZnCl{sub 2} reduction were evaluated from cyclic voltammetry experiments. The nucleation process was analyzed by comparing the transients obtained with the known dimensionless (i/i{sub m}){sup 2} vs. t/t{sub m} response for instantaneous or progressive nucleation. The results show that the nucleation process and the number density of sites are dependent on ZnCl{sub 2} concentration. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the deposits shows that the deposits are homogeneous and compact although a change in the morphology is observed as a function of ZnCl{sub 2} concentration. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance reveals the influence of the nucleation process on the subsequent corrosion resistance of the zinc deposits.

  15. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P < .001) as well as the surface energy (P < .001) significantly decreased with increasing benzalkonium chloride concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seven-day viable analysis of some ophthalmic preparations with different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Adil, H; Sheikh, D; Ahmed, I; Sheikh, M R; Ali, G

    1995-07-01

    The efficacy of zinc sulphate and boric acid ophthalmic preparations, containing benzalkonium chloride as preservative have been investigated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The viability of bacteria was checked after 7 days though they were completely suppressed after 24 hours of inoculation. Zinc sulphate increased the antimicrobial activity of benzalkonium chloride, whereas the boric acid or its combination with zinc sulphate reduced the same. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be viable against zinc sulphate, boric acid or its combination at a concentration of 0.01% to 0.005% of the preservative. Escherichia coil and Staphylococcus aureus also exhibited resistance but to a lesser extent than Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This viability may be dangerous in case of multidose ophthalmic preparations.

  17. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stephan C; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2015-04-10

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7-365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9-22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology.

  18. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Stephan C.; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W.; James, Margaret O.

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7 – 365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9 – 22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology. PMID:25748576

  19. Influence of sodium chloride concentration on the controlled lactic acid fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, C; Palop, L; Sánchez, I

    1999-12-01

    The effect of a commercial Lactobacillus starter and sodium chloride concentration on the fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum depressum) was studied. The results of fermentation using added starter and varying salt concentrations (4, 6, and 10% w/v) in brine were compared with the results of spontaneous fermentation taking place in brine with a salt concentration of 4%. Fresh fruits, medium in size (34-44 g), were used in all cases; all fruits were blanched under identical conditions. Temperature in the fermenters was 32+/-2 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that addition of a suitable starter shortened the fermentation process, provided the salt concentration in the brine did not exceed 6%. In the conditions tested, the eggplants obtained after fermentation were found to be of good quality though somewhat bitter which may explained by the starter employed.

  20. Contact allergy to beryllium chloride: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Fernando; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Cuesta, Laura; Latorre, Nuria; Monteagudo, Almudena

    2011-02-01

    Isolated cases of allergic contact dermatitis, gingivitis and stomatitis caused by beryllium have been previously reported. We have been able to study a series of 12 patients with patch test reactions to beryllium chloride. The study was aimed at defining the clinical and patch testing characteristics in this group of patients, and determining whether some were delayed elicitation reactions or late reactions of active sensitizations by patch testing. We performed a 5-year retrospective study of patients tested with a metal series, and studied a subgroup who showed reactions to beryllium chloride. A total of 1799 patients were patch tested, 62 of whom were also tested with a specific metal series; 12 of them reacted to beryllium chloride. Eight of the 12 patients showed reactions to other metals. Based on the time of positive reaction to beryllium chloride, three patterns emerged: (i) 3 patients showed positive reactions on D2-D4; (ii) 6 patients showed positive reactions between D7 and D10; and (iii) 3 patients showed positive reactions later than D10. Contact allergy to beryllium chloride may not be as unusual as the literature suggests. In order to avoid undetected contact allergies, we recommend performing later readings, between D7 and D10, whenever patch testing is performed with beryllium chloride. Active sensitization may occur. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Predictions of size-resolved aerosol concentrations of ammonium, chloride and nitrate at a bayside site using EQUISOLV II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Scott W.; Evans, Melissa C.; Poor, Noreen D.

    Measured ambient air concentrations of ammonium, chloride and nitrate were compared with concentrations produced by EQUISOLV II, an aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium model. The monitoring equipment was located ˜50 m from Old Tampa Bay at the eastern end of the Gandy Bridge in Tampa, FL. Size-segregated ion concentrations of ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate were determined from 6- and 1-day integrated cascade impactor samples obtained in May and August 2001, respectively. EQUISOLV II was initialized with these ion concentrations by size bin, and by gas phase concentrations of the volatile species, acquired with a collocated annular denuder system. The model redistributed the ions between the size bins until gas and particle concentrations reached equilibrium. The model calculated predominantly fine particle ammonium and coarse particle chloride and nitrate. For the May sampling period, when the average relative humidity was below 65%, the model predicted the formation of seven solids KNO 3, K 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, Na 2SO 4, NaCl, NaNO 3, and CaSO 4·2H 2O. The amounts of ammonium in the fine fraction and of nitrate and chloride in the coarse fraction were predicted within the combined measurement and modeling uncertainty in the majority of cases.

  2. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-01-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  3. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-01-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  4. Vasculitic purpura in vinyl chloride disease: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Magnavita, N.; Bergamaschi, A.; Garcovich, A.; Giuliano, G.

    1986-05-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC), a volatile substance mostly used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) synthesis, is a systemic toxicant particularly noxious to endothelium. Angiosarcoma of the liver, Raynaud's phenomenon, scleroderma-like lesions, acroosteolysis and neuritis are known to be typical vinyl chloride-associated manifestations (VC disease). A so far unknown feature of the disease is purpura. This was first observed by the authors in a worker of a PVC-producing plant. The skin eruption was characterized by small purpuric maculae with tiny, palpable spots and papulae, mostly concentrated on the lower part of the legs, changing into bullae, pustules and crusts and tending to spontaneous regression after withdrawal from VC exposure. A skin biopsy revealed marked inflammatory reaction with a mostly lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration around and in the walls of dermal arterioles. The finding of increased circulating immune complexes and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies strengthens the hypothesis that immunologic changes play a role in the appearance of ''vinylic purpura.''

  5. Molecular connectivity indices for modeling the critical micelle concentration of cationic (chloride) Gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Mozrzymas, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The molecular connectivity indices were used to derive the simple model relating the critical micelle concentration of cationic (chloride) gemini surfactants to their structure. One index was selected as the best to describe the effect of the structure of investigated compounds on critical micelle concentration consistent with the experimental results. This index encodes the information about molecular size, the branches, and also the information about heteroatoms. The selected model can be helpful in designing novel chloride gemini surfactants.

  6. Chloride concentrations in the coastal margin of the Floridan Aquifer, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causseaux, K.W.; Fretwell, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of freshwater supply in southwest Florida. The freshwater part of the aquifer is underlain by saltwater in lower formations and is bounded on the west by saltwater in the coastal parts of the aquifer. A zone of mixing lies between the saltwater and freshwater. The saltwater and freshwater boundaries are defined by chloride concentrations of 19,000 milligrams per liter on the coastward side and 250 milligrams per liter on the landward side. Lateral intrusion of saltwater can occur along the coast in areas where the hydraulic gradient declines and upconing can occur in inland areas of heavy ground-water withdrawals. Safeguards against saltwater intrusion in these areas are necessary because flushing of the aquifer is a very slow process. A network of chloride monitor wells is proposed for the zone of mixing in the upper producing zone of the floridan aquifer. Seventy wells were selected at 54 sites to monitor chloride concentrations along the 250-milligram-per-liter line of equal chloride concentration. One-fourth of the wells are located in areas of increasing chloride concentrations or heavy ground-water withdrawals and the remaining wells are intended to improve delineation of the interface and to monitor long-term changes in chloride concentrations. (USGS)

  7. Determination of chloride concentration in cheese: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, L J; Horwitz, W; Krol, B M; Garcia Aragonés, E; Jans, J A; Mair-Waldburg, H; van Renterghem, R; Steiger, G

    1982-11-01

    Three samples of ground Gouda cheese containing 1-2% chloride were analyzed by 7 laboratories by 3 methods: oxidation with KMnO4 and HNO3 followed by a Volhard titration; the same but with filtering off the precipitated AgC1 before back-titration; and the general potentiometric method without ashing or oxidation. The data were analyzed by ISO statistics (ISO-R 5725) and by AOAC statistics (Youden), the major differences being the rejection of different values as outliers and in the statement of the precision parameters. The within-laboratory variability (repeatability) is comparable for all 3 methods; the between-laboratory variability (reproducibility) is comparable for the Volhard method with filtration and the potentiometric methods, but the direct Volhard method is inferior. Because of its generality and simplicity, the potentiometric method has been adopted official first action; the Volhard method with filtration has been reinstated official final action as an alternative.

  8. A novel device for quantitative measurement of chloride concentration by fluorescence indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Chon, Chanhee; Gonska, Tanja; Li, Dongqing

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disease. At present, the common method for diagnosis of CF is to detect the chloride concentration in sweat using ion-selective electrodes. However, the current sweat testing methods require a relatively large quantity of sweat sample, at least 25 µL, which is very difficult to obtain, especially for newborns. This paper presents a new method and a new device for rapid detection of the chloride concentration from a small volume of solution. In this method, the chloride concentration is determined quantitatively by the fluorescence intensity of MQAE, a chloride ion fluorescent indicator. In this device, the sample is carried by a small piece of filter paper on a cover glass exposed to an UV LED light source. The resulting fluorescent signals are detected by a Si photodiode. Data acquisition and processing are accomplished by LabVIEW software in a PDA. Based on the Stern-Volmer relationship, the effects of different parameters on the fluorescence intensity were analyzed. The observed significant difference between 40 and 60 mM (the borderline of chloride concentration for CF) is discussed in this paper. The results show that detection can be completed within 10 s. The minimum detectable volume of the chloride solution is 1 μL. The novel method and the device are of great potential for CF diagnosis.

  9. Captopril in congenital chloride diarrhoea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bin Islam, Shoeb; Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sharifuzzaman; Sahreen, Lubaba; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Haque Alam, Nur

    2015-03-01

    An 11 months 22 days old girl presented with a history of watery diarrhoea since birth, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Her diagnosis was congenital chloride diarrhoea (CCD) with raised level of chloride (>90 mmol/L) in stool in the absence of cystic fibrosis. Management of CCD included replacement of NaCl, KCl, and correction of dehydration. Diarrhoea of the patient was resolved with Captopril, which was initially provided to the patient for managing heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CCD that shows the beneficial effect of Captopril. Therefore, we suggest that further study is warranted as to the potential for Captopril as additional option in the treatment for CCD. We present this case report with the informed consent of the patient's guardian.

  10. Glutamate transporter-associated anion channels adjust intracellular chloride concentrations during glial maturation.

    PubMed

    Untiet, Verena; Kovermann, Peter; Gerkau, Niklas J; Gensch, Thomas; Rose, Christine R; Fahlke, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Astrocytic volume regulation and neurotransmitter uptake are critically dependent on the intracellular anion concentration, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling internal anion homeostasis in these cells. Here we used fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with the chloride-sensitive dye MQAE to measure intracellular chloride concentrations in murine Bergmann glial cells in acute cerebellar slices. We found Bergmann glial [Cl(-) ]int to be controlled by two opposing transport processes: chloride is actively accumulated by the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1, and chloride efflux through anion channels associated with excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) reduces [Cl(-) ]int to values that vary upon changes in expression levels or activity of these channels. EAATs transiently form anion-selective channels during glutamate transport, and thus represent a class of ligand-gated anion channels. Age-dependent upregulation of EAATs results in a developmental chloride switch from high internal chloride concentrations (51.6 ± 2.2 mM, mean ± 95% confidence interval) during early development to adult levels (35.3 ± 0.3 mM). Simultaneous blockade of EAAT1/GLAST and EAAT2/GLT-1 increased [Cl(-) ]int in adult glia to neonatal values. Moreover, EAAT activation by synaptic stimulations rapidly decreased [Cl(-) ]int . Other tested chloride channels or chloride transporters do not contribute to [Cl(-) ]int under our experimental conditions. Neither genetic removal of ClC-2 nor pharmacological block of K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter change resting Bergmann glial [Cl(-) ]int in acute cerebellar slices. We conclude that EAAT anion channels play an important and unexpected role in adjusting glial intracellular anion concentration during maturation and in response to cerebellar activity. GLIA 2017;65:388-400.

  11. Long-term chloride concentrations in North American and European freshwater lakes.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Hilary A; Summers, Jamie C; Skaff, Nicholas K; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Doubek, Jonathan P; Burke, Samantha M; Bartlett, Sarah L; Arvola, Lauri; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Korponai, János; Kleeberg, Andreas; Monet, Ghislaine; Monteith, Don; Moore, Karen; Rogora, Michela; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-08-08

    Anthropogenic sources of chloride in a lake catchment, including road salt, fertilizer, and wastewater, can elevate the chloride concentration in freshwater lakes above background levels. Rising chloride concentrations can impact lake ecology and ecosystem services such as fisheries and the use of lakes as drinking water sources. To analyze the spatial extent and magnitude of increasing chloride concentrations in freshwater lakes, we amassed a database of 529 lakes in Europe and North America that had greater than or equal to ten years of chloride data. For each lake, we calculated climate statistics of mean annual total precipitation and mean monthly air temperatures from gridded global datasets. We also quantified land cover metrics, including road density and impervious surface, in buffer zones of 100 to 1,500 m surrounding the perimeter of each lake. This database represents the largest global collection of lake chloride data. We hope that long-term water quality measurements in areas outside Europe and North America can be added to the database as they become available in the future.

  12. Long-term chloride concentrations in North American and European freshwater lakes

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Hilary A.; Summers, Jamie C.; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E.; Doubek, Jonathan P.; Burke, Samantha M.; Bartlett, Sarah L.; Arvola, Lauri; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Korponai, János; Kleeberg, Andreas; Monet, Ghislaine; Monteith, Don; Moore, Karen; Rogora, Michela; Hanson, Paul C.; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of chloride in a lake catchment, including road salt, fertilizer, and wastewater, can elevate the chloride concentration in freshwater lakes above background levels. Rising chloride concentrations can impact lake ecology and ecosystem services such as fisheries and the use of lakes as drinking water sources. To analyze the spatial extent and magnitude of increasing chloride concentrations in freshwater lakes, we amassed a database of 529 lakes in Europe and North America that had greater than or equal to ten years of chloride data. For each lake, we calculated climate statistics of mean annual total precipitation and mean monthly air temperatures from gridded global datasets. We also quantified land cover metrics, including road density and impervious surface, in buffer zones of 100 to 1,500 m surrounding the perimeter of each lake. This database represents the largest global collection of lake chloride data. We hope that long-term water quality measurements in areas outside Europe and North America can be added to the database as they become available in the future. PMID:28786983

  13. Simulation of specific conductance and chloride concentration in Abercorn Creek, Georgia, 2000-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Davie, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Savannah operates an industrial and domestic water-supply intake on Abercorn Creek approximately 2 miles from the confluence with the Savannah River upstream from the Interstate 95 bridge. Chloride concentrations are a major concern for the city because industrial customers require water with low chloride concentrations, and elevated chloride concentrations require additional water treatment in order to meet those needs. The proposed deepening of Savannah Harbor could increase chloride concentrations (the major ion in seawater) in the upper reaches of the lower Savannah River estuary, including Abercorn Creek. To address this concern, mechanistic and empirical modeling approaches were used to simulate chloride concentrations at the city's intake to evaluate potential effects from deepening the Savannah Harbor. The first approach modified the mechanistic Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model developed by Tetra Tech and used for evaluating proposed harbor deepening effects for the Environmental Impact Statement. Chloride concentrations were modeled directly with the EFDC model as a conservative tracer. This effort was done by Tetra Tech under a separate funding agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and documented in a separate report. The second approach, described in this report, was to simulate chloride concentrations by developing empirical models from the available data using artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression models. The empirical models used daily streamflow, specific conductance (field measurement for salinity), water temperature, and water color time series for inputs. Because there are only a few data points that describe the relation between high specific conductance values at the Savannah River at Interstate 95 and the water plant intake, there was a concern that these few data points would determine the extrapolation of the empirical model and potentially underestimate the effect of deepening the harbor on

  14. [Determination of high concentrations of rubidium chloride by ICP-OES].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Sun, Bai; Li, Hai-jun; Wang, Tao; Li, Wu; Song, Peng-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The method of ICP-OES for the direct determination of high content of rubidium in rubidium chloride solutions was studied through mass dilution method and optimizing parameters of the instrument in the present paper. It can reduce the times of dilution and the error introduced by the dilution, and improve the accuracy of determination results of rubidium. Through analyzing the sensitivity of the three detection spectral lines for rubidium ion, linearly dependent coefficient and the relative errors of the determination results, the spectral line of Rb 780. 023 nm was chosen as the most suitable wavelength to measure the high content of rubidium in the rubidium chloride solutions. It was found that the instrument parameters of ICP-OES such as the atomizer flow, the pump speed and the high-frequency power are the major factors for the determination of rubidium ion in the rubidium chloride solutions. As we know instrument parameters of ICP-OES have an important influence on the atomization efficiency as well as the emissive power of the spectral lines of rubidium, they are considered as the significant factors for the determination of rubidium. The optimization parameters of the instrument were obtained by orthogonal experiments and further single factor experiment, which are 0. 60 L . min-1 of atomizer flow, 60 r . min-1 of pump speed, and 1 150 W of high-frequency power. The same experiments were repeated a week later with the optimization parameters of the instrument, and the relative errors of the determination results are less than 0. 5% when the concentration of rubidium chloride ranged from 0. 09% to 0. 18%. As the concentration of rubidium chloride is 0. 06%, the relative errors of the determination results are -1. 7%. The determination of lithium chloride and potassium chloride in the high concentration of the aqueous solutions was studied under the condition of similar instrument parameters. It was found by comparison that the determination results of lithium

  15. Fatal barium chloride poisoning: four cases report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Sunnassee; Shaohua, Zhu; Liang, Liu

    2013-06-01

    Barium is an alkaline earth metal which has a variety of uses including in the manufacturing industry and in medicine. However, adverse health effects and fatalities occur due to absorption of soluble barium compounds, notably the chloride, nitrate, and hydroxide, which are toxic to humans. Although rare, accidental and suicidal modes of poisoning are sporadically reported in the literature.We describe 4 cases of poisoning due to barium chloride in China. In witnessed cases, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, hypokalemia leading to muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, and respiratory failure were noted. Autopsy showed some nonspecific but common findings, such as subendocardial hemorrhage in the ventricles, visceral petechiae, and fatty changes in the liver. Interestingly, microscopic examination showed degenerative changes and amorphous, flocculent foamy materials in the renal tubules. Toxicology was relevant for barium in blood and tissues. Three of the cases were accidental and 1 homicidal in nature. A round-up of relevant literature on fatal barium compounds poisoning is also provided. Forensic pathologists should be aware of the clinical presentations of barium compound poisoning and especially look for any evidence of hypokalemia. Still, postmortem toxicological and histological studies are essential for an accurate identification of the cause of death.

  16. Chloride concentration gradients in tank-stored hydraulic fracturing fluids following flowback

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Edwards; Linda L. Tracy; William K. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    A natural gas well in West Virginia was hydraulically fractured and the flowback was recovered and stored in an 18-foot-deep tank. Both in situ field test kit and laboratory measurements of electrical conductivity and chloride concentrations increased substantially with depth, although the laboratory measurements showed a greater increase. The field test kit also...

  17. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations

  18. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  19. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development.

    PubMed

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  20. Microwave corneosurfametry and the short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test for rating concentrated irritant surfactants.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Piérard, G E

    2001-01-01

    There are ethical concerns to conduct in vivo tests in the animal and human to provide evidence that cosmetics and other topical products are safe. To compare two methods, namely the short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test and the microwave corneosurfametry bioassay, to test the irritation potential of concentrated surfactant systems. Five surfactants and water were tested using the in vivo test and the bioassay. A significant linear correlation was found between data yielded by the two procedures. The short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test and the microwave corneosurfametry bioassay provide similar information. The latter has the advantage of being safe.

  1. Effect of chloride ion concentration on the galvanic corrosion of α phase brass by eccrine sweat.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Andrew; Bond, John W; Chaloner, Penelope

    2012-07-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of the relative concentration of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium ions in eccrine sweat deposits from 40 donors revealed positive correlations between chloride and sodium (ρ = 0.684, p < 0.01) and chloride and calcium ions (ρ = 0.91, p < 0.01). Correlations between ion concentration and the corrosion of α phase brass by the donated sweat were investigated by visual grading of the degree of corrosion, by measuring the copper/zinc ratio using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and from a measurement of the potential difference between corroded and uncorroded brass when a large potential was applied to the uncorroded brass. An increasing copper/zinc ratio (indicative of dezincification) was found to correlate positively to both chloride ion concentration and visual grading of corrosion, while visual grading gave correlations with potential difference measurements that were indicative of the preferential surface oxidation of zinc rather than copper. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Ion chromatography of azide in pharmaceutical protein samples with high chloride concentration using suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Vinković, Kristinka; Drevenkar, Vlasta

    2008-03-15

    Methods based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection of 4-nitrobenzoyl- or 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl azide derivatives lack in accuracy and stability of derivatives to be applied for azide determination in pharmaceutical protein samples with high sodium chloride concentrations. This paper describes a sensitive and selective ion chromatographic method, with simple sample preparation and suppressed conductivity detection, developed for trace determination of azide in protein samples containing sodium chloride in concentrations as high as 11.6 g L(-1). Anion exchange stationary phase with quaternary alkyl amine functional groups and gradient elution with sodium hydroxide enabled good resolution of anions with similar retention times: azide, bromide and nitrate, as well as chloride whose retention time was shorter than azide's. Anions with high affinity to stationary phase (phosphate and citrate) were also eluted within acceptable analysis time of 32 min. The stability of sample solutions and the method selectivity, accuracy, precision and sensitivity satisfied the validation criteria of international organizations competent for pharmaceutical industry. The detection and quantitation limit ranges of sodium azide in protein samples were 0.007-0.02 mg L(-1) and 0.02-0.06 mg L(-1), respectively. Both limits increased with the concentration of sodium chloride.

  3. Correlation of sweat chloride concentration with genotypes in cystic fibrosis patients in Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, M; Allard, C; Leblanc, J P; Aubin, G; Simard, F

    1998-02-01

    Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean, a geographically isolated region of northeastern Quebec has a high incidence of cystic fibrosis (CF) and three mutations only account for 94% of the CF chromosomes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether different mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene had different effects upon the sweat chloride concentration. The sweat chloride concentration of 114 patients was measured by quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis. CF patients carrying the A455E mutation, usually associated with pancreatic sufficiency, had lower sweat chloride concentrations than those carrying mutations associated with pancreatic insufficiency (delta F508 and 621 + 1G-->T). Our results confirm that mutations resulting in a reduction of the chloride current at the apical membrane of epithelial cells induce lower sweat chloride values. However, there are differences in the chloride current between genotypes, even if they are composed of mutations apparently having the same functional effect.

  4. Gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes exposed to sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tamburro, Manuela; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Vitullo, Monia; Dallman, Timothy James; Pontello, Mirella; Amar, Corinne Francoise Laurence; Sammarco, Michela Lucia

    2015-06-01

    In this study, tolerance at sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride and transcription levels of mdrL, ladR, lde, sigB and bcrABC genes in Listeria monocytogenes strains were evaluated. Viable cells reduction occurred in 45% of strains and clinical isolates showed lower sensitivity than isolates from foods. An increased transcription of an efflux system encoding gene was found in 60% of strains, and simultaneous mdrL overexpression and ladR underexpression occurred in 30% of isolates. A significant association between reduced benzalkonium chloride activity and both mdrL and sigB overexpression was observed; sigB expression also correlated with both mdrL and ladR genes. The bcrABC gene was only found in six strains, all isolated from foods and sensitive to benzalkonium chloride, and in four strains an underexpression was observed. Disinfection at sublethal concentration was less effective in clinical isolates, and mdrL and sigB expression was significantly affected by disinfection. Further insights are needed to understand the adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and to evaluate whether changes in gene expression could affect the L. monocytogenes virulence traits and persistence in the environment.

  5. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Hill, E F; Shaffner, C S

    1976-07-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  6. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  7. Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Sang

    Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating

  8. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  9. Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Tiziana; De Luca, Grazia; Romano, Pietro; Rigano, Caterina; Scuteri, Adriana; Romano, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K(+) efflux, SO(4)(-) influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 μM). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb(2+) ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K(+) efflux affects the altered redox state.

  10. Influence of microwave heating on fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in water.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Dias, Jailson Cardoso; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Korn, Mauro; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes a study about the influence of microwave radiation using closed vessels on fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in aqueous media. The experiments were processed by heating water using PFA vessels and a microwave cavity oven, determining the anions by ion chromatography. The influence of the exposure time, the atmospheric composition, the kind of heating (water bath or microwave radiation) and the possible formation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. The limits of quantification for fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate were respectively of 0.17, 0.15, 0.55 and 0.57 μg L(-1), and precision, expressed as RSD, was <4% for all considered anions. The hydrogen peroxide was quantified by spectrophotometry, and the limit of quantification and precision were 24 μg L(-1) and <5% (n=10), respectively. The results demonstrate a significant increase in the anion concentration levels (between 63 and 89%) when microwave heating was used in comparison with heating by water bath. In addition, these changes observed can be mainly attributed to the species transfers, either between gaseous (atmospheric gases) and liquid (water) phases for nitrate, or between vessels walls and water for fluoride, chloride and sulfate. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide concentration higher than 45 μg L(-1) was determined when water was exposed to microwave radiation.

  11. A microfluidic long-period fiber grating sensor platform for chloride ion concentration measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors based on waveguide technology are promising and attractive in chemical, biotechnological, agronomy, and civil engineering applications. A microfluidic system equipped with a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) capable of measuring chloride ion concentrations of several sample materials is presented. The LPFG-based microfluidic platform was shown to be effective in sensing very small quantities of samples and its transmitted light signal could easily be used as a measurand. The investigated sample materials included reverse osmosis (RO) water, tap water, dilute aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, dilute seawater, and seawater. By employing additionally a chloride ion-selective electrode sensor for the calibration of chloride-ion concentration, a useful correlation (R2 = 0.975) was found between the separately-measured chloride concentration and the light intensity transmitted through the LPFG at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the LPFG sensor by light intensity interrogation was determined to be 5.0 × 10(-6) mW/mg/L for chloride ion concentrations below 2,400 mg/L. The results obtained from the analysis of data variations in time-series measurements for all sample materials show that standard deviations of output power were relatively small and found in the range of 7.413 × 10(-5)-2.769 × 10(-3) mW. In addition, a fairly small coefficients of variations were also obtained, which were in the range of 0.03%-1.29% and decreased with the decrease of chloride ion concentrations of sample materials. Moreover, the analysis of stability performance of the LPFG sensor indicated that the random walk coefficient decreased with the increase of the chloride ion concentration, illustrating that measurement stability using the microfluidic platform was capable of measuring transmitted optical power with accuracy in the range of -0.8569 mW/ [Formula: see text

  12. Superiority of experts over novices in trueness and precision of concentration estimation of sodium chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yui; Kimura, Atsushi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu; Kawai, Takayuki; Dan, Ippeita; Hayakawa, Fumiyo

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have reported that experts outperform novices in specific domains. However, the superiority of experts in accuracy, taking both trueness and precision into consideration, has not yet been explored. Here, we examined differences between expert and novice performances by evaluating the accuracy of their estimations of physical concentrations of sodium chloride in solutions while employing a visual analog scale. In Experiment 1, 14 experts and 13 novices tasted 6 concentrations of the solutions until they had learned their intensities. Subsequently, they repeatedly rated the concentration of 3 other solutions in random order. Although we did not find a difference between the performances of the 2 groups in trueness (difference between rating and correct concentration), the precision (consistency of ratings for each participant) of experts was higher than that of novices. In Experiment 2, 13 experts who had participated in Experiment 1 and 10 experts and 12 novices who had not participated in Experiment 1 rated the salt concentration in sodium chloride/sucrose mixtures in the same way as in Experiment 1. Both trueness and precision of performance were higher in both expert groups than in the novice group. By introducing precision and trueness parameters, we succeeded in quantifying the estimations of experts and novices in rating the concentration of solutions, revealing experts' superiority even for a task they had not been trained for.

  13. Spatial an temporal analysis of chloride concentrations in underground water in the coastal wetland of l'Albufera, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhakka, Evelina; Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean coastal wetlands are of great interest for their richness in biodiversity. They are also fragile systems because they are exposed to various human pressures, such as farming systems and urban sprawl. Most Mediterranean coastal wetlands have a transient underground inter phase of continental and marine water. In many cases, the variations of the rain regime towards an increasing dryness and the overexploitation of aquiphers in these zones could favour the marine water intrusion, being a source of continental water salinisation and loss of its quality. This process can directly affect the ecosystems and produce loss of biodiversity. Thus, studies to assess the dynamics in time and space of the possible marine intrusion are necessary to evaluate coastal environment health and quality. The study has been applied to L'Albufera Natural Park, the largest Coastal Wetland in eastern Spain. Due to its importance, it has been included in the list of Wetlands of the RAMSAR Convention. In the area there is a complex relationship between the intrinsic natural importance (endemicity and biodiversity) and the human activities (traditional agriculture and hinterland industrial and settlement development). The methodological approach is based in the analysis of chloride concentrations time series of thirteen sample water points distributed in and around the boundaries of the Natural Park. All time series, between 1982 and 2008, have been analysed to establish trends both in time and space. Results show that in samples close to the see (between 1500 and 2000 metres) chloride concentrations are not too high, with values between 37 mg/l and 213 mg/l. Nonetheless, the shorter is the distance to the see the higher are the chloride levels, with values between 58 mg/l and 1131 mg/l. For longer distances, more than 2000 from the coast line, values are quite similar in most sample points, from 52 mg/l to 691 mg/l. Among all the thirteen time series analysed trends are detected

  14. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  15. Improved COD Measurements for Organic Content in Flowback Water with High Chloride Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Isabel; Park, Ho Il; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2016-03-01

    An improved method was used to determine chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a measure of organic content in water samples containing high chloride content. A contour plot of COD percent error in the Cl(-)-Cl(-):COD domain showed that COD errors increased with Cl(-):COD. Substantial errors (>10%) could occur in low Cl(-):COD regions (<300) for samples with low (<10 g/L) and high chloride concentrations (>25 g/L). Applying the method to flowback water samples resulted in COD concentrations ranging in 130 to 1060 mg/L, which were substantially lower than the previously reported values for flowback water samples from Marcellus Shale (228 to 21 900 mg/L). It is likely that overestimations of COD in the previous studies occurred as result of chloride interferences. Pretreatment with mercuric sulfate, and use of a low-strength digestion solution, and the contour plot to correct COD measurements are feasible steps to significantly improve the accuracy of COD measurements.

  16. Effect of Sulfide Concentration on Copper Corrosion in Anoxic Chloride-Containing Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Decheng; Dong, Chaofang; Xu, Aoni; Man, Cheng; He, Chang; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-02-01

    The structure and property of passive film on copper are strongly dependent on the sulfide concentration; based on this, a series of electrochemical methods were applied to investigate the effect of sulfide concentration on copper corrosion in anaerobic chloride-containing solutions. The cyclic voltammetry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the corrosion products formed on copper in anaerobic sulfide solutions comprise Cu2S and CuS. And the corrosion resistance of copper decreased with increasing sulfide concentration and faster sulfide addition, owing to the various structures of the passive films observed by the atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. A p-type semiconductor character was obtained under all experimental conditions, and the defect concentration, which had a magnitude of 1022-1023 cm-3, increased with increasing sulfide concentration, resulting in a higher rate of both film growth and dissolution.

  17. Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

  18. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

  19. Trend Analysis For Nitrate And Chloride Concentrations Of Groundwater In Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Moon, S.; Park, W.; Kang, B.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the trend of groundwater contamination in Jeju Island. We collected and analyzed 8,795 groundwater quality data which has been reported from 1989 to 2006 by Jeju Provincial Institute of Health and Environment. To analyze the trend of groundwater quality, we focused on the variations of chloride and nitrate concentration which are considered to be the most influencing components for groundwater quality in Jeju Island. The regional trend of groundwater quality was evaluated by using the lattice concept. Single grid was determined to be 500m x 500m considering aquifer features of volcanic rocks and low-slope topography and 7,361 rectangle grids were drawn for the whole island. All data within each lattice were collected and arranged in time series order and analyzed by using Sen's method. Although any trends of the average monthly concentrations for chloride and nitrate are not found, 32 lattices (16.2 percent) of total 198 lattices showed upward trend of chloride concentration and 46 lattices (22.5 percent) of total 205 lattices showed upward trend of nitrate concentration. Especially, upward trends for nitrate concentration are distinct in the low mid-mountainous areas (EL 100 to 250m) of western and southern watersheds, which original forests have been continuously urbanized or cultivated since early ¡®90s. Therefore, to maintain good groundwater quality in Jeju Island, future groundwater management needs to be carefully focused on the land use decisions in the mid-mountainous areas near Halla Mountain.

  20. Two cases of liver angiosarcoma among polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extruders of an Italian factory producing PVC bags and other containers.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Clini, C; Vicini, F; Masina, A

    1984-01-01

    Two cases are reported of liver angiosarcoma occurring among polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extruders from a small Italian factory producing PVC bags and other containers. The possibility that PVC extrusion carries a risk of liver angiosarcoma is important because of the very large number of people working with extruding, manufacturing and handling PVC, as compared with the number of people working in PVC polymerization and/or VC production. In the past, the level of vinyl chloride (VC) concentration in PVC extrusion workplaces has been thought to be "safe".

  1. [Synthesis of high-concentration polyaluminum chloride and its aluminium species distribution and transformation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua-zhang; Cai, Gu-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun

    2004-09-01

    Using solid CaO as basification agent, the high-concentration polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was prepared by feeding total alkali at a time. The characteristics of the reaction and the distribution and transformation of the aluminium species were also studied. The experimental results show that the distinctive hydration of CaO can contribute to the high-concentration PAC whose Al concentration (Al(T)) and basicity (B) can reach 2.1 mol/L and 2.1 respectively. There is an optimal B value in any concentration of PAC, at which the Al(b) content is the highest. The optimal B value and the highest Al(b) content drops with the increasing of Al(T). The predominant reaction is the formation of Al(b) if B is less than the optimal B value, and the formation of Al(c) if B is more than the optimal B value.

  2. A method for determination of methyl chloride concentration in air trapped in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Okitsugu

    2006-05-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in air trapped in an ice core was developed. The method combines the air extraction by milling the ice core samples under vacuum and the analysis of the extracted air with a cryogenic preconcentration/gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry system. The method was applied to air from Antarctic ice core samples estimated to have been formed in the pre-industrial and/or early industrial periods. The overall precision of the method deduced from duplicate ice core analyses was estimated to be better than +/-20 pptv. The measured CH3Cl concentration of 528+/-26 pptv was similar to the present-day concentration in the remote atmosphere as well as the CH3Cl concentration over the past 300 years obtained from Antarctic firn air and ice core analyses.

  3. Cyclindrical concentrators as a limit case of torodial concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Minano, J.C.

    1984-06-15

    Cylindrical concentrators are viewed as a limit case of torodial concentrators with the purpose of applying to them some results obtained for axisymmetrical optical systems. This enables us to obtain easily the directional intercept factor of a cyclindrical nonimaging concentrator called the Ideal Tubular Concentrator. A useful tool for designing new cylindrical concentrators is also derived.

  4. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis.

  5. A synthetic ion transporter that disrupts autophagy and induces apoptosis by perturbing cellular chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busschaert, Nathalie; Park, Seong-Hyun; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Yoon Pyo; Park, Jinhong; Howe, Ethan N. W.; Hiscock, Jennifer R.; Karagiannidis, Louise E.; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Namkung, Wan; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gale, Philip A.; Shin, Injae

    2017-07-01

    Perturbations in cellular chloride concentrations can affect cellular pH and autophagy and lead to the onset of apoptosis. With this in mind, synthetic ion transporters have been used to disturb cellular ion homeostasis and thereby induce cell death; however, it is not clear whether synthetic ion transporters can also be used to disrupt autophagy. Here, we show that squaramide-based ion transporters enhance the transport of chloride anions in liposomal models and promote sodium chloride influx into the cytosol. Liposomal and cellular transport activity of the squaramides is shown to correlate with cell death activity, which is attributed to caspase-dependent apoptosis. One ion transporter was also shown to cause additional changes in lysosomal pH, which leads to impairment of lysosomal enzyme activity and disruption of autophagic processes. This disruption is independent of the initiation of apoptosis by the ion transporter. This study provides the first experimental evidence that synthetic ion transporters can disrupt both autophagy and induce apoptosis.

  6. Estimates of evapotranspiration or effective moisture in Rocky Mountain watersheds from chloride ion concentrations in stream baseflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claassen, H.C.; Halm, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The principle that atmospherically derived chloride is a conservative tracer in many watersheds can be used to calculate average annual evapotranspiration or effective moisture if estimates are available for (1) the average annual chloride input to the watershed, (2) the average annual precipitation, and (3) the baseflow chloride concentration are known. The method assumes that no long-term storage of chloride occurs and there is no lithologic source of chloride, or that such source releases only insignificant amounts to groundwater compared to the atmospheric source. National Atmospheric Deposition Program estimates of chloride wet deposition, watershed precipitation records or hyetal map estimates of precipitation input to watersheds, and a single sample of chloride concentration in base flow were used to calculate evapotranspiration for diverse Rocky Mountain watersheds. This estimate was compared to evapotranspiration determined by subtracting mean discharge from precipitation. Of the 19 watersheds used to test the method, 13 agreed within 10%, 2 appear to have not met the lithology criterion, 1 appears to have not met the flow criterion, and 1 neither criterion. The method's greatest strength is the minimal data requirements and its greatest weakness is that for some watersheds it may be difficult to obtain reliable estimates of precipitation and chloride deposition. If reliable discharge data are available, the method may be used to estimate watershed-average precipitation; this is especially useful in high-altitude mountain watersheds where little or no precipitation data are available.

  7. A fatal case of hypermagnesemia caused by ingesting magnesium chloride as a folk remedy.

    PubMed

    Torikoshi-Hatano, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Kato, Hideaki; Nagao, Masataka

    2013-11-01

    We report a fatal case of hypermagnesemia caused by oral ingestion of milk containing magnesium chloride as a folk remedy. The autopsy of the 75-year-old woman showed no injury or illness as the cause of death. Neither alcohol nor controlled drugs were found by the toxicological analysis. Her posthumous serum magnesium concentration was 10.2 mg/dL. The concentration of magnesium in serum was higher than that of the previous reports. Therefore, the cause of death was considered to be hypermagnesemia. Recently, the prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and health foods containing magnesium are consumed as supplements in the world, and their potential toxicity should be recognized.

  8. Monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in solar ponds by electrical conductivity and temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fynn, R.P.; Short, T.H.; Badger, P.C.; Sciarini, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple accurate and semi-automatic system was developed for monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in a solar pond. The profile meter, which measures pond solution conductivity and temperature, and the equations which convert this data into salt concentration and/or brine density, are covered in detail so that any potential users may construct their own equipment. The use of the profile meter, its advantages and disadvantages, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the day-to-day profile monitoring that the conductivity-temperature method enables, and the use of the meter during modification of the pond profiles. A program is also available to calculate the pond profile using a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 programmable calculator.

  9. EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATION ON PROBABLITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS- PART IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-08-23

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion susceptibility. Testing solutions were chosen to build off previous experimental results from FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate. The FY11 results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits as well.

  10. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    PubMed

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (<60, 60-<80, ≥80mmol/L), CFTR genotype (high and lower risk for lung function decline), and survival and mixed linear regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride, CFTR genotype, and measures of lung function and growth. When included in the same model, CFTR genotype, but not sweat chloride, was independently associated with survival and with lung function, height, and BMI. Among patients with unclassified CFTR genotype, sweat chloride was an independent predictor of survival (<60 HR 0.53 [0.37, 0.77], 60-<80 0.51 [0.42, 0.63]). Sweat chloride concentration may be a useful predictor of mortality and clinical phenotype when CFTR genotype functional class is unclassified. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride by high-concentration phosphine in industrial off-gas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yanfu; Zhou, Tao; Qin, Yangsong; Gao, Kunyang; Ding, Xinyue

    2013-01-01

    With increasing consumption of phosphate rock and acceleration of global phosphate production, the shortage of phosphate resources is increasing with the development and utilization of phosphate. China's Ministry of Land and Resources has classified phosphate as a mineral that cannot meet China's growing demand for phosphate rock in 2010. The phosphorus chemical industry is one of the important economic pillars for Yunnan province. Yellow phosphorus production in enterprises has led to a significant increase in the amount of phosphorus sludge. This paper focuses on phosphine generation in the process of phosphoric sludge utilization, where the flame retardant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) is synthesized by high concentrations of phosphine. The optimum conditions are determined at a space velocity of 150 h(-1), a reaction temperature of 60 °C, 0.75 g of catalyst, and a ratio of raw materials of 4:1. Because of the catalytic oxidation of copper chloride (CuCl2), the synthesis of THPC was accelerated significantly. In conclusion, THPC can be efficiently synthesized under optimal conditions and with CuCl2 as a catalyst.

  12. Hybrid electrooxidation and adsorption process for the removal of ammonia in low concentration chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Zhao, Qing-Liang; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Jun-Qiu; Li, Wei; Yu, Hang; Huang, Li-Kun; Zhang, Yun-Shu

    2017-02-01

    The ammonia removal performance of a hybrid electrooxidation and adsorption reactor (HEAR) is evaluated. The influences of current density, chloride concentration, and packing particles for ammonia removal in HEAR were investigated, and the performance of HEAR under serials circulation was studied. Results indicated that ammonia removal efficiency achieved around 70 % under the optimal condition after 30-min electrolysis. The optimal condition was determined as current density of 10 mA/cm(2), Cl(-)/NH4(+) molar ratio of 1.8, and modified zeolites as particles. The ammonia adsorption kinetic and adsorption isotherm on zeolites fitted well with second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Adsorption amount of ammonia on zeolites sampled at 30-min electrolysis achieved 2.4 mg/L, higher than 1.9 mg/L of zeolites at 20-min electrolysis, indicating that electrooxidation coupled with adsorption led to simultaneous ammonia removal and zeolite regeneration in HEAR. No decrease of ammonia removal efficiency was observed over several cycles with the electrooxidation treatment. The presence of free chlorine indicating ammonia removal in HEAR was due to the combined influence by adsorption and indirect electrooxidation. These results showed that HEAR was a prospective alternative as a tertiary treatment for wastewater with low chloride ions.

  13. Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, J.D.; Vacher, H.L.; Sanford, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick. ?? US Government 2008.

  14. Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2009-06-01

    Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.

  15. Freeze-thawing behaviour of highly concentrated aqueous alkali chloride-glucose systems.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, K; Motegi, A; Murase, N

    2001-01-01

    The freeze-thawing behaviour of highly concentrated aqueous alkali chloride-glucose systems was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the aqueous NaCl-glucose solution system, single or double glass transitions followed by the corresponding devitrification exotherms were observed during rewarming. In the aqueous KCl-glucose solution system, on the other hand, a single glass transition followed by an exotherm was observed during rewarming. The presence of double glass transitions observed for a certain composition of the aqueous NaCl-glucose solution was taken as an evidence for the liquid-liquid immiscibility at low temperatures. Two kinds of crystallisation accompanied by exotherms during rewarming were identified by X-ray diffraction as ice and ice/NaCl x 2H(2)O, or ice/KCl eutectic component.

  16. Disinfection potential of electrolyzed solutions containing sodium chloride at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Morita, C; Sano, K; Morimatsu, S; Kiura, H; Goto, T; Kohno, T; Hong, W U; Miyoshi, H; Iwasawa, A; Nakamura, Y; Tagawa, M; Yokosuka, O; Saisho, H; Maeda, T; Katsuoka, Y

    2000-03-01

    Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained from the positive well. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and free chlorine content of the product were 1053 mV, pH 2.34 and 4.20 ppm, respectively. The products modified the antigenicity of the surface protein of HBV as well as the infectivity of HIV in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Although the inactivating potential was decreased by the addition of contaminating protein, recycling of the product or continuous addition of fresh product may restore the complete disinfection against bloodborne pathogens.

  17. Anticorrosion characteristics of a Zn-primer coating in a ballast tank under various chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Jong; Lee, Seung-Jun

    2010-05-01

    At an open-circuit potential, the anodic polarization curves had very similar values, and no significant differences were observed among the conditions. In the cathodic polarization curves, total residual chloride (TRC) reacted with the Zn-primer coating and created a film that had anticorrosion properties. Therefore, the anticorrosion property improved. With an increase in applied potential in the potentiostatic experiment, the observed surface corrosion occurred due to the dissolution reaction. From Tafel analysis, the corrosion current density had the highest value in natural seawater and the lowest value in the 2 ppm solution. Generally, metals corrode faster with increasing TRC concentration, but with the formation of Zn(OH)2, which has anticorrosion properties, the corrosion resistance of a Zn-primer-coated specimen in seawater can be improved.

  18. Desorption of CO2 from low concentration monoethanolamine solutions using calcium chloride and ultrasound irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Okawa, Hirokazu; Fujiwara, Tatsuo; Kato, Takahiro; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2015-07-01

    We developed an effective method for desorbing CO2 from low-concentration (0.2 mol/l) monoethanolamine (MEA) solutions using calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ultrasound irradiation at 25 °C. The proportion of CO2 desorbed from the MEA solution was calculated from the amount of CaCO3 generated and the amount of CO2 emitted. The proportion of CO2 desorbed from the MEA solution was much higher when CaCl2 was added than when CaCl2 was not added. We also characterized the CaCO3 that was generated when the solution was treated with ultrasound irradiation and when the solution was stirred. The CaCO3 particles produced were more homogeneous and smaller when ultrasound irradiation was applied than when the solution was stirred.

  19. Size fractionation characterisation of removed organics in reverse osmosis concentrates by ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Bagastyo, A Y; Keller, J; Batstone, D J

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane separation is the leading method for manufacturing potable purified water. It also produces a concentrate stream, namely reverse osmosis concentrates (ROC), with 10-20% of the water, and almost all other compounds. One method for further treating this stream is by coagulation with ferric chloride. This study evaluates removed organics in ROC treated with ferric chloride. Fractionation with ultrafiltration membranes allows separation of organics based on a nominal molecular weight. A stirred cell system was applied for serial fractionation to classify organic compounds into six groups of < 0.5 kDa, 0.5-1 kDa, 1-3 kDa, 3-5 kDa, 5-10 kDa and > 10 kDa. The study found that raw ROC is rich in low molecular weight compounds (< 1 kDa) with almost 50% of the organics. These compounds include soluble microbial products (SMPs) and smaller humic and fulvic acids as indicated by fluorescence scanning. Conversely, colour was mostly contributed by medium to large molecules of humic and fulvic acids (> 0.5 kDa). Organics and colour were reduced in all molecular groups at an optimum treatment dose 1.48 mM FeCl3 and a pH of 5. However, ferric seemed to effectively remove colour in all size ranges while residual nitrogen was found mostly in the < 1 kDa sizes. Further, the fluorescence indicated that larger humic and fulvic acids were removed with considerable SMPs remaining in the < 0.5 kDa.

  20. Peat porewater chloride concentration profiles in the Everglades during wet/dry cycles from January 1996 to June 1998: Field measurements and theoretical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Reddy, M.B.; Kipp, K.L.; Burman, A.; Schuster, P.; Rawlik, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Water quality is a key aspect of the Everglades Restoration Project, the largest water reclamation and ecosystem management project proposed in the United States. Movement of nutrients and contaminants to and from Everglades peat porewater could have important consequences for Everglades water quality and ecosystem restoration activities. In a study of Everglades porewater, we observed complex, seasonally variable peat porewater chloride concentration profiles at several locations. Analyses and interpretation of these changing peat porewater chloride concentration profiles identifies processes controlling conservative solute movement at the peat-surface water interface, that is, solutes whose transport is minimally affected by chemical and biological reactions. We examine, with an advection-diffusion model, how alternating wet and dry climatic conditions in the Florida Everglades mediate movement of chloride between peat porewater and marsh surface water. Changing surface water-chloride concentrations alter gradients at the interface between peat and overlying water and hence alter chloride flux across that interface. Surface water chloride concentrations at two frequently monitored sites vary with marsh water depth, and a transfer function was developed to describe daily marsh surface water chloride concentration as a function of marsh water depth. Model results demonstrate that porewater chloride concentrations are driven by changing surface water chloride concentrations, and a sensitivity analysis suggests that inclusion of advective transport in the model improves the agreement between the calculated and the observed chloride concentration profiles. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Influence of external chloride concentration on the kinetics of mobile charges in the cell membrane of Valonia utricularis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianning; Wehner, Günter; Benz, Roland; Zimmermann, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    Charge pulse relaxation studies were performed on cells of the giant marine alga Valonia utricularis. Two exponential voltage relaxations were recorded as found previously (Benz, R., and U. Zimmermann. 1983. Biophys. J. 43:13-26.). The parameters of the two exponential voltage decays were studied as a function of the chloride concentration in the artificial sea water. Replacement of external chloride by 2(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonate (Mes-) had a dramatic influence on the four relaxation parameters. This chloride dependence could not be satisfactorily explained by the simplified model used earlier. Accordingly, additional reaction steps had to be included in the model. Only two relaxation processes could be resolved under all experimental conditions. This means that the heterogeneous complexation reactions, kR (association), and kD (dissociation) were too fast to be resolved. Therefore a carrier model with equilibrium heterogeneous surface reactions was used to fit the experimental results. From the charge pulse data at different chloride concentrations the translocation rate constants of the free and complexed carriers, kS and kAS, through the membrane, as well as the total surface concentration of carrier systems, N0, could be evaluated. The results described here indicate that the cell membrane of Valonia utricularis contains an electrogenic transport system for chloride. PMID:19431785

  2. Perchlorate uptake in spinach as related to perchlorate, nitrate, and chloride concentrations in irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wonsook; Suarez, Donald L; Lesch, Scott M

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have reported on the detection of perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) in edible leafy vegetables irrigated with Colorado River water. However, there is no information on spinach as related to ClO(4)(-) in irrigation water nor on the effect of other anions on ClO(4)(-) uptake. A greenhouse ClO(4)(-) uptake experiment using spinach was conducted to investigate the impact of presence of chloride (Cl(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) on ClO(4)(-) uptake under controlled conditions. We examined three concentrations of ClO(4)(-), 40, 220, and 400 nmol(c)/L (nanomoles of charge per liter of solution), three concentrations of Cl(-), 2.5, 13.75, and 25 mmol(c)/L, and NO(3)(-) at 2, 11, and 20 mmol(c)/L. The results revealed that ClO(4)(-) was taken up the most when NO(3)(-) and Cl(-) were lowest in concentration in irrigation water. More ClO(4)(-) was detected in spinach leaves than that in the root tissue. Relative to lettuces, spinach accumulated more ClO(4)(-) in the plant tissue. Perchlorate was accumulated in spinach leaves more than reported for outer leaves of lettuce at 40 nmol(c)/L of ClO(4)(-) in irrigation water. The results also provided evidence that spinach selectively took up ClO(4)(-) relative to Cl(-). We developed a predictive model to describe the ClO(4)(-) concentration in spinach as related to the Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and ClO(4)(-) concentration in irrigation water.

  3. Preparation of high concentration polyaluminum chloride with high content of Alb or Alc.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changwei; Zhang, Jingbo; Luan, Zhaokun; Peng, Xianjia; Ren, Xiaojing

    2009-01-01

    A novel membrane distillation concentration method was used to prepare high concentration polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with high content of Alb or Alc. 2.52 mol/L PACl1 with 88% Alb and 2.38 mol/L PACl2 with 61% Alc were successfully prepared. Three coagulants, AlCl3, PACl1 and PACl2 were investigated on their hydrolysis behavior and speciation under different conditions. The effects of pH and dilution ratio on Al species distribution were investigated by ferron assay. Experimental result showed that pH had a significant effect on Al species distribution for the three coagulants. Dilution ratio had little effects on Alb and Alc distribution in whole dilution process except the beginning for PACl1 and PACl2. The results indicated that transformation of Al depends largely on their original composition. AlCl3 was the most unstable coagulant among these three coagulants during hydrolysis process. PACl1 and PACl2 with significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products were less affected by the hydrolysis conditions and could maintain high speciation stability under various conditions.

  4. Influence of nitrite and chloride concentrations on survival and hematological profiles of striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Mazik, P.M.; Parker, N.C. ); Hinman, M.L.; Winkelmann, D.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Simco, B.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The 24-h median lethal concentration of nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) for striped bass Morone saxatilis was 163 mg/L in static toxicity tests. Exogenous chloride ions increased the tolerance of the fish for NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}; CaCl{sub 2} was more than twice as effective as NaCl. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, cortisol, and methemoglobin were correlated positively with environmental NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and methemoglobin were correlated negatively with environmental Cl{sup {minus}}, but cortisol was not reduced by the presence of environmental Cl{sup {minus}}. Striped bass maintained NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} in the plasma (0-45 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L) at concentrations below those in the environment (0-250 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L). However, striped bass were sensitive to NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} that entered the plasma; methemoglobin levels greater than 60% and plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} levels greater than 70 mg/L resulted in significant mortalities.

  5. Atmospheric pitting corrosion of 304L stainless steel: the role of highly concentrated chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Street, Steven R; Mi, Na; Cook, Angus J M C; Mohammed-Ali, Haval B; Guo, Liya; Rayment, Trevor; Davenport, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of atmospheric pitting corrosion in 304L stainless steel plate was analysed using MgCl(2) droplets in relation to changes in relative humidity (RH) and chloride deposition density (CDD). It was found that highly reproducible morphologies occur that are distinct at different RH. Pitting at higher concentrations, i.e. lower RH, resulted in satellite pits forming around the perimeter of wide shallow dish regions. At higher RH, these satellite pits did not form and instead spiral attack into the shallow region was observed. Increasing CDD at saturation resulted in a very broad-mouthed pitting attack within the shallow dish region. Large data sets were used to find trends in pit size and morphology in what is essentially a heterogeneous alloy. Electrochemical experiments on 304 stainless steel wires in highly saturated solutions showed that the passive current density increased significantly above 3 M MgCl(2) and the breakdown pitting potential dropped as the concentration increased. It is proposed that the shallow dish regions grow via enhanced dissolution of the passive film, whereas satellite pits and a spiral attack take place with active dissolution of bare metal surfaces.

  6. Effects of phytoplankton cell size and chloride concentration on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Van Duong, Hieu; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Han, Seunghee

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, the effects of phytoplankton cell size and methylmercury (MeHg) speciation on the bioaccumulation of MeHg by marine phytoplankton were investigated. Volume concentration factors (VCFs) of MeHg were determined in relation to the surface area to volume ratio of the cells for four species of diatom and a cyanobacteria species cultured in unenriched seawater. The VCFs of MeHg, ranging from 7.3 × 10(4) to 1.6 × 10(6) , increased linearly as the cell surface area-to-volume ratio increased. It suggests that pico- and nano-dominated phytoplankton communities may lead to larger MeHg accumulation than the one dominated by microphytoplankton. MeHg VCFs increased with increasing chloride concentration from 0.47 to 470 mM, indicating that MeHg bioaccumulation is enhanced under conditions that facilitate membrane permeability by the formation of neutral MeHgCl species. Overall results suggest that the size distributions of the planktonic community as well as the seawater chemistry affect MeHg bioaccumulation by marine phytoplankton.

  7. Long-term trends in chloride concentrations in shallow aquifers near Chicago.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Walton R

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of major cities throughout the world is resulting in the degradation of water quality in local aquifers. Increased use of road deicers since the middle of the 20th century in cities in the northern United States, Canada, and Europe has been linked to degraded ground water quality. In this article, Chicago, Illinois, and its outlying suburban areas are used as an example of the effects of urbanization in a historical context. A statistical study of historical water quality data was undertaken to determine how urbanization activities have affected shallow (<60 m) ground water quality. Chloride (Cl(-)) concentrations have been increasing, particularly in counties west and south of Chicago. In the majority of shallow public supply wells in the western and southern counties, Cl(-) concentrations have been increasing since the 1960s. About 43% of the wells in these counties have rate increases greater than 1 mg/L/year, and 15% have increases greater than 4 mg/L/year. Approximately 24% of the samples collected from public supply wells in the Chicago area in the 1990s had Cl(-) concentrations greater than 100 mg/L (35% in the western and southern counties); median values were less than 10 mg/L before 1960. The greater increase in Cl(-) concentrations in the outer counties is most likely due to both natural and anthropogenic factors, including the presence of more significant and shallower sand and gravel deposits, less curbing of major highways and streets, and less development in some parts of these counties.

  8. Effect of different concentrations of calcium chloride and potassium chloride on egg white proteins during isoelectric precipitation of ovomucin.

    PubMed

    Omana, D A; Wu, J

    2009-10-01

    The effect of various concentrations of CaCl2 and KCl on egg white proteins during isoelectric precipitation of ovomucin was investigated in this study. At low concentrations of CaCl2 (<50 mM), lysozyme was the major contaminant in the precipitated ovomucin, whereas ovalbumin was the predominant one at high concentrations (>or=100 mM). At 50 mM CaCl2 concentration, the concentrations of both lysozyme and ovalbumin were moderate. Ovomucin with a purity of 97.3% was prepared using a 2-step method: egg white was first precipitated in the presence of 50 mM CaCl2 followed by a second 500 mM CaCl2 extraction. The concentrations of other proteins in the precipitate were 1.3% of ovalbumin, 1.1% of lysozyme, and 0.4% of ovomucoid. Unlike CaCl2-treated samples, ovotransferrin was found to be the second major contaminant in all KCl-treated precipitates. Compared with the control, adding KCl at the lowest concentration of 2.5 mM increased significantly the content of ovalbumin (from 7.6 to 68.0%) and reduced significantly the content of lysozyme (from 25.5 to 6.4%) in the precipitates; however, increasing the concentrations of KCl up to 500 mM did not affect the content of ovalbumin, but the content of lysozyme showed a general reduction trend. Although KCl was used widely in literature as the last step of ovomucin washing, our results show that KCl is not an efficient salt in purifying ovomucin.

  9. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for ferric chloride in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Willhite, C C; Ball, G L; Bhat, V S

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Congress [PL 107-188] amended the Safe Drinking Water Act and required each community water system serving more than 3,000 people to conduct vulnerability assessments. These assessments address potential circumstances that could compromise the safety and reliability of municipal water. Ferric chloride is used in coagulation and flocculation, and it is used to treat raw water with high viral loads, elevated dissolved solids or high bromide. Iron is an essential nutrient, but elevated concentrations of FeCl3 are corrosive as a result of hydrolysis to HCl. Based on a no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.5% FeCl3 • 6H2O administered in drinking water to male and female F344 rats for up to 2 years, a do not consume concentration of 200 mg FeCl3 /L can be derived. Since instillation of 0.3 M (48.7 g/L) FeCl3 in saline to rodent vagina failed to elicit damage, a topical do not use concentration of 2000 mg FeCl3/L (600 mg Fe/L) can be assigned. The only FeCl3 data available to quantify ocular toxicity involved a pH 1 solution in rabbit eyes, but HCl instillation (pH 2.5) to rabbit eyes found permanent corneal ulceration after 10 min. The pH of FeCl3 in water at the do not use limit (2.4-2.6) is near the pH (2.0) considered corrosive by regulatory agencies. As direct eye contact with water at pH 4.5 or below increases complaints of ocular discomfort, emergency response plans that address FeCl3 in drinking water must account for Fe levels and the pH of the affected water.

  10. Urinary strong ion difference is a major determinant of plasma chloride concentration changes in postoperative patients

    PubMed Central

    Masevicius, Fabio Daniel; Vazquez, Alejandro Risso; Enrico, Carolina; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To show that alterations in the plasma chloride concentration ([Cl-]plasma) during the postoperative period are largely dependent on the urinary strong ion difference ([SID]urine=[Na+]urine+[K+]urine-[Cl-]urine) and not on differences in fluid therapy. Methods Measurements were performed at intensive care unit admission and 24 hours later in a total of 148 postoperative patients. Patients were assigned into one of three groups according to the change in [Cl-]plasma at the 24 hours time point: increased [Cl-]plasma (n=39), decreased [Cl-]plasma (n=56) or unchanged [Cl-]plasma (n=53). Results On admission, the increased [Cl-]plasma group had a lower [Cl-]plasma (105±5 versus 109±4 and 106±3mmol/L, p<0.05), a higher plasma anion gap concentration ([AG]plasma) and a higher strong ion gap concentration ([SIG]). After 24 hours, the increased [Cl-]plasma group showed a higher [Cl-]plasma (111±4 versus 104±4 and 107±3mmol/L, p<0.05) and lower [AG]plasma and [SIG]. The volume and [SID] of administered fluids were similar between groups except that the [SID]urine was higher (38±37 versus 18±22 and 23±18mmol/L, p<0.05) in the increased [Cl-]plasma group at the 24 hours time point. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that the [Cl-]plasma on admission and [SID]urine were independent predictors of the variation in [Cl-]plasma 24 hours later. Conclusions Changes in [Cl-]plasma during the first postoperative day were largely related to [SID]urine and [Cl-]plasma on admission and not to the characteristics of the infused fluids. Therefore, decreasing [SID]urine could be a major mechanism for preventing the development of saline-induced hyperchloremia. PMID:24213082

  11. Reconstructed chloride concentration profiles below the seabed in Hong Kong (China) and their implications for offshore groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shi, Lei; Kuang, Xingxing; Lee, Chun Ming; Yim, Wyss W.-S.; Yang, Shouye

    2015-03-01

    Offshore hydrogeology has been much less studied compared to onshore hydrogeology. The marine Quaternary system in Hong Kong (China) consists of interlayers of aquitards and aquifers and was part of the Pearl River Delta when the sea level was low before the Holocene. Core samples from six offshore boreholes were collected to measure the chloride concentration in the system by adding deionized water. A method was proposed to convert the sediment chloride into that of the original pore water. A one-dimensional sedimentation-transport model was developed to simulate the historical conservative transport of the reconstructed pore-water chloride. The model integrates present knowledge of stratigraphy and the historical evolution of the geological system. The chloride concentration profiles show that the chloride decreases from an average of 13,800 mg/L in the first marine unit to an average of 5,620 mg/L in the first aquifer. At the bottom of one borehole, the concentration is only 1,420 mg/L. The numerical model shows that the vertical chloride distribution is due to diffusion-controlled downward migration of seawater. The second marine unit obstructs the downward migration, indicating its low permeability and good aquitard integrity. The relatively fresh or brackish water in deep aquifers protected by the aquitard has the potential to be used as drinking water following some treatment, or at least as raw water with much cheaper desalinization compared with using seawater. The methodology and findings in this study are instructional for other coastal areas with similar geology and history in the South China Sea.

  12. Salt restriction in hypertension--the effect of dietary advice and self monitoring of chloride concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Meland, E; Laerum, E; Ulvik, R J

    1994-08-01

    The aims of this present study were firstly to examine whether diet compliance and blood pressure effect could be enhanced by self monitoring with a titrator strip (Quantab 1176) measuring the urine chloride concentration. This was achieved by an open, randomized parallel group design. The study also sought to evaluate the blood pressure effect of a moderately salt restricted diet by using a pre-test-post-test design with a run-in period and controlling for relevant confounding factors (weight, training and alcohol consumption). Furthermore, the study aims were to validate the measurement of chloride concentration in the morning urine by the Quantab titrator strip. We compared Quantab 1176 measurement of chloride concentration in the morning urine with 24 h sodium excretion, determined by the clinical chemical laboratory, was performed. Twenty men and 14 women (mean age 53 years) with essential hypertension (mean: 165/96 mmHg) were observed during a run-in period of 4 weeks before randomization to either dietary advice combined with self monitoring of morning urine chloride concentration for 12 weeks, or dietary advice alone. The reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 6 mmHg was not different in the two groups (between groups p = 0.44). Within group changes of systolic blood pressure were 10 mmHg and 6 mmHg (p = 0.006 and p = 0.04) in the diet plus Quantab group, and the diet only group respectively (between groups p = 0.30). No significant difference in 24 h sodium excretion could be detected between the groups. The morning urine chloride concentration correlated moderately to the 24 h urine sodium excretion (r = 0.66, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The effect of calcium chloride concentration on alginate/Fmoc-diphenylalanine hydrogel networks.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ekin; Bayram, Cem; Akçapınar, Rümeysa; Türk, Mustafa; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-09-01

    Peptide based hydrogels gained a vast interest in the tissue engineering studies thanks to great superiorities such as biocompatibility, supramolecular organization without any need of additional crosslinker, injectability and tunable nature. Fmoc-diphenylalanine (FmocFF) is one of the earliest and widely used example of these small molecule gelators that have been utilized in biomedical studies. However, Fmoc-peptides are not feasible for long term use due to low stability and weak mechanical properties at neutral pH. In this study, Fmoc-FF dipeptides were mechanically enhanced by incorporation of alginate, a biocompatible and absorbable polysaccharide. The binary hydrogel is obtained via molecular self-assembly of FmocFF dipeptide in alginate solution followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate moieties with varying concentrations of calcium chloride. Hydrogel characterization was evaluated in terms of morphology, viscoelastic moduli and diffusional phenomena and the structures were tested as 3D scaffolds for bovine chondrocytes. In vitro evaluation of scaffolds lasted up to 14days and cell viability, sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) levels, collagen type II synthesis were determined. Our results showed that alginate incorporation into FmocFF hydrogels leads to better mechanical properties and higher stability with good biocompatibility.

  14. Decolorisation of real textile waste using electrochemical techniques: effect of the chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Malpass, G R P; Miwa, D W; Mortari, D A; Machado, S A S; Motheo, A J

    2007-07-01

    The present paper presents the study of the decolorisation of real textile effluent by constant current electrolysis in a flow-cell using a Ti/Ru(0.3)Ti(0.7)O(2) DSA type electrode. The effect of increasing the chloride ion concentration on the efficiency of colour removal is discussed. Attempts to perform galvanostatic oxidation (40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) on the as-received effluent demonstrate that colour removal and total organic carbon (TOC) removal are limited. If the conductivity of the effluent is increased by adding 0.033 mol L(-1) Na(2)SO(4), little increase in the extent of colour/TOC removal is observed. However, when Na(2)SO(4) is substituted, stepwise, with NaCl (while maintaining the ionic strength constant) appreciable colour/TOC removal is observed. The study of the effect of increasing the current density demonstrates that total colour removal is possible at high currents. The efficiencies of colour and TOC removal are discussed in terms of the Energy per order (E(EO)/kWh m(-3)order(-1)) and Energy consumption (E(C)/kWh kg(-1)TOC), respectively. Finally, the extent of colour removal is compared to consent levels presented in the literature.

  15. Increased chloride conductance as the proximate cause of hydrogen ion concentration effects in Aplysia neurons.

    PubMed

    Brown, A M; Sutton, R B; Walker, J L

    1970-11-01

    A fall in extracellular pH increased membrane conductance of the giant cell in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. Chloride conductance was trebled whereas potassium conductance was increased by 50%. Half the giant cells were hyperpolarized (2-8 mv) and half were depolarized (3-10 mv) by lowering the pH. The hyperpolarizing response always became a depolarizing response in half-chloride solutions. When internal chloride was increased electrophoretically, the hyperpolarization was either decreased or changed to depolarization. The depolarizing response was reduced or became a hyperpolarizing response after soaking the cell in 10.0 mM chloride, artificial seawater solution for 1 hr. Depolarization was unaffected when either external sodium, calcium, or magnesium was omitted. A glass micropipette having an organic liquid chloride ion exchanger in its tip was used to measure intracellular chloride activity in 14 giant cells; 7 had values of 27.7 +/- 1.8 mM (SEM) and 7 others 40.7 +/- 1.5 mM. Three of the first group were hyperpolarized when pH was lowered and three of the second group were depolarized. In all six cells, these changes of membrane potential were in the direction of the chloride equilibrium potential. Intracellular potassium activity was measured by means of a potassium ion exchanger microelectrode.

  16. Increased Chloride Conductance As the Proximate Cause of Hydrogen Ion Concentration Effects in Aplysia Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. M.; Walker, J. L.; Sutton, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    A fall in extracellular pH increased membrane conductance of the giant cell in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. Chloride conductance was trebled whereas potassium conductance was increased by 50%. Half the giant cells were hyperpolarized (2–8 mv) and half were depolarized (3–10 mv) by lowering the pH. The hyperpolarizing response always became a depolarizing response in half-chloride solutions. When internal chloride was increased electrophoretically, the hyperpolarization was either decreased or changed to depolarization. The depolarizing response was reduced or became a hyperpolarizing response after soaking the cell in 10.0 mM chloride, artificial seawater solution for 1 hr. Depolarization was unaffected when either external sodium, calcium, or magnesium was omitted. A glass micropipette having an organic liquid chloride ion exchanger in its tip was used to measure intracellular chloride activity in 14 giant cells; 7 had values of 27.7 ± 1.8 mM (SEM) and 7 others 40.7 ± 1.5 mM. Three of the first group were hyperpolarized when pH was lowered and three of the second group were depolarized. In all six cells, these changes of membrane potential were in the direction of the chloride equilibrium potential. Intracellular potassium activity was measured by means of a potassium ion exchanger microelectrode. PMID:5475996

  17. GLT-1 Transport Stoichiometry Is Constant at Low and High Glutamate Concentrations when Chloride Is Substituted by Gluconate

    PubMed Central

    Kabakov, Anatoli Y.; Rosenberg, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter, but prolonged exposure even at micromolar concentrations causes neuronal death. Extracellular glutamate is maintained at nanomolar level by glutamate transporters, which, however, may reverse transport and release glutamate. If and when the reverse occurs depends on glutamate transport stoichiometry (GTS). Previously we found that in the presence of chloride, the coupled GLT-1 glutamate transporter current and its relationship to radiolabeled glutamate flux significantly decreased when extracellular glutamate concentration increased above 0.2 mM, which implies a change in GTS. Such high concentrations are feasible near GLT-1 expressed close to synaptic release site during excitatory neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine GLT-1 GTS at both low (19–75 μM) and high (300–1200 μM) glutamate concentration ranges. GTS experiments were conducted in the absence of chloride to avoid contributions by the GLT-1 uncoupled chloride conductance. Mathematical analysis of the transporter thermodynamic equilibrium allowed us to derive equations revealing the number of a particular type of ion transported per elementary charge based on the measurements of the transporter reversal potential. We found that GLT-1a expressed in COS-7 cells co-transports 1.5 Na+, 0.5 Glu-, 0.5 H+ and counter-transports 0.6 K+ per elementary charge in both glutamate concentration ranges, and at both 37°C and 26°C temperatures. The thermodynamic parameter Q10 = 2.4 for GLT-1 turnover rate of 19 s-1 (37°C, -50 mV) remained constant in the 10 μM–10 mM glutamate concentration range. Importantly, the previously reported decrease in the current/flux ratio at high glutamate concentration was not seen in the absence of chloride in both COS-7 cells and cultured rat neurons. Therefore, only in the absence of chloride, GLT-1 GTS remains constant at all glutamate concentrations. Possible explanations for why apparent GTS might vary in

  18. River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Hirsch, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in northern U.S. included in this study have increased substantially over time with average concentrations approximately doubling from 1990 to 2011, outpacing the rate of urbanization in the northern U.S. Historical data were examined for 30 monitoring sites on 19 streams that had chloride concentration and flow records of 18 to 49 years. Chloride concentrations in most studied streams increased in all seasons (13 of 19 in all seasons; 16 of 19 during winter); maximum concentrations occurred during winter. Increasing concentrations during non-deicing periods suggest that chloride was stored in hydrologic reservoirs, such as the shallow groundwater system, during the winter and slowly released in baseflow throughout the year. Streamflow dependency was also observed with chloride concentrations increasing as streamflow decreased, a result of dilution during rainfall- and snowmelt-induced high-flow periods. The influence of chloride on aquatic life increased with time; 29% of sites studied exceeded the concentration for the USEPA chronic water quality criteria of 230 mg/L by an average of more than 100 individual days per year during 2006–2011. The rapid rate of chloride concentration increase in these streams is likely due to a combination of possible increased road salt application rates, increased baseline concentrations, and greater snowfall in the Midwestern U.S. during the latter portion of the study period.

  19. River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Steven R; De Cicco, Laura A; Lutz, Michelle A; Hirsch, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    Chloride concentrations in northern U.S. included in this study have increased substantially over time with average concentrations approximately doubling from 1990 to 2011, outpacing the rate of urbanization in the northern U.S. Historical data were examined for 30 monitoring sites on 19 streams that had chloride concentration and flow records of 18 to 49 years. Chloride concentrations in most studied streams increased in all seasons (13 of 19 in all seasons; 16 of 19 during winter); maximum concentrations occurred during winter. Increasing concentrations during non-deicing periods suggest that chloride was stored in hydrologic reservoirs, such as the shallow groundwater system, during the winter and slowly released in baseflow throughout the year. Streamflow dependency was also observed with chloride concentrations increasing as streamflow decreased, a result of dilution during rainfall- and snowmelt-induced high-flow periods. The influence of chloride on aquatic life increased with time; 29% of sites studied exceeded the concentration for the USEPA chronic water quality criteria of 230 mg/L by an average of more than 100 individual days per year during 2006-2011. The rapid rate of chloride concentration increase in these streams is likely due to a combination of possible increased road salt application rates, increased baseline concentrations, and greater snowfall in the Midwestern U.S. during the latter portion of the study period.

  20. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  1. The influence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Sagrario; López, Victoria; Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V

    2014-10-17

    Disinfectants, such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), are commonly used to control Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens in food processing plants. Prior studies have demonstrated that the resistance to BAC of L. monocytogenes was associated with the prolonged survival of three strains of molecular serotype 1/2a in an Iberian pork processing plant. Because survival in such environments is related to biofilm formation, we hypothesised that the influence of BAC on the biofilm formation potential of L. monocytogenes might differ between BAC-resistant strains (BAC-R, MIC≥10mg/L) and BAC-sensitive strains (BAC-S, MIC≤2.5mg/L). To evaluate this possibility, three BAC-R strains and eight BAC-S strains, which represented all of the molecular serotype 1/2a strains detected in the sampled plant, were compared. Biofilm production was measured using the crystal violet staining method in 96-well microtitre plates. The BAC-R strains produced significantly (p<0.05) less biofilm than the BAC-S in the absence of BAC, independent of the rate of planktonic growth. In contrast, when the biofilm values were measured in the presence of BAC, one BAC-R strain (S10-1) was able to form biofilm at 5mg/L of BAC, which prevented biofilm formation among the rest of the strains. A genetic determinant of BAC resistance recently described in L. monocytogenes (Tn6188) was detected in S10-1. When a BAC-S strain and its spontaneous mutant BAC-R derivative were compared, resistance to BAC led to biofilm formation at 5mg/L of BAC and to a significant (p<0.05) stimulation of biofilm formation at 1.25mg/L of BAC, which significantly (p<0.05) reduced the biofilm level in the parent BAC-S strain. Our results suggest that the effect of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of BAC on biofilm production by L. monocytogenes might differ between strains with different MICs and even between resistant strains with similar MICs but different genetic determinants of BAC resistance. For BAC-R strains similar

  2. Influence of Temperature and Chloride Concentration on Passivation Mechanism and Corrosion of a DSS2209 Welded Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachemi, Hania; Azzaz, Mohamed; Djeghlal, Mohamed Elamine

    2016-10-01

    The passivity behavior of a 2209 duplex stainless steel welded joint was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, Mott-Schottky analysis and EIS measurements. In order to evaluate the contribution of temperature, chloride concentration and microstructure, a sequence of polarization tests were carried out in aerated NaCl solutions selected according to robust design of a three level-three factors Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio and ANOVA were achieved on all measured data, and the contribution of every control factor was estimated. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 2209 duplex stainless steel welded joint is related to the evolution of the passive film formed on the surface. It was found that the passive film on the welded zone possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature and chlorides concentration, the corrosion resistance of the passive film is more affected in the weldment than in the base metal.

  3. Intermediate-range sweat chloride concentration and Pseudomonas bronchitis. A cystic fibrosis variant with preservation of exocrine pancreatic function.

    PubMed

    Stern, R C; Boat, T F; Abramowsky, C R; Matthews, L W; Wood, R E; Doershuk, C F

    1978-06-23

    We studied the clinical and laboratory characteristics of seven patients with sweat chloride concentration consistently between 40 and 60 mEq/liter. Each has chronic Pseudomonas bronchitis, and all lack digestive symptoms. Laboratory findings indicate the preservation of exocrine pancreatic function. The patients include two of five children in one family and two of four in another. In a third family, one of five siblings has an intermediate sweat chloride concentration, but another has a typical fibrosis value (105 mEq/liter). One patient died of respiratory failure; results of an autopsy showed bronchiolectasis typical of cystic fibrosis, but minimal pancreatic changes. The data suggest a genetic basis for this variant of cystic fibrosis. These patients may be homozygous for a portion of a closely linked multigene cystic fibrosis locus or may have modifier genes that ameliorate the pancreatic and sweat lesions.

  4. Water-level measurements and chloride concentrations for selected wells in Louisiana, January 1988-October 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelace, Wendell M.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents water-level measurements and chlorideconcentrations in water from selected wells completed in aquifers in Louisiana. The data were collected during the period January1988-October 1997. Water-level data are presented for 109 wells, and chloride data are presented for 45 wells. Hydrographs and summaries of water-level trends are presented for wellscompleted in aquifers throughout the State. Chlorographs and summaries of chloride trends are presented for wells completed in the Mississippi River alluvial and Sparta aquifers; Chicot aquifer system; and Gramercy, Norco, and Gonzales-New Orleans aquifers. Data are presented in graphical and tabular formats.

  5. Case Report of Occupational Asthma Induced by Polyvinyl Chloride and Nickel

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ga-Won; Ban, Ga-Young; Nam, Young-Hee; Park, Hae-Sim

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a widely used chemical for production of plastics. However occupational asthma (OA) caused by PVC has been reported only rarely. We report a 34-yr-old male wallpaper factory worker with OA due to PVC and nickel (Ni) whose job was mixing PVC with plasticizers. He visited the emergency room due to an asthma attack with moderate airflow obstruction and markedly increased sputum eosinophil numbers. A methacholine challenge test was positive (PC20 2.5 mg/mL). Bronchoprovocation tests with both PVC and Ni showed early and late asthmatic responses, respectively. Moreover, the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was increased after challenge with PVC. To our knowledge, this is the first case of OA in Korea induced by exposure to both PVC and Ni. We suggest that eosinophilic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of PVC-induced OA and that FeNO monitoring can be used for its diagnosis. PMID:24133363

  6. Case report of occupational asthma induced by polyvinyl chloride and nickel.

    PubMed

    Song, Ga-Won; Ban, Ga-Young; Nam, Young-Hee; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2013-10-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a widely used chemical for production of plastics. However occupational asthma (OA) caused by PVC has been reported only rarely. We report a 34-yr-old male wallpaper factory worker with OA due to PVC and nickel (Ni) whose job was mixing PVC with plasticizers. He visited the emergency room due to an asthma attack with moderate airflow obstruction and markedly increased sputum eosinophil numbers. A methacholine challenge test was positive (PC20 2.5 mg/mL). Bronchoprovocation tests with both PVC and Ni showed early and late asthmatic responses, respectively. Moreover, the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was increased after challenge with PVC. To our knowledge, this is the first case of OA in Korea induced by exposure to both PVC and Ni. We suggest that eosinophilic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of PVC-induced OA and that FeNO monitoring can be used for its diagnosis.

  7. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro )

    1993-04-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO[sub 2]-rich and CeO[sub 2]-lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO[sub 2] content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl[sub 3], LaCl[sub 3], NdCl[sub 3], and PrCl[sub 3] are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 [mu]m.

  8. Sodium and chloride concentration in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese; B. Sexton; R.B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature about the response of different genomic groups and clones of Populus to elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-). In addition, there is an increasing need to understand the variation in salt tolerance and tissue composition of such genotypes over multiple...

  9. Intrauterine tracheal obstruction, a new treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, decreases amniotic fluid sodium and chloride concentrations in the fetal lamb.

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, V A; Flageole, H; Deprest, J A; Vandenberghe, K; Verhaeghe, J; Lerut, T E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fetal tracheal occlusion on sodium and chloride concentrations in amniotic and tracheal fluid. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Intrauterine tracheal occlusion has been proposed to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, an important prognostic factor in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In early human trials, technical failure of the obstructive device has been reported. METHODS: Eight fetal lambs (gestational age = 95 days) were subjected to fetal tracheoscopy, and amniotic and tracheal fluid samples were taken. In multiple pregnancies (n = 6), amniotic fluid was also sampled from the contralateral amniotic sac and used as a control. Subsequently, endotracheal obstruction, using a detachable balloon, was performed. After 14 days, all fetuses were delivered, and sodium and chloride concentrations in amniotic and tracheal fluid were measured again. Statistical analysis was done using a two-tailed Student's t test, paired or unpaired as appropriate. RESULTS: In controls, between 95 and 109 days gestational age, no significant changes occurred in sodium or chloride concentrations in amniotic or tracheal fluid. After 2 weeks of tracheal obstruction, however, chloride and sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid decreased (chloride = 76.7 mEq/L vs. 107.6 mEq/L, p = 0.0003; sodium = 109.6 mEq/L vs. 125.9 +/- 5.2 mEq/L, p = 0.019). A concomitant increase in chloride and sodium concentration was observed in tracheal fluid (chloride = 145.4 mEq/L vs. 130.0 mEq/L, p = 0.047; sodium = 153.1 mEq/L vs. 142.9 mEq/L, p = 0.051). When comparing groups at 109 days, chloride and sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid were markedly lower in the treated group versus controls (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.05 for chloride and sodium, respectively). CONCLUSION: Complete tracheal occlusion in ovine fetuses results in a significant decrease of amniotic fluid sodium and chloride concentrations. PMID:9409574

  10. Effects of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride concentration on PEG/protein liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Dumetz, André C; Lewus, Rachael A; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

    2008-09-16

    When added to protein solutions, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) creates an effective attraction between protein molecules due to depletion forces. This effect has been widely used to crystallize proteins, and PEG is among the most successful crystallization agents in current use. However, PEG is almost always used in combination with a salt at either low or relatively high concentrations. Here the effects of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate concentration on PEG 8000/ovalbumin liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation are investigated. At low salt the L-L phase separation occurs at decreasing protein concentration with increasing salt concentration, presumably due to repulsive electrostatic interactions between proteins. At high salt concentration, the behavior depends on the nature of the salt. Sodium chloride has little effect on the L-L phase separation, but ammonium sulfate decreases the protein concentration at which the L-L phase separation occurs. This trend is attributed to the effects of critical fluctuations on depletion forces. The implications of these results for designing solution conditions optimal for protein crystallization are discussed.

  11. The effect of pH and chloride concentration on the stability and antimicrobial activity of chlorine-based sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian W; Hung, Yen-Con

    2014-04-01

    Chlorinated water and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water solutions were made to compare the free chlorine stability and microbicidal efficacy of chlorine-containing solutions with different properties. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was greatest in fresh samples (approximately 9.0 log CFU/mL reduction). Chlorine loss in "aged" samples (samples left in open bottles) was greatest (approximately 40 mg/L free chlorine loss in 24 h) in low pH (approximately 2.5) and high chloride (Cl(-) ) concentrations (greater than 150 mg/L). Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was also negatively impacted (<1.0 log CFU/mL reduction) in aged samples with a low pH and high Cl(-) . Higher pH values (approximately 6.0) did not appear to have a significant effect on free chlorine loss or numbers of surviving microbial cells when fresh and aged samples were compared. This study found chloride levels in the chlorinated and EO water solutions had a reduced effect on both free chlorine stability and its microbicidal efficacy in the low pH solutions. Greater concentrations of chloride in pH 2.5 samples resulted in decreased free chlorine stability and lower microbicidal efficacy.

  12. Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y; Chai, L C; Pui, C F; Mustafa, S; Cheah, Y K; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 1-10% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 °C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 °C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 °C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress.

  13. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  14. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-01-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  15. Chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in four watersheds along Interstate 95, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-11: factors that affect peak chloride concentrations during winter storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Martin, Joseph W.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2015-07-01

    The addition of a lane mile in both directions on I–95 would result in an estimate of approximately 2 to 11 percent increase in Cl- input from deicers applied to I–95 and other roads maintained by Connecticut Department of Transportation. The largest estimated increase in Cl- load was in the watersheds with the greatest number miles of I–95 corridor relative to the total lane miles maintained by Connecticut Department of Transportation. On the basis of these estimates and the estimated peak Cl- concentrations during the study period, it is unlikely that the increased use of deicers on the additional lanes would lead to Cl- concentrations that exceed the aquatic habitat criteria.

  16. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as

  17. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-07-21

    Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as effective, might transfer risk and/or not

  18. A flow cytometric method for measurement of intracellular chloride concentration in lymphocytes using the halide-specific probe 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl) quinolinium (SPQ).

    PubMed

    Pilas, B; Durack, G

    1997-08-01

    A flow cytometry method using the halide-specific fluorescent dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl) quinolinium (SPQ), has been developed to measure intracellular chloride concentration in single cells. Collisions with chloride quench the fluorescence of SPQ, making it possible to relate the measured fluorescence intensity to chloride concentration with a Stern-Volmer equation. To demonstrate the method, porcine lymphocytes were loaded in vitro, using a hypotonic method, with 5 mM SPQ. Fluorescence excitation was provided by a UV laser and the fluorescence emission intensity at 485 nm was recorded. Calibration was performed by using 7 microM nigericin (a K/H antiporter) and 10 microM tributyltin (a Cl/OH antiporter) to equilibrate the concentrations of intracellular and extracellular chloride. Calibration measurements were made for chloride concentrations between 0 mM and 140 mM. The calibration produced a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 16.2 M(-1) which was used to relate measured cell fluorescence to intracellular chloride concentration. The intracellular chloride concentration for fresh porcine lymphocytes was determined to be 56.2 +/- 3.3 mM. Stable loading of cells with 5 mM SPQ was accomplished in 15 minutes, leakage of SPQ from the cells was minimal, and over 95% of the cells remained viable after loading.

  19. Concentrated Photo Voltaics (CPV): a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centro, S.

    2015-08-01

    Concentrated PhotoVoltaic (CPV), among green energy solutions, nowadays has the ambition to reach grid-parity without subside. CPV substitutes large areas of expensive semiconductor solar cells, with concentrating optics made of cheap materials. Moreover the cells that are suitable for CPV exhibits an unprecedented efficiency and their technology is progressing every year. A case study project, TwinFocus®, will be presented in detail.

  20. Levels of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and protein in tissues of Clarias gariepienus fingerlings exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Babu; Selvanayagam, Mariadoss; Cengiz, Elif I; Uysal, Ersin

    2008-12-01

    The freshwater fish, Clarias gariepienus fingerlings, were exposed to sublethal concentrations (1.7 and 3.4 mg/L) of cadmium chloride for 12 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total protein levels were assayed in the gill, brain, and muscle of the fish at regular intervals of 6 and 12 days. The activities of AAT, ALT, and ALP of the treated fishes increased significantly in all the tissues compared with the control fish. Protein level in all the tissues showed a significant decrease in comparison to unexposed controls throughout the experimental periods. These results revealed that cadmium chloride effects the intermediary metabolism of C. gariepienus fingerlings and that the assayed enzymes can work as good biomarkers of contamination.

  1. Effect of Solution pH and Chloride Concentration on Akaganeite Precipitation: Implications for Akaganeite Formation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peretyazhko, T. A.; Rampe, E. B.; Clark, J. V.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Akaganeite (Beta-FeOOH, chloride-containing Fe(III) (hydr)oxide) has been recently discovered on the surface of Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars [1] and from orbit by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in Robert Sharp crater and Antoniadi basin [2]. However, the mechanism and aqueous environmental conditions of akaganeite formation (e.g., pH and chloride concentration) remain unknown. We have investigated formation of akaganeite through Fe(III) hydrolysis at variable initial pH and chloride concentrations. The formed Fe(III) precipitates were characterized by instruments similar to instruments on Mars robotic spacecraft. Syntheses were performed through hydrolysis of Fe(III) perchlorate with addition of Na cloride (Fe/Cl ratio between 0.5 and 5) and at initial pH of 1.5, 2, 4, 6 and 8 at 90degC. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed formation of akaganeite alone or in mixture with goethite, hematite and ferrihydrite at all initial pHs and Fe/Cl ratio between 0.5 and 2 while akaganeite precipitated only at pH 1.5 and Fe/Cl greater than2. Chloride content of akaganeite was affected by initial pH and decreased from 20-60 mg/g at pH 1.5 to less than 0.1 mg/g at pH 8. The synthesized akaganeite samples were also characterized by Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy and volatiles were analysed by thermal and evolved gas analysis. The obtained characterization data will be compared to published data from rover and orbital missions [1-3] to determine martian akaganeite composition, crystallinity and formation conditions.

  2. Mephedrone Concentrations in Cases of Clinical Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Papaseit, Esther; Olesti, Eulàlia; de la Torre, Rafael; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí

    2017-07-04

    Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans. Method The PubMed® database complemented with Google Scholar® was systematically searched to find published cases of mephedrone intoxications. The searches were done using the keyword "mephedrone OR 4-methylmethcathinone" in association to each of the following strategies: i) "intoxication OR poisoning"; ii) "(blood OR serum OR plasma") OR "urine" OR ("saliva OR oral fluid") OR "hair"; iii) "forensic toxicology samples"; iv) "wastewater OR sewage OR pooled urine" and v) "toxicity OR death OR fatal". Results Since 2010, a total of 97 fatal cases and 57 non-fatal intoxication cases were identified that presented mephedrone concentrations in human biological matrices attributed directly or indirectly to mephedrone. Typical subjects involved were young male with concomitant use of other drugs (psychostimulants, cannabis, alcohol and other depressants). Mephedrone mean blood concentration from fatal cases was 2,663 ng/mL (range 51-22,000 ng/mL), from non-fatal cases was 166 ng/mL (range, 13-412 ng/mL), that resulted in a similar range from data found in controlled studies with no acute toxicity associated (135 ng/mL, range 52-218 ng/mL). Forensic epidemiology studies based on wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis point towards similar variations in use (nightclub scene) to those self-reported in surveys and questioners. Conclusion Mephedrone blood concentrations in cases of fatal intoxications were higher than in

  3. Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the activities of proteases and amylases in soy sauce koji.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Wei; Wang, Mei-Ling; Kwok, Kam-Fu; Lee, Min-Hsiung

    2005-03-09

    This study investigated the effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of soy sauce koji. The optimal temperatures for both protease and amylase were found in the range of 50-55 degrees C. The protease was not stable at 55 degrees C and retained only approximately 20% residual activity after incubation at 55 degrees C for 4 h. The protease was labile in sodium chloride solution, whereas the amylase was quite stable. The residual protease activity in an 18% NaCl solution was only approximately 3%. The harvested koji was mixed with 1.5 volumes of water (v/w) and incubated at 45 degrees C for 48 h; the total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were 1.3 and 0.56%, respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis of koji at the critical temperature of 45 degrees C could be employed as a rapid fermentation method to reduce the time for soy sauce manufacturing. According to this study, the combination of 5% sodium chloride and fermentation at 45 degrees C was considered as the best condition for the prohydrolysis of koji for making soy sauce. In addition, the critical temperature of 45 degrees C was very important when used in the preparation of protein hydrolysates for the flavoring industry and for the preparation of biologically active peptides.

  4. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  5. Modulating the textural characteristics of whey protein nanofibril gels with different concentrations of calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Farjami, Toktam; Madadlou, Ashkan; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-02-01

    Protein nanofibrils with 10-20 nm diameters were formed by heating whey protein solution at pH 2.0. Nanofibrils solution was deacidified slowly through dialysis followed by adding different amounts of CaCl2 (0-80 mM) into the dialysis water resulting in formation of a soft viscoelastic gel over time. The gel fabricated from the nanofibrils solution dialyzed against distilled water with 0 mM CaCl2 had zero ash content. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy revealed a change in the pattern of hydrogen bond formation in gel network by calcium chloride. The higher the ash content of gels, the lower was the storage modulus and fracture stress of samples. Gels with higher ash contents had a more porous microstructure which was attributed to the diminished hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding among nanofibrils by the action of chloride. Higher ash contents also led to higher water holding capacity of gels which was attributed to the influence of the strongly hydrated calcium ions that interacted with the non-charged regions of proteins via site-specific interactions.

  6. Quantifying loading, toxic concentrations, and systemic persistence of chloride in a contemporary mixed-land-use watershed using an experimental watershed approach.

    PubMed

    Hubbart, J A; Kellner, E; Hooper, L W; Zeiger, S

    2017-03-01

    A nested-scale experimental watershed study was implemented to quantify loading and persistence of chloride in an urbanizing, mixed-land-use watershed. A Midwest USA (Missouri) watershed was partitioned into five sub-basins with contrasting dominant land use. Streamwater was tested for chloride concentration four days per week from October 2009 through May 2014 at each site. Monitoring sites included co-located gauging and climate stations recording variables at 30-minute intervals. Results indicate significant (p<0.01) differences in chloride concentrations and loading between sites. Loading consistently increased from the forested headwaters (average=507kgday(-1)) to primarily urban watershed terminus (average=7501kgday(-1)). Chloride concentrations were highest (average=83.9mgL(-1)) with the greatest frequency of acutely toxic conditions (i.e. 860mgL(-1)) mid-watershed. This finding is in-part attributable to the ratio of chloride application to streamflow volume (i.e. increasing flow volume with stream distance resulted in chloride dilution, offsetting increased percent urban land use with stream distance). Results highlight the important, yet often confounding, interactions between pollutant loading and flow dynamics. Chloride peaks occurred during late winter/early spring melting periods, implicating road salt application as the primary contributor to the chloride regime. Floodplain groundwater analysis indicated seasonal sink/source relationships between the stream and floodplain, which could contribute to chronic toxicity and persistent low Cl(-) concentrations in streamwater year-round. Results hold important implications for resource managers wishing to mitigate water quality and aquatic habitat degradation, and suggest important water quality limitations to stream restoration success in complex urban aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flocculation of low algae concentration water using polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride coupled with polysilicate aluminum ferrite.

    PubMed

    Lv, Liping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Qiao, Junlian

    2017-03-08

    The combined application of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and polysilicate aluminum ferrite (PSFA) was investigated to treat low algae density water samples, in which Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the dominant species. coagulation performance of M. aeruginosa was studied with regard to algal removal, Algal density was evaluated by determining the change in the optical density of the algal culture suspension at 680 nm and chlorophyll a. The dissolved organic matter, cellular morphology, viability, and recovery of M. aeruginosa cells after flocculation and sedimentation were also included. In addition, the effects of pH and addition order of PSFA and PDADMAC on algal removal were investigated. The removal efficiency of algae coagulated using combined PDADMAC and PSFA was improved by 34.5% and 19.3%, respectively. The organic matter removal was also enhanced. The optimum pH range for algal removal is 7.0-10.0, and the preferable addition sequence is the simultaneous addition of PDADMAC and PSFA. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicated that the combined usage of PDADMAC and PSFA caused no damage to the algal cell. Moreover, the experiment on algal recovery demonstrated that PDADMAC has bacteriostatic ability.

  8. Sodium chloride concentration affects yield, quality, and sensory acceptability of vacuum-tumbled marinated broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Lopez, K; Schilling, M W; Armstrong, T W; Smith, B S; Corzo, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium chloride concentration on yield, instrumental quality, and sensory acceptability of broiler breast meat that was vacuum tumbled with a 15% solution (over green weight) for 30 min. Different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50%) of NaCl (salt) and 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate were included in the marinade solution. After marinating, breast fillets were evaluated for marination yields, pH, surface color, cooking loss, tenderness, expressible moisture, proximate composition, purge loss, sodium content, and sensory acceptability. As salt concentration increased, CIE L* decreased linearly, with a concentration of 0.75% having lower (P < 0.05) CIE L* values when compared with the control, 0, and 0.25% NaCl treatments. In addition, there was a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in shear force as salt concentration increased, with no further decrease (P < 0.05) when greater than 0.75% NaCl was used. Cooking yield increased (P < 0.05) as the salt concentration increased to 1.0%. All marinated treatments were preferred (P < 0.05) over the control treatment, and all treatments marinated with at least 0.50% sodium chloride had an average rating of like moderately. Cluster analysis indicated that consumer groups varied in their preference of broiler breast meat treatments and that samples that were marinated with between 0.5 to 1.0% NaCl were acceptable to the majority of consumers. Marination with 0.75% NaCl was sufficient to maximize yields and decrease lightness (L*) in vacuum-tumbled, marinated broiler breast that is sold raw, but 1.0% NaCl could be used in a precooked product because it minimizes cook loss. In addition, use of 0.50% NaCl had minimal effects on yields, color, and sensory acceptability when compared with products that were marinated with greater concentrations of NaCl.

  9. Sodium chloride crystallization from drying drops of albumin-salt solutions with different albumin concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhno, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    The salt nature of crystalline structures resulting from drying albumin-salt solutions with a low (<1 wt %) and high (7 and 9 wt %) concentration of albumin and a NaCl concentration kept at a physiological level (0.9 wt %) is experimentally substantiated. Such a conclusion is drawn from the dynamics of phase transitions, morphological studies, and differences between the physicochemical properties of albumin and salt. Obtained data give a deeper insight into the albumin and salt distributions in drying liquids.

  10. Cell viability score (CVS) as a good indicator of critical concentration of benzalkonium chloride for toxicity in cultured ocular surface cell lines.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Atsuo; Ayaki, Masahiko; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2013-07-01

    Cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a major factor affecting drug cytotoxicity. This study aimed to determine the critical concentration of BAK for cultured ocular cells, using SIRC (rabbit corneal epithelium), BCE C/D-1b (bovine corneal epithelial cells), RC-1 (rabbit corneal epithelium), and Chang (human conjunctival cells). Cell viability was determined following the exposure of cells to 11 concentrations of BAK for 10, 30, or 60 min using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red assays, and the cell viability score (CVS) was used to evaluate comprehensively the toxicity of BAK. The CVS system consists of two values. The CVS50 was determined by the number of measurements for viability ≥50% of control. The CVS40/80 was calculated as follows: CVS40/80=(number of measurements for viability values >80%)-(number of measurements for viability values <40%). Both %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 decreased with concentrations of BAK. When BAK concentrations were 0.01% or higher, %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 became 0 and less than -90, respectively. Meanwhile, when BAK concentrations were 0.001% or lower, %CVS50 became 100. In the case of %CVS40/80, when the BAK concentrations were 0.002% or lower, the values reached 75 or more, and when 0.0005% or lower, the %CVS40/80 value reached 100. Accordingly, BAK induced very low cytotoxicity in the cultured ocular cell lines at concentrations of 0.002% or lower. The concentration-dependency confirmed that the CVS score is useful for expressing drug cytotoxicity in a simple and comprehensive manner.

  11. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Yoon, Dalsung; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl3sbnd ZrCl4sbnd LiClsbnd KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl4 show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl4 and ZrCl2 as the function of temperature can be expressed as DZr(IV) = 0.00046exp(-3716/T) and DZr(II) = 0.027exp(-5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl4 at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl3 and ZrCl4 indicate that high concentrations of UCl3 hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl4 while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl4 increases.

  12. Concentrations of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) in sera of Zebu cattle which showed evidence of hepatotoxicity following frequent trypanocidal treatments.

    PubMed

    Eisler, M C; Stevenson, P; Munga, L; Smyth, J B

    1997-06-01

    The concentrations of isometamidium circulating in poorly nourished Zebu cattle which showed morbidity, mortality, and biochemical and histopathological evidence of hepatotoxicity, following frequent treatments with isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate were investigated using the isometamidium-ELISA. As few as two isometamidium treatments one month apart were associated with significant weight loss, and cattle treated with diminazene aceturate after three or four isometamidium treatments suffered a 50% mortality. Although there were no obvious, marked elevations in isometamidium concentration which might have allowed the use of the ELISA as a predictor of a potential toxicity problem, concentrations did increase significantly with the number of monthly treatments administered, suggesting drug accumulation, and the increases were significantly higher in cattle to which diminazene had also been administered. In cattle treated with both trypanocides, weight loss and serum glutamate dehydrogenase levels were correlated with isometamidium concentrations. These observations, together with the histopathological findings, support the hypothesis that the morbidity and mortality observed were related to the repeated treatment with isometamidium in conjunction with diminazene aceturate, and that the pathogenesis involved a component of hepatic damage. It is therefore recommended that cattle, particularly those under nutritional stress, are not subjected to repeated treatments with isometamidium at intervals as short as one month, and particularly not with concurrent administration of diminazene.

  13. The Use of Neutron Analysis Techniques for Detecting The Concentration And Distribution of Chloride Ions in Archaeological Iron

    PubMed Central

    Watkinson, D; Rimmer, M; Kasztovszky, Z; Kis, Z; Maróti, B; Szentmiklósi, L

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) ions diffuse into iron objects during burial and drive corrosion after excavation. Located under corrosion layers, Cl is inaccessible to many analytical techniques. Neutron analysis offers non-destructive avenues for determining Cl content and distribution in objects. A pilot study used prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI) to analyse the bulk concentration and longitudinal distribution of Cl in archaeological iron objects. This correlated with the object corrosion rate measured by oxygen consumption, and compared well with Cl measurement using a specific ion meter. High-Cl areas were linked with visible damage to the corrosion layers and attack of the iron core. Neutron techniques have significant advantages in the analysis of archaeological metals, including penetration depth and low detection limits. PMID:26028670

  14. The Use of Neutron Analysis Techniques for Detecting The Concentration And Distribution of Chloride Ions in Archaeological Iron.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, D; Rimmer, M; Kasztovszky, Z; Kis, Z; Maróti, B; Szentmiklósi, L

    2014-10-01

    Chloride (Cl) ions diffuse into iron objects during burial and drive corrosion after excavation. Located under corrosion layers, Cl is inaccessible to many analytical techniques. Neutron analysis offers non-destructive avenues for determining Cl content and distribution in objects. A pilot study used prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI) to analyse the bulk concentration and longitudinal distribution of Cl in archaeological iron objects. This correlated with the object corrosion rate measured by oxygen consumption, and compared well with Cl measurement using a specific ion meter. High-Cl areas were linked with visible damage to the corrosion layers and attack of the iron core. Neutron techniques have significant advantages in the analysis of archaeological metals, including penetration depth and low detection limits.

  15. Structural, dynamic, and transport properties of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under an external static electric field.

    PubMed

    Ren, Gan; Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2014-04-24

    In the absence of an external electric field, it has already been known that ion clusters are formed instantaneously in moderately concentrated ionic solutions. In this work, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the changes of structural, dynamic, and transport properties in a sodium chloride solution under an external electric field from the ion cluster perspective. Our MD simulation results indicate that, with a strong external electric field E (≥0.1 V/nm) applied, ion clusters become smaller and less net charged, and the structures and dynamics as well as transport properties of the ion solution become anisotropic. The influence of the cluster structure and shell structure to transport properties was analyzed and the Einstein relation was found invalid in this system.

  16. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Hanć, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Michał; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person.

  17. Influence of sodium chloride on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated casein micelle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Corredig, M

    2016-08-01

    The research investigated the influence of NaCl on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated milk. Milk was concentrated to 1×, 3×, and 5× using ultrafiltration. Rennet gelation was followed by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy. Soluble protein, total and diffusible calcium and phosphate, size, and zeta potential were also measured as a function of concentration history. In the presence of 300mM NaCl, colloidal calcium phosphate solubilized and pH and the negative charge on the surface of casein micelles decreased. Increasing the volume fraction caused the formation of stiffer gels for both samples with or without NaCl. The addition of NaCl caused a significant increase in the bulk viscosity of the milk concentrated 5× and a decrease in turbidity. The concentration had no effect on the gelation time of control samples, nor on the kinetics of caseinomacropeptide release. On the other hand, rennet gelation was retarded by the addition of NaCl, and the gels showed lower elastic moduli compared with those obtained with control milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sodium chloride concentration determines exoelectrogens in anode biofilms occurring from mangrove-grown brackish sediment.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were inoculated with mangrove-grown brackish sediment (MBS) and continuously supplied with an acetate medium containing different concentrations of NaCl (0-1.8M). Different from MFCs inoculated with paddy-field soil (high power outputs were observed between 0.05 and 0.1M), power outputs from MBS-MFCs were high at NaCl concentrations from 0 to 0.6M. Amplicon-sequence analyses of anode biofilms suggest that different exoelectrogens occurred from MBS depending on NaCl concentrations; Geobacter occurred abundantly below 0.1M, whereas Desulfuromonas was abundant from 0.3M to 0.6M. These results suggest that NaCl concentration is the major determinant of exoelectrogens that occur in anode biofilms from MBS. It is also suggested that MBS is a potent source of microbes for MFCs to be operated in a wide range of NaCl concentrations.

  19. Effect of zinc chloride and PEG concentrations on the critical flux during tangential flow microfiltration of BSA precipitates.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zydney, Andrew L

    2017-08-25

    There is renewed interest in the possibility of using precipitation for initial capture of high value therapeutic proteins as part of an integrated continuous downstream process. These precipitates can be continuously washed using tangential flow filtration, with long term operation achieved by operating the membrane modules below the critical filtrate flux for fouling. Our hypothesis was that the critical flux for the precipitated protein would be a function of the properties of the precipitate as determined by the precipitation conditions. We evaluated the critical flux using a flux-stepping procedure for model protein precipitates (bovine serum albumin) generated using a combination of a crosslinking agent (zinc chloride) and an excluded volume precipitant (polyethylene glycol [PEG]). The critical flux varied with shear rate to approximately the 1/3 power, consistent with predictions of the classical polarization model. The critical flux increased significantly with increasing zinc chloride concentration, going from 60 L/m(2) /h for a 2 mM ZnCl2 solution to 200 L/m(2) /h for an 8 mM ZnCl2 solution. In contrast, the critical flux achieved a maximum value at an intermediate PEG concentration. Independent measurements of the effective size and viscosity of the protein precipitates were used to obtain additional understanding of the effects of ZnCl2 and PEG on the precipitation and the critical flux. These results provide important insights into the development of effective tangential flow filtration systems for processing large quantities of precipitated protein as would be required for large scale continuous protein purification by precipitation. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Influence of pH and Chloride Concentration on the Corrosion Behavior of Unalloyed Copper in NaCl Solution: A Comparative Study Between the Micro and Macro Scales

    PubMed Central

    Arjmand, Farzin; Adriaens, Annemie

    2012-01-01

    The effects of pH and chloride concentration on the electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) media were studied at the micro scale using a microcapillary droplet cell and at the macro scale using a conventional large scale cell. Using an experimental design strategy, electrochemical response surface models of copper versus pH and NaCl concentration were constructed with the minimum number of experiments required. Results show that the electrochemical behavior of copper under corrosive media shows significant differences between the micro and macro scale experiments. At the micro scale, the pit initiation of copper occurs at more negative potentials for high NaCl concentrations and alkaline pH values. Also, the micro scale potentiostatic measurements indicate higher stabilised passive currents at high NaCl concentrations and low (acidic) pH values. At the macro scale, the pH is shown to have a greater influence on the corrosion potential. The chloride concentration is the most significant factor in the passive current case while at the micro scale the effect of these two factors on the passive current was found to be the same. The surface morphology of the formed patina on the corroded copper in both micro and macro systems reveal a more significant role of the chloride concentration on the structure and the grain size of the patinas. Finally, micro and macro electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of copper at various NaCl concentrations and pH values demonstrates a different behavior of copper after several potentiodynamic polarization cycles.

  1. Effects of methylmercuric chloride of low concentration on the rat nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Ohno, H.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Satoh, T.; Shimoda, A.; Kishi, R.

    1987-06-01

    In an earlier study the authors reported the effects of 20 ..mu..g/g of MeHg on the rat. After 2-week exposure to 20 ..mu..g/g MeHg, effects on behavior, pathological changes of brain and prolongation of EEP (early potential of evoked potential) latency were observed. So, in this experiment, they planned to expose rats to lower concentrations of MeHg. They therefore investigated the effects of MeHg exposure at a low concentration on behavioral indices, neurological signs, the circadian rhythm of behaviors, EEP, and pathology of the visual cortex and the sciatic nerve in rats.

  2. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively.

  3. Predicting perchlorate uptake in greenhouse lettuce from perchlorate, nitrate and chloride irrigation water concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected in edible leafy vegetables irrigated with Colorado River water. The primary concern has been the ClO4- concentration in lettuce. There has been a limited number of studies on ClO4- uptake but the interactive effect of other anions on ClO4- uptake is not known in...

  4. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  5. Relationship between urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites and reproductive hormones in polyvinyl chloride production workers.

    PubMed

    Fong, Jer-Pei; Lee, Fang-Jin; Lu, I-Syuan; Uang, Shi-Nian; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and reproductive hormones in workers of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production plants. After exposure, most of the DEHP is rapidly metabolised to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which may be associated with reproductive hormone interruption and testicular toxicity. Some studies report that urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites for plastics workers are significantly higher than for the general population. However, little is known about the disruption of reproductive hormones for DEHP exposure workers. This cross-sectional study of 82 male workers measured the biomarkers for their reproductive hormones and their exposure to DEHP. Relationships between urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were estimated using multivariate linear regression and quartile analysis models. The geometric means of urinary creatinine-adjusted (μg/g-Cre) concentrations of MEHP, MEOHP and MEHHP during the post-shift period were 23.9, 66.9 and 84.6, respectively. In multiple regression models adjusted for potential confounders, there were significant positive associations between urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and estradiol (E2) (p<0.01), and in the ratio of E2 to testosterone (p<0.05). Moreover, quartile analysis showed significant positive relationships between the total urinary concentration of DEHP metabolites and E2 (ptrend=0.024), and in the ratio of E2 to testosterone (ptrend=0.031). Relationships between reproductive hormones and the total urinary concentration of DEHP metabolites in male PVC production workers were significantly positive. This indicated that aromatase activity had increased in male workers exposed to DEHP, which is consistent with animal studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  6. Photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of oilfield produced wastewater containing refractory organic pollutants in the presence of high concentration of chloride ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Chen, Jiaxin; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Chen, Fanzhong; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun

    2006-11-16

    The feasibility study of the application of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of high saline produced water containing refractory organic pollutants was investigated in the slurry photoelectrocatalytic reactor with nanometer TiO2 particle prepared with sol-gel method using the acetic acid as hydrolytic catalyst. The efficiency of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of produced water was determined with both COD removal from the tested wastewater and the decrease of mutagenic activity evaluated by Ames tests. The experimental results showed that the photoelectrocatalysis is a quite efficient process for decontaminating the produced water, although there are high concentration of salt existed in oilfield wastewater. We found that the COD removal efficiencies by photoelectrocatalytic process are much higher than that of by photocatalytic or electrochemical oxidation individually in the photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The COD removal can be substantially improved by the added H2O2 and the generation of active chlorine from high concentration chlorides in the wastewater. The effects of various operating conditions, such as initial COD concentration, applied cell voltage, catalyst amount and initial pH value of solution, on the photoelectrocatalytic efficiencies, is also investigated in detail. The results showed that when the raw produced wastewater was diluted in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio, there is a highest COD removal efficiency. And the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in saline water is much favored in acidic solution than that in neutral and/or alkaline solution.

  7. Concentrations of aluminum in gut tissue of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), purged in sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Madigosky, S.R.; Alvarez-Hernandez, X.; Glass, J.

    1992-10-01

    Recent concern over the release of Al in the environment has prompted researchers and health officials to assess its effects on biological systems. Aluminum, despite being the most abundant metal in earth`s lithosphere, is normally complexed in soil and is therefore unavailable for biological assimilation. The recent advent of acid rain, however, has prompted Al release due to mobilization from surrounding sediments into the environment. This is of particular concern in aquatic environments because organisms in aquatic food chains can access and concentrate sublethal levels of Al in their tissues relatively quickly. The ingestion of affected organisms by humans may therefore pose a potential health risk. One such organism, is known to concentrate metals in a variety of tissues. In northern Louisiana, many people trap or fish for crayfish in lowland areas which lie adjacent to highways and secondary roadways. Water, soil, and crayfish from these areas are known to contain high levels of Al. Some tissues known to concentrate Al (muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine tissue and contents) are those which humans commonly consume. The ingestion of these tissues may therefore expose humans to elevated Al levels. Many people who eat crayfish often purge them in dilute concentrations (1-2%) of NaCl to rid them of contaminants and make them more palatable. We are aware of no literature which corroborates the claim that purging removes contaminating metals. The objectives of this study were to (1) document the amount of Al found in water, soil, and gut tissue of crayfish (P. clarkii) collected from a roadside wetland site; (2) determine the affect of NaCl purging on the release of Al in P. clarkii and (3) assess the differences in Al levels found between stomach tissue, stomach tissue contents, intestine tissue, and intestine contents in P. clarkii. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Spasmolytic effect of Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) on rat's ileum at different calcium chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Moazedi, A A; Mirzaie, D N; Seyyednejad, S M; Zadkarami, M R; Amirzargar, A

    2007-11-15

    Traditional herbal medicines such as Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Petroselinum crispum on isolated adult male Wistar rat's ileum contraction by KCl 60 (mM). The extract was prepared from parsley seed with 80% ethanol. A portion of ileum was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 degrees C, pH = 7.4) bubbled with air. From a resting tension of 1 g, isotonic Transducer and Harvard Universal Oscillograph were used for recording contraction of ileum after administration of 60 mM KCl. Various concentration of extract were added to the bath. This experiment showed that, the extract in a dose-dependent manner decreased the induced-KCl ileums contraction (n = 7, p < 0.001). Also adding extract before influence of KCl, cause reduced effect of KCl (n = 7, p < 0.001). In addition, the Tyrode solution without CaCl2 and high concentration of K+, various concentration of extract significantly (n = 7, p < 0.001) decreased the CaCl2-induced contraction. Therefore, it seems that the relaxation effect of extract alcoholic parsley seed on the contraction of ileum is performed by blocking of voltage-gated calcium channels.

  9. Subminimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Select for a Tolerant Subpopulation of Escherichia coli with Inheritable Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Birgitte; Rudi, Knut; Bore, Erlend; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of Escherichia coli to a subminimal inhibitory concentration (25% below MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BC), an antimicrobial membrane-active agent commonly used in medical and food-processing environments, resulted in cell death and changes in cell morphology (filamentation). A small subpopulation (1–5% of the initial population) survived and regained similar morphology and growth rate as non-exposed cells. This subpopulation maintained tolerance to BC after serial transfers in medium without BC. To withstand BC during regrowth the cells up regulated a drug efflux associated gene (the acrB gene, member of the AcrAB-TolC efflux system) and changed expression of outer membrane porin genes (ompFW) and several genes involved in protecting the cell from the osmotic- and oxidative stress. Cells pre-exposed to osmotic- and oxidative stress (sodium chloride, salicylic acid and methyl viologen) showed higher tolerance to BC. A control and two selected isolates showing increased BC-tolerance after regrowth in BC was genome sequenced. No common point mutations were found in the BC- isolates but one point mutation in gene rpsA (Ribosomal protein S1) was observed in one of the isolates. The observed tolerance can therefore not solely be explained by the observed point mutation. The results indicate that there are several different mechanisms responsible for the regrowth of a tolerant subpopulation in BC, both BC-specific and general stress responses, and that sub-MIC of BC may select for phenotypic variants in a sensitive E. coli culture. PMID:22605968

  10. Subminimal inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride select for a tolerant subpopulation of Escherichia coli with inheritable characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moen, Birgitte; Rudi, Knut; Bore, Erlend; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of Escherichia coli to a subminimal inhibitory concentration (25% below MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BC), an antimicrobial membrane-active agent commonly used in medical and food-processing environments, resulted in cell death and changes in cell morphology (filamentation). A small subpopulation (1-5% of the initial population) survived and regained similar morphology and growth rate as non-exposed cells. This subpopulation maintained tolerance to BC after serial transfers in medium without BC. To withstand BC during regrowth the cells up regulated a drug efflux associated gene (the acrB gene, member of the AcrAB-TolC efflux system) and changed expression of outer membrane porin genes (ompFW) and several genes involved in protecting the cell from the osmotic- and oxidative stress. Cells pre-exposed to osmotic- and oxidative stress (sodium chloride, salicylic acid and methyl viologen) showed higher tolerance to BC. A control and two selected isolates showing increased BC-tolerance after regrowth in BC was genome sequenced. No common point mutations were found in the BC- isolates but one point mutation in gene rpsA (Ribosomal protein S1) was observed in one of the isolates. The observed tolerance can therefore not solely be explained by the observed point mutation. The results indicate that there are several different mechanisms responsible for the regrowth of a tolerant subpopulation in BC, both BC-specific and general stress responses, and that sub-MIC of BC may select for phenotypic variants in a sensitive E. coli culture.

  11. Effects of brine injection wells, dry holes, and plugged oil/gas wells on chloride, bromide, and barium concentrations in the Gulf Coast Aquifer, southeast Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Hudak, P F; Wachal, D J

    2001-06-01

    Data from 1,122 brine injection wells, 24,515 dry holes, 20,877 plugged oil/gas wells, and 256 water wells were mapped with a geographic information system (GIS) and statistically analyzed. There were 9, 107, and 58 water wells within 750 m of a brine injection well, dry hole, or plugged oil/gas well, respectively. Computed median concentrations were 157 mg/l for chloride, 0.8 mg/l for bromide, and 169 microg/l for barium. The maximum chloride concentration was 2,384 mg/l, close to 10 times the secondary drinking water standard. Shallow water wells and water wells near plugged oil/gas wells had significantly higher chloride and bromide levels.

  12. A relatively small change in sodium chloride concentration has a strong effect on adhesion of ocular bacteria to contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Cowell, B A; Willcox, M D; Schneider, R P

    1998-06-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to hydrogel lenses is thought to be an initial step of ocular colonization allowing evasion of normal host defences. The salt concentration of media is an important parameter controlling microbial adhesion. Salinity varies from 0.97% NaCl equivalents in the open eye to 0.89% in the closed eye state. In this study, the effect of sodium chloride in the concentration range of 0.8-1.0% (w/v) NaCl on adhesion of ocular bacteria to soft contact lenses was investigated using a static adhesion assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to adhere to lenses in significantly greater amounts than Serratia marcescens, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Staphylococcus intermedius. Increasing NaCl from 0.8% to 1.0% (w/v) increased adhesion of all bacteria tested. This adhesion was strong since the organisms could not be removed by washing in low ionic buffer. Adhesion of these organisms did not correlate with their cell surface properties as determined by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) and retention on sepharose columns.

  13. [Effect of high sodium chloride concentrations on the pigment content and free-radical processes in corn seedlings leaves].

    PubMed

    Vasylyk, Iu V; Lushchak, V I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on general morphometrical parameters of seedlings, and biochemical parameters in the leaves of corn seedlings was studied. Exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl slowed down the growth of stem and roots, whereas 100 and 200 mM NaCl during 24 h enhanced the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyans, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The decrease in protein carbonyl groups was found at 24-hour exposure to 200 mM salt. The treatment during 24, 48 and 72 h to 200 mM salt increased the level of total and high molecular mass thiols, whereas low molecular mass thiol content was by 20-25% higher at 48 h exposure to all used salt concentrations. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase was higher only at 24 h exposure to 100 and 200 mM salt, and catalase--at 50 mM during 48 h. At 72-hour exposure, catalase activity was by 27 and 41% higher in seedlings, exposed to 50 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded the plant exposure to 50-200 mM salt initially developed oxidative stress, inducing adaptive response--an increase in antioxidant potential and efficiency of systems of energy production. That results in plant adaptation to unfavourable conditions.

  14. Preparation of high concentration polyaluminum chloride by chemical synthesis-membrane distillation method with self-made hollow fiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changwei; Yan, Yong; Hou, Deyin; Luan, Zhaokun; Jia, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    A method of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) with a self-made hollow polyvinylidene fluoride membrane was applied to prepare high concentration polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with high A1b content based on chemical synthesis. The permeate flux and A1 species distribution were investigated. The experimental results showed that the permeate flux decreased from 14 to 6 kg/(m2 x hr) at the end of the DCMD process, which can be mainly attributed to the formation of NaCl deposits on the membrane surface. The Alb content decreased slightly, only from 86.3% to 84.4%, when the DCMD experiment finished, correspondingly the A1c content increased slightly from 7.2% to 8.5%, and the A1a content remained at 7% during the whole DCMD process. A PACl with A1b content of 84% at total aluminum concentration 2.2 mol/L was successfully prepared by the chemical synthesis-DCMD method.

  15. Influence of the current density on the electrochemical treatment of concentrated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions on diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Marcionilio, Suzana M L de Oliveira; Alves, Gisele M; E Silva, Rachel B Góes; Marques, Pablo J Lima; Maia, Poliana D; Neto, Brenno A D; Linares, José J

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the current density treatment of a concentrated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl) solution on an electrochemical reactor with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) and the BMImCl concentration demonstrate the capability of BDD in oxidizing ionic liquids (ILs) and further mineralizing (to CO2 and NO3 (-)) more rapidly at higher current densities in spite of the reduced current efficiency of the process. Moreover, the presence of Cl(-) led to the formation of oxychlorinated anions (mostly ClO3 (-) and ClO4 (-)) and, in combination with the ammonia generated in the cathode from the nitrate reduction, chloramines, more intensely at higher current density. Finally, the analysis of the intermediates formed revealed no apparent influence of the current density on the BMImCl degradation mechanism. The current density presents therefore a complex influence on the IL treatment process that is discussed throughout this paper.

  16. Global protein-level responses of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 to prolonged changes in external sodium chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Leuko, Stefan; Raftery, Mark J; Burns, Brendan P; Walter, Malcolm R; Neilan, Brett A

    2009-05-01

    Responses to changes in external salinity were examined in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. H. salinarum NRC-1 grows optimally at 4.3 M NaCl and is capable of growth between 2.6 and 5.1 M NaCl. Physiological changes following incubation at 2.6 M NaCl were investigated with respect to growth behavior and proteomic changes. Initial observations indicated delayed growth at low NaCl concentrations (2.6 M NaCl), and supplementation with different sugars, amino acids, or KCl to increase external osmotic pressure did not reverse these growth perturbations. To gain a more detailed insight into the adaptive responses of H. salinarum NRC-1 to changes in salinity, the proteome was characterized using iTRAQ (amine specific isobaric tagging reagents). Three hundred and nine differentially expressed proteins were shown to be associated with changes in the external sodium chloride concentration, with proteins associated with metabolism revealing the greatest response.

  17. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  18. Enhancement with varying phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2006-03-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, without sodium chloride. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles enhanced with STPP or TSPP had a higher (P<0.05) pH than SHMP or untreated muscles (CNT), whereas there was no difference (P>0.05) in pH between SHMP and CNT. Muscles enhanced with STPP had less (P<0.05) free water than CNT, whereas SHMP and TSPP did not differ from CNT. However, direct comparison of phosphate types revealed no difference (P>0.05) in free water. Steaks enhanced with SHMP had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas steaks treated with STPP or TSPP did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Phosphate inclusion at 0.2% allowed for greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas 0.4% phosphate inclusion exhibited similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in cooking loss between pump rates, steaks enhanced at an 18% pump rate had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas those enhanced at 12% had similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Enhancement with any of the three phosphate types or either concentration did not improve (P>0.05) sensory tenderness or juiciness characteristics compared to CNT, but enhancement at an 18% pump rate allowed for improved (P<0.05) overall tenderness, compared to a 12% pump rate. These results suggest that while phosphate enhancement independent of sodium chloride generally did not improve water retention, cooked yields and palatability compared to untreated samples, utilizing higher phosphate concentrations or utilizing STPP or TSPP effectively retained the additional water associated with solution enhancement, allowing for similar free water and cook yields as untreated

  19. Understanding the Concentration-Discharge Relationship of Chloride and Magnesium in Shale Hills Using RT-Flux-PIHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Shi, Y.; Sullivan, P. L.; Duffy, C.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    A number of solutes have been found to be "chemostatic" in US watersheds, meaning the concentration of these solutes only change slightly while stream discharge varies by up to more than three orders of magnitude. To understand complex hydrogeochemical processes at watershed scale, here we use RT-Flux-PIHM, a newly developed code that adds a multi-component reactive transport (RT) module to Flux-PIHM, a hydrological land-surface model. The model was calibrated using hydrological and water chemistry data at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) and was used to understand the watershed dynamics for chloride (Cl) and magnesium (Mg). Shale Hills is a V-shaped watershed with a first order stream underlain by Rose Hill shale in central Pennsylvania. Both Cl and Mg are found to be "chemostatic" in the stream water in SSHCZO. The use of RT-Flux-PIHM helps us validate and visualize this solute watershed dynamic. We found that the watershed is hydrologically more connected (between hillslope and stream) during wet spring and winter seasons, which leads to quicker release of Cl. In the dry summer, however, the watershed is much less connected and high concentration of Cl is trapped along planar hillslopes. The stream mostly drains from swales and valley flows with relatively low Cl concentrations. Large rainfall events right after summer flush out and dilute the "old water" with high Cl concentration ([Cl]). Thus, this seasonal hydrologic connectivity controls the relative stable stream [Cl] despite of changes in stream discharge. Mg is originated from clay dissolution and groundwater influx and is also buffered by cation exchange reaction, which maintains relatively uniform Mg concentration across the watershed. In the wet season, higher discharge and therefore more diluted groundwater influx is compensated by faster dissolution and quick release of Mg from cation exchange sites. The opposite occurs in the dry summer. The balance of these multiple

  20. Influence of the chloride ion concentration on the corrosion of high-purity Mg, ZE41 and AZ91 in buffered Hank's solution.

    PubMed

    Taltavull, C; Shi, Z; Torres, B; Rams, J; Atrens, A

    2014-02-01

    This research studied the influence of the chloride ion concentration on the corrosion behaviour of high-purity magnesium (Mg) and two Mg alloys in Hank's solution, using hydrogen evolution and weight loss. A buffer based on CO2 and NaHCO3 was used to maintain the pH constant. The corrosion behaviour was governed by a partially protective surface film, and film breakdown by the chloride ions. The carbonated calcium phosphate layer that formed in Hank's solution was important in determining the protective properties of the surface film.

  1. Concentration dependence of ionic conductance measured with ion-selective sub-micro pipette probes in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J. W.; Takami, T.; Lee, J.-K.; Kawai, T.; Park, B. H.

    2011-07-01

    Selective ionic currents in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.01 M to 1.0 M were measured using sub-micro pipette probes in which a poly(vinyl chloride) film containing crown ethers selectively filtered sodium or potassium ions. The selective ionic currents were monitored with a sub-picoampere current measurement system developed from the techniques of TΩ-gap impedance scanning tunneling microscopy. The ionic currents increased with the concentration of the corresponding solution, and thus these sub-micro pipette probes can be applied to detect local ionic concentration of a specific ion in living cells with ionic concentration higher than 0.1 M.

  2. Corrosion resistance of MCrAlX coatings in a molten chloride for thermal storage in concentrating solar power applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.

    2017-09-18

    Corrosion evaluations of Incoloy 800 H (In800H) and stainless steel AISI 310 (310SS), in bare and coated conditions, were performed in 34.42 wt% NaCl – 55.47 wt% KCl at 700 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. This NaCl–KCl composition has a melting point of 657 °C, which makes it suitable for latent-heat thermal energy storage in concentrating solar power applications. Several nickel-based MCrAlX coatings were tested, where M = Ni and/or Co and X = Y, Ta, Hf, and/or Si. Electrochemical testing was carried out to determine corrosion rates. The bare In800H and 310SS alloys corroded rapidly (~2500 and 4500 µm/yr,more » respectively, assuming uniform corrosion). Concentrating solar power plants need containment materials with a lifetime of at least 30 years; thus, these corrosion rates are excessive. Corrosion mitigation approaches are being investigated to obtain degradation on the order of 20 µm/yr or lower. The lowest corrosion rate of 190 µm/yr was obtained for atmospheric plasma spray NiCoCrAlY coatings pre-oxidized in air at 900 °C for 24 h with a heating/cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Metallographic characterization of the corroded surfaces showed that the formation of a uniform thin alumina scale before exposure to the molten chloride system considerably reduced the corrosion of the alloy. However, the rates of corrosion determined herein are considerable, highlighting the relevance of testing materials durability in solar power applications.« less

  3. Inconceivable Hypokalemia: A Case Report of Acute Severe Barium Chloride Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yanru; Shi, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Jun; Pan, Hang; Qin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Barium is a heavy divalent alkaline earth metal that has been known as a muscle poison. Barium can cause human toxicity, which may lead to significant hypokalemia and have serious consequences. This paper reports a case of unprecedented barium intoxication in which the patient, who suffered from depression, swallowed at least 3.0 g barium chloride to commit suicide. On admission, the patient presented with nausea, vomiting, stomach burning feeling, dizziness, and weakness. Emergency biochemical testing showed that the patient was suffering from severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.7 mmol/L). His electrocardiogram (ECG) prompted atrioventricular blocking, ventricular tachycardia, prolongation of PR interval, ST segment depression with U waves, and T wave inversion. Intravenous potassium supplements were given immediately to correct hypokalemia and regular monitoring of vital signs and fluid balance was arranged. After all-out rescue of our hospital personnel, the condition of the patient is currently stable and he is gradually recovering. This case exemplifies the weaknesses of the management of toxic substances and the lack of mental health education for young people. We hope to get more attention for the supervision of toxic substances and the healthy development of young people. PMID:27840643

  4. Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine volume as a result of dietary sodium chloride intake. Twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean ± SD: milk production 28.1±3.23 kg/d and 190±41 d in milk), of which 4 were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary levels of sodium chloride (3, 9, 14, and 19 g of Na/kg of DM) according to a triple 4×4 Latin square design. Cows were fed at 95% of ad libitum intake, excluding salt addition. Milk was analyzed for MUN and protein content; urine was analyzed for total N, urea, and creatinine content; feces were analyzed for total N and DM content; and blood plasma was analyzed for urea and creatinine content. Creatinine clearance rate (CCR; L/min) and renal urea reabsorption ratio were estimated based on plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and total excretion of urea and creatinine in urine. Intake of DM and N, milk production, and milk protein content were (mean ± SD), on average, 21.4±1.24 kg/d, 522±32.0 g/d, 25.4±2.53 kg/d, and 3.64±0.186%, respectively. A linear relationship was found between Na intake and urine production [urine (kg/d; mean ± SE)=7.5±4.33+0.136±0.0143 × Na intake (g/d)] and between Na intake and MUN [MUN (mg/dL; mean ± SE)=13.5±0.35-0.0068±0.00104 × Na intake (g/d)]. Despite the decrease in MUN with increased Na intake, UN excretion increased linearly with Na intake. Excretion of UUN was not affected by dietary Na content. A linear plateau relationship was observed between CCR and renal urea reabsorption. An increase in CCR coincided with an increase in calculated renal urea reabsorption until a CCR breakpoint value (mean ± SD) of 1.56±0.063 L/min was reached. We

  5. Changes in chloride concentration in water from municipal wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in northeastern Illinois, 1915-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    During the past few decades, several municipalities in northeastern Illinois have noted increases in the salinity of water from wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age. The municipalities have discontinued the use of, or sealed-off sections of, those wells. The aquifers involved include the Ancell, the Ironton-Galesville, and the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon. To define the location, magnitude, and possible causes for the salinity increases in the six northeastern counties of Illinois, 17 municipal wells and 1 deep test well were selected on the basis of their proximity to major pumping centers, the availability of water-quality data, and their documented maintenance history. Well depths ranged from about 960 to 3,475 feet. One well was finished in the middle confining unit, 2 wells were finished in the Ironton-Galesville aquifer, 4 wells were finished in the Eau Claire confining unit, and 10 wells were finished in the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon aquifer. The deep test well was finished below the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon aquifer in Precambrian-age rock. Chloride concentrations in the municipal wells ranged from less than 5 to greater than 600 milligrams per liter; in the deep test well, they ranged from 13 t o 37,000 milligrams per liter. Some changes in the chloride concentration in water from the studied municipal wells can be related to physical changes to the wells, including the partial filling in of a well, bridging within a well, the cleaning out of a well, or the deepening of a well. Some changes in chloride concentration are not related to physical changes but may be caused by increased pumpage; changes in pumping rate, frequency, or duration; cessation of pumping; improper abandonment of wells; and the upconing of highly mineralized water. The data base was inadequate for a quantitative study of the changes in chloride concentration in water from individual aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age.

  6. [Optimization of benzalkonium chloride concentration in 0.0015% tafluprost ophthalmic solution from the points of ocular surface safety and preservative efficacy].

    PubMed

    Asada, Hiroyuki; Takaoka-Shichijo, Yuko; Nakamura, Masatsugu; Kimura, Akio

    2010-06-01

    Optimization of benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride: BAK) concentration as preservative in 0.0015% tafluprost ophthalmic solution (Tapros 0.0015% ophthalmic solution), an anti-glaucoma medicine, was examined from the points of ocular surface safety and preservative efficacy. BAKC(12), which is dodecyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and BAKmix, which is the mixture of dodecyl, tetradecyl and hexadecyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride were used in this study. The effects of BAKC(12) concentrations and the BAK types, BAKC(12) and BAKmix, in tafluprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface safety were evaluated using the in vitro SV 40-immobilized human corneal epithelium cell line (HCE-T). Following treatments of Tafluprost ophthalmic solutions with BAKC(12), its concentration dependency was observed on cell viability of HCE-T. The cell viability of HCE-T after treatment of these solutions with 0.001% to 0.003% BAKC(12) for 5 minutes were the same level as that after treatment of the solution without BAK. Tafluprost ophthalmic solution with 0.01% BAKC(12) was safer for the ocular surface than the same solution with 0.01% BAKmix. Preservatives-effectiveness tests of tafluprost ophthalmic solutions with various concentrations of BAKC(12) were performed according to the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP), and solutions with more than 0.0005% BAKC(12) conformed to JP criteria. It was concluded that 0.0005% to 0.003% of BAKC(12) in tafluprost ophthalmic solution was optimal, namely, well-balanced from the points of ocular surface safety and preservative efficacy.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of the concentration of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the quantity of residual monomer vinyl chloride in PVC chest drainage tubes.

    PubMed

    Kicheva, Y I; Richter, H; Popova, E

    2004-08-01

    The effect of amount of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) amount on the amount of residual monomer vinyl chloride (VC) was determined in samples of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentration of plasticiser (22.32-33.05%), before and after sterilisation by a titrimetric method. The titrimetric method was used to determine the VC concentration in a KMnO4 solution where the samples were kept immersed under the same conditions for 2 h. The influence of PVC film extracts with different amounts of DEHP on mouse fibroblast cells L-929 in a culture medium was evaluated by using quantitative tests: the amount of cells (protein determination), viability (MTT test) and proliferation (incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU). The amount of vinyl chloride before and after heat sterilisation at 120 degrees C for 30 min was found to be almost the same for all samples and without any dependence on the concentration of DEHP. The extracts of the PVC films which were tested have no toxic effect on cells in a culture medium.

  8. Lung cancer risk in workers exposed to poly(vinyl chloride) dust: a nested case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, G; Fedeli, U; Fadda, E; Milan, G; Turato, A; Pavanello, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: There have been few investigations of an association between poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) dust exposure and an increase in lung cancer incidence, and their conclusions have been inconsistent. Aims: To determine whether PVC and/or vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is the associated risk factor(s), by means of a nested case-referent study, in order to estimate lung cancer risk, avoiding selection, information, or confounding biases. Methods: Thirty eight cases of histologically verified lung cancer and 224 control subjects without a history of cancer were selected from an Italian cohort of 1658 vinyl chloride workers. Information sources included clinical records (diagnosis, smoking habits) and plant records (occupational history). The risk of lung cancer was estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), calculated using logistic regression models. Results: In PVC baggers exposed to high levels of respirable PVC particles in the workplace, the lung cancer OR increases by 20% for each extra year of work (OR = 1.2003; 95% CI 1.0772 to 1.3469; p = 0.0010), when the influence of age and smoking habits is controlled. No relation was found between lung cancer and cumulative VCM exposure. Conclusion: This nested case-control study showed, in the VCM/PVC industry, an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to PVC dust; previous cohort studies failed to recognise such excess, probably because they used VCM exposure as the risk indicator. PMID:12771394

  9. Main chemical species and molecular structure of deep eutectic solvent studied by experiments with DFT calculation: a case of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Jia, Yongzhong; Jing, Yan; Wang, Huaiyou; Hong, Kai

    2014-08-01

    The infrared spectrum of deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate was measured by the FTIR spectroscopy and analyzed with the aid of DFT calculations. The main chemical species and molecular structure in deep eutectic solvent of [MgClm(H2O)6-m]2-m and [ChxCly]x+y complexes were mainly identified and the active ion of magnesium complex during the electrochemical process was obtained. The mechanism of the electrochemical process of deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate was well explained by combination theoretical calculations and experimental. Besides, based on our results we proposed a new system for the dehydration study of magnesium chloride hexahydrate.

  10. Hyperhidrosis plantaris - a randomized, half-side trial for efficacy and safety of an antiperspirant containing different concentrations of aluminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Streker, Meike; Reuther, Tilmann; Hagen, Linda; Kerscher, Martina

    2012-02-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis plantaris can cause impairment in social, physical, leisure and occupational activities. Topical treatment with aluminium chloride is the first-line treatment. The aim of this trial was to evaluate efficacy and safety of two different concentrations of aluminium chloride hexa-hydrate (12.5%, 30%) for 6 weeks. 20 volunteers with hyperhidrosis plantaris were included. Efficacy was evaluated using a clinical rating scale of the hyperhidrosis level and qualitative assessments including Minor's (iodine-starch) test and a standardized sniff test. Furthermore a patient questionnaire and measurements of skin surface pH were done to evaluate the subjective assessments and side effects. The hyperhidrosis level significantly decreased in both concentrations. There were no differences in tolerability regarding the skin surface pH and the patient questionnaires. In addition the hidrotic areas decreased after application of both products and the sniff test improved. Topical application of an antiperspirant containing aluminium chloride reduced sweat production in plantar hyperhidrosis significantly. As both 12.5% and 30% were efficacious and safe, we would recommend 12.5% for outpatient treatment. © The Author • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  11. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  12. Normalization of sweat chloride concentration and clinical improvement with ivacaftor in a patient with cystic fibrosis with mutation S549N.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Meghan E; Nielson, Dennis W

    2013-10-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) protein forms an anion channel in epithelial cells, and the absence or defective function of this channel results in the clinical manifestations of CF. CF is an autosomal recessive disorder, and its many disease-causing mutations divide into five or six classes. There are 10 known class 3 gating mutations, the most common of which is G551D. Ivacaftor is a drug that in vitro increases open time and transepithelial chloride transport in all 10 gating mutations, but it is approved for use only in patients with the G551D mutation. We report complete normalization of sweat chloride concentration and rapid clinical improvement over 6 weeks of treatment with ivacaftor in a patient with CF with the gating mutation S549N. The findings suggest that ivacaftor should be considered for use in patients with any of the known gating mutations.

  13. Trends in chloride, dissolved-solids, and nitrate concentrations in ground water, Carson Valley and Topaz Lake Areas, Douglas County, Nevada, 1959-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Douglas County, an area of approximately 750 square miles in west-central Nevada, has led to concern about the present and future effects of development on ground water. This report describes the results of two nonparametric statistical procedures applied to detect trends in concentrations of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate in ground water. The water-quality data consist of analytical results from ground-water samples collected and analyzed by the U. S. Geological Survey and ground-water-quality data provided by the Nevada Bureau of Health Protection Services for the Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas of Douglas County, Nevada. For purposes of this study, statistical significance, expressed as the p-value, was set at 0.1. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxan rank-sum test detected increasing step-trends for nitrate in one of seven residential areas and for dissolved-solids concentrations throughout the study area. Decreasing step-trends for chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations were detected in the west Carson Valley area. Kendall's Tau detected monotonic trends for increasing nitrate concentrations at four domestic wells and for increasing dissolved-solids concentrations at two domestic wells. No other statistically significant trends were indicated by either test. Land-use relations to areas where increasing trends were detected suggest that the density of individual wastewater-treatment systems may exceed the capacity of soils to treat wastewater leachate.

  14. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, M.-C.; Nielsen, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3− exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected. PMID:27635272

  15. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces.

    PubMed

    Gils, C; Eckhardt, M-C; Nielsen, P E; Nybo, M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  16. Salt microspheres and potassium chloride usage for sodium reduction: Case study with sushi.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Đani; Buchtová, Hana; Macharáčková, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate possibilities of salt substitutes usage in the preparation of two sushi types (nigiri and maki) prepared with different seafood (salmon: Salmo salar, tuna: Thunnus albacares, and shrimp: Pleoticus muelleri). Potassium chloride (Mary samples), Soda-Lo (hollowed microsphere of regular salt crystals), and regular salt (sodium chloride) were used in the experiment. Sushi samples (n = 1960) were evaluated by 40 trained panelists who noticed that maki shrimp samples prepared with Mary salt had higher bitterness (21.48 ± 28.01) in comparison with 2% sodium chloride (7.91 ± 8.80). The saltiness was lower in nigiri tuna prepared with Mary (49.59 ± 17.47) than 2% sodium chloride (61.11 ± 15.75). The study clearly showed the possibility of lowering sodium content in sushi meal with the usage of salt substitutes, with emphasis that Soda-Lo should be considered as a better option due to the retention of sensory properties in sushi samples prepared with this salt substitute.

  17. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition

  18. Chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fruit juice by precipitation with ethanol or ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Veronika; Bárta, Jan

    2009-10-14

    Effects of protein precipitators, ethanol and ferric chloride, on yield, resolubility, chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from industrial potato fruit juice (PFJ) were studied. Optimum precipitating concentrations of ethanol and ferric chloride in PFJ were 4 M (23.1% v/v) and 20 mM (2% w/v), resulting in yield of 69% and 86.5% of total protein, respectively. Contents of total glycoalkaloids and potassium in both protein concentrates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared with contents in PFJ dry matter. Both protein concentrates exhibited high nutritional value; values of essential amino acid index (EAAI) were 81.7% and 82.7%, respectively. Fraction of patatin proteins (39-43 kDa) represented with EAAI value of 86.1% the nutritionally improving protein component. Lipid acyl hydrolase activity of patatin family was not negatively affected by cooled ethanol precipitation. It can be thus suggested that biological and enzymatic activities of this protein family are utilizable after this type of precipitation.

  19. Carisoprodol concentrations from different anatomical sites: three overdose cases.

    PubMed

    Backer, R C; Zumwalt, R; McFeeley, P; Veasey, S; Wohlenberg, N

    1990-01-01

    Three cases involving overdoses of carisoprodol are presented. Concentrations of carisoprodol and its major metabolite meprobamate, were determined in urine, vitreous humor, heart, and femoral blood. All drugs were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  20. Triazolam blood concentrations in forensic cases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Joynt, B P

    1993-01-01

    Triazolam has been a controversial drug since its appearance on world markets as a hypnotic more than ten years ago. Whole blood concentrations of triazolam as found in forensic cases are cited in several categories; that is, impaired driving: 17 cases; sexual assault: four cases; death due to drugs: 45 cases; drug-related death (drugs contributed to the death but were not the ultimate cause): 20 cases; drug-involved death (drugs were present but were not felt to be a contributing factor): six cases; miscellaneous: one case. The data was gleaned from a forensic toxicology database designed and used by the Forensic Toxicology Sections of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) laboratories in Canada. Triazolam concentrations from selected references are included for comparison.

  1. Vinyl chloride propellant in hair spray and angiosarcoma of the liver among hairdressers and barbers: case reports.

    PubMed

    Infante, Peter F; Petty, Stephen E; Groth, David H; Markowitz, Gerald; Rosner, David

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) are, to the best of our knowledge, the first literature reports of such cases identified among hairdressers and barbers who used hair sprays containing vinyl chloride (VC) as a propellant. The cases were exposed to VC aerosols between 1966 and 1973, for 4-5 year periods. Modeling indicates estimated peak levels of VC exposure ranging from 129 ppm to 1234 ppm, and average exposure ranging from 70 ppm to 1037 ppm, based upon assumptions of use and number of air exchanges per hour. As ASL is a sentinel cancer for exposure to VC, identification of these cases raises concern about the contribution of VC to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a much more common type of liver cancer, as well as other VC-related cancers among hairdressers and barbers. Had manufacturers acted in a responsible manner, VC never would have been introduced as a propellant into consumer products such as hair sprays, pesticides, and paints.

  2. Nutrient, organic carbon, and chloride concentrations and loads in selected Long Island Sound tributaries—Four decades of change following the passage of the Federal Clean Water Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2016-03-10

    Loads of dissolved silica (DSi; flow-normalized and non-flow-normalized) increased slightly at most stations during the study period and were positively correlated to urbanized land in the basin and negatively correlated to area of open water. Concentrations and loads of chloride increased at 12 of the 14 sites during both periods. Increases likely are the result of an increase in the use of salt for deicing, as well as other factors related to urbanization and population growth, such as increases in wastewater discharge and discharge from septic systems.

  3. The 24-hour shelf-life of cytapheresis platelet concentrates stored in polyvinyl chloride containers should be extended only with caution.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G; Snyder, E L; Eckermann, I; Stewart, L

    1987-01-01

    A recent publication suggested that the 24-hour allowable shelf-life of apheresis platelet concentrates collected by open-system techniques be extended to 48 hours because platelets collected in this fashion usually remain sterile for that length of time. The current studies, however, show that the quality of platelet concentrates deteriorates rapidly after storage for more than 24 hours in the relatively small-volume, polyvinyl chloride containers of currently marketed, open-system software, as evidenced by the falling pH, the disintegration of platelets, and the inability of platelets to recover from hypotonic shock. Platelets were markedly defective within 48 hours. Thus, it seems unwise to extend the shelf-life of such platelet concentrates beyond 24 hours solely because they are likely to remain sterile. Collection techniques and software must also be modified to ensure satisfactory platelet quality before the period of storage should be extended.

  4. Determination of activity coefficient of lanthanum chloride in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt as a function of cesium chloride and lanthanum chloride concentrations using electromotive force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagri, Prashant; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-12-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of lanthanides in molten salt systems is of significant scientific interest for the spent fuel reprocessing of Generation IV reactors. In this study, the apparent standard reduction potential (apparent potential) and activity coefficient of LaCl3 were determined in a molten salt solution of eutectic LiCl-KCl as a function of concentration of LaCl3. The effect of adding up to 1.40 mol % CsCl was also investigated. These properties were determined by measuring the open circuit potential of the La-La(III) redox couple in a high temperature molten salt electrochemical cell. Both the apparent potential and activity coefficient exhibited a strong dependence on concentration. A low concentration (0.69 mol %) of CsCl had no significant effect on the measured properties, while a higher concentration (1.40 mol %) of CsCl caused an increase (become more positive) in the apparent potential and activity coefficient at the higher range of LaCl3 concentrations.

  5. Osha`s 1974 vinyl chloride standard. Retrospective evaluation of the rulemaking`s feasibility/impact estimates. Case study

    SciTech Connect

    Boroush, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    This report documents a case study of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) permanent health standard of 1974 for workplace exposures to vinyl chloride (monomer). OSHA`s assessment of hazard control options and estimates of compliance costs and other regulatory impacts prepared as part of the rationale for the rulemaking are reviewed and then compared and contrasted with the actual post-promulgation outcomes as affected industries adjusted to the new compliance requirements. This case study has been prepared as part of a larger Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) evaluation of the control technology and regulatory impact analyses that OSHA prepares to support its rulemakings. Congress requested in May 1992 that OTA examine OSHA`s procedures and methods in these regards. The case reported here is one of eight OSHA health and safety standards that have been similarly studied on a pre- and post-promulgation basis.

  6. Size-selective DNA separation: recovery spectra help determine the sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations required.

    PubMed

    He, Zhangyong; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Min; Gu, Hongchen

    2014-10-01

    In the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl), DNA fragments can be size-selectively separated by varying the final concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This separation strategy in combination with the use of paramagnetic particles provides a valuable platform for achieving the desired DNA size interval, which is important in automated library preparation for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Here, we report the establishment of recovery spectra of DNA fragments that enable the determination of suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective separation. Firstly, at a given NaCl concentration, the recovery equation was obtained by fitting the DNA recovery ratios versus the PEG concentrations using the logistic function to determine the required parameters. Secondly, the slope function of the recovery equation was achieved by deducing its first derivative. Therefore, the recovery spectrum can be generated using the slope function based on those parameters. According to the recovery spectra of different length DNA fragments, suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations can be determined, respectively, by calculating their resolution values and recovery ratios. The strategy was effectively applied to the size-selective separation of 532-, 400-, and 307-bp fragments at the selected reagent concentrations with recoveries of 96.9, 64.7, and 85.9%, respectively. Our method enables good predictions of NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective DNA separation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Interaction of hydrogen chloride with alumina. [atmospheric effluent concentrations and interaction of solid rocket propellants used in space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. R.; Wightman, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of temperature, pressure, and outgas conditions on the absorption of hydrogen chloride and water vapor on both alpha and gamma alumina was studied. Characterization of the adsorbents was performed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low temperature nitrogen adsorption desorption measurements, BET nitrogen surface area measurements and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Water vapor adsorption isotherms at 30, 40, and 50 C were measured on alpha and gamma alumina after outgassing at 80, 200, and 400 C. Both outgas temperature and adsorption temperature influenced the adsorption of water vapor on the aluminas. The water vapor adsorption was completely reversible. Alpha alumina absorbed more water per unit area than gamma alumina. Differences in the adsorption capacity for water vapor of the two aluminas were explained on the basis of ideal surface models of alpha and gamma alumina. Isosteric heats of adsorption for water vapor on the aluminas were determined over a limited range of surface coverage.

  8. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  9. Changes in chloride concentration in water from municipal wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in northeastern Illinois, 1915-84. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Balding, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) to study regional aquifer systems throughout the United States. The general goals of a RASA investigation are to evaluate each aquifer's water-supply potential and water quality, and, using computer models of the ground-water flow system, to provide a means for evaluating aquifer response to stresses placed on the flow system. The report describes the location, magnitude, and causes of the changes in chloride concentration in the aquifers in the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems in a six-county area of northeastern Illinois. The report includes stratigraphic columns, maps, and graphs that show the geology and hydrogeology of the study area and the changes in chloride concentration in water from wells that tap the aquifers in the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems. The geologic and hydrogeologic nomenclature used in the report is that used by Visocky and others (1985) and does not necessarily follow the usage of the USGS.

  10. Cytotoxic effects of nanosilver are highly dependent on the chloride concentration and the presence of organic compounds in the cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Roesslein, Matthias; Diener, Liliane; Wichser, Adrian; Nowack, Bernd; Wick, Peter

    2017-01-06

    Nanosilver shows great promise for use in industrial, consumer or medical products because of its antimicrobial properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of the effects of silver nanoparticles on human cells are still controversial. Therefore, in the present study the influence of the chloride concentration and different serum content of culture media on the cytotoxic effects of nanosilver was systematically evaluated. Our results show that nanosilver toxicity was strongly affected by the composition of the culture media. The chloride concentration, as well as the carbon content affected the silver agglomeration and the complex formation. But also the dissolution of nanosilver and the availability of free silver ions (Ag(+)) were severely affected by the compositions of the culture media. Cells, only exposed to silver particles in suspension and dissolved silver complexes, did not show any effects under all conditions. Nanosilver agglomerates and silver complexes were not very soluble. Thus, cells growing on the bottom of the culture dishes were exposed to sedimented nanosilver agglomerates and precipitated silver complexes. Locally, the concentration of silver on the cell surface was very high, much higher compared the silver concentration in the bulk solution. The cytotoxic effects of nanosilver are therefore a combination of precipitated silver complexes and organic silver compounds rather than free silver ions. Silver coatings are used in health care products due to their bacteriostatic or antibacterial properties. The assessment of the toxicity of a certain compound is mostly done using in vitro assays. Therefore, cytotoxicity studies of nanosilver using human cell cultures have to be undertaken under well controlled and understood cultivations conditions in order to improve the compatibility of different studies. Especially when eukaryotic versus prokaryotic systems are compared for the evaluation of the use of nanosilver as antibacterial coatings for

  11. Concentration, flux, and trend estimates with uncertainty for nutrients, chloride, and total suspended solids in tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2016-12-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, estimated daily and 9-month concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids from 1990 (or first available date) through 2014 for 18 tributaries of Lake Champlain. Estimates of concentration and flux, provided separately in Medalie (2016), were made by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) regression model and update previously published WRTDS model results with recent data. Assessment of progress towards meeting phosphorus-reduction goals outlined in the Lake Champlain management plan relies on annual estimates of phosphorus flux. The percent change in annual concentration and flux is provided for two time periods. The R package EGRETci was used to estimate the uncertainty of the trend estimate. Differences in model specification and function between this study and previous studies that used WRTDS to estimate concentration and flux using data from Lake Champlain tributaries are described. Winter data were too sparse and nonrepresentative to use for estimates of concentration and flux but were sufficient for estimating the percentage of total annual flux over the period of record. Median winter-to-annual fractions ranged between 21 percent for total suspended solids and 27 percent for dissolved phosphorus. The winter contribution was largest for all constituents from the Mettawee River and smallest from the Ausable River. For the full record (1991 through 2014 for total and dissolved phosphorus and chloride and 1993 through 2014 for nitrogen and total suspended solids), 6 tributaries had decreasing trends in concentrations of total phosphorus, and 12 had increasing trends; concentrations of dissolved phosphorus decreased in 6 and increased in 8 tributaries; fluxes of total phosphorus decreased in 5 and

  12. On the Correlation between the Concentrations of Phosphates and Chlorides in the Unfrozen Portions of the Frozen Fish Muscle Juices and the Denaturation Rate of Fish Muscle Protein during Frozen-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Fuyuo; Yamada, Tetsuo

    The correlations were examined between the concentrations of K, P, Na and Cl of the unfrozen portions in the fish muscle juices kept at -6°C, and the denaturation rate of protein in the fish muscles frozen-stored at -6°C. 1) The denaturation of protein occurred most greatly in mackerel, next greatly in black porgy, while the denaturation was scarcely observed in the case of both rock bream and tuna. 2) The level of ion concentration of the unfrozen portions of muscle juices was higher in K and P than in Na and Cl. The concentration of each component was different among different species of fish. 3) To the difference of denaturation rate among four species of fish, the concentration of K was inversely proportional, those of Na and Cl proportional, and the concentration ratios of P/Cl and K/Na were both inversely proportional. 4) The content ratios between theminerals (P/Na and K/Na) in fish on the market. which were calculated from the literature values, were proportional to the already-reported cryo-tolerance of protein among species of fish. Thus, it was suggested that phosphates and chlorides may be related compositely to the denaturation of protein in frozen-stored fish.

  13. Effects of sodium chloride, phosphate type and concentration, and pump rate on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2005-06-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions comprising 2.0% sodium chloride and either sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles treated with all three phosphate types had decreased (P<0.05) free water compared to untreated muscles (CNT), and while TSPP-treated muscles were able to bind greater (P<0.05) additional water than CNT, STPP- and SHMP-treated muscles did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Disregarding phosphate type, steaks with 0.4% phosphate inclusion bound more (P<0.05) water than those with 0.2% phosphate inclusion. Steaks treated with STPP or TSPP had decreased (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, while SHMP-treated steaks did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Steaks injected at 18% pump had greater (P<0.05) percent moisture, and did not differ (P>0.05) in free water, water binding, or cooking losses from steaks injected at 12% pump. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force in this study, steaks with SHMP, STPP, and TSPP all were rated more tender, and juicier (P<0.05) by sensory panelists than CNT steaks or steaks enhanced only with sodium chloride. Regardless of phosphate type, steaks enhanced with 0.4% phosphate and those steaks at 18% pump received improved (P<0.05) sensory tenderness ratings compared to 0.2% phosphate and 12% pump, respectively. These results suggest that enhancing biceps femoris muscles with STPP or TSPP can improve water retention, yield, and palatability characteristics. Additionally, enhancement with a phosphate/salt solution at an 18% pump rate, compared to a 12% pump rate, can allow for improved sensory tenderness perceptions without decreasing product yields.

  14. Antemortem and postmortem methamphetamine blood concentrations: three case reports.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Nelson, Craig L; Schaber, Bethann; Hamm, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    We compare antemortem whole-blood to postmortem peripheral blood concentrations of methamphetamine and its metabolite amphetamine in three medical examiner cases. Antemortem specimens, initially screened positive for methamphetamine by ELISA, were subsequently confirmed, together with the postmortem specimens, by GC-MS analysis following solid-phase extraction. Methamphetamine peripheral blood to antemortem blood ratios averaged 1.51 (± 0.049; n = 3) and amphetamine peripheral blood to antemortem blood ratios averaged 1.50 (n = 2). These data show that postmortem redistribution occurs for both methamphetamine and amphetamine, revealing that postmortem blood concentrations are ∼1.5 times greater than antemortem concentrations. Furthermore, as both methamphetamine and amphetamine have previously been shown to have liver/peripheral blood (L/P) ratios of 5-8, it can be proposed that drugs displaying L/P ratios ranging from 5 to 10 may exhibit postmortem concentrations up to twice those concentrations circulating in blood before death.

  15. Simultaneous two-photon imaging of intracellular chloride concentration and pH in mouse pyramidal neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sulis Sato, Sebastian; Artoni, Pietro; Landi, Silvia; Cozzolino, Olga; Parra, Riccardo; Pracucci, Enrico; Trovato, Francesco; Szczurkowska, Joanna; Luin, Stefano; Arosio, Daniele; Beltram, Fabio; Cancedda, Laura; Kaila, Kai; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2017-09-26

    Intracellular chloride ([Cl(-)]i) and pH (pHi) are fundamental regulators of neuronal excitability. They exert wide-ranging effects on synaptic signaling and plasticity and on development and disorders of the brain. The ideal technique to elucidate the underlying ionic mechanisms is quantitative and combined two-photon imaging of [Cl(-)]i and pHi, but this has never been performed at the cellular level in vivo. Here, by using a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor that includes a spectroscopic reference (an element insensitive to Cl(-) and pH), we show that ratiometric imaging is strongly affected by the optical properties of the brain. We have designed a method that fully corrects for this source of error. Parallel measurements of [Cl(-)]i and pHi at the single-cell level in the mouse cortex showed the in vivo presence of the widely discussed developmental fall in [Cl(-)]i and the role of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 in this process. Then, we introduce a dynamic two-photon excitation protocol to simultaneously determine the changes of pHi and [Cl(-)]i in response to hypercapnia and seizure activity.

  16. Halogen-bonding for visual chloride ion sensing: a case study using supramolecular poly(aryl ether) dendritic organogel systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Sun, Yihua; Feng, Yu; Chen, Hui; He, Yan-Mei; Fan, Qing-Hua

    2016-02-07

    A convenient and straightforward method for the visual recognition of chloride ion has been established through a chloride-responsive dendritic organogel. The specificity was largely attributed to the higher binding affinity of the dendritic gelator for chloride compared with other anions through halogen bonding interactions.

  17. Chloride concentrations and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer long tributary to the Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to determine the interaction of local surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek. In conjunction with the surface water and groundwater interaction study, samples were collected for analysis of chloride and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Chloride concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 26.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) near Teton Village, 1.2 to 4.9 mg/L near Resor's Bridge, and 1.8 to 5.0 mg/L near Wilson. Stable isotope data for hydrogen and oxygen in water samples collected in and near the three cross sections on Fish Creek are shown in relation to the Global Meteoric Water Line and the Local Meteoric Water Line.

  18. Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Datu; Tani, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Kimitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2006-10-11

    In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault propagation model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using switching signal mode (SSM) is developed for estimating the probability of failures. The timely dependent failures can be considered as unavailability of safety objects that can cause the accidents in a plant. Finally, the rank of safety object is formulated as performance index (PI) and can be estimated using the importance measures. PI shows the prioritization of safety objects that should be investigated for safety improvement program in the plants. The output of this method can be used for optimal policy in safety object improvement and maintenance. The dynamic simulator was constructed using Visual Modeler (VM, the plant simulator, developed by Omega Simulation Corp., Japan). A case study is focused on the loss of containment (LOC) incident at polyvinyl chloride (PVC) batch process which is consumed the hazardous material, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).

  19. Effect of zinc chloride on picrotoxin-induced hyperkinesis depends on its concentration in solution injected into rat neostriatum.

    PubMed

    Yakimovskii, A F; Stepanov, I I

    2011-04-01

    The hyperkinekic effect (increase in spontaneous activity and development of choreomyoclonic hyperkinesis of the extremities and body) of picrotoxin injected into the rostral neostriatum of rats in a dose of 2 μg was reduced if the drug was injected together with ZnCl(2) in a concentration of 0.1 μg/μl. ZnCl(2) in a concentration of 1 μg/μl did not modulate the effects of picrotoxin, while in a concentration of 3 μg/μl it increased spontaneous motor activity in the open field test without affecting the symptoms of choreomyoclonic hyperkinesis.

  20. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  1. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  3. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  4. Comparison of the crevice corrosion resistance of Alloys 625 and 22 in concentrated chloride solution from 60 to 95 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, B A; Illevbare, G O; Scully, J R

    1999-12-06

    The effects of electrolyte composition and oxide film age on the crevice corrosion properties of alloys 625 and 22 were studied at temperatures ranging from 60 to 95 C in concentrated chloride electrolytes. Critical potentials were determined using conventional current density thresholds and comparisons were made between 625 and 22 on the basis of these critical potentials. Air aged 22 specimens exhibited the highest resistance to crevice corrosion at 95 C in terms of critical crevice potentials, while freshly polished 22 exhibited the lowest resistance. Studies over the entire, temperature range showed that air aged 22 is more resistant to crevice corrosion than air aged 625 as evidenced by higher critical crevice potentials. As the temperature was lowered from 95 to 8O C, critical crevice potentials for 22 either approached or exceeded experimentally determined Cr (Mo, Ni) transpassive potentials.

  5. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations.

  6. Spectroscopic investigations and electrical properties of PVA/PVP blend filled with different concentrations of nickel chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, H. M.

    2011-10-01

    Films of PVA/PVP blend (50/50) filled with different concentrations of NiCl 2 were prepared by casting method. The prepared films were investigated by different techniques. XRD scans demonstrated that the peak intensity at 2 θ≈20° decreased and the band width increased with increase in the concentrations of NiCl 2 content, which implied decrease in the degree of crystallization and hence causes increase in the amorphous region. UV-vis analysis revealed that the values of the optical band gap are affected with increase in NiCl 2 content. This indicates the formation of charge transfer complexes between the polymer blend and the filler. The rise of conductivity is significant with increased concentration of NiCl 2 filler; this reveals an increase in degree of amorphosity. AC conductivity ( σac) behavior of all the prepared films was investigated over the frequency range 42 Hz-5 MHz and under different isothermal stabilization in the temperature range 313-393 K. It suggests that the hopping mechanism might be playing an important role in the conduction process in high frequency region. The dielectric behavior was analyzed using dielectric permittivity ( ε´, ε″) dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) and electric modulus ( M″). The decrease in dielectric permittivity was observed with increase in the concentration of NiCl 2 filler. This suggests the role of NiCl 2 as filler to improve the electrical conductivity of PVA/PVP blend.

  7. Hydrogeology of, water withdrawal from, and water levels and chloride concentrations in the major Coastal Plain aquifers of Gloucester and Salem Counties, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cauller, S.J.; Carleton, G.B.; Storck, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Eight aquifers underlying Gloucester and Salem Counties in the southwestern Coastal Plain of New Jersey provide nearly all the drinking water for the 295,000 people who live in the area. Ground-water withdrawals in the two-county area and adjoining counties have affected water levels in several of these aquifers. Ground-water withdrawals in the two-county area also have affected the quality of water, increasing the chloride concentration in several of the aquifers as a result of saltwater intrusion. This report contains hydrologic data from the two-county area, including geometry and extent of hydrogeologic units, thickness and altitude of each aquifer, withdrawals from and water levels in major aquifers, and chloride concentrations in water from each aquifer. Reported ground-water withdrawals in Gloucester and Salem Counties during 1975-95 averaged 7,800 Mgal/yr (million gallons per year) for public supply, 4,900 Mgal/yr for industrial use, 700 Mgal/yr for irrigation, 500 Mgal/yr for power plants, 50 Mgal/yr for commercial use, and about 40 Mgal/yr for mining. Withdrawals for domestic self-supply in 1994 are estimated to be about 2,600 Mgal/yr, but only about 20 percent (520 Mgal/yr) is thought to be consumptive use; the remainder is returned to the aquifer through septic systems. The most heavily used aquifer in Salem and Gloucester Counties is the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer, followed by, in decreasing order of use, the Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer, the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, and the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Reported withdrawals from these aquifers during 1975-95 averaged 5,000, 3,700, 3,200, and 330 Mgal/yr, respectively. Withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer in Gloucester County increased during 1993-96 because of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection restrictions on new withdrawals from the deeper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Because of the

  8. Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of a halotolerant Planococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Miller, K J

    1985-04-01

    The phospholipid headgroup composition and fatty acid composition of a gram-positive halotolerant Planococcus sp. (strain A4a) were examined as a function of growth temperature (5 to 35 degrees C) and NaCl content (0 to 1.5 M) of the growth medium. When the growth temperature was decreased, the relative amount of mono-unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids increased. When Planococcus sp. strain A4a was grown in media containing high NaCl concentrations, the relative amount of the major fatty acid, Ca15:0, increased. The relative amount of anionic phospholipid also increased when the NaCl concentration of the growth medium was increased. The increase in anionic phospholipid content resulted from a decrease in the relative mole percent content of phosphatidylethanolamine and an increase in the relative mole percent content of cardiolipin.

  9. Determining modifications to bifenthrin toxicity and sediment binding affinity from varying potassium chloride concentrations in overlying water.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Andrew J; Belden, Jason B; Mueting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    Bifenthrin, a current-use pyrethroid insecticide, has been repeatedly identified as a major contributor to toxicity in urban and residential stream sediment. Within an urban stream multiple stressors exist. However, other than pesticides, the influence of secondary stressors on bifenthrin toxicity has not been studied. The goal of this project was to study how dissolved ions, based on the model salt KCl, influence bifenthrin toxicity. The presence of these dissolved ions could influence bifenthrin toxicity either through joint action as a secondary toxicant or through changing the partitioning or bioavailability of bifenthrin between the sediment matrix and overlying water or pore water. The first objective was to determine if mixtures of bifenthrin and KCl, a commonly utilized reference toxicant, display additive toxicity to the benthic invertebrates Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus using concentration addition and independent action mathematical models. The second objective of the present study was to examine how KCl dissolved in the overlying water influences partitioning and bioavailability of a pyrethroid (bifenthrin). Joint toxicity of bifenthrin and KCl was less than predicted by both concentration addition and independent action models. However, both models predicted the joint toxicity within a factor of two. Partitioning of bifenthrin was not significantly influenced by KCl concentrations based on K(oc) determinations and desorption to Tenax beads. This indicates that the fate and bioavailability of bifenthrin are not likely different in aquatic environments with varying dissolved ion concentrations. Therefore, the toxicological interaction that results in the antagonistic joint action between bifenthrin and KCl is likely due to the physiological effects of exposure to hypertonic solutions of KCl rather than alterations to bifenthrin bioavailability.

  10. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  11. Benzalkonium chloride exposure in cats: a retrospective analysis of 245 cases reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS).

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Edwards, N

    2015-02-28

    Benzalkonium chloride is commonly found in household products. This retrospective study examined 245 cases of feline exposure to benzalkonium chloride-containing products reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). A single route of exposure was reported in 188 cats (ingestion 126, skin 58, buccal 4); 57 cats had multiple routes. The common products involved were household antibacterial cleaners (43.6 per cent), household disinfectants (22.3 per cent) and patio cleaners (17.5 per cent). The most common signs were hypersalivation/drooling (53.9 per cent), tongue ulceration (40.4 per cent), hyperthermia (40.4 per cent) and oral ulceration (22.9 per cent). The mean time recorded for onset of the first clinical sign was 6.4 hours (range five minutes to 48 hours, median 4.5 hours, n=60), however, the VPIS was not contacted until 14.0 ± 13.2 hours after exposure (n=120). This figure also reflects the time of presentation. The most common treatments given were antibiotics (82.0 per cent), fluids (50.2 per cent), analgesia (45.3 per cent), gastroprotectants (31.0 per cent), dermal decontamination (24.1 per cent) and steroids (22.7 per cent). 13 cats (5.3 per cent) received syringe or nasogastric feeding. Of 245 cats, 12 (4.9 per cent) remained asymptomatic, 230 (93.9 per cent) recovered and three died (1.2 per cent). The time to recovery ranged from 1 to 360 hours (n=67) with a mean of 100.4 ± 82.0 hours (4.2 ± 3.4 days, median 72 hours).

  12. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Allam, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  13. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Allam, Hassan Y

    2015-09-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations.

  14. [Some aspects of structural alterations of erythrocyte membranes under the effect of uranyl chloride at low concentrations].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, O G

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nanomolar concentrations of the uranyl ion on the parameters of some membrane structures of rodent erythrocytes (laboratory mice and tundra voles--classical objects of radioecological monitoring) was investigated in vitro. A high sensitivity of the tundra vole red blood cells to the uranyl influence was shown. This fact may be determined by the cross-species difference in the membrane structures of erythrocytes--the low sphingomyelin content in tundra voles. Investigation into the phospholipid composition of the erythrocytes incubated in vitro with uranyl ions demonstrates the absence of the membrane lipid component reactions "typical" for the cells circulating in blood and also the changes pointing to the initial stages of eryptosis. Latent alterations in the membrane structure of red blood cells of both species induced by a short time contact with uranyl ions were confirmed by the increase in their sensitivity to nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and indicate the changes in orderliness of the membrane lipid phase.

  15. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  16. Hydrogenation induced deviation of temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) and a new eco-friendly plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Wei; Shen, Jianyi; Xue, Gi

    2015-06-01

    As a substitute for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DOP), a new eco-friendly plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DEHHP), was systematically studied in this work, mainly focusing on its interaction with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were systematically investigated by rheology, low-field NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, and the results were quite different from those in PVC/DOP. With temperature increasing or PVC concentration decreasing, rheology experiments revealed that polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were weaker than that in PVC/DOP. Low-field 1H NMR results showed that the number of polymer-solvent complexes decreased as temperature increased. A faster decreasing rate of this number made the polymer-solvent interactions weaker in PVC/DEHHP than in PVC/DOP. Molecular dynamics simulations were further performed to study the role of polymer-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions in the systems. The radial distribution function showed that heating and dilution both resulted in faster molecular motions, and disassociation of the hydrogen bonds in the simplex hydrogen bonding system. Therefore, heating and dilution had an equivalent effect on the polymer-solvent interactions.

  17. The effect of an acute and 7-day administration of magnesium chloride on magnesium concentration in the serum, erythrocytes, and brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Wlaź, Piotr; Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most essential cations in human body that is involved in a variety of physiological processes. Despite the variations in the extracellular Mg level, specific transport systems are involved in maintaining the intracellular free Mg at a relatively constant level. We aimed to investigate the changes of Mg level in the brain, erythrocytes, and serum of rats after an acute and subchronic administration of Mg. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution was administered intraperitoneally (ip) either once at a dose of 50mg/kg or for 7 days at a single daily dose of 50mg/kg. Blood and brains of animals were collected 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240min after the acute or the last injection. Total Mg concentration in blood serum, erythrocytes, and the whole brain was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest Mg concentration was detected in the brain tissue, while the most significant changes in Mg level were found in serum. Neither the brain nor the erythrocyte showed a change in the Mg level considerably after an increase in serum Mg level induced by the acute and subchronic administration of MgCl2 solution. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipid-protein globules of avian egg yolk. Isolation and properties of globules stable in concentrated sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed Central

    Vadehra, D V; Bain, J M; Burley, R W

    1977-01-01

    A new type of globular particle, the 'insoluble yolk globule', was isolated from the egg yolk of three avian species (hen, duck, and emu) by centrifugation or gel-filtration chromatography. These globules are stable in NaCl and urea solutions at concentrations that dissolve or disrupt other constituents of yolk, The isolated globules are about 1% of the dry yolk of hen's and duck's eggs but about 8% emu's-egg yolk. Most of these globules are less than 2 micrometer in diameter. Electron micrographs of sections show a preponderance of globules in the range 0.125-0.25 micrometer, each with a thick shell surrounding a feature-less anterior. Globules with the same appearance were seen in sections of unfractionated yolk. Two kinds of larger particles were also observed: (i) particles with a distinct outer membrane and a vesiculated interior; (ii) featureless spheres, possibly of lipid. The insoluble yolk globules comprise protein (8-11% by dry wt.), phospholipid (31-35% total lipid), triacylglycerols (49-53%), cholesterol (8%) and cholesteryl esters (2-3%); the variations being among species. The phospholipid is accessible to phospholipase C. The isolated protein is heterogeneous and resembles the apoprotein from the yolk low-density lipoprotein. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:563717

  19. Lipid-protein globules of avian egg yolk. Isolation and properties of globules stable in concentrated sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Vadehra, D V; Bain, J M; Burley, R W

    1977-09-15

    A new type of globular particle, the 'insoluble yolk globule', was isolated from the egg yolk of three avian species (hen, duck, and emu) by centrifugation or gel-filtration chromatography. These globules are stable in NaCl and urea solutions at concentrations that dissolve or disrupt other constituents of yolk, The isolated globules are about 1% of the dry yolk of hen's and duck's eggs but about 8% emu's-egg yolk. Most of these globules are less than 2 micrometer in diameter. Electron micrographs of sections show a preponderance of globules in the range 0.125-0.25 micrometer, each with a thick shell surrounding a feature-less anterior. Globules with the same appearance were seen in sections of unfractionated yolk. Two kinds of larger particles were also observed: (i) particles with a distinct outer membrane and a vesiculated interior; (ii) featureless spheres, possibly of lipid. The insoluble yolk globules comprise protein (8-11% by dry wt.), phospholipid (31-35% total lipid), triacylglycerols (49-53%), cholesterol (8%) and cholesteryl esters (2-3%); the variations being among species. The phospholipid is accessible to phospholipase C. The isolated protein is heterogeneous and resembles the apoprotein from the yolk low-density lipoprotein.

  20. In vitro cultures and regeneration of Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae) under increasing concentrations of sodium chloride and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Rosnow, Josh; Offermann, Sascha; Park, Joonho; Okita, Thomas W; Tarlyn, Nathan; Dhingra, Amit; Edwards, Gerald E

    2011-08-01

    To study the developmental transition of chloroplasts from C(3) to C(4) photosynthesis in the terrestrial single-cell C(4) species Bienertia sinuspersici, a regeneration protocol was developed. Stem explant material developed callus either with or without red nodular structures (RNS) when cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins, supplemented with 5 mM phosphate, plus 1 mg L(-1) dichloropenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 87 mM sucrose (Stage 1 media). Only calli having RNS were able to regenerate plantlets. MS media plus phosphate was used throughout regeneration, with the Stage 2 media containing 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine, 43 mM sucrose and 1.5% soluble starch. Stage 3 media had no hormones or organic sources of carbon, and cultures were grown under ambient (~400 ppm) versus CO(2) enrichment (1.2% CO(2)). When calli without RNS were cultured under Stage 3 conditions with 1.2% CO(2), there was an increase in growth, protein content, and photosystem II yield, while structural and biochemical analyses indicated the cells in the calli had C(3) type photosynthesis. CO(2) enrichment during growth of RNS during Stage 3 had a large effect on regeneration success, increasing efficiency of shoot and root development, size of plantlets, leaf soluble protein, and chlorophyll concentration. Anatomical analysis of plantlets, which developed under 1.2% CO(2), showed leaves developed C(4) type chlorenchyma cells, including expression of key C(4) biochemical enzymes. Increasing salinity in the media, from 0 to 200 mM NaCl, increased tissue osmolality, average plantlet area and regeneration success, but did not affect protein or chlorophyll content.

  1. Glutamate-induced elevations in intracellular chloride concentration in hippocampal cell cultures derived from EYFP-expressing mice.

    PubMed

    Slemmer, Jennifer E; Matsushita, Shinichi; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Weber, John T; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    The homeostasis of intracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) is critical for neuronal function, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic transmission. Here, we investigated activity-dependent changes in [Cl(-)](i) using a transgenetically expressed Cl(-)-sensitive enhanced yellow-fluorescent protein (EYFP) in cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons. Application of glutamate (100 microm for 3 min) in a bath perfusion to cell cultures of various days in vitro (DIV) revealed a decrease in EYFP fluorescence. The EYFP signal increased in amplitude with increasing DIV, reaching a maximal response after 7 DIV. Glutamate application resulted in a slight neuronal acidification. Although EYFP fluorescence is sensitive to pH, EYFP signals were virtually abolished in Cl(-)-free solution, demonstrating that the EYFP signal represented an increase in [Cl(-)](i). Similar to glutamate, a rise in [Cl(-)](i) was also induced by specific ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists and by increasing extracellular [K(+)], indicating that an increase in driving force for Cl(-) suffices to increase [Cl(-)](i). To elucidate the membrane mechanisms mediating the Cl(-) influx, a series of blockers of ion channels and transporters were tested. The glutamate-induced increase in [Cl(-)](i) was resistant to furosemide, bumetanide and 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), was reduced by bicuculline to about 80% of control responses, and was antagonized by niflumic acid (NFA) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB). We conclude that membrane depolarization increases [Cl(-)](i) via several pathways involving NFA- and NPPB-sensitive anion channels and GABA(A) receptors, but not through furosemide-, bumetanide- or DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) transporters. The present study highlights the vulnerability of [Cl(-)](i) homeostasis after membrane depolarization in neurons.

  2. Effects of concentrations of sodium chloride on photosynthesis, antioxidative enzymes, growth and fiber yield of hybrid ramie.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengjian; Wei, Gang; Jie, Yucheng; Wang, Longchang; Zhou, Hangfei; Ran, Chunyan; Huang, Zaocun; Jia, Huijuan; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is one of the oldest and most important fiber crops in China due to the comfortable textile of its fine fiber. Increased ramie fiber demand brings ramie cultivation to salt-affected regions. The aim of this research was to determine morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of ramie by subjecting plants to varying concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g NaCl/kg dry soil) at vigorous growth stage for 10 and 20 days. Results indicated that salinity stress substantially inhibited the growth of hybrid ramie plants and led to remarkable decline in fiber yield. However, when grown at 2 g NaCl/kg growth and fiber yield were similar to non-saline control. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were correlated with growth and yield response. Salt treatments promoted a subsequent decrease in maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), quantum efficiency of open PSII reaction centers (Fv'/Fm') and quantum yield of PSII (φPSII) while non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) changed conversely. Photochemical quenching (qP) and electron transport rate of PSII (ETR) increased at 2 and 4 g NaCl/kg then decreased at 6 and 8 g NaCl/kg. Substantial decline in the PSII activity at high salinity was associated with the loss of chlorophyll contents. Moreover, marked decrease in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) was also recorded. Nonetheless, intercellular CO2 (Ci) decreased at low salt stress, subsequently increased at high salt stress while water use efficiency (WUE) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) altered in opposite direction. Substantial decrease of photosynthesis at high salinity was due to non-stomatal factors. Furthermore, salinity stress led to decrease of proteins and accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.6), whereas

  3. Use of dissolved chloride concentrations in tributary streams to support geospatial estimates of Cl contamination potential near Skiatook Lake, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Abbott, M.M.; Zielinski, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Releases of NaCl-rich (>100 000 mg/L) water that is co-produced from petroleum wells can adversely affect the quality of ground and surface waters. To evaluate produced water impacts on lakes, rivers and streams, an assessment of the contamination potential must be attainable using reliable and cost-effective methods. This study examines the feasibility of using geographic information system (GIS) analysis to assess the contamination potential of Cl to Skiatook Lake in the Hominy Creek drainage basin in northeastern Oklahoma. GIS-based predictions of affects of Cl within individual subdrainages are supported by measurements of Cl concentration and discharge in 19 tributaries to Skiatook Lake. Dissolved Cl concentrations measured in October, 2004 provide a snapshot of conditions assumed to be reasonably representative of typical inputs to the lake. Chloride concentrations ranged from 5.8 to 2300 mg/L and compare to a value of 34 mg/L in the lake. At the time of sampling, Hominy Creek provided 63% of the surface water entering the lake and 80% of the Cl load. The Cl load from the other tributaries is relatively small (150 mg/L) were generally in subdrainages with greater well density (>15 wells/km2), relatively large numbers of petroleum wells in close proximity (>2 proximity wells/stream km), and relatively small discharge (<0.005 m3/s). GIS calculations of subdrainage areas can be used to estimate the expected discharge of the tributary for each subdrainage. GIS-based assessment of Cl contamination potential at Skiatook Lake and at other lakes surrounded by oil fields can proceed even when direct measurements of Cl or discharge in tributary streams may be limited or absent.

  4. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Peredo-Alvarez, Víctor M; Sarma, S S; Nandini, S

    2003-06-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 +/- 0.04 g l-1) than B. patulus (2.14 +/- 0.09 g l-1). The maximal population density (mean +/- standard error) for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 (algal level) was 80 +/- 5 ind. ml-1, which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 +/- 7 ind. ml-1) under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 +/- 0.5 days) for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 +/- 1 day). The highest rates of population increase (r values) for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 +/- 0.012 and 0.367 +/- 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.

  5. Photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol and organochlorides (2,4-DCP and 2,4-D) in aqueous alkaline medium with high chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Luna, Airton J; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Machulek, Amilcar; de Moraes, José Ermírio F; Nascimento, Cláudio A O

    2012-11-30

    A highly concentrated aqueous saline-containing solution of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was treated by the photo-Fenton process in a system composed of an annular reactor with a quartz immersion well and a medium-pressure mercury lamp (450 W). The study was conducted under special conditions to minimize the costs of acidification and neutralization, which are usual steps in this type of process. Photochemical reactions were carried out to investigate the influence of some process variables such as the initial concentration of Fe(2+) ([Fe(2+)](0)) from 1.0 up to 2.5 mM, the rate in mmol of H(2)O(2) fed into the system (FH(2)O(2);in) from 3.67 up to 7.33 mmol of H(2)O(2)/min during 120 min of reaction time, and the initial pH (pH(0)) from 3.0 up to 9.0 in the presence and absence of NaCl (60.0 g/L). Although the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process is about 3.0, this particular system performed well in experimental conditions starting at alkaline and neutral pH. The results obtained here are promising for industrial applications, particularly in view of the high concentration of chloride, a known hydroxyl radical scavenger and the main oxidant present in photo-Fenton processes.

  6. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged.

  7. The case for visual analytics of arsenic concentrations in foods.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matilda O; Cohly, Hari H P; Isokpehi, Raphael D; Awofolu, Omotayo R

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species.

  8. The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matilda O.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Awofolu, Omotayo R.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species. PMID:20623005

  9. Analysis of trihalomethane precursor removal from sub-tropical reservoir waters by a magnetic ion exchange resin using a combined method of chloride concentration variation and surrogate organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Phetrak, Athit; Lohwacharin, Jenyuk; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In small reservoirs in tropical islands in Japan, the disinfection by-product formation potential is high due to elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bromide. We employed a combined method of variation of chloride concentrations and the use of DOM surrogates to investigate removal mechanisms of bromide and different fractions of DOM by chloride-based magnetic ion exchange (MIEX®) resin. The DOM in reservoir waters was fractionated by resins based on their hydrophobicity, and characterized by size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectrophotometry. The hydrophobic acid (HPO acid) fraction was found to be the largest contributor of the trihalomethane (THM) precursors, while hydrophilic acid (HPI acid) was the most reactive precursors of all the four THM species. Bromide and DOM with a molecular weight (MW) greater than 1kDa, representing HPO acid (MW 1-3kDa) and HPI acid (MW 1-2kDa), were effectively removed by MIEX® resin; however, DOM with a MW lower than 1kDa, representing HPI non-acid, was only moderately removed. The removal of THM precursors by MIEX® resin was interfered by high chloride concentrations, which was similar to the removal of glutamic acid (HPI acid surrogate) and bromide. However, elevated chloride concentrations had only a minor effect on tannic acid (HPO acid surrogate) removal, indicating that HPO acid fraction was removed by a combination of ion exchange and physical adsorption on MIEX® resin. Our study demonstrated that the combined use of DOM surrogates and elevated chloride concentrations is an effective method to estimate the removal mechanisms of various DOM fractions by MIEX® resin.

  10. Concentration effects on biotic and abiotic processes in the removal of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and vinyl chloride using carbon-amended ZVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Bradley M.; Lee, Matthew; Bastow, Trevor P.; Wilson, John T.; Donn, Michael J.; Furness, Andrew; Goodwin, Bryan; Manefield, Mike

    2016-05-01

    A permeable reactive barrier, consisting of both zero valent iron (ZVI) and a biodegradable organic carbon, was evaluated for the remediation of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) contaminated groundwater. During an 888 day laboratory column study, degradation rates initially stabilized with a degradation half-life of 4.4 ± 0.4 days. Based on the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC) and limited production of 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), the dominant degradation pathway was likely abiotic dichloroelimination to form VC. Degradation of VC was not observed based on the accumulation of VC and limited ethene production. After a step reduction in the influent concentration of 1,1,2-TCA from 170 ± 20 mg L- 1 to 39 ± 11 mg L- 1, the degradation half-life decreased 5-fold to 0.83 ± 0.17 days. The isotopic enrichment factor of 1,1,2-TCA also changed after the step reduction from - 14.6 ± 0.7‰ to - 0.72 ± 0.12‰, suggesting a possible change in the degradation mechanism from abiotic reductive degradation to biodegradation. Microbiological data suggested a co-culture of Desulfitobacterium and Dehalococcoides was responsible for the biodegradation of 1,1,2-TCA to ethene.

  11. Concentration effects on biotic and abiotic processes in the removal of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and vinyl chloride using carbon-amended ZVI.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Bradley M; Lee, Matthew; Bastow, Trevor P; Wilson, John T; Donn, Michael J; Furness, Andrew; Goodwin, Bryan; Manefield, Mike

    2016-05-01

    A permeable reactive barrier, consisting of both zero valent iron (ZVI) and a biodegradable organic carbon, was evaluated for the remediation of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) contaminated groundwater. During an 888 day laboratory column study, degradation rates initially stabilized with a degradation half-life of 4.4±0.4 days. Based on the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC) and limited production of 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), the dominant degradation pathway was likely abiotic dichloroelimination to form VC. Degradation of VC was not observed based on the accumulation of VC and limited ethene production. After a step reduction in the influent concentration of 1,1,2-TCA from 170±20 mg L(-1) to 39±11 mg L(-1), the degradation half-life decreased 5-fold to 0.83±0.17 days. The isotopic enrichment factor of 1,1,2-TCA also changed after the step reduction from -14.6±0.7‰ to -0.72±0.12‰, suggesting a possible change in the degradation mechanism from abiotic reductive degradation to biodegradation. Microbiological data suggested a co-culture of Desulfitobacterium and Dehalococcoides was responsible for the biodegradation of 1,1,2-TCA to ethene.

  12. Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Scott; Bacela, Karolina; Reid, David F; Mclean, Kevin A; Cohen, Jill S; Cordell, Jeffery R; Brown, Christopher W; Johengen, Thomas H; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2009-02-01

    Currently, seawater flushing is the only management strategy for reducing the number of viable organisms in residual sediments and water of ballast tanks of vessels declaring no ballast on board (NOBOB) that traffic ports of the eastern United States. Previously, we identified several species of freshwater and brackish-water peracarid crustaceans able to survive the osmotic shock that occurs during open-ocean ballast water exchange and, potentially, to disperse over long distances via ballasted ships and NOBOB vessels. We tested the efficacy of concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for eradicating the halotolerant taxa often present in the ballast tanks of NOBOB ships. The lowest brine treatments (30 ppt for 1 h) caused 100% mortality in several species of cladocerans and copepods collected from oligohaline habitats. Several brackish-water peracarid crustaceans, however, including some that can survive in freshwater as well, required higher brine concentrations and longer exposure durations (45-60 ppt for 3-24 h). The most resilient animals were widely introduced peracarid crustaceans that generally prefer mesohaline habitats but do not tolerate freshwater (required brine treatments of 60-110 ppt for 3-24 h). Brine treatments (30 ppt) also required less time to cause 100% mortality for eight taxa compared with treatments using 34 ppt seawater. Based on these experiments and published data, we present treatment strategies for the ballast tank biota often associated with NOBOB vessels entering the Great Lakes region. We estimate the lethal dosage of brine for 95% of the species in our experiments to be 110 ppt (95% confidence interval, 85-192 ppt) when the exposure time is 1 h and 60 ppt (95% confidence interval, 48-98 ppt) when the exposure duration is 6 h or longer.

  13. Estimating groundwater recharge following land-use change using chloride mass balance of soil profiles: a case study at Guyuan and Xifeng in the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe

    2011-02-01

    Groundwater recharge is affected by land use in (semi)arid areas. A new application of the chloride-mass-balance approach has been developed to estimate the reduction in groundwater recharge following land-use change by comparing chloride concentrations below the root zone and above the base of the chloride accumulation zone, before and after the land-use conversion. Two sites in the Loess Plateau of central China have been selected for study. Results from the Guyuan terrace region show that groundwater recharge beneath natural sparse small-grass was 100 mm/year, but the conversion to winter wheat about 100 years ago has reduced groundwater recharge to 55 mm/year. At the Xifeng Loess Plain the conversion from winter wheat, with groundwater recharge at 33 mm/year, to apple orchard 7 years ago has led to chloride accumulation to 5 m below land surface, suggesting the recharge rate has been reduced. This is in agreement with previous studies in these areas which have shown that the regional afforestation and other land-use conversions have resulted in deep soil desiccation and have caused an upper boundary to form with low matrix potential, thus preventing the soil moisture from actually recharging the aquifer.

  14. Chloridization and Reduction Roasting of High-Magnesium Low-Nickel Oxide Ore Followed by Magnetic Separation to Enrich Ferronickel Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-02-01

    The chloridization and reduction roasting of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore containing 0.82 pct Ni and 31.49 pct MgO were investigated in this study. Mineralogical investigation indicated that 84.6 pct of nickel was associated with silicates, and nickel was well distributed in mineral in the form of isomorphism. A series of chloridization tests with different added proportions of sodium chloride and coal along with different roasting temperatures and times was conducted. The results indicate that for a ferronickel content of 7.09 pct Ni, a nickel recovery of 98.31 pct could be obtained by chloridizing the laterite ore at 1473 K (1200 °C) for 20 minutes with the addition of 10 wt pct sodium chloride and 8 wt pct coal followed by the application of a 150-mT magnetic field. X-ray diffraction indicated that the nickel is mainly present in the form of ferronickel, which can also be detected by SEM-EDS. Compared with the roasted ore with no added chlorinating agent, the ore roasted in the presence of sodium chloride exhibited enhanced ferronickel particle growth.

  15. Effects of enhancement with differing phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride, on beef biceps femoris instrumental color characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2006-03-01

    Enhancement of beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) with solutions comprising sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, with the exclusion of sodium chloride, was performed to observe the independent phosphate effects on instrumental color during simulated retail display. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. All three phosphate types maintained higher (P<0.05) L* values than untreated steaks (CNT) through 5 days-of-display, and SHMP had higher (P<0.05) L* values than STPP and TSPP through 7 days-of-display. Additionally, steaks with 0.2% phosphate inclusion were lighter (L*; P<0.05) than CNT throughout display, and were lighter (P<0.05) than steaks enhanced with 0.4% phosphates through 7 days of display. Steaks enhanced with TSPP had higher (P<0.05) a* values than CNT on days 5 and 7 of display, whereas SHMP- or STPP-enhanced steaks generally had similar (P>0.05) a* values as CNT after 3d of display. Direct comparison of phosphate concentrations revealed no differences (P>0.05) in a* values. Only steaks enhanced with TSPP were more vivid (P<0.05) and had higher (P<0.05) proportions of oxymyoglobin than CNT on days 5 and 7 of display. However, direct comparison of phosphate types indicated that TSPP- and STPP-enhanced steaks had similar (P>0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions during display. Phosphate inclusion at 0.4% maintained higher (P<0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions than 0.2% phosphate inclusion through 5 days-of-display. These results indicate that while 0.2% phosphate concentrations maintain lighter color, 0.4% concentrations can more effectively retain oxymyoglobin during display. Additionally, only steaks enhanced with TSPP were redder, more vivid, and had higher oxymyoglobin proportions than untreated steaks during the latter stages of display.

  16. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer is a thick sequence of water-bearing dolostone, limestone, and sandstone of latest Cambrian through Middle Devonian age that is widely used as a source of water throughout the Ozark Plateaus province (index map). The Ozark aquifer is the largest of three aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA; Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in parts of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen and others (in press). The relation of the Ozark aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [1990 (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Data for Oklahoma were also taken from data published by Havens (1978). The maps in this report on the Ozark subregion may contain small differences from maps in other CMRASA publications because the criteria for data selection may be different and the subregional maps may contain additional data. However, regional trends in these maps are consistent with other maps published as part of the regional project.

  17. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    The St. Francois aquifer, the lowermost of three regional aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, is composed of water-bearing sandstone and dolostone of Late Cambrian age. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA, Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10 States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in and adjacent to the Ozark Plateaus province (index map) of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen an others (in press). The relation of the St. Francois aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [in press (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the St. Francois aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Only water quality analyses that ionically balanced to within 10 percent are included in this report. Because few water wells are completed in the St. Francois aquifer beyond the vicinity of the St. Francois Mountains in southeastern Missouri (index map), water-quality data, with few exceptions, are limited to a relatively small area near the outcrop of the aquifer.

  18. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  20. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  1. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  2. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  3. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  4. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  5. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  6. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... practitioner determine if there is also an acid-base imbalance and helps to guide treatment. ^ Back to top What does the test result mean? An increased level of blood chloride (called hyperchloremia) usually indicates ... too much base is lost from the body (producing metabolic acidosis ) ...

  7. Cadmium concentrations in the brains of Alzheimer cases

    SciTech Connect

    Spyrou, N.M.; Stedman, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    There is ongoing research in relating the concentration of elements in the brain with Alzheimer`s disease. The presence of particular elements, such as aluminum and vanadium, has been considered as a possible environmental factor, creating significant interest and controversy in the field. We have been analyzing brain tissue from the MRC Alzheimer`s Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, from a number of cortical regions of the brain, namely, the frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as from the left and right hemispheres of the same brain whenever possible. The techniques employed have been proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Neutron irradiations were carried out at the Imperial College Consort II reactor, whereas for PIXE, PIGE, and RBS, the University of Surrey Accelerator Laboratories were used employing a Van de Graaff accelerator. In this paper, we present the cadmium results from the frontal lobe of Alzheimer cases and controls determined by PIXE analysis.

  8. Methods for evaluating temporal groundwater quality data and results of decadal-scale changes in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States, 1988-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal-scale changes in groundwater quality were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Samples of groundwater collected from wells during 1988-2000 - a first sampling event representing the decade ending the 20th century - were compared on a pair-wise basis to samples from the same wells collected during 2001-2010 - a second sampling event representing the decade beginning the 21st century. The data set consists of samples from 1,236 wells in 56 well networks, representing major aquifers and urban and agricultural land-use areas, with analytical results for chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate. Statistical analysis was done on a network basis rather than by individual wells. Although spanning slightly more or less than a 10-year period, the two-sample comparison between the first and second sampling events is referred to as an analysis of decadal-scale change based on a step-trend analysis. The 22 principal aquifers represented by these 56 networks account for nearly 80 percent of the estimated withdrawals of groundwater used for drinking-water supply in the Nation. Well networks where decadal-scale changes in concentrations were statistically significant were identified using the Wilcoxon-Pratt signed-rank test. For the statistical analysis of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations at the network level, more than half revealed no statistically significant change over the decadal period. However, for networks that had statistically significant changes, increased concentrations outnumbered decreased concentrations by a large margin. Statistically significant increases of chloride concentrations were identified for 43 percent of 56 networks. Dissolved solids concentrations increased significantly in 41 percent of the 54 networks with dissolved solids data, and nitrate concentrations increased significantly in 23 percent of 56 networks. At least one of the three - chloride, dissolved solids, or

  9. Effects of recharge and discharge on delta2H and delta18O composition and chloride concentration of high arsenic/fluoride groundwater from the Datong Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Su, Chunli; Duan, Mengyu

    2013-02-01

    To better understand the effects of recharge and discharge on the hydrogeochemistry of high levels of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in groundwater, environmental isotopic composition (delta2H and delta18O) and chloride (Cl) concentrations were analyzed in 29 groundwater samples collected from the Datong Basin. High arsenic groundwater samples (As > 50 micog/L) were found to be enriched in lighter isotopic composition that ranged from -92 to -78 per thousand for deuterium (delta2H) and from -12.5 to -9.9 per thousand for oxygen-18 (delta18O). High F-containing groundwater (F > 1 mg/L) was relatively enriched in heavier isotopic composition and varied from -90 to -57 per thousand and from -12.2 to -6.7 per thousand for delta2H and delta18O, respectively. High chloride concentrations and delta18O values were primarily measured in groundwater samples from the northern and southwestern portions of the study area, indicating the effect of evaporation on groundwater. The observation of relatively homogenized and low delta18O values and chloride concentrations in groundwater samples from central part of the Datong Basin might be a result of fast recharge by irrigation returns, which suggests that irrigation using arsenic-contaminated groundwater affected the occurrence of high arsenic-containing groundwater in the basin.

  10. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  11. Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride sustained in the morning: investigations of the causes and impacts on ozone production in a polluted region of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, Yee Jun; Wang, Zhe; Li, Qinyi; Yun, Hui; Wang, Weihao; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Lu, Keding; Ma, Nan; Bohn, Birger; Li, Xin; Kecorius, Simonas; Größ, Johannes; Shao, Min; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is a dominant source of chlorine radical in polluted environment, and can significantly affect the atmospheric oxidative chemistry. However, the abundance of ClNO2 and its exact role are not fully understood under different environmental conditions. During the summer of 2014, we deployed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to measure ClNO2 and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) at a rural site in the polluted North China Plain. Elevated mixing ratios of ClNO2 (> 350 pptv) were observed at most of the nights with low levels of N2O5 (< 200 pptv). The highest ClNO2 mixing ratio of 2070 pptv (1 min average) was observed in a plume from a megacity (Tianjin), and was characterized with a faster N2O5 heterogeneous loss rate and ClNO2 production rate compared to average conditions. The abundant ClNO2 concentration kept increasing even after sunrise, and reached a peak 4 h later. Such highly sustained ClNO2 peaks after sunrise are discrepant from the previously observed typical diurnal pattern. Meteorological and chemical analysis shows that the sustained ClNO2 morning peaks are caused by significant ClNO2 production in the residual layer at night followed by downward mixing after breakup of the nocturnal inversion layer in the morning. We estimated that ˜ 1.7-4.0 ppbv of ClNO2 would exist in the residual layer in order to maintain the observed morning ClNO2 peaks at the surface site. Observation-based box model analysis show that photolysis of ClNO2 produced chlorine radical with a rate up to 1.12 ppbv h-1, accounting for 10-30 % of primary ROx production in the morning hours. The perturbation in total radical production leads to an increase of integrated daytime net ozone production by 3 % (4.3 ppbv) on average, and with a larger increase of 13 % (11 ppbv) in megacity outflow that was characterized with higher ClNO2 and a relatively lower oxygenated hydrocarbon (OVOC) to non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) ratio.

  12. Preliminary assessment of chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in selected watersheds along the Interstate 95 corridor, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Mondazzi, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were assessed to evaluate potential effects of road-deicer applications on stream-water quality in four watersheds along Interstate 95 (I-95) in southeastern Connecticut from November 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009. This preliminary study is part of a four-year cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT). Streamflow and water quality were studied at four watersheds?Four Mile River, Oil Mill Brook, Stony Brook, and Jordan Brook. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired water-quality monitoring sites upstream and downstream from I-95. Specific conductance values were related to chloride (Cl) concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-deicing operations on the levels of Cl in the streams. Streamflow and water-quality data were compared with weather data and with the timing, amount, and composition of deicers applied to state highways. Grab samples were collected during winter stormwater-runoff events, such as winter storms or periods of rain or warm temperatures in which melting takes place, and periodically during the spring and summer. Cl concentrations at the eight water-quality monitoring sites were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended chronic and acute Cl toxicity criteria of 230 and 860 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations in streams, particularly at sites downstream from I-95, peaked during discharge events in the winter and early spring as a result of deicers applied to roads and washed off by stormwater or meltwater. During winter storms, deicing activities, or subsequent periods of melting, specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations peaked as high as 703 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and 160 mg/L at the downstream sites. During most of

  13. Concentrated Flow through a Riparian Buffer: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. B.; Nogues, J. P.; Hutchinson, S. L.

    2005-05-01

    Riparian buffers are often used for in-situ treatment of agricultural runoff. Although the benefits of riparian buffers are well recongized, concentration of flow can restrict the efficiency of contaminant removal. This study evaluates flow concentration at a agricultural site near Manhattan, Kansas. Manual and automated GIS analyses of a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to determine the fraction of runoff contributing to each buffer segment. Subsequent simulation of the system in WEPP (Water Erosion and Prediction Project) demonstrates the extent to which flow concentration affects buffer efficiency. Recommendations are presented for the design of adaptive-width buffers.

  14. Concentrated Flow through a Riparian Buffer: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. B.; Nogues, J. P.; Hutchinson, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Riparian buffers are often used for in-situ treatment of agricultural runoff. Although the benefits of riparian buffers are well recongized, concentration of flow can restrict the efficiency of contaminant removal. This study evaluates flow concentration at a agricultural site near Manhattan, Kansas. Manual and automated GIS analyses of a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to determine the fraction of runoff contributing to each buffer segment. Subsequent simulation of the system in WEPP (Water Erosion and Prediction Project) demonstrates the extend to which flow concentration affects buffer efficiency.

  15. Toxicity of vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride): a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, J K

    1983-01-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride (VC) was first reported in the open scientific literature to induce angiosarcoma of the liver both in humans and in animals. Additional research has now demonstrated the carcinogenicity of VC to other organs and at lower concentrations. The target organs for VC now clearly include the liver, brain and the lung, and probably the lymphohematopoietic system. The evidence for a carcinogenic risk has been extended to jobs associated with poly(vinyl chloride) exposure. Cases of liver angiosarcoma have been reported among individuals employed in PVC fabrication facilities and an epidemiological study has demonstrated a significant association between exposure to PVC dust and the risk of lung cancer mortality. Cases of angiosarcoma of the liver also have been reported among individuals living in near proximity to vinyl chloride-poly(vinyl chloride) plants. An association between PVC dust and pneumoconiosis also has been demonstrated. On the basis of findings, prudent control of PVC dust in the industrial setting is indicated. PMID:6360677

  16. Dehydration of highly concentrated solutions of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in a cheap and sustainable choline chloride/carbon dioxide system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Barrault, Joël; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Jérôme, François

    2012-07-01

    Fête DES sciences: The dehydration of fructose and inulin to HMF is conveniently performed in a cheap and sustainable choline chloride/CO(2) deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The medium is capable of converting high contents of fructose (>100 wt %) without affecting the yield of HMF (up to 72 %). The purity of the recovered HMF is >98%, and the reaction medium can be recycled.

  17. Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    CRREL *) Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution Susan Taylor and Louise Parker March...Engineering Laboratory Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution Susan Taylor and Louise Parker March...SS304 (2000x) ..................................................................................... 14 iii Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to

  18. Chloride: the queen of electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O B

    2012-04-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general do not allocate chapters exclusively on hypochloremia or hyperchloremia and information on chloride other than channelopathies is scattered in the literature. To systematically review the function of chloride in man, data for this review include searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles including the search terms "chloride," "HCl," "chloride channel" "acid-base," "acidosis," "alkalosis," "anion gap" "strong anion gap" "Stewart," "base excess" and "lactate." In addition, internal medicine, critical care, nephrology and gastroenterology textbooks were evaluated on topics pertaining the assessment and management of acid-base disorders, including reference lists from journals or textbooks. Chloride is, after sodium, the most abundant electrolyte in serum, with a key role in the regulation of body fluids, electrolyte balance, the preservation of electrical neutrality, acid-base status and it is an essential component for the assessment of many pathological conditions. When assessing serum electrolytes, abnormal chloride levels alone usually signify a more serious underlying metabolic disorder, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Chloride is an important component of diagnostic tests in a wide array of clinical situations. In these cases, chloride can be tested in sweat, serum, urine and feces. Abnormalities in chloride channel expression and function in many organs can cause a range of disorders. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  20. Phentermine interference and high L-methamphetamine concentration problems in GC-EI-MS SIM Analyses of R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride-derivatized amphetamines and methamphetamines†.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Theron J; Qui, Harry Z; Dozier, Katherine V R; Fuller, Zachary J

    2014-09-01

    In order to achieve chromatographic separation, urine samples shown to be initially positive for amphetamines and methamphetamines in US Department of Defense immunoassays are derivatized with R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (R-(-)-MTPA) prior to gas chromatography-electron impact-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) analysis. Phentermine, a member of the phenethylamine class of drugs and a common appetite suppressant, interferes with GC-EI-MS assays of R-(-)-MTPA-derivatized d-amphetamine, degrading the chromatography of the internal standard and analyte ions and skewing concentration calculations. Additionally, when specimens with high concentrations of l-methamphetamine are derivatized with R-(-)-MTPA, signal peaks have the potential to be misidentified by integration software as d-methamphetamine. We have found that replacing R-(-) MTPA with (S)-(+)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride reduces phentermine interference problems related to internal standard chromatography, reduces the possibility of concentrated l-methamphetamine peaks being misidentified by integration software, improves resolution of d-methamphetamine in the presence of high l-methamphetamine concentrations, and is a cost-neutral change that can be applied to current amphetamines GC-EI-MS methods without the need for method modification.

  1. Measurement techniques investigated for detection of hydrogen chloride gas in ambient air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Nine basic techniques are discussed, ranging from concentration (parts per million) to dosage only (parts per million-seconds) measurement techniques. Data for each technique include lower detection limit, response time, instrument status, and in some cases, specificity. Several techniques discussed can detect ambient hydrogen chloride concentrations below 1 part per million with a response time of seconds.

  2. Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    IIC FILE COPY Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution Susan Taylor and Louise Parker March...Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution...14 iii Surface Changes in Well Casing Pipe Exposed to High Concentrations of Organics in Aqueous Solution SUSAN TAYLOR AND LOUISE

  3. Effects of decreased ground-water withdrawal on ground-water levels and chloride concentrations in Camden County, Georgia, and ground-water levels in Nassau County, Florida, from September 2001 to May 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Michael F.; McFadden, Keith W.; Leeth, David C.

    2005-01-01

    the upper Brunswick aquifer was still rising as of May 2003. Chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden County do not exceed the State and Federal drinking-water standard of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L). With the exception of three wells located at St. Marys, all of the wells sampled during this study (from September 2002 to May 2003) had chloride concentrations ranging from 30 to 50 mg/L, which are considered within background levels for the Upper Floridan aquifer in this area. The three wellstwo at the Durango Paper Company and the other an old unused City of St. Marys wellhad chloride concentrations that ranged from 74 to 175 mg/L, which are above the background level, but were still below the 250-mg/L drinking-water standard. The source has not been determined for the elevated chloride concentration in these wells; the chloride concentration in one of the wells has decreased slightly since the paper-mill shutdown. Chloride concentrations throughout Camden County showed little change after the paper-mill shutdown.

  4. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park

  5. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the kindred of an infant with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome: importance of follow-up that includes monitoring sweat chloride concentrations over time.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Chin, Terry W; Do, Paul C M; Singh, Kathryn E; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-03-01

    Newly implemented newborn screening (NBS) programs in California have resulted in a large subset of patients in whom at least two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are identified, but subsequent sweat chloride analysis reveals normal or indeterminate values. These patients are diagnosed with CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS). However, the natural progression and management of these patients are not clearly understood and frequently after the age of 1-year these patients are lost to follow-up with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centers. We present the first case of an infant who was referred to Miller Children's Hospital for a NBS positive for CF and subsequent discovery of identical mutations in six of his seven older brothers. Several siblings had positive sweat chloride results on repeat testing after the age of 3 years. We suggest the need for continued follow-up of CRMS in a CF center with diagnostic evaluation including repeat sweat chloride testing, beyond the currently recommended period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Blood synthetic cannabinoid concentrations in cases of suspected impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K

    2013-10-01

    Twelve cases of suspected impaired driving are discussed in which the drivers who subsequently tested positive for synthetic cannabinoid drugs underwent a psychophysical assessment. The attitude of the drivers was described as cooperative and relaxed, speech was slow and slurred and coordination was poor. Pulse and blood pressure were generally elevated. Horizontal gaze nystagmus was assessed in nine of the subjects, but was present in only two. The most consistent indicator was a marked lack of convergence. In all cases where a Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) officer evaluated and documented impairment (10 cases), it was attributed to the DRE cannabis category. Performance in field sobriety tests was variable, ranging from poor to minimal observable effect. Synthetic cannabinoid testing was performed by LC-MS-MS. Positive results included: JWH-018 (n = 4), 0.1-1.1 ng/mL; JWH-081 (n = 2) qualitative only; JWH-122 (n = 3), 2.5 ng/mL; JWH-210 (n = 4), 0.1 ng/mL; JWH-250 (n = 1), 0.38 ng/mL and AM-2201 (n = 6), 0.43-4.0 ng/mL. While there is good evidence of psychophysical impairment in these subjects, further structured data collection is needed to fully assess the relationship between synthetic cannabinoid use and psychomotor and cognitive impairment.

  7. Optical absorption measurements of hydrogen chloride at high temperature and high concentration in the presence of water using a tunable diode laser system for application in pyrohydrolysis non-ferrous industrial process control.

    PubMed

    Tzanetakis, Tommy; Susilo, Robin; Wang, Zhenyou; Padmanabhan, Arathi; Davis, Boyd R; Thomson, Murray J

    2015-06-01

    A tunable diode laser (TDL) was used to measure hydrogen chloride (HCl) spectra at 5747 cm(-1) (1.74 μm) and temperatures of 25-950 °C in a quartz cell. The purpose was to evaluate the capability of monitoring HCl concentration under pyrohydrolysis conditions using a near-infrared (NIR) laser. These conditions are characterized by 20-40% HCl, 2-40% H2O, and the presence of metal chloride vapors at temperatures of 600-1000 °C. Spectral peak area measurements of HCl-N2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure and a path length of 8.1 cm showed linear absorption behavior between concentrations of 5-95% and temperatures of 25-950 °C. Results from the addition of 2-40% water (H2O) indicate that the HCl peak area relationships are not affected for temperatures of 350-950 °C. Evaporating NiCl2 within the cell did not show spectral interference effects with HCl between 650 and 850 °C. The results from this work indicate that a near-infrared optical sensor is capable of measuring high HCl concentrations at high temperatures in the presence of high H2O content during pyrohydrolysis process conditions.

  8. The effect of mepiquat chloride on elongation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) internode is associated with low concentration of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Mu, Chun; Du, Mingwei; Chen, Yin; Tian, Xiaoli; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-08-01

    The growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) is globally used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopy manipulation to avoid excess growth and yield loss. However, little information is available as to whether the modification of plant architecture by MC is related to alterations in gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism and signaling. Here, the role of GA metabolism and signaling was investigated in cotton seedlings treated with MC. The MC significantly decreased endogenous GA3 and GA4 levels in the elongating internode, which inhibited cell elongation by downregulating GhEXP and GhXTH2, and then reducing plant height. Biosynthetic and metabolic genes of GA were markedly suppressed within 2-10d of MC treatment, which also downregulated the expression of DELLA-like genes. A remarkable feedback regulation was observed at the early stage of MC treatment when GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression was evidently upregulated. Mepiquat chloride action was controlled by temporal translocation and spatial accumulation which regulated GA biosynthesis and signal expression for maintaining GA homeostasis. The results suggested that MC application could reduce endogenous GA levels in cotton through controlled GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression, which might inhibit cell elongation, thereby shortening the internode and reducing plant height.

  9. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-03

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  10. Sweating the small stuff: adequacy and accuracy in sweat chloride determination.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Mari L; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brown, Sarah M

    2015-04-01

    Sweat chloride testing is the gold standard for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Our objectives were to: 1) describe variables that determine sweat rate; 2) determine the analytic and diagnostic capacity of sweat chloride analysis across the range of observed sweat rates; and 3) determine the biologic variability of sweat chloride concentration. A retrospective analysis was performed using data from all sweat chloride tests performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital over a 21-month period. A total of 1397 sweat chloride tests (1155 sufficient [≥75 mg], 242 insufficient [<75 mg]), were performed on 904 individuals. The sweat weight collected from forearms was statistically greater than that collected from legs. There was a negligible correlation between sweat weight and chloride concentration (r=-0.06). The mean individual biologic CV calculated from individuals with two or more sweat collections ≥75 mg was 13.1% (95% CI: 11.3-14.9%; range 0-88%) yielding a reference change value of 36%. Using 60 mmol/L as the diagnostic chloride cutoff, 100% of CF cases were detected whether a minimum sweat weight of 75, 40, or 20 mg was required. 1) Collection of sweat from forearms is preferable to upper legs, particularly in very young infants; 2) sweat chloride concentrations are not highly dependent upon sweat rate; 3) a change in sweat chloride concentration exceeding 36% may be considered a clinically significant response to cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor targeted therapy, and 4) sweat collections of less than 75 mg provide clinically accurate information. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium, potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble-bed stream in Santa Clara County, California, U.S.A. 2. Mathematical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackman, A.P.; Walters, R.A.; Kennedy, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Three models describing solute transport of conservative ion species and another describing transport of species which adsorb linearly and reversibly on bed sediments are developed and tested. The conservative models are based on three different conceptual models of the transient storage of solute in the bed. One model assumes the bed to be a well-mixed zone with flux of solute into the bed proportional to the difference between stream concentration and bed concentration. The second model assumes solute in the bed is transported by a vertical diffusion process described by Fick's law. The third model assumes that convection occurs in a selected portion of the bed while the mechanism of the first model functions everywhere. The model for adsorbing species assumes that the bed consists of particles of uniform size with the rate of uptake controlled by an intraparticle diffusion process. All models are tested using data collected before, during and after a 24-hr. pulse injection of chloride, strontium, potassium and lead ions into Uvas Creek near Morgan Hill, California, U.S.A. All three conservative models accurately predict chloride ion concentrations in the stream. The model employing the diffusion mechanism for bed transport predicts better than the others. The adsorption model predicts both strontium and potassium ion concentrations well during the injection of the pulse but somewhat overestimates the observed concentrations after the injection ceases. The overestimation may be due to the convection of solute deep into the bed where it is retained longer than the 3-week post-injection observation period. The model, when calibrated for strontium, predicts potassium equally well when the adsorption equilibrium constant for strontium is replaced by that for potassium. ?? 1984.

  12. Application of zinc chloride precipitation method for rapid isolation and concentration of infectious Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. lytic bacteriophages from surface water and plant and soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report describing precipitation of bacteriophage particles with zinc chloride as a method of choice to isolate infectious lytic bacteriophages against Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. from environmental samples. The isolated bacteriophages are ready to use to study various (ecological) aspects of bacteria-bacteriophage interactions. The method comprises the well-known precipitation of phages from aqueous extracts of the test material by addition of ZnCl2, resuscitation of bacteriophage particles in Ringer's buffer to remove the ZnCl2 excess and a soft agar overlay assay with the host bacterium to isolate infectious individual phage plaques. The method requires neither an enrichment step nor other steps (e. g., PEG precipitation, ultrafiltration, or ultracentrifugation) commonly used in other procedures and results in isolation of active viable bacteriophage particles.

  13. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly.

  14. Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harajli, Ali A.

    Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks. This paper covers the development of a new methodology for predicting the chloride concentration and corrosion initiation times for a multi-layer protection overlay system. The first topic will be presenting an innovative method to predict the chloride concentrations using different diffusion coefficients for each protective layer. The new method covers the cases where the applied surface chloride concentrations are either a constant or linear functions with time. The second topic will implement the results from field data about the chloride variations due to the presence of applied topical layers for comparison with the theoretical models. This section will also apply damage factors that are time-dependent to simulate external factors such as traffic loading or vibrations. The third topic will investigate the sensitivity of the single and multi-layer systems due to diffusivity parameter changes. The fourth topic will analyze the random variation of the diffusivity values to predict the mean and standard deviation of chloride concentrations. The diffusivity values are selected from published values by NIST and are based on certain water cement (w/c) ratios.

  15. Synthesis of cationic flocculant by radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide in aqueous solution. II. Copolymerization at higher monomer concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, I.; Fukuzaki, H.; Okada, T.; Okada, T.; Okamoto, J.; Machi, S.

    1981-05-01

    The radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide was studied to prepare a polymer flocculant that can be handled as a solid. The product obtained in the presence of 5 to 20% water was a solid and could be ground to a powder without drying. In order to obtain a water-soluble polymer at a higher concentration, the effect of various additives on the copolymerization was investigated and found that alcohols bearing a hydrogen atom attached to the tertiary carbon atom effectively inhibit intermolecular crosslinking to give water-soluble polymer. It is suggested that the formation of water-insoluble polymer is predominantly attributable to the crosslinking of polymer chains rather than to the imidation of amide groups. Copolymerization in the presence of isopropyl alcohol as inhibitor of the crosslinking was also studied and compared with that reported previously, which was carried out at a lower monomer concentration without additives.

  16. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyoumdjian, H.; Saliba, N. A.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO3)2 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean countries, relatively

  17. Codeine to morphine concentration ratios in samples from living subjects and autopsy cases after incubation.

    PubMed

    Berg-Pedersen, Riikka Mari; Ripel, Ase; Karinen, Ritva; Vevelstad, Merete; Bachs, Liliana; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-03-01

    The codeine to morphine concentration ratio is used in forensic toxicology to assess if codeine has been ingested alone or if morphine and/or heroin have been ingested in addition. In our experience, this interpretation is more difficult in autopsy cases compared with samples from living persons, since high morphine concentrations are observed in cases where only codeine is assumed to have been ingested. We have investigated if codeine and morphine glucuronides are subject to cleavage to the same extent in living and autopsy cases in vitro. We included whole blood samples from eight living subjects and nine forensic autopsy cases, where only codeine ingestion was suspected. All samples were incubated for 2 weeks at 37°C and analyzed for codeine and six codeine metabolites using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A reduction in the codeine to morphine concentration ratio was found, both in samples from living subjects (mean 33%, range 22-50%) and autopsy cases (mean 37%, range 13-54%). The increase in the morphine concentrations was greater in the autopsy cases (mean 85%, max 200%) compared with that of the living cases (mean 51%, max 87%). No changes were seen for codeine or codeine-6-glucuronide concentrations. The altered ratios might mislead the forensic toxicologist to suspect morphine or heroin consumption in cases where only codeine has been ingested.

  18. Effects of NaCl concentration and potassium chloride substitutions on the thermal properties and lipid oxidation of dry-cured pork.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyang; Feng, Xianchao; Wu, Haizhou; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Jianhao

    2014-09-01

    The thermal properties of cured meat are important for determining storage life and nutritional quality. However, few studies have focused on the thermal properties of dry-cured pork, particularly in relation to salt level and type. In order to study the thermal properties of dry-cured pork, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to evaluate the net heat energy (enthalpy, ΔH), onset (T(onset)), and maximum (T(max)) temperatures of different pork cuts salted with mixtures of chloride (NaCl and KCl) salts within the curing and ripening temperature range. Within the curing temperature range (-5 to 20 °C), the T(onset), T(max), and ΔH of cured meat treated with different NaCl : KCl mixtures were generally lower than for fresh meat, which indicates that the addition of NaCl or KCl can reduce the melting of lipids and water (especially lipids), in different pork cuts. Within the ripening temperature range (5 to 50 °C), heat absorption peaks in belly and leg cuts were between 29 and 33 °C. However, no obvious heat absorption peak was found in loin cuts. Compared to non-KCl substitutions, a slightly higher KCl substitution could significantly (P < 0.05) enhance ΔH values of dry-cured belly and leg cuts. The likely cause of this phenomenon is that high KCl substitutions promote lipid oxidation (r = 0.98, for belly; r = 0.95, for leg cuts). Therefore, KCl substitution should be no more than 30% (wt/wt), especially for high lipid pork, to prevent excessive melting and oxidation of lipids during the dry-curing process. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Radioprotective effect on HepG2 cells of low concentrations of cobalt chloride: induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and clearance of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wensen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiguo; Xiao, Linlin; Chen, Guangfu; Zhang, Wukui; Li, Jun

    2013-03-01

    It has been found that low doses of certain toxicants might generate a protective response to cellular damage. Previous data have shown that elevated doses of cobalt (Co) induce injury to cells and organisms or result in radiological combined toxicity. Whether low doses of Co generate a protective effect or not, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of low dose cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 μM) on the viability of irradiated cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to observe the radio-sensitivity of HepG2 cells under different pretreatments. The alteration of intracellular DNA damage was further measured using micronucleus (MN) assay. Levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and its target gene, EPO, were monitored by western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe staining. Our results show that low dose CoCl2does not influence HepG2 cell viability, but induces the expression of HIF-1α, followed by increased radio-resistance. Additionally, cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA retained a partial refractory response to irradiation concomitant with a marked reduction in intracellular ROS. The change of MN further indicated that the reduction of DNA damage was confirmed with the alteration of ROS. Our results demonstrate that low dose CoCl2may protect cells against irradiative harm by two mechanisms, namely HIF-1α expression and ROS clearance.

  20. Radioprotective effect on HepG2 cells of low concentrations of cobalt chloride: induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and clearance of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wensen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiguo; Xiao, Linlin; Chen, Guangfu; Zhang, Wukui; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    It has been found that low doses of certain toxicants might generate a protective response to cellular damage. Previous data have shown that elevated doses of cobalt (Co) induce injury to cells and organisms or result in radiological combined toxicity. Whether low doses of Co generate a protective effect or not, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of low dose cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 μM) on the viability of irradiated cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to observe the radio-sensitivity of HepG2 cells under different pretreatments. The alteration of intracellular DNA damage was further measured using micronucleus (MN) assay. Levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and its target gene, EPO, were monitored by western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe staining. Our results show that low dose CoCl2does not influence HepG2 cell viability, but induces the expression of HIF-1α, followed by increased radio-resistance. Additionally, cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA retained a partial refractory response to irradiation concomitant with a marked reduction in intracellular ROS. The change of MN further indicated that the reduction of DNA damage was confirmed with the alteration of ROS. Our results demonstrate that low dose CoCl2may protect cells against irradiative harm by two mechanisms, namely HIF-1α expression and ROS clearance. PMID:23065176

  1. Studies with narrow cement thickness lead to improved CBL in concentric casings

    SciTech Connect

    Jutten, J.J. , Dallas, TX ); Corrigall, E. , Dallas, TX )

    1989-11-01

    The authors show that formation characteristics affect the cement bond log (CBL) signal in most wells, prove that high-amplitude CBL's obtained in concentric casing-string configurations are often an artifact resulting paradoxically from the excellent quality of the cement job, and propose procedures for running CBL's in concentric casings to eliminate this artifact. Experiments performed to study the influence of the cement/formation or cement/external-casing interface show that, in all cases, these interfaces induce perturbations on the received waveform. The strength of these perturbations depends mainly on the impedance contrast at the interface. Field logs confirm the laboratory results and clearly show that high CBL amplitudes in well cemented concentric casings are an artifact that could easily be eliminated by appropriate setting of the measurement windows.

  2. Migration of vinyl chloride into PVC-bottled drinking-water assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Benfenati, E; Natangelo, M; Davoli, E; Fanelli, R

    1991-02-01

    The migration of vinyl chloride (VC) into drinking-water bottled in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was studied in relation to storage time, using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. Trideuterated vinyl chloride was used as internal standard. VC concentrations in the water rose progressively in direct (linear) relation to the time after bottling (about 1 ng/litre/day). The time of storage of PVC-packaged foodstuffs may affect the daily oral intake of this monomer, which in some cases may exceed 100 ng/person/day.

  3. Health advisory for zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, J.M.; Gordon, L.; Kirman, C.; Roberts, W.C.

    1992-09-01

    The Health Advisory (HA) provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with zinc chloride contamination of drinking water. Based on available toxicity data the HA values for zinc chloride are given. Zinc chloride is classified as Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Health Advisories describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. The HAs, developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (OW), are not legally enforceable Federal standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available. Health Advisories are developed for One-day, Ten-day, Longer-term and Lifetime exposures based on data describing noncarcinogenic end points of toxicity. For those substances that are known or probable human carcinogens, according to the EPA classification scheme, Lifetime HAs are not recommended.

  4. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  5. Occurrence of aluminum in chloride cells of Perla marginata (Plecoptera) after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Guerold, F.; Giamberini, L.; Pihan, J.C.; Tourmann, J.L.; Kaufmann, R.

    1995-04-01

    As a consequence of acid depositions on poorly buffered catchments underlain by hard rocks, aluminum is mobilized and transported from terrestrial systems to the aquatic environment. Loss of fishes has been related to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations in surface waters which present a low ionic content especially during acid stress such as snowmelt and heavy rainfalls. Among the causes of fish population decline in acid waters, aluminum is considered a toxic cofactor. Different studies have clearly shown that aluminum is accumulated in different organs such as kidneys, liver and gills. Research on fish has demonstrated that aluminum may be toxic, but the toxicity is markedly influenced by the pH, organic compounds and calcium content of the water. Field surveys have shown clearly that macroinvertebrates are also affected by surface-water acidification. However, little is know about the possible effects of aluminum on aquatic invertebrates and, particularly, on aquatic insects exposed to acidic conditions. Hall et al. have shown that the whole-body concentration of aluminum decreases in blackflies and mayflies transplated from neutral water to acid water. Similar results have been reported for Daphnia and chironomid. On the contrary, Ormerod et al. demonstrated the absence of relationship between water pH and insect aluminum concentrations. When aluminum occurs in aquatic insects, it has been shown that it is primarily adsorbed on the external surface and/or accumulates in gut contents. To our knowledge, the subcellular location as well as the toxicity of aluminum to acid-sensitive aquatic insects remains unclear and existing hypotheses are often based on research on fish. In this content the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of aluminum at a subcellular level in the acid-sensitive species of stonefly, Perla marginata, after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p < 0.001). All groups exposed to NaF had significantly higher fluoride concentration

  7. Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium, potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble-bed stream in Santa Clara County, California, U.S.A. 1. Conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, V.C.; Jackman, A.P.; Zand, S.M.; Zellweger, G.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Stream sediments adsorb certain solutes from streams, thereby significantly changing the solute composition; but little is known about the details and rates of these adsorptive processes. To investigate such processes, a 24-hr. injection of a solution containing chloride, strontium, potassium, sodium and lead was made at the head of a 640-m reach of Uvas Creek in west-central Santa Clara County, California. Uvas Creek is a cobble-bed pool-and-riffle stream draining the eastern slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains. By September 12, 1973, after a long dry season, Uvas Creek had a low (0.0215 m3s-1 average) flow which varied diurnally, from 0.018 to 0.025 m3s-1. Because stream discharge varied while the injection rate was constant, the concentration of tracers (injected solutes), after mixing in the stream, varied inversely with discharge. Chloride, a nonreactive solute, served as a tracer of water movement. Analysis of extensive chloride concentration data at five sites below the injection point during and after the injection demonstrated that there was considerable underflow of water through the stream gravels; however, the extent of underflow varied greatly within the study reach. Pre-injection water, displaced by tracer-laden water percolating through the gravels, diluted tracers in the stream channel, giving the mistaken impression of groundwater inflow at some points. Accurate measurement of total discharge in such streams requires prolonged tracer injection unless a reach can be found where underflow is negligible. Strontium and potassium were adsorbed by the bed sediments to a moderate extent and lead was strongly adsorbed. A high proportion of these metals could be removed by adsorption from percolating underflow because of extensive and intimate contact with bed sediments. After channel clearing following injection cutoff, 51% of the added strontium and 96% of the lead remained in the study reach, whereas only 19% of the chloride remained. Packets of sized

  8. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  9. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  10. Alternative Approach To Modeling Bacterial Lag Time, Using Logistic Regression as a Function of Time, Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Junko

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model to predict the end of lag time (λ) during the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells as a function of temperature, pH, and salt concentration using logistic regression. The developed λ model was subsequently combined with a logistic differential equation to simulate bacterial numbers over time. To develop a novel model for λ, we determined whether bacterial growth had begun, i.e., whether λ had ended, at each time point during the growth kinetics. The growth of B. cereus was evaluated by optical density (OD) measurements in culture media for various pHs (5.5 ∼ 7.0) and salt concentrations (0.5 ∼ 2.0%) at static temperatures (10 ∼ 20°C). The probability of the end of λ was modeled using dichotomous judgments obtained at each OD measurement point concerning whether a significant increase had been observed. The probability of the end of λ was described as a function of time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration and showed a high goodness of fit. The λ model was validated with independent data sets of B. cereus growth in culture media and foods, indicating acceptable performance. Furthermore, the λ model, in combination with a logistic differential equation, enabled a simulation of the population of B. cereus in various foods over time at static and/or fluctuating temperatures with high accuracy. Thus, this newly developed modeling procedure enables the description of λ using observable environmental parameters without any conceptual assumptions and the simulation of bacterial numbers over time with the use of a logistic differential equation. PMID:22729541

  11. The glutamate transporter EAAT4 in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells: a glutamate-gated chloride channel concentrated near the synapse in parts of the dendritic membrane facing astroglia.

    PubMed

    Dehnes, Y; Chaudhry, F A; Ullensvang, K; Lehre, K P; Storm-Mathisen, J; Danbolt, N C

    1998-05-15

    Antibodies to an excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT4) label a glycoprotein of approximately 65 kDa strongly in the cerebellum and weakly in the forebrain. Cross-linking of cerebellar proteins with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate before solubilization causes dimer bands of EAAT4 and both dimer and trimer bands of the other glutamate transporters GLAST (EAAT1) and GLT (EAAT2) to appear on immunoblots. In contrast to GLAST, GLT, and EAAC (EAAT3), EAAT4 is unevenly distributed in the cerebellar molecular layer, being strongly expressed in parasagittal zones. It is located in cerebellar Purkinje cells, and the highest concentrations are seen in ones expressing high levels of zebrin II (aldolase C). The labeling of Purkinje cell spines and thin dendrites is stronger than that of large diameter dendrites and cell bodies. EAAT4 is present at low concentrations in the synaptic membrane, but is highly enriched in the parts of the dendritic and spine membranes facing astrocytes (which express GLAST and GLT) compared with parts facing neuronal membranes, suggesting a functional relationship with glial glutamate transporters. The presence of EAAT4 in intracellular cisterns and multivesicular organelles may reflect turnover of transporter in the plasma membrane. The total Purkinje cell spine surface and the EAAT4 concentration were found to be 1.1 m2/cm3 and 0.2 mg/cm3, respectively, in the molecular layer, corresponding to 1800 molecules/microm2. The juxtasynaptic location of EAAT4 may explain electrophysiological observations predicting the presence of a neuronal glutamate transporter near the release site at a Purkinje cell spine synapse. EAAT4 may function as a combined transporter and inhibitory glutamate receptor.

  12. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  13. Technical Note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; Kaiser, J.

    2015-08-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur significant risks and expense. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously for freshwater samples. Here, we assess BAC as a less hazardous alternative microbial inhibitor for marine samples prior to the measurement of oxygen-to-argon (O2/Ar) ratios, as used for the determination of plankton net community production. BAC at a concentration of 50 mg dm-3 inhibited microbial activity for at least three days in seawater with chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations up to 1 mg m-3, possibly longer when Chl a concentrations were lower. BAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg dm-3 were no more effective than 50 mg dm-3. With fewer risks to human health and the environment, and no requirement for expensive waste disposal, BAC could be a viable alternative to HgCl2 for short-term preservation of seawater samples, but is not a replacement for HgCl2 in the case of oxygen triple isotope analysis, which requires storage over weeks to months. In any event, further tests on a case-by-case basis should be undertaken if use of BAC was considered, since its inhibitory activity may depend on concentration and composition of the microbial community.

  14. Effects of Two Sublethal Concentrations of Mercury Chloride on the Morphology and Metallothionein Activity in the Liver of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Macirella, Rachele; Guardia, Antonello; Pellegrino, Daniela; Bernabò, Ilaria; Tronci, Valentina; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Sesti, Settimio; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly hazardous pollutant widely used in industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural fields. Mercury is found in the environment in several forms, elemental, inorganic (iHg) and organic, all of which are toxic. Considering that the liver is the organ primarily involved in the regulation of metabolic pathways, homeostasis and detoxification we investigated the morphological and ultrastructural effects in Danio rerio liver after 96 h exposure to two low HgCl2 concentrations (7.7 and 38.5 μg/L). We showed that a short-term exposure to very low concentrations of iHg severely affects liver morphology and ultrastructure. The main effects recorded in this work were: cytoplasm vacuolization, decrease in both lipid droplets and glycogen granules, increase in number of mitochondria, increase of rough endoplasmic reticulum and pyknotic nuclei. Pathological alterations observed were dose dependent. Trough immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analysis, the induction of metallothionein (MT) under stressor conditions was also evaluated. Some of observed alterations could be considered as a general response of tissue to heavy metals, whereas others (such as increased number of mitochondria and increase of RER) may be considered as an adaptive response to mercury. PMID:26978352

  15. Does time difference of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in different tissues exist? A case study of zebra fish (Danio rerio) exposed to cadmium chloride and deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Meiyi; Pan, Hongwei; Li, Shangge; Ren, Baigang; Ren, Zongming; Xing, Na; Qi, Luhuizi; Ren, Qing; Xu, Shiguo; Song, Jie; Ma, Jingchun

    2017-02-01

    In order to illustrate time difference in toxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and deltamethrin (DM), AChE activities were measured in different tissues, liver, muscle, brain, and gill, of Zebra fish (Danio rerio) across different concentrations in this research. The average AChE activity decreased comparing to 0.0 TU with DM (82.81% in 0.1 TU, 56.14% in 1.0 TU and 44.68% in 2.0 TU) and with CdCl2 (74.68% in 0.1 TU, 52.05% in 1.0 TU and 50.14% in 2.0 TU) showed an overall decrease with the increase of exposure concentrations. According to Self-Organizing Map (SOM), the AChE activities were characterized in relation with experimental conditions, showing an inverse relationship with exposure time. As the exposure time was longer, the AChE activities were correspondingly lower. The AChE inhibition showed time delay in sublethal treatments (0.1 TU) in different tissues: the AChE was first inhibited in brain by chemicals followed by gill, muscle and liver (brain > gill > muscle > liver). The AChE activity was almost inhibited synchronously in higher environmental stress (1.0 TU and 2.0 TU). As the AChE inhibition can induce abnormal of behavior movement, these results will be helpful to the mechanism of stepwise behavior responses according to the time difference in different tissues rather than the whole body AChE activity.

  16. Watershed scale chloride storage across a gradient of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellen, C. C.; Oswald, C. J.; Oni, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sodium chloride is the main de-icing agent used during the winter in Canada and the northern United States. However, little is known about the long term fate, residence time, and ecological effects of chloride. This talk integrates work taking place across three sites in Southern Ontario, Canada: Hamilton Harbour, the Toronto lakeshore, and Lake Simcoe. We quantify chloride inputs, outputs, and changes in storage for a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. For the three winter months (January, February, March), we show that stream water chloride concentrations approach those of brackish waters for urban watersheds. Chloride is also highly persistent, with stream water chloride concentrations decreasing from the winter months and approaching baseline levels only in July. These baseline levels are greater than 100 mg Cl/l in the urban watersheds, suggesting high levels of chloride storage in soil and groundwater. Using road salt application rates and groundwater levels and chloride concentrations, we estimate the magnitude and residence time of the chloride pools in a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. Our results suggest that the magnitude and residence time of chloride storage varies with urbanization and other factors. We show that summer baseflow concentrations do approach the EPA's chronic exposure guideline of 230 mg Cl/l, implying more work is needed to understand the in stream and downstream ecological effects of chloride.

  17. Severe ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated CA125 concentration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Imaeda, Kenro; Mizuno, Tatsuo; Wakami, Kazuko; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Okayama, Naotsuka; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Joh, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Ascites caused by hypothyroidism is rare and the pathogenesis is unclear. Several reports have presented cases of progressive ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated tumor markers. We report a 31-year-old female case with massive ascites and elevated serum CA 125 concentrations. The patient had no typical feature of hypothyroidism except an accumulation of ascitic fluid which showed elevated total protein concentration and a high serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG). There was no finding of malignancy. Following thyroid hormone replacement, the ascites was completely resolved accompanied by reduced concentrations of serum CA125. In general, primary hypothyroidism with ascites presents with coexisting massive pericardial or pleural effusion. The massive ascites and increased serum CA125 concentrations may have led us to make the incorrect diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. The evaluation of thyroid function is useful to determine the pathology of high-protein ascites or elevated tumor markers, and ascites may be treatable by thyroid replacement therapy.

  18. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  19. Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 1990–2000 and 2000–2010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski

  20. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Veronica; Sbrana, Francesca; Vassalli, Massimo; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses. PMID:27936151

  1. Early uptake and continuous accumulation of thallium-201 chloride in a benign mixed tumor of soft tissue: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A case of benign mixed tumor of the soft tissue in a 64-year-old Japanese male is presented. He noticed a painless, elastic hard mass sized 3 cm in the right knee, which gradually grew larger and harder in the last 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass lesion embedded in the subcutaneous tissue with low and high signal intensity at T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. Tl-201 scintigraphy showed an early uptake of Tl-201 within the lesion at 10 minutes after injection, which was slightly decreased but still continued at 2 hours later. The patient underwent a resection of tumor, and the pathological diagnosis was a benign mixed tumor of soft tissue without high vascularity, characterized by histological features similar to pleomorphic adenomas in the salivary glands. Immunohistochemical study proved expression of Na+/K+-ATPase of tumor cells. Overexpression of Na+/K+-ATPase of the tumor might be responsible for the early uptake of Tl-201, and poor vascular structure in this tumor might lead to continuous accumulation. The Tl-201 scintigraphic features of mixed tumor of soft tissue are assessed to resemble those of malignant soft tissue tumors. PMID:20509963

  2. Early uptake and continuous accumulation of thallium-201 chloride in a benign mixed tumor of soft tissue: case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Shigenori; Jin, Yu-Fen; Yoshizato, Katsuhiko; Kitamura, Masanori; Iizuka, Norishige; Song, Misa; Tomoeda, Miki; Yuki, Michiko; Kubo, Chiaki; Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Outani, Hidetatsu; Hamada, Kenichiro; Araki, Nobuhito; Funauchi, Masahiro; Tomita, Yasuhiko

    2010-05-30

    A case of benign mixed tumor of the soft tissue in a 64-year-old Japanese male is presented. He noticed a painless, elastic hard mass sized 3 cm in the right knee, which gradually grew larger and harder in the last 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass lesion embedded in the subcutaneous tissue with low and high signal intensity at T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. Tl-201 scintigraphy showed an early uptake of Tl-201 within the lesion at 10 minutes after injection, which was slightly decreased but still continued at 2 hours later. The patient underwent a resection of tumor, and the pathological diagnosis was a benign mixed tumor of soft tissue without high vascularity, characterized by histological features similar to pleomorphic adenomas in the salivary glands. Immunohistochemical study proved expression of Na+/K+-ATPase of tumor cells. Overexpression of Na+/K+-ATPase of the tumor might be responsible for the early uptake of Tl-201, and poor vascular structure in this tumor might lead to continuous accumulation. The Tl-201 scintigraphic features of mixed tumor of soft tissue are assessed to resemble those of malignant soft tissue tumors.

  3. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  4. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    PubMed

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Calcium concentration jumps reveal dynamic ion selectivity of calcium-activated chloride currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons and TMEM16b-transfected HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Dibattista, Michele; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels play relevant roles in several physiological processes, including olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that members of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16, also named anoctamin) family form Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in several cell types. In vertebrate olfactory transduction, TMEM16b/anoctamin2 has been proposed as the major molecular component of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. However, a comparison of the functional properties in the whole-cell configuration between the native and the candidate channel has not yet been performed. In this study, we have used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to measure functional properties of the native channel in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons and compare them with those of mouse TMEM16b/anoctamin2 expressed in HEK 293T cells. We directly activated channels by rapid and reproducible intracellular Ca2+ concentration jumps obtained from photorelease of caged Ca2+ and determined extracellular blocking properties and anion selectivity of the channels. We found that the Cl− channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and DIDS applied at the extracellular side of the membrane caused a similar inhibition of the two currents. Anion selectivity measured exchanging external ions and revealed that, in both types of currents, the reversal potential for some anions was time dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 largely co-localized with adenylyl cyclase III at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we conclude that the measured electrophysiological properties in the whole-cell configuration are largely similar, and further indicate that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 is likely to be a major subunit of the native olfactory Ca2+-activated Cl− current. PMID:20837642

  6. Calcium concentration jumps reveal dynamic ion selectivity of calcium-activated chloride currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons and TMEM16b-transfected HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Dibattista, Michele; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play relevant roles in several physiological processes, including olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that members of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16, also named anoctamin) family form Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in several cell types. In vertebrate olfactory transduction, TMEM16b/anoctamin2 has been proposed as the major molecular component of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. However, a comparison of the functional properties in the whole-cell configuration between the native and the candidate channel has not yet been performed. In this study, we have used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to measure functional properties of the native channel in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons and compare them with those of mouse TMEM16b/anoctamin2 expressed in HEK 293T cells. We directly activated channels by rapid and reproducible intracellular Ca(2+) concentration jumps obtained from photorelease of caged Ca(2+) and determined extracellular blocking properties and anion selectivity of the channels. We found that the Cl(-) channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and DIDS applied at the extracellular side of the membrane caused a similar inhibition of the two currents. Anion selectivity measured exchanging external ions and revealed that, in both types of currents, the reversal potential for some anions was time dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 largely co-localized with adenylyl cyclase III at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we conclude that the measured electrophysiological properties in the whole-cell configuration are largely similar, and further indicate that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 is likely to be a major subunit of the native olfactory Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current.

  7. Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; Kaiser, J.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur environmental risks and significant expense. There is therefore a strong motivation to find less hazardous alternatives. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously as microbial inhibitor for freshwater samples. Here, we assess the use of BAC for marine samples prior to the measurement of oxygen-to-argon (O2 / Ar) ratios, as used for the determination of biological net community production. BAC at a concentration of 50 mg dm-3 inhibited microbial activity for at least 3 days in samples tested with chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations up to 1 mg m-3. BAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg dm-3 were no more effective than 50 mg dm-3. With fewer risks to human health and the environment, and no requirement for expensive waste disposal, BAC could be a viable alternative to HgCl2 for short-term preservation of seawater samples, but is not a replacement for HgCl2 in the case of oxygen triple isotope analysis, which requires storage over weeks to months. In any event, further tests on a case-by-case basis should be undertaken if use of BAC was considered, since its inhibitory activity may depend on concentration and composition of the microbial community.

  8. EFFECTS OF pH AND OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM, POTASSIUM, AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON MUSCULAR ACTIVITY OF THE ISOLATED CROP OF PERIPLANETA AMERICANA (ORTHOPTERA)

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, James T.; Tauber, Oscar E.

    1943-01-01

    1. Twenty-five solutions which contained KCl (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 gm. per liter), in combination with CaCl2 (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 gm. per liter), 10.0 gm. of NaCl, and 0.2 gm. of NaHCO3 per liter of solution were tested in order to determine satisfactory KCl/CaCl2 ratios in an insect physiological salt mixture for the maintenance of muscular activity by the isolated crop of the American roach. Satisfactory activity products (0.390 to 0.549) were obtained in seven mixtures with KCl/CaCl2 ratios of 0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.6/0.6, 0.8/0.8, 0.2/0.4, 0.4/0.6, and 0.6/0.8, expressed as gram per liter. These ratios lie between 0.50 and 1.00. In solutions which contained calcium, but no potassium, approximately 50 per cent of the crops exhibited an initial tone increase and were arrested in rigor. See Fig. 2. In solutions which contained potassium, but no calcium, all crops showed an initial loss of tone and arrest in relaxation. See Fig. 2. 2. Seven KCl/CaCl2 ratios (see paragraph 1 above) were tested with eight NaCl concentrations (1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, and 1.8 per cent) at a pH of 8.0. In these mixtures, the ones with KCl/CaCl2 ratios of less than 1.0 produced higher activity products than those with ratios equal to 1.00. The highest average activity product (0.849) was obtained in the solutions with 0.2 gm. of KCl and 0.4 gm. of CaCl2 per liter. 3. Four KCl/CaCl2 ratios (0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.2/0.4, and 0.4/0.6 gm. per liter) were tested with 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6 per cent NaCl at a pH of 7.5. When analyzed with data from comparable solutions at a pH of 8.0, it was found that 1.4 per cent NaCl afforded an optimum environment for isolated crop activity. 4. Effects of hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations were studied at pH values of 6.8, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.9. The highest average activity product, 1.011, was produced at a pH of about 8.0. 5. A satisfactory physiological salt solution for the isolated foregut of the American roach, Periplaneta americana

  9. An Acute Butyr-Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report with Postmortem Concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Wright, Jennifer; Mena, Othon

    2016-03-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of butyr-fentanyl in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of intravenous drug abuse was found unresponsive on the bathroom floor of his home. Drug paraphernalia was located on the bathroom counter. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, subsequently confirmed butyr-fentanyl, which was then quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. The butyr-fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 58 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 97 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 320 ng/g, the vitreous was 40 ng/mL, the urine was 670 ng/mL and the gastric contained 170 mg. Acetyl-fentanyl was also detected in all biological specimens tested. Peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 38 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 32 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 110 ng/g, the vitreous was 38 ng/mL, the urine was 540 ng/mL and the gastric contained <70 mg. The only other drug detected was a relatively low concentration of benzoylecgonine. The cause of death was certified as acute butyr-fentanyl, acetyl-fentanyl and cocaine intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as accident.

  10. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  11. Destruction of polyvinyl chloride under extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, M. T.; Serebriakova, R. V.; Serebriakov, V. N.; Zimin, P. N.; Nastenko, A. V.; Derevianchenko, L. G.; Antsifirova, N. P.; Visloukh, V. V.

    1982-08-01

    An common industrial application of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the extrusive insulation of electric wires and cables. Experimental results are presented on the thermal and mechanical destruction of PVC under extrusion. Under extrusion conditions (at temperatures higher than 150 C), the evolution of hydrogen chloride determines practically the entire process of PVC destruction. The use of the present data to establish hygienic standards regarding safe concentrations of PVC destruction products in the work environment is discussed.

  12. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Chloride transport in layered soil systems with hydraulic trap effect.

    PubMed

    Badv, K; Mahooti, A A

    2005-08-01

    The natural and engineered hydraulic trap systems in sanitary-engineered solid waste landfills were investigated using three layer one dimensional laboratory models. The models consisted of a top reservoir containing a sodium chloride source solution, a compacted upper silt layer as a primary liner, a coarse sand layer as a secondary leachate collection system or a hydraulic control layer, a compacted lower silt layer as a secondary liner, and a bottom water reservoir as a groundwater aquifer. In the first test, the natural hydraulic trap system (upward flow through the lower silt layer) was modeled. In this case, the contaminant transport mechanisms through the upper silt layer were downward advection and diffusion, and through the lower silt layer, diffusion was downward and advection was upward. The results showed that the implementation of the natural hydraulic control system could effectively reduce chloride transport to the bottom reservoir. In the second test, the natural and engineering hydraulic trap systems were simulated (upward flow from the bottom reservoir to the upper reservoir). In the third test, the engineered hydraulic trap system (downward flow through the upper silt layer and upward flow through the lower silt layer) was modeled. The results showed that the natural and engineered hydraulic trap systems have an important effect in reducing chloride migration toward the underlying aquifer. In all experiments the chloride concentrations in the silt and coarse sand layers and top and bottom reservoirs were measured and the observed concentrations were compared with concentrations calculated by a theoretical model. A good agreement was obtained between the observed and theoretical data confirming the acceptable accuracy of the experimental methodologies, observations, and the theoretical model.

  14. Lanthanum chloride suppresses oxysterol-induced ECV-304 cell apoptosis via inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration elevation, oxidative stress, and activation of ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Congcong; Huang, Kaixun

    2011-06-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that oral administration of lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3)) inhibits the development of atherosclerosis, but the related mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Oxysterols are toxic to the vascular endothelial cells which are important in preventing the formation and progression of atheromatous plaque. In this study, we examined the effect of LaCl(3) on oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol)-induced apoptosis and the related mechanisms in ECV-304 cells, a presumptive endothelial cell line. Incubation with Triol resulted in apoptosis of ECV-304 cells, as determined by Hoechst 33342 staining, fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled annexin V/propidium iodide double staining, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Triol activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and inhibition of Triol-activated ERK and NF-κB signaling by specific inhibitors attenuated apoptosis induction by Triol in ECV-304 cells. Pretreatment with LaCl(3) (1 μM) for 12 h before exposure to Triol decreased Triol-mediated apoptosis as well as activation of ERK and NF-κB. In addition, Triol induced oxidative stress in ECV-304 cells, manifested by the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde level, and the reduction of the content of total protein thiols and the activity of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases; LaCl(3) pretreatment significantly reversed these effects. Finally, LaCl(3) pretreatment significantly inhibited the increases of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by Triol. Our study suggests that Triol induced ECV-304 cell apoptosis, and LaCl(3) could suppress this effect probably by inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration elevation, oxidative stress, as well as activation of ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  15. Effect of biodiversity on shallow groundwater: Vertical chloride transport modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessema, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Studies show that positive relationship between biomass production and species richness (plant diversity).Water is one of the most important requirements for biomass production, and different plant diversity (species/functional richness) also have different consumption pattern and this patterns are not much studied. During water stress (summer season in our case) water consumption efficiency and consumption pattern is important. Our objective is to study the upward flow pattern of water using chloride measurement in the soil profile of plots with different plant diversity during water stress. We assumed that chloride is easily mobile, conservative and only affected by advective transport of water.Our hypothesis is that, different plots with different diversity level accumulate chloride near the surface differently. We measured the soil water chloride concentration at 10, 20, 30 and 60cm depths in plots of diversity levels 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 species and compared. We used evapotranspiration and precipitation to find out the time when the net flow is upward. Plots which contain some functional groups and more diverse species resulted in accumulation of chloride near the surface of the of the soil. Plots with legumes and tall herbs resulted in more chloride accumulation near the surface than plots with grasses and short herbs. We have also observed that plots with higher diversity tend to accumulate more chloride near the surface. We conclude from this that, plots with deep roots, and plots with combination of deep and shallow roots are capable of stress resistance as they can pull up water from the shallow groundwater. Plots without deep roots could not accumulate chloride even if they were more diversified.

  16. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  17. Total serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lajevardi, Vahideh; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Mohtasham, Sima; Ansari, Mahsa; Hedayat, Kosar; Nassiri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves the skin, nails and joints. With regard to the role of the immune system in psoriasis, the current study compared serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis with control group. Current case-control study was conducted in Dermatology clinic of Razi hospital, Tehran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Fifty-eight patients with psoriasis e referred to the clinic were assigned as patient group and 58 healthy subjects with matched age and sex as a control group. Patient's history, family history and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, duration and severity of disease using PASI, were collected and entered into a form. Consent form was obtained from participants. Serum IgE concentrations of both study groups were measured by electrochemiluminescence assay in the laboratory A total number of 58 patients with psoriasis, mean age of 44.15 (19-76 years) and 58 controls with matched age and sex were studied. Mean average of serum IgE concentration in the control group was 115.13 versus 200/06 concentration in patients group (P=0.16). Serum IgE concentration in 22.4% of patients versus 17.2% in controls was greater than normal concentration (P=0.48). No significant correlation was between serum IgE concentration and disease severity using PASI (P=0.11, r=0.21), neither a significant correlation with disease duration, age and gender. According to the present study, serum IgE concentrations are not greater in patients with psoriasis. IgE concentration is also not associated with the severity of psoriasis based on the PASI score, therefore, the role of IgE in psoriasis can be considered insignificant as some previous studies indicate.

  18. Modeling a High Resolution Stream Chloride Time Series from the Biscuit Brook Catchment, Catskills, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S. B.; Walter, M. T.; Harpold, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    Compelling work by Kirchner and colleagues (e.g., Kirchner et al., 2001, J. of Hydro., 254:81-100) suggests that lengthy, high resolution chloride time series can reveal the underlying travel time distribution of water in a catchment. However, few data sets of suitable length or sampling frequency have been available for assessment. Our analysis of a ten-year, weekly stream chloride time series data set for the steep, forested Biscuit Brook catchment in the Catskill Mountains of NY resulted in a 1/f spectral density plot. We used a lumped, two reservoir model with an upper reservoir representing quickflow and a lower reservoir representing base flow to reasonably replicate stream flow and stream chloride concentrations. A spectral analysis of the modeled daily chloride signal also resulted in a 1/f spectral density plot. This suggests that in some systems a 1/f signature can result from processes other than superposition of lateral chemical transport pathways, as has been previously hypothesized by other researchers. In this case, it appears that a long-term periodicity established by seasonal moisture deficits combines with shorter wavelength variations from rainfall inputs to create a 1/f spectral density for chloride concentration.

  19. Analysis of asbestos concentration in 20 cases of pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Ronald F; Hammar, Samuel P

    2015-02-01

    Mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm caused by asbestos exposure. The majority of mesotheliomas arise from the pleural lining of the thoracic cavity, but also involve the peritoneal and pericardial cavities. Another type of neoplasm referred to as pseudomesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma is rare. Most "pseudomesotheliomas" arise in the pleural tissue of the chest cavity and resemble pleural mesotheliomas, macroscopically and histologically. While most arise in the pleura, there are some that metastasize to the pleura from another site. We evaluated asbestos fiber concentrations in 20 cases of pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancer and found a significant number to contain an elevated concentration of asbestos in their lung tissue, which is similar with our study of 55 mesothelioma cases published in 1997. This would provide evidence that some pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancers are caused by asbestos.

  20. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  1. Predictive analysis of shaft station radon concentrations in underground uranium mine: A case study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoyan; Hong, Changshou; Li, Xiangyang; Lin, Chunping; Hu, Penghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented a method for predicting shaft station radon concentrations in a uranium mine of China through theoretical analysis, mathematical derivation and Monte-Carlo simulation. Based upon the queuing model for tramcars, the average waiting time of tramcars and average number of waiting tramcars were determined, which were further used in developing the predictive model for calculating shaft station radon concentrations. The results exhibit that the extent of variation of shaft station radon concentration in the case study mine is not significantly affected by the queuing process of tramcars, and is always within the allowable limit of 200 Bq m(-3). Thus, the empirical limit of 100,000 T annual ore-hoisting yields has no value in ensuring radiation safety for this mine. Moreover, the developed model has been validated and proved useful in assessing shaft station radon levels for any uranium mine with similar situations.

  2. Early diagnosis of Balo's concentric sclerosis by diffusion tensor tractography: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nader Kawachi, Juan Alberto; Andrade Magdaleno, María de la Luz; Peñaherrera, Carlos Andrés; Fernández De Lara, Yeni; Lavenant Borja, María Isabel

    2016-03-14

    Balo concentric sclerosis is an infrequent variant of a demyelinating disease related to multiple sclerosis, initially thought to have an acute presentation and a fatal outcome. Recent studies have reported non-fatal forms of Balo concentric sclerosis, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with spectroscopy and diffusion/perfusion sequences. Recently, we have been able to draw a three-dimensional image of a specific bundle of fibers by means of a diffusion tensor technique of the magnetic resonance imaging tractography (t-MRI). We report the case of a young woman presenting with acute and progressive focal neurological symptoms, including right body paresis, whose diagnosis was suggested by MRI and confirmed by pathology to be Balo concentric sclerosis. She was treated with boluses of methylprednisolone, achieving full neurological remission one year after admission. This is, to our knowledge, the first report describing the use of t-MRI for diagnosing BCS. We consider that t-MRI will allow, in a near future, early diagnosis of the disease, its prompt treatment, and establishing new classification criteria. This case confirms the existence of benign forms of Balo concentric sclerosis with a good response to steroid therapy, where functional recovery is possible.

  3. The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

    2015-03-01

    Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85 % of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health.

  4. Friction induced surface activity of some simple organic chlorides and hydrocarbons with iron.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on an iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons and organic chlorides. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene, ethyl chloride, methyl chloride and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical-mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon and organic chlorides with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction-induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and, accordingly, friction. Unlike results with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction-induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  5. Friction induced surface activity of some simple organic chlorides and hydrocarbons with iron.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on an iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons and organic chlorides. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene, ethyl chloride, methyl chloride and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical-mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon and organic chlorides with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction-induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and, accordingly, friction. Unlike results with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction-induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  6. Postmortem memantine concentration in a non-intoxication case, and the possibility of postmortem redistribution: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Sayaka; Yajima, Daisuke; Torimitsu, Suguru; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-12-01

    In this case study, we measured the concentration of memantine in the heart blood, peripheral blood, urine, liver, thigh muscle, and subcutaneous fat of a 64-year-old woman who was prescribed memantine for early-onset Alzheimer's disease. She died in hospital after an altercation with her husband. Cause of death was clearly not drug intoxication or overdose, so we investigated the postmortem redistribution (PMR) of memantine in the various tissues and blood ratios of the postmortem samples. Memantine concentrations detected were 1.31 μg/mL in the peripheral blood, 3.95 μg/mL in central blood, 2.09 μg/mL in the urine, 25.54 μg/g in the liver, 1.16 μg/g in the thigh muscle and 2.13 μg/g in the subcutaneous fat. In all samples, the concentrations were higher than the accepted therapeutic range (which is approximately 0.09-0.15 μg/mL). The central blood to peripheral blood (C/P) memantine ratio was 3.01 while the liver to peripheral blood (L/P) ratio was 19.5. It is documented that a C/P ratio exceeding 2 and L/P ratio exceeding 20 highlight a propensity for significant PMR. Although this is a single case study, our data suggest that memantine exhibits PMR. Additionally, a lowered pH was found in peripheral blood (pH 6.2) and central blood (pH 6.1). This postmortem reduction in blood pH may also promote the PMR of memantine. Because there is very little available postmortem toxicological data on memantine, our case study will serve as a foundation to assist in future forensic investigations.

  7. Noncontact gears. II. Casimir torque between concentric corrugated cylinders for the scalar case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavero-Peláez, Inés; Milton, Kimball A.; Parashar, Prachi; Shajesh, K. V.

    2008-09-01

    The Casimir interaction between two concentric corrugated cylinders provides the mechanism for noncontact gears. To this end, we calculate the Casimir torque between two such cylinders, described by δ-potentials, which interact through a scalar field. We derive analytic expressions for the Casimir torque for the case when the corrugation amplitudes are small in comparison to the corrugation wavelengths. We derive explicit results for the Dirichlet case, and exact results for the weak coupling limit, in the leading order. The results for the corrugated cylinders approach the corresponding expressions for the case of corrugated parallel plates in the limit of large radii of cylinders (relative to the difference in their radii) while keeping the corrugation wavelength fixed.

  8. Noncontact gears. II. Casimir torque between concentric corrugated cylinders for the scalar case

    SciTech Connect

    Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Milton, Kimball A.; Parashar, Prachi; Shajesh, K. V.

    2008-09-15

    The Casimir interaction between two concentric corrugated cylinders provides the mechanism for noncontact gears. To this end, we calculate the Casimir torque between two such cylinders, described by {delta}-potentials, which interact through a scalar field. We derive analytic expressions for the Casimir torque for the case when the corrugation amplitudes are small in comparison to the corrugation wavelengths. We derive explicit results for the Dirichlet case, and exact results for the weak coupling limit, in the leading order. The results for the corrugated cylinders approach the corresponding expressions for the case of corrugated parallel plates in the limit of large radii of cylinders (relative to the difference in their radii) while keeping the corrugation wavelength fixed.

  9. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes.

  10. Central nervous system malformations in relation to two polyvinyl chloride production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenman, K.D.; Rizzo, J.E.; Conomos, M.G.; Halpin, G.J. )

    1989-09-01

    A modified case-control study was conducted for selected birth defects that occurred among residents who lived in areas that surrounded two vinyl chloride polymerization facilities in New Jersey. Odds ratios for central nervous system defects (ICD 9, 740-742) decreased as the distance the mothers' residences were located from the facilities increased. Higher odds ratios for central nervous system birth defects were found in the areas around the plant that had higher vinyl chloride emissions. None of the odds ratios, however, were statistically significant. The differences in concentrations of emissions from the different plants may contribute to the discrepancies reported in previous studies wherein the risk of environmental exposure to vinyl chloride was assessed.

  11. Investigation of the electrodialysis of an aqueous solution of tin(IV) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Sharygin, L.M.; Zlokazova, E.I.; Shtin, A.P.

    1987-09-20

    The sol-gel method for the synthesis of sorbents on the basis of oxides of polyvalent metals calls for an investigation of the methods for obtaining aqueous sols of oxides of these metals. The purpose of this work was to investigate the polarization of an anion-exchange membrane in solutions of stannic chloride with different concentrations and during electrodialysis, as well as the current efficiency with respect to chlorine, and the transport numbers of the chloride ion as a function of the current density and the temperature. The polarization curves recorded for an MA-41L membrane in dilute solutions of tin(IV) chloride tended to show an increase in the limiting current in comparison to the case of hydrochloric acid with the same electrical conductivity owing to the ion-exchange properties of the colloidal particles of hydrated tin dioxide formed during the hydrolysis and polymerization of tin in solution.

  12. Processes regulating groundwater chloride content in marshes under different environmental conditions: A comparative case study in Península Valdés and Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, Eleonora; Alvarez, María del Pilar

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are some of the most important wetlands in many regions of the world. Soil and groundwater salinity plays an important role in coastal wetland ecosystems because of the differences in tolerances of plant species to salinity and tidal inundation. Given that the salinity of these environments is mostly dominated by the chloride anion, it is the aim of this study to identify the geochemical processes that regulate its content in groundwater. A comparison of two intertidal wetlands under different environmental conditions was carried out in Peninsula Valdés and in Samborombón Bay, both on the Atlantic coast of Argentina. The tidal influence over the groundwater marsh dynamics was analyzed from continuous records of groundwater levels and electrical conductivity. Besides, major ion and environmental isotope data were used to identify the geochemical processes that determine the chloride content, based on the study of ion ratios and analytical models. The results show that, despite the hydrological differences between the two studied marshes, the processes regulating the Cl- contents are similar: evaporation, transpiration and halite dissolution. Among them, evaporation/transpiration are the processes that could continuously increase the chloride concentration. However, it is expected that those are not processes that greatly increase the groundwater saline content if compared to the dissolution of halite.

  13. Vinyl chloride-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berk, P D; Martin, J F; Young, R S; Creech, J; Selikoff, I J; Falk, H; Watanabe, P; Popper, H; Thomas, L

    1976-06-01

    Although polyvinyl chloride has been produced from vinyl chlride monomer for more than 40 years, recognition of toxicity among vinyl chloride polymerization workers is more recent. In the mid 1960s, workers involved in cleaning polymerization tanks were found to have acro-osteolysis. In 1974, the same population of workers was found to be at risk for an unusual type of hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcoma of the liver. We describe two cases of vinyl chloride-associated liver injury, one of hepatic fibrosis and one of angiosarcoma. Histologic features of these lesions are similar to the hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcomas resulting from chronic exposure to inorganic arsenicals. Preliminary studies suggest that the toxicity of vinyl chloride may result from formation, during high-dose exposure, of active metabolites by mixed function oxidases of the liver. Epidemiologic studies indicate an increased incidence not only of liver disease, but also of cancers of the brain, lung, and possibly other organs.

  14. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular chloride

    PubMed Central

    Arosio, Daniele; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra. The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measurement of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments. PMID:25221475

  15. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and Loads at U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam, 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Churchill, Christopher J.; Mobley, Craig A.; Coffman, David K.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, did a study to characterize bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the reach of the Red River from Denison Dam, which impounds Lake Texoma, to the U.S. Highway 259 bridge near DeKalb, Texas. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads were computed for streamflow-gaging stations on the study reach of the Red River. Continuous streamflow and specific conductance data and discrete samples for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and specific conductance were collected at three main-stem streamflow-gaging stations on the Red River: 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam near Denison, Texas (Denison Dam gage), 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, Texas (Arthur City gage), and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas (DeKalb gage). At each of these streamflow-gaging stations, discrete water-quality data were collected during January 2007-February 2009; continuous water-quality data were collected during March 2007-February 2009. Two periods of high flow resulted from floods during the study; floods during June-July 2007 resulted in elevated flow during June-September 2007 and smaller floods during March-April 2008 resulted in elevated flow during March-April 2008. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in samples collected at the three gages decreased downstream. Median bromide concentrations ranged from 0.32 milligram per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 0.19 milligram per liter at the DeKalb gage. Median chloride concentrations ranged from 176 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 108 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level established by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Median sulfate concentrations ranged from 213 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 117 milligrams per liter at the De

  16. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Influence of nitrogen source NH4 Cl concentration on curdlan production in Alcaligenes faecalis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Lei; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Yuan-Zhi

    2005-03-01

    The effect of initial ammonium chloride level on production of curdlan in Alcaligenesfaecalis was investigated. It was found that ammonium chloride was the limiting substrate for cell growth during the batch fermentation process. However, the cell growth and curdlan production could not be enhanced by solely increasing the initial ammonium chloride level. The pH drop in the broth due to the consumption of ammonium chloride also effected the cell growth and curdlan production. By simultaneously increasing the initial ammonium chloride concentration and implementing an optimal pH control strategy, which is to control pH at 7.0 in the growth phase, and then shift to 5.6 in the production phase, the biomass and curdlan production in batch fermentation were increased markedly. If the initial ammonium chloride concentration was increased from 1.1 g/L to 3.6 g/L, biomass concentration of 7.2 g/L was obtained, and the final curdlan concentration reached 30.5 g/L, which was 51.7% higher than that of the former case. As the cell growth was improved due to the increase of the initial ammonium chloride concentration, the agitation speed and aeration rates must be enhanced to suit the higher oxygen uptake requirement. However, as curdlan molecules is subject to the structural breakage due to the high shear stress at higher agitation speed, an overall optimal condition for both productivity and quality of curdlan should be considered comprehensively.

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  19. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  20. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  1. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  2. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  3. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  4. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  5. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  6. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production ...

  7. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  8. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. PMID: 101209392 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101209392 Mason JB. Vitamins, trace ...

  9. [Congenital chloride diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death.

  10. The effect of NO-donors on chloride efflux, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and mRNA expression of CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oliynyk, Igor; Hussain, Rashida; Amin, Ahmad; Johannesson, Marie; Roomans, Godfried M

    2013-06-01

    Since previous studies showed that the endogenous bronchodilator, S-nitrosglutathione (GSNO), caused a marked increase in CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl(-)) efflux and improved the trafficking of CFTR to the plasma membrane, and that also the nitric oxide (NO)-donor GEA3162 had a similar, but smaller, effect on Cl(-) efflux, it was investigated whether the NO-donor properties of GSNO were relevant for its effect on Cl(-) efflux from airway epithelial cells. Hence, the effect of a number of other NO-donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO), and diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DEA-NONOate) on Cl(-) efflux from CFBE (∆F508/∆F508-CFTR) airway epithelial cells was tested. Cl(-) efflux was determined using the fluorescent N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinoliniu bromide (MQAE)-technique. Possible changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were tested by the fluorescent fluo-4 method in a confocal microscope system. Like previously with GSNO, after 4 h incubation with the NO-donor, an increased Cl(-) efflux was found (in the order SNAP>DETA-NO>SNP). The effect of DEA-NONOate on Cl(-) efflux was not significant, and the compound may have (unspecific) deleterious effects on the cells. Again, as with GSNO, after a short (5 min) incubation, SNP had no significant effect on Cl(-) efflux. None of the NO-donors that had a significant effect on Cl(-) efflux caused significant changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. After 4 h preincubation, SNP caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of CFTR. SNAP and DEA-NONOate decreased the mRNA expression of all ENaC subunits significantly. DETA-NO caused a significant decrease only in α-ENaC expression. After a short preincubation, none of the NO-donors had a significant effect, neither on the expression of CFTR, nor on that of the ENaC subunits in the presence and absence of L-cysteine. It can be concluded that

  11. High Intracellular Chloride Slows the Decay of Glycinergic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Samantha J.; Sivilotti, Lucia G.; Beato, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The time course of currents mediated by native and recombinant glycine receptors was examined with a combination of rapid agonist applications to outside-out patches and single-channel recording. The deactivation time constant of currents evoked by brief, saturating pulses of glycine is profoundly affected by the chloride concentration on the intracellular side of the cell membrane. Deactivation was threefold slower when intracellular chloride was increased from a low level (10 mm), similar to that observed in living mature neurons, to 131 mm (“symmetrical” chloride, often used in pipette internal solutions). Single-channel analysis revealed that high chloride has its greatest effect on the channel closing rate, slowing it by a factor of 2 compared with the value we estimated in the cell-attached mode (in which the channels are at physiological intracellular chloride concentrations). The same effect of chloride was observed when glycinergic evoked synaptic currents were recorded from juvenile rat spinal motoneurons in vitro, because the decay time constant was reduced from ∼7ms to ∼3 ms when cells were dialyzed with 10 mm chloride intracellular recording solution. Our results indicate that the time course of glycinergic synaptic inhibition in intact neurons is much faster than is estimated by measurements in symmetrical chloride and can be modulated by changes in intracellular chloride concentration in the range that can occur in physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:18987182

  12. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    SciTech Connect

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S.; Ramde, E.W.

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  13. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukbar, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm-3 in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  14. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Chukbar, B. K.

    2015-12-15

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm{sup –3} in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  15. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  16. Developmental toxicity of copper chloride, methylene chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide to embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R.; Fisher, W.S.

    1999-05-01

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide, three known teratogenic chemicals. Two exposure periods were used, 4 d and 12 d, and both periods extended through hatching. The average 4-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.071% v/v, 1.82 mg/L, and 0.21 mg/ml, respectively. The average 12-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.031% v/v, 1.44 mg/L, and 0.057 mg/ml, respectively. Eye malformations were observed with embryos exposed to concentrations greater than 3 mg/L copper chloride or greater than 0.07% v/v methylene chloride. Very few abnormalities were observed in embryos exposed to 6-aminonicotinamide. Abnormal larval development was found with exposure to copper chloride at concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The sensitivity and low variability found here further supports the development of these relatively simple methods using grass shrimp embryos. Establishment of sublethal developmental endpoints warrants further investigation because of their potential correspondence to mechanisms of toxic action.

  17. CHLORIDE RETENTION IN EXPERIMENTAL HYDRONEPHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Norman M.; Pulford, D. Schuyler

    1923-01-01

    1. In acute experimental hydronephrosis chloride retention occurs as well as retention of water, urea, and phenolsulfonephthalein. 2. If both water and chlorides are retained there may be no appreciable rise in the plasma chloride content. 3. When chlorides are retained, but not water, the chloride content of the plasma rises strikingly. 4. After the removal of the ureteral obstruction in acute hydronephrosis all renal functions, water, urea, and chloride excretion, may be rapidly restored in equal degree, or the chlorides may be retained temporarily while there is free excretion of water and urea. 5. In chronic hydronephrosis adequate daily excretion of urea and chlorides may be maintained by a compensatory polyuria. 6. Chloride retention or an abnormal chloride excretion may occur in certain renal lesions when there is no change in the urea, phenolsulfonephthalein, or water excretion. PMID:19868720

  18. Separation, fractionation, concentration, and drying of food products: A technical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Researchers have investigated a new approach that separates juice into pulp and serum (liquid) fractions. The fractions are then processed individually and more efficiently to reduce the water content. Finally, the fractions are recombined at the site of use to obtain conventional or new products. Efforts to date have included laboratory and on-site studies of several fractionation schemes using energy-efficient membrane-based microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and hyperfiltration processes. These processes are used in combination with more conventional separation, concentration, and recombination methods such as centrifugation, vacuum evaporation, and homogenization. This technical case study provides an overview of the entire DOE/NFPA R D project and highlights the on-site testing of an advanced processing scheme for tomato juice. This scheme involves separation (centrifugation), concentration (hyperfiltration and evaporation), and recombination (homogenization) processes. The document is aimed at making field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and to private industry in a timely manner. The case study discusses project status; summarizes field testing efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of applications, energy savings, and preliminary economics.

  19. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  20. Cyclic Voltammetry of Silver Chloride in Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRY), Fused salts, Silver, Reduction(Chemistry), Dissolving, ChloridesSilver chloride, Cyclic voltammetry , *VoltammetryThe technique of cyclic ... voltammetry was employed to study the deposition and dissolution of silver metal at platinum wire electrodes in molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride

  1. Xylan hydrolysis in zinc chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, L.F

    1995-12-31

    Xylan is the major component of hemicellulose, which consists of up to one-third of the lignocellulosic biomass. When the zinc chloride solution was used as a pretreatment agent to facilitate cellulose hydrolysis, hemicellulose was hydrolyzed during the pretreatment stage. In this study, xylan was used as a model to study the hydrolysis of hemicellulose in zinc chloride solution. The degradation of xylose that is released from xylan was reduced by the formation of zinc-xylose complex. The xylose yield was > 90% (w/w) at 70{degrees}C. The yield and rate of hydrolysis were a function of temperature and the concentration of zinc chloride. The ratio of zinc chloride can be decreased from 9 to 1.3 (w/w). At this ratio, 76% of xylose yield was obtained. When wheat straw was pretreated with a concentrated zinc chloride solution, the hemicellulose hydrolysate contained only xylose and trace amounts of arabinose and oligosaccharides. With this approach, the hemicellulose hydrolysate can be separated from cellulose residue, which would be hydrolyzed subsequently to glucose by acid or enzymes to produce glucose. This production scheme provided a method to produce glucose and xylose in different streams, which can be fermented in separated fermenters.

  2. Hydration of lanthanide chloride salts: a quantum chemical and classical molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Cesar; Hagberg, Daniel; Spezia, Riccardo; Gagliardi, Laura

    2010-12-02

    We present the results of a quantum chemical and classical molecular dynamics simulation study of some solutions containing chloride salts of La(3+), Gd(3+), and Er(3+) at various concentrations (from 0.05 to 5 M), with the purpose of understanding their structure and dynamics and analyzing how the coordination varies along the lanthanide series. In the La-Cl case, nine water molecules surround the central La(3+) cation in the first solvation shell, and chloride is present only in the second shell for all solutions but the most concentrated one (5 M). In the Gd(3+) case, the coordination number is ∼8.6 for the two lowest concentrations (0.05 and 0.1 M), and then it decreases rapidly. In the Er(3+) case, the coordination number is 7.4 for the two lowest concentrations (0.05 and 0.1 M), and then it decreases. The counterion Cl(-) is not present in the first solvation shell in the La(3+) case for most of the solutions, but it becomes progressively closer to the central cation in the Gd(3+) and Er(3+) cases, even at low concentrations.

  3. Increased case finding of tuberculosis from sputum and sputum deposits after magnetic bead concentration of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Sun, Zhan-Qiang; Pei, Hao; Zhang, Shi-Liang; Zhang, Shu-Lin; Wilson, Stuart; De Smet, Koen; Cerullakandiyil, Noushad; Thayyullathil, Thanveer; Al-Suwaidi, Zubaida; Song, Yan-Zheng

    2013-05-01

    Concentration of mycobacteria from sputum by centrifugation prior to acid-fast microscopy increases case finding compared to direct microscopy of the sputum (direct smear). However, centrifugation has to be performed outside the safety cabinet and many laboratories do not have access to a centrifuge. Magnetic bead extraction of the mycobacteria is an alternative method that can be performed in a cabinet with just a magnet. Magnetic TB-Bead (Microsens Medtech Ltd) extraction of mycobacteria from sputum prior to microscopy was compared to direct smear on 78 sputum samples. Microscopy of the TB-Bead extracts identified all of 26 of the direct smear positive samples either with the same microscopy score or, in 19/27 of samples, with an increased microscopy score which aided microscopy detection. In addition, microscopy of the TB-Bead extracts identified 10 additional positive samples compared to direct smear; which represents a statistically significant increase in case finding of 38% (p = 0.002) compared to direct smear. In a separate study, TB-Beads enabled further 4 positive samples to be detected from 30 centrifuged pellets that were originally smear negative; two of these were subsequently found to be positive when the original deposits were reinvestigated by smear microscopy. By concentrating mycobacteria from sputum and sputum deposits, TB-Beads have been demonstrated to increase the number of positive sputum samples which could increase case-finding. The TB-Bead method is simple and rapid and compatible with use within a safety cabinet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbofuran concentrations in blood, bile and tissues in fatal cases of homicide and suicide.

    PubMed

    Sakunthala Tennakoon, D A S; Karunarathna, W D V; Udugampala, U S S

    2013-04-10

    Carbofuran is a broad spectrum carbamate insecticide which inhibits cholinesterase. In the recent past several carbofuran related homicide and suicide cases were reported in Sri Lanka. The concentration of carbofuran found in blood, bile and/or tissues in eight fatal cases were presented in this paper. Liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform was carried out with tissue and beverage samples while blood and bile samples were roller mixed with n-hexane and finally extracted into acetonitrile. Qualitative analysis of carbofuran in biological specimens was carried out using TLC and GC-MS. Presence of carbofuran and its metabolite carbofuran phenol were confirmed by GC-MS. The quantitative analysis was carried out using a validated method where Zorbax Eclips XDB C18 column was used in HPLC with photo diode array detector and GC-MS. In blood, bile, liver and stomach contents/stomach and contents both carbofuran and carbofuran phenol were identified, while in certain cases only the metabolite, carbofuran phenol was identified in blood. The carbofuran levels ranged from 0.4 to 18 μg/ml in blood, 0.4 to 60 μg/ml in bile, 2.2 μg/g in liver and 0.3 to 300 μg/g in stomach contents/stomach and contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  6. Usefulness of thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography for the preoperative diagnosis of fourth ventricle meningioma--case report.

    PubMed

    Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Miyazawa, Takahito; Otani, Naoki; Fukui, Shinji; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji

    2004-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a fourth ventricle meningioma manifesting as a 2-week history of dizziness and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a round mass lesion in the fourth ventricle. Thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography (201TlCl SPECT) showed high and rapid uptake on the early image and rapid washout on the delayed image. The preoperative diagnosis of meningioma could be established based on these findings. Total removal of the tumor was successfully performed. 201TlCl SPECT is useful for the preoperative diagnosis of fourth ventricle meningioma combined with CT, MR imaging, and angiography.

  7. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Anthony; Sims, Jennifer N; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-02

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium. Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay). The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG₂ cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG₂ cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05) was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells.

  8. [Gustatory sensitivity to sodium chloride and potassium chloride and certain parameters of sodium metabolism in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mineev, V N; Suparnovich, I Iu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine threshold gustatory sensitivity (TGS) to sodium chloride and potassium chloride in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) taking into account a number of factors responsible for the enhanced risk of development and progress of this disease. Forty five practically healthy subjects were compared with 139 asthmatic patients; a separate group comprised patients treated permanently with oral glucocorticoids and those having non-pulmonary allergy. Chemically pure solutions of sodium and potassium chlorides were used in the dripping test to assess TGS. Asthmatic patients had enhanced TGS to sodium chloride compared with healthy subjects. TGS values were especially high in non-allergic bronchial asthma and minimal in allergic asthma when they were unrelated to the phase of the disease. TGS to potassium chloride in asthmatic patients also differed from that in healthy subjects; more patients were bitter-insensitive or sensitive only to high concentrations of potassium chloride. Patients treated with systemic glucocorticoids had the highest TGS to sodium chloride. Patients with non-pulmonary allergy and allergic BA had very similar TGS to potassium chloride. TGS to sodium chloride in the former was lower than in healthy subjects and patients with allergic BA. Asthmatic patients had a higher sodium ion concentration in erythrocytes than normal subjects; it reached maximum values in persons used to add salt to fully cooked food.

  9. [Strontium chloride (89Sr-chloride) fractional injection method for bone metastases treatment].

    PubMed

    Fomin, D K; Smirnov, Iu N; Tararukhina, O B; Nazarov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the effectivnes of 89Sr-chlorid injections by 50 Mbk fractions with standard 150 Mbk injection in patients with bone metastases. Fifty patients with bone metastases were included in the study, 25 of them received 89Sr-chloride by fractional and 25 (control group) by single injection. The pain intensity, white blood cells and thrombocytes concentration values were evaluated in both groups before and after treatment. The study proved the possibility of using systemic 89Sr-chloride fractional radiotherapy in patients with bone metastases and concurrent stage 2-3 myelosupression. The method of fractial 89Sr-chloride injection is effective in symptomatic treatment of patients with bone metastases.

  10. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability.

  11. Status of respirable dust particle (RDP) concentration--a case study in Chennai city.

    PubMed

    Senthilnathan, T

    2005-06-01

    Air pollution has been aggravated by developments that typically occur, as countries become industrialised and higher levels of energy consumption. Respirable dust particles (RDP) is a general term for tiny air borne particles (under 10 microns PM 10) and it is categorised as critical primary air pollutant. Finer particulate matter less than 10 micron size have been identified as potential health hazard for human beings. A case study was carried out to assess RDP concentration present in the ambient air in Chennai city during the year 2000-2002. The study was conducted at Theagaraya nagar (T. Nagar), a most important commercial shopping place. The observed RDP concentrations are made statistical analysis and a high value of 607.1 microg/m(3) is recorded during October 2001. It is also found that 90% of the observed values exceed the recommended values of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The important finding of this research work is that the RDP data collected every year from this sampling station were found to give best fit for cubic equations which are very useful for analysing future trends.

  12. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-28

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  13. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-01

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  14. Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Peters, Ulrike; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Abnet, Christian C; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Horst, Ronald L; Hollis, Bruce W; Huang, Wen-Yi; Shikany, James M; Hayes, Richard B

    2008-06-04

    Epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent associations between vitamin D status and prostate cancer risk, and few studies have evaluated whether the associations vary by disease aggressiveness. We investigated the association between vitamin D status, as determined by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study nested within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. The study included 749 case patients with incident prostate cancer who were diagnosed 1-8 years after blood draw and 781 control subjects who were frequency matched by age at cohort entry, time since initial screening, and calendar year of cohort entry. All study participants were selected from the trial screening arm (which includes annual standardized prostate cancer screening). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by quintile of season-standardized serum 25(OH)D concentration. Statistical tests were two-sided. No statistically significant trend in overall prostate cancer risk was observed with increasing season-standardized serum 25(OH)D level. However, serum 25(OH)D concentrations greater than the lowest quintile (Q1) were associated with increased risk of aggressive (Gleason sum > or = 7 or clinical stage III or IV) disease (in a model adjusting for matching factors, study center, and history of diabetes, ORs for Q2 vs Q1 = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.81, for Q3 vs Q1 =1.96, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.87, for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.38, and for Q5 vs Q1 = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.92 to 2.05; P(trend) = .05). The rates of aggressive prostate cancer for increasing quintiles of serum 25(OH)D were 406, 479, 780, 633, and 544 per 100 000 person-years. In exploratory analyses, these associations with aggressive disease were consistent across subgroups defined by age, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, body mass index, vigorous

  15. Phosgene Poisoning Caused by the Use of Chemical Paint Removers Containing Methylene Chloride in Ill-Ventilated Rooms Heated by Kerosene Stoves

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, W. B.; Buschmann, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    Two cases resembling poisoning by phosgene following the use of a paint remover containing methylene chloride in ill-ventilated rooms heated by an oil stove are described. Experiments carried out under similar conditions demonstrated the production of phosgene in toxic concentrations. The potential hazards from non-inflammable solvents are discussed. PMID:13827592

  16. TOLERANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TO SODIUM CHLORIDE

    PubMed Central

    Parfentjev, I. A.; Catelli, Anna R.

    1964-01-01

    Parfentjev, I. A. (Institute of Applied Biology, New York, N.Y.), and Anna R. Catelli. Tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to sodium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 88:1–3. 1964.—The tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to high concentrations of sodium chloride in liquid medium has been reported. We found that S. aureus grows at 37 C in Tryptose Phosphate Broth saturated with sodium chloride. No difference was noticed between possibly pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Under the conditions of our tests, no changes in the original properties of S. aureus strains occurred. In contrast, solutions of sodium chloride in distilled water were injurious to staphylococci and killed most of these organisms in 1 hr. Staphylococci were killed faster at 37 C than at room temperature in a solution of 0.85% sodium chloride in water. Addition of traces of Tryptose Phosphate Broth had a protective effect and prolonged the life of these organisms in physiological saline. All tests were performed at pH 7.2. PMID:14197887

  17. Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

    2004-02-01

    Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

  18. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  19. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  20. Spatial clustering of HIV prevalence in Atlanta, Georgia and population characteristics associated with case concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Brooke A; Omer, Saad B; del Rio, Carlos; Frew, Paula M

    2011-02-01

    We assessed prevalent HIV cases in Atlanta to examine case distribution trends and population characteristics at the census tract level that may be associated with clustering effects. We calculated cluster characteristics (area and internal HIV prevalence) via Kuldorff's spatial scan method. Subsequent logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze sociodemographics associated with inclusion in a cluster. Organizations offering voluntary HIV testing and counseling services were identified and we assessed average travel time to access these services. One large cluster centralized in downtown Atlanta was identified that contains 60% of prevalent HIV cases. The prevalence rate within the cluster was 1.34% compared to 0.32% outside the cluster. Clustered tracts were associated with higher levels of poverty (OR = 1.19), lower density of multi-racial residents (OR = 1.85), injection drug use (OR = 1.99), men having sex with men (OR = 3.01), and men having sex with men and IV drug use (OR = 1.6). Forty-two percent (N = 11) of identified HIV service providers in Atlanta are located in the cluster with an average travel time of 13 minutes via car to access these services (SD = 9.24). The HIV epidemic in Atlanta is concentrated in one large cluster characterized by poverty, men who have sex with men (MSM), and IV drug usage. Prevention efforts targeted to the population living in this area as well as efforts to address the specific needs of these populations may be most beneficial in curtailing the epidemic within the identified cluster.

  1. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jin; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S)-8-aza-2-azonia­bicyclo­[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-8-meth­oxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carb­oxy­lic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4 +·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxi­floxa­cinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water mol­ecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxi­floxa­cinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3) and 0.118 (3) Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water mol­ecule and chloride anions participate in O—H⋯O, O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding; weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure. PMID:22058817

  2. Chloride extraction for quality improvement of municipal solid waste incinerator ash for the concrete industry.

    PubMed

    Boghetich, Giancarlo; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Palma, Maria; Petruzzelli, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    Coal ash from power stations has long been used successfully in the cement industry as binders in several Portland formulations. This is not the case for municipal solid waste (MSW) ash as chloride concentrations, ranging from 10 to 200 g kg(-1) dry weight in the bottom and fly ash, respectively, exceed the maximum allowable concentration in most cement mixtures. To reduce chloride content in MSW bottom ash, a laboratory investigation was carried out based on the exhaustive washing in tap water. The influence of operative parameters such as temperature, granulometric properties and solid/liquid ratio of extraction was evaluated. In addition to optimization of the mentioned operative parameters for full-scale application, the paper gives preliminary indications on mechanistic aspects of the washing operation.

  3. Skin and soft tissue necrosis from calcium chloride in a deicer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min P; Raho, Vittorio J; Mak, John; Kaynar, A Murat

    2007-01-01

    Calcium chloride salt is the principle ingredient of many commercially available deicers. Calcium chloride melts snow and ice by its osmotic action. We present a case of skin and soft tissue necrosis associated with the use of a calcium chloride-containing deicer. Although calcium chloride is known to produce soft tissue necrosis if it extravasates during intravenous administration, necrosis and skin sloughing has rarely been described after topical exposure to this salt. Calcium chloride likely produces tissue injury from the heat liberated by mixing calcium chloride with water (exothermic reaction) and from direct calcium deposits in the skin (calcinosis cutis) and soft tissue.

  4. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  5. 7-T (35)Cl and (23)Na MR Imaging for Detection of Mutation-dependent Alterations in Muscular Edema and Fat Fraction with Sodium and Chloride Concentrations in Muscular Periodic Paralyses.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Nagel, Armin M; Marschar, Anja M; Glemser, Philip; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Wolf, Maya B; Ladd, Mark E; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Lehmann-Horn, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To determine whether altered sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) homeostasis can be visualized in periodic paralyses by using 7-T sodium 23 ((23)Na) and chlorine 35 ((35)Cl) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and informed consent of all participants were obtained. (23)Na (repetition time msec/echo time msec, 160/0.35) and (35)Cl (40/0.6) MR imaging of both lower legs was performed with a 7-T whole-body system in patients with genetically confirmed hypokalemic periodic paralysis (Cav1.1-R1239H mutation, n = 5; Cav1.1-R528H mutation, n = 8) and Andersen-Tawil syndrome (n = 3) and in 16 healthy volunteers. Additionally, each participant underwent 3-T proton MR imaging on the same day by using T1-weighted, short-tau inversion-recovery, and Dixon-type sequences. Muscle edema was assessed on short-tau inversion-recovery images, fatty degeneration was assessed on T1-weighted images, and muscular fat fraction was quantified with Dixon-type imaging. Na(+) and Cl(-) were quantified in the soleus muscle by using three phantoms that contained 10-, 20-, and 30-mmol/L NaCl solution and 5% agarose gel as a reference. Parametric data for all subpopulations were tested by using one-way analysis of variance with the Dunnett test, and correlations were assessed with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Median muscular (23)Na concentration was higher in patients with Cav1.1-R1239H (34.7 mmol/L, P < .001), Cav1.1-R528H (32.0 mmol/L, P < .001), and Kir2.1 (24.3 mmol/L, P = .035) mutations than in healthy volunteers (19.9 mmol/L). Median muscular normalized (35)Cl signal intensity was higher in patients with Cav1.1-R1239H (27.6, P < .001) and Cav1.1-R528H (23.6, P < .001) than in healthy volunteers (12.6), but not in patients with the Kir2.1 mutation (14.3, P = .517). When compared with volunteers, patients with Cav1.1-R1239H and Cav1.1-R528H showed increased muscular edema (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  8. Simultaneous intracellular chloride and pH measurements using a GFP-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Daniele; Ricci, Fernanda; Marchetti, Laura; Gualdani, Roberta; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    Chloride and protons perform important closely related roles in many cellular responses. Here we developed a ratiometric biosensor, ClopHensor, based on a highly chloride-sensitive Aequorea victoria GFP variant that is suited for the combined real-time optical detection of pH changes and chloride fluxes in live cells. We detected high chloride concentration in large dense-core exocytosis granules by targeting ClopHensor to these intracellular compartments.

  9. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  10. Sequential development of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver angiosarcoma in a vinyl chloride-exposed worker.

    PubMed

    Guido, Maria; Sarcognato, Samantha; Pelletti, Guido; Fassan, Matteo; Murer, Bruno; Snenghi, Rossella

    2016-11-01

    Strong experimental and clinical evidences have definitely linked occupational vinyl chloride exposure to development of angiosarcoma of the liver. In contrast, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer having included vinyl chloride among the causes of hepatocellular carcinoma, the association between vinyl chloride exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma remains debated. This issue is relevant, because occupational exposure to high levels of vinyl chloride may still occur. We report a unique case of sequential occurrences of hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma of the liver, in a vinyl chloride-exposed worker without cirrhosis and any known risk factor for chronic liver disease. Both the hepatocellular carcinoma and the surrounding normal liver showed micronucleus formation, which reflects genotoxic effect of vinyl chloride. Angiosarcoma showed a KRAS G12D point mutation, which is considered to be characteristic of vinyl chloride-induced angiosarcoma. This case supports the pathogenic role of vinyl chloride in both hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma development.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...

  12. Anomalous chloride flux discharges from Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Norton, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The chloride concentration of some thermal springs in and adjacent to Yellowstone National Park is constant through time although their discharge varies seasonally. As a result the chloride flux from these springs increases during periods of increased discharge. We believe that this is caused by changes in the height of the local groundwater table, which affects the discharge of the springs but not their chloride concentration. The discharge from Mammoth Hot Springs varies seasonally, but its chloride concentration remains constant. We take this as evidence that this major thermal feature is derived from orifices that are tapping the local water table close to its surface. Three of the four major rivers (Yellowstone, Snake and Falls) exiting the Park also show an increased chloride flux during the spring runoff that cannot be explained solely by the contribution of snowmelt, nor by release of hot-spring-derived chloride stored in the soil during the winter and released in the spring. The increased chloride flux in these rivers is attributed to their draining shallow hot springs similar to those mentioned above. In contrast to the Yellowstone, Snake and Falls Rivers, the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which unite to form the Madison River and which collectively drain several major geyser basins, display a poor correlation between chloride flux and discharge. The cause, we believe, is that a large part of the thermal water input to these two rivers originated at great depths where the seasonal variation in the height of the water table had a negligible effect on hot spring discharge. Monitoring of seasonal discharge and chloride concentration of thermal features yields information on the depths at which these thermal features tap the local water table. ?? 1990.

  13. Anomalous chloride flux discharges from Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Irving; Norton, Daniel R.

    1990-08-01

    The chloride concentration of some thermal springs in and adjacent to Yellowstone National Park is constant through time although their discharge varies seasonally. As a result the chloride flux from these springs increases during periods of increased discharge. We believe that this is caused by changes in the height of the local groundwater table, which affects the discharge of the springs but not their chloride concentration. The discharge from Mammoth Hot Springs varies seasonally, but its chloride concentration remains constant. We take this as evidence that this major thermal feature is derived from orifices that are tapping the local water table close to its surface. Three of the four major rivers (Yellowstone, Snake and Falls) exiting the Park also show an increased chloride flux during the spring runoff that cannot be explained solely by the contribution of snowmelt, nor by release of hot-spring-derived chloride stored in the soil during the winter and released in the spring. The increased chloride flux in these rivers is attributed to their draining shallow hot springs similar to those mentioned above. In contrast to the Yellowstone, Snake and Falls Rivers, the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which unite to form the Madison River and which collectively drain several major geyser basins, display a poor correlation between chloride flux and discharge. The cause, we believe, is that a large part of the thermal water input to these two rivers originated at great depths where the seasonal variation in the height of the water table had a negligible effect on hot spring discharge. Monitoring of seasonal discharge and chloride concentration of thermal features yields information on the depths at which these thermal features tap the local water table.

  14. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  15. Conversion of bacteriorhodopsin into a chloride ion pump

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, J.; Chon, Y.S.; Kandori, H.

    1995-07-07

    In the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, proton transfer from the retinal Schiff base to aspartate-85 is the crucial reaction of the transport cycle. In halorhodopsin, a light-driven chloride ion pump, the equivalent of residue 85 is threonine. When aspartate-85 was replaced with threonine, the mutated bacteriorhodopsin became a chloride ion pump when expressed in Halobacterium salinarium and, like halorhodopsin, actively transported chloride ions in the direction opposite from the proton pump. Chloride was bound to it, as revealed by large shifts of the absorption maximum of the chromophore, and its photointermediates included a red-shifted state in the millisecond time domain, with its amplitude and decay rate dependent on chloride concentration. Bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin thus share a common transport mechanism, and the interaction of residue 85 with the retinal Schiff base determines the ionic specificity. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  16. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  17. Reversibly Bound Chloride in the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Hormone Binding Domain: Possible Allosteric Regulation and a Conserved Structural Motif for the Chloride-binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, H.; Qiu, Y; Philo, J; Arakawa, T; Ogata, C; Misono, K

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.

  18. Trospium chloride in the management of overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Trospium chloride is an orally active, quaternary ammonium compound with antimuscarinic activity. It binds specifically and with high affinity to muscarinic receptors M(1), M(2) and M(3), but not nicotinic, cholinergic receptors. It is hydrophilic and does not cross the normal blood-brain barrier in significant amounts and, therefore, has minimal central anticholinergic activity. Peak plasma trospium chloride concentrations are attained approximately 5-6 hours after oral administration, which should occur before meals as concurrent food ingestion significantly reduces trospium bioavailability. Trospium chloride undergoes negligible metabolism by the hepatic cytochrome P450 system; few metabolic drug interactions are known. While trospium chloride dosage adjustments based on age or sex appear unwarranted, such adjustments may be needed in patients with severe renal impairment. Direct comparative studies in patients with overactive bladder indicate that trospium chloride is at least as effective as oxybutynin and tolterodine. Placebo-controlled studies have also confirmed the efficacy of trospium chloride in terms of improved urodynamic parameters; small-scale, noncomparative studies have documented significant trospium chloride-induced improvements in patients with reflex neurogenic bladder, postoperative bladder irritation and radiation-induced cystitis; and observational studies including >10,000 patients have also revealed favourable findings for trospium chloride, including a marked decrease in incontinence episodes and substantial improvement in health-related quality of life. Trospium chloride is generally well tolerated, and significantly more so than immediate-release oxybutynin. The most frequent adverse events, occurring in >1% of trospium chloride-treated patients, are dry mouth, dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal pain and nausea. Available for many years in several countries outside North America, trospium chloride is likely to develop an important role

  19. Surveillance for angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed

    Collins, James J; Jammer, Brenda; Sladeczek, Frank M; Bodnar, Catherine M; Salomon, Sergio S

    2014-11-01

    We report the results of our angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) registry to assess the occurrence, the impact of exposures to vinyl chloride, and to quantify latency. We examined more than 73,000 death certificates of North American workers employed between 1940 and 2008. We found 13 deaths of ASL among workers with vinyl chloride exposure. All 13 occurred at single plant among workers with high vinyl chloride exposure. The mean latency after first exposure was 36.5 years ranging from 24 to 56 years. No ASL deaths occurred among workers with vinyl chloride exposures after 1974, when exposures were reduced. We may have seen the last case of ASL among workers exposed to vinyl chloride. Nevertheless, given the long latency of this cancer, continued surveillance seems prudent.

  20. The treatment of refractory anaemia of chronic renal failure with cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Duckham, J M; Lee, H A

    1976-04-01

    Twelve anephric patients on maintenance haemodialysis received treatment with oral enteric coated cobalt chloride 25 to 50 mg daily. The change in haemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume, are recorded and discussed with special reference to possible toxicity and mechanism of action of cobalt. Six of eight patients who completed the first course with cobalt chloride 50 mg daily for 12 weeks showed a significant rise in haemoglobin concentration of 26 to 70 per cent and a fall to near pre-therapeutic levels when cobalt was withdrawn. Evidence of a response was present within two months of starting treatment. Four patients showed a diminution in their blood transfusion requirements and three patients experienced a definite sense of increased well-being during treatment. One patient suffered from side effects of the drug and failed to complete the study because of gastrointestinal disturbance. The improvment in haemoglobin concentration was reproducible in four patients who were given second, and in one case third courses courses with varying doses of cobalt over differing periods of time. Serum cobalt levels tended to stabilize after two months continuous treatment to the therapeutic range of 40-100 mumg per 100 ml. A rapid fall in serum cobalt was seen on cessation of treatment. It is suggested that therapy with enteric coated cobalt chloride at a dose of between 25 and 50 mg per day has a definite place in the treatment of the refractory anaemia of chronic renal failure.

  1. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P < 0.001). Higher MI risk was limited to same-day pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction.

  2. Protective effect of zinc chloride against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity on vero cells: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 μM, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. Possible protective effects of vitamin E, coenzyme Q(10), and zinc chloride were also tested in this system. A gradual decrease in cell proliferation was observed at concentrations ~≥ 200 μM in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with MTT assay. Exposure of cells to 500 and 1,000 μM cobalt chloride caused significant decrease in cell survival. A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 μM concentration range following 96 h of incubation. With resazurin assay, cytotoxicity profile of CoCl(2) was found comparable to the results of MTT assay, particularly at high concentrations and long incubation periods. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to ≥ 250 μM of CoCl(2) for 24 h and ≥ 100 μM concentrations of CoCl(2) for 48-96 h. Pretreatment of cells with ZnCl(2) for 4 or 24 h provided significant protection against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity when measured with MTT assay. However, vitamin E or coenzyme Q(10) was not protective. CoCl(2) had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. Preventive effect of ZnCl(2) against CoCl(2)-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells.

  3. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content.

  4. Sodium Chloride Respirator Quantitative Fit Test Instrument

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    surface to drain and air-dry. 7. If the glassware is to be stored, wrap it tightly with clean paper towels . 8. If the glassware has been stored, rinse...40 18. Sodium chloride calibration-challenge concentrations vs . photomultiplier tube (PMT) output voltage...Incorporated, Model No. 32514, Quincy Compressor Division, Quincy, IL 62301) is utilized to generate the air supply; and a refrigerated air dryer (Colt

  5. Infrared spectra of cesium chloride aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2000-10-01

    The aqueous solutions of CsCl were studied at room temperature by infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the entire solubility range, 0-1200 g/L, using attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling. The influence of anomalous dispersion on the IR-ATR spectra was evaluated by calculating the imaginary refractive index, k(ν), of each sample. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the number and abundance of species in the solutions. FA applied to both k(ν) spectra and IR-ATR spectra produced two principal spectra with a similar abundance of species. This result indicates that, even at high salt concentration, the optical effects do not influence the chemical analysis of IR-ATR spectra. The spectral modifications related to the salt concentrations are mainly first order. Second order effects were observed, but being weak, were not investigated. The two principal spectra are related to the two species present in the solution: pure water and CsCl-solvated water. From the latter, 2.8±0.4 water molecules were calculated to be associated with each close-bound Cs+/Cl- ion pair. In the case of KCl and NaCl aqueous solutions, both of which showed the same number of species, the number of water molecules associated to an ion pair was 5.0±0.4. That the latter number is different from that of CsCl indicates that the interaction between water molecules and ion pairs is different when cation Na or K in the chloride salt is replaced by Cs.

  6. Acute lethal and teratogenic effects of tributyltin chloride and copper chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Adema-Hannes, Rachel; Shenker, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays were used to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos, a pelagic life stage often found in the surface microlayer where anthropogenic contaminants can accumulate. Acute bioassay testing determined the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test organism after 48 h of exposure. Chronic toxicity tests were used to determine the measurement of sublethal parameters, such as developmental abnormalities after 72-h exposures to the toxicants. Embryos were collected 4 h postfertilization and subsequently exposed to 1, 5, 25, 50, and 100 microg/L of copper chloride and 3, 10, 20, 30, and 50 microg/L of tributyltin chloride. Analysis of hatch rate percentage determined that the mean 48-h LC50 of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride was 32.8 and 16.7 microg/L, respectively, based on the pooled data of four experiments with four replicates for each metal. Consistent abnormalities, such as yolk sac swelling, spinal deformities, and decreased hatch rates, were observed for each metal. Teratogenic responses to copper chloride and tributyltin chloride demonstrate the need to investigate further the impacts of pollution in the open oceans to a species indigenous to, and commercially important to, the Florida (USA) coasts. This information could then lead to the future development of a surface microlayer bioassay using mahi mahi embryos.

  7. Bench-to-bedside review: Chloride in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is the principal anion in the extracellular fluid and is the second main contributor to plasma tonicity. Its concentration is frequently abnormal in intensive care unit patients, often as a consequence of fluid therapy. Yet chloride has received less attention than any other ion in the critical care literature. New insights into its physiological roles have emerged together with progress in understanding the structures and functions of chloride channels. In clinical practice, interest in a physicochemical approach to acid-base physiology has directed renewed attention to chloride as a major determinant of acid-base status. It has also indirectly helped to generate interest in other possible effects of disorders of chloraemia. The present review summarizes key aspects of chloride physiology, including its channels, as well as the clinical relevance of disorders of chloraemia. The paper also highlights current knowledge on the impact of different types of intravenous fluids on chloride concentration and the potential effects of such changes on organ physiology. Finally, the review examines the potential intensive care unit practice implications of a better understanding of chloride. PMID:20663180

  8. Association between cerebrospinal fluid dopamine concentrations and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms in forensic autopsy cases of methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Matsusue, Aya; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Waters, Brian; Hara, Kenji; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Takayama, Mio; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is an illicit psychostimulant that stimulates the release of catecholamines from sympathetic nerve terminals and is widely abused worldwide. Since catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamines and mediates adrenergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic signaling responses, we investigated the effects of the COMT polymorphisms rs4633 and rs4680 on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) catecholamine concentrations in autopsies of subjects who died of drug intoxication. 28 MA abusers and 22 fatal psychotropic drug intoxication cases were evaluated. No correlations were identified between rs4633 or rs4680 polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of adrenaline (Adr), noradrenaline (Nad), or dopamine (DA) in fatal psychotropic cases. However, among MA abusers, DA concentrations in the CSF were significantly higher in those with the T allele (CT and TT) of rs4633 than in CC genotype carriers (p=0.004). Moreover, among MA abusers, DA concentrations were significantly higher in those with the A allele (GA and AA) of rs4680 than in GG genotype carriers (p=0.017). In subsequent haplotype analyses of MA abusers, a strong correlation was identified between two COMT haplotypes and CSF DA concentrations (p=0.002). However, the CSF concentrations of Adr and Nad were not associated with COMT genotypes or haplotypes. The present results indicate that rs4633 and rs4680 polymorphisms influence CSF DA concentrations and MA toxicity in MA abusers.

  9. Daptomycin Use in Infants: Report of Two Cases with Peak and Trough Drug Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P Brian; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Wade, Kelly C

    2009-01-01

    We report two infants treated with daptomycin for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and describe peak and trough blood concentrations measured during therapy. The peak concentrations were 41.7 mcg/ml and 36.7 mcg/ml, and the 12-hour trough concentrations were 12.7 mcg/ml and 16.3 mcg/ml, respectively. Even though the infants received higher doses than adults, their drug concentrations were comparable to those observed in adults treated with regular dosing of daptomycin. PMID:18309318

  10. Thermal Decomposition and Stabilisation of Poly(vinyl Chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskii, B. B.; Troitskaya, L. S.

    1985-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dehydrochlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) and low-molecular-weight chlorohydrocarbons which model various fragments of the polymer molecule, are discussed. Studies designed to determine the qualitative and quantitative compositions of the unstable fragments in poly(vinyl chloride) macromolecules by 13C NMR are examined. Attention is concentrated on the consideration of the mechanism of the action of the most effective thermostabilisers for the polymer - organotin compounds. The principal features of synergism in the stabilisation of poly(vinyl chloride) and the mechanism of the action of synergistic mixtures are analysed. The bibliography includes 107 references.

  11. Vinyl chloride: still a cause for concern.

    PubMed Central

    Kielhorn, J; Melber, C; Wahnschaffe, U; Aitio, A; Mangelsdorf, I

    2000-01-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is both a known carcinogen and a regulated chemical, and its production capacity has almost doubled over the last 20 years, currently 27 million tons/year worldwide. According to recent reports it is still a cause for concern. VC has been found as a degradation product of chloroethylene solvents (perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene) and in landfill gas and groundwater at concentrations up to 200 mg/m(3) and 10 mg/L, respectively. Worldwide occupational exposure to VC still seems to be high in some countries (e.g., averages of approximately 1,300 mg/m(3) until 1987 in one factory), and exposure may also be high in others where VC is not regulated. By combining the most relevant epidemiologic studies from several countries, we observed a 5-fold excess of liver cancer, primarily because of a 45-fold excess risk from angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL). The number of ASL cases reported up to the end of 1998 was 197 worldwide. The average latency for ASL is 22 years. Some studies show a small excess risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and others suggest a possible risk of brain tumors among highly exposed workers. Lung cancer, lymphomas, or leukemia do not seem to be related to VC exposure according to recent results. The mutation spectra observed in rat and human liver tumors (ASL and/or hepatocellular carcinoma) that are associated with exposure to VC are clearly distinct from those observed in sporadic liver tumors or hepatic tumors that are associated with other exposures. In rats, the substitution mutations found at A:T base pairs in the ras and p53 genes are consistent with the promutagenic properties of the DNA adduct 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine formed from VC metabolites. Risk assessments derived from animal studies seem to overestimate the actual risk of cancer when comparing estimated and reported cases of ASL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10905993

  12. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  13. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

    1998-01-01

    Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  14. Pulmonary damage after modest exposure to zinc chloride smoke.

    PubMed

    Zerahn, B; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A; Jensen, B V; Mølvig, J; Ebbehøj, N; Johansen, J S; Kanstrup, I L

    1999-12-01

    Thirteen soldiers (11 men and two women) were exposed to zinc chloride smoke (ZCS) during a combat exercise. Even though their initial symptoms were modest, a prolonged follow up with lung function testing and blood samples was undertaken due to previous cases with fatal outcome after exposure to ZCS. Four weeks after exposure there were statistically significant declines from baseline values in lung diffusion capacity and total lung capacity of 16.2% and 4.3%, respectively. At the same time plasma levels of fibrinogen and zinc were significantly elevated, though mainly within the normal range. All variables showed a tendency towards normalization at follow up 8 weeks and 6 months after exposure. These findings indicate an unexpected quantifiable damage to lung parenchyma with a remarkable delay after modest exposure to zinc chloride smoke despite sparse initial symptoms. Exposure to high concentrations of ZCS may induce adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after a symptom free period of up to 12 days from exposure. Even though none of the soldiers in the present study developed ARDS the assessment of lung diffusion capacity and acute phase reactants is proposed as a supplement when monitoring patients after exposure to ZCS.

  15. The dissolution of galena in ferric chloride media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The dissolution of galena (PbS) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid media has been investigated over the temperature range 28 to 95 °C and for alkali chloride concentrations from 0 to 4.0 M. Rapid parabolic kinetics were observed under all conditions, together with predominantly (>95 pet) elemental sulfur formation. The leaching rate decreased slightly with increasing FeCl3 concentrations in the range 0.1 to 2.0 M, and was essentially independent of the concentration of the FeCl2 reaction product. The rate was relatively insensitive to HCl concentrations <3.0 M, but increased systematically with increasing concentrations of alkali or alkaline earth chlorides. Most significantly, the leaching rate decreased sharply and linearly with increasing initial concentrations of PbCl2 in the ferric chloride leaching media containing either 0.0 or 3.0 M NaCl. Although the apparent activation energy was in the range 40 to 45 kJ/mol (˜10 kcal/mol), this value was reduced to 16 kJ/mol (3.5 kcal/mol) when the influence of the solubility of lead chloride on the reaction rate was taken into consideration. The experimental results are consistent with rate control by the outward diffusion of the PbCl2 reaction product through the solution trapped in pores in the constantly thickening elemental sulfur layer formed on the surface of the galena.

  16. Review article: the clinical management of congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Wedenoja, S; Höglund, P; Holmberg, C

    2010-02-15

    Congenital chloride diarrhoea in a newborn is a medical emergency, requiring early diagnostics and treatment to prevent severe dehydration and infant mortality. While most of the 250 cases reported arise from Finland, Poland and Arab countries, single cases with this autosomal recessive disorder appear worldwide. Such congenital chloride diarrhoea rarity makes diagnosis difficult. Life-long salt substitution with NaCl and KCl stabilizes fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance diagnosis. When properly treated, the long-term outcome is favourable. To summarize data on congenital chloride diarrhoea diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment, and to provide guidelines for both acute and long-term management of congenital chloride diarrhoea. Data are based on MEDLINE search for 'chloride diarrhoea', in addition to clinical experience in the treatment of the largest known series of patients. Treatment of congenital chloride diarrhoea involves (i) life-long salt substitution; (ii) management of acute dehydration and hypokalaemia during gastroenteritis or other infections; and (iii) recognition and treatment of other manifestations of the disease, such as intestinal inflammation, renal impairment and male subfertility. This review summarizes data on congenital chloride diarrhoea and provides guidelines for treatment. After being a mostly paediatric problem, adult patients constitute a rare challenge for gastroenterologists worldwide.

  17. Ionized calcium concentration in horses with surgically managed gastrointestinal disease: 147 cases (1988-1990).

    PubMed

    Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Spier, S J; Sullivan, K E

    1992-10-15

    Packed cell volume, total plasma protein, serum sodium, potassium, and ionized Ca2+ concentrations, and blood pH were determined at the time of admission and following surgery in 147 horses with acute abdominal crisis. Horses were allotted to 3 categories on the basis of the surgical lesion: (1) nonstrangulating obstruction of the ascending or descending colon (category A, n = 76), (2) strangulating and nonstrangulating infarction of the cecum or ascending colon (category B, n = 37), and (3) strangulating and nonstrangulating infarction of the small intestine (category C, n = 25). Horses with low serum ionized Ca2+ concentration following surgery were given 23% calcium gluconate (100 to 300 ml) IV to effect, and ionized Ca2+ concentration was determined following treatment. The serum ionized Ca2+ concentrations of horses in categories A, B, and C before and after surgery were lower than our normal laboratory reference range. Prior to surgery, serum ionized Ca2+ concentration measured from horses in category B and C was lower than that in horses in category A. There was no difference in ionized Ca2+ concentration in serum samples obtained before surgery in horses from category B and C, and in serum samples obtained following surgery. There was a decrease in ionized Ca2+ concentration during surgery in horses in category A. There was no change between preoperative and postoperative ionized Ca2+ concentration in the samples obtained from horses in category B and C. After calcium gluconate administration, all horses with low serum ionized Ca2+ after surgery had concentrations within our normal range. Measurement of serum ionized Ca2+ in horses with an acute abdominal crisis is recommended.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  19. Simplified yet highly accurate enzyme kinetics for cases of low substrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Härdin, Hanna M; Zagaris, Antonios; Krab, Klaas; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2009-10-01

    Much of enzyme kinetics builds on simplifications enabled by the quasi-steady-state approximation and is highly useful when the concentration of the enzyme is much lower than that of its substrate. However, in vivo, this condition is often violated. In the present study, we show that, under conditions of realistic yet high enzyme concentrations, the quasi-steady-state approximation may readily be off by more than a factor of four when predicting concentrations. We then present a novel extension of the quasi-steady-state approximation based on the zero-derivative principle, which requires considerably less theoretical work than did previous such extensions. We show that the first-order zero-derivative principle, already describes much more accurately the true enzyme dynamics at enzyme concentrations close to the concentration of their substrates. This should be particularly relevant for enzyme kinetics where the substrate is an enzyme, such as in phosphorelay and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We illustrate this for the important example of the phosphotransferase system involved in glucose uptake, metabolism and signaling. We find that this system, with a potential complexity of nine dimensions, can be understood accurately using the first-order zero-derivative principle in terms of the behavior of a single variable with all other concentrations constrained to follow that behavior.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  4. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for 3-hour... streams provided the combined steam is ducted through a control system from which the concentration...

  5. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for 3-hour... streams provided the combined steam is ducted through a control system from which the concentration...

  6. Preliminary pharmacokinetic study of isometamidium chloride in camels.

    PubMed

    Ali, B H; Hassan, T

    1984-11-01

    Isometamidium chloride was given to camels at a single intravenous dose rate of 0.5 or 1 mg kg-1 and the plasma drug concentration measured spectrophotometrically at frequent intervals for up to 48 hours. Isometamidium chloride concentrations were found to be 9.8 +/- 0.2 and 8.7 +/- 0.2 micrograms ml-1 half an hour after treatment with 1 and 0.5 mg kg-1, respectively, and 1.7 +/- 0.3 and 0.7 +/- 0.3 micrograms ml-1 after 24 hours. No measurable drug concentration was found 48 hours after dosing.

  7. Vertical profile of elemental concentrations in aerosol particles in the Bermuda area during GCE/CASE/WATOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, G.; Sievering, H.

    1990-06-01

    During the 1988 Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment (GCE/CASE/WATOX) joint effort, research was conducted to determine elemental concentrations in atmospheric aerosol particles near Bermuda, to construct a three-level (15, 150, and 2600 m ASL) vertical profile of these concentrations, and to ascertain the source of the particles. Samples were collected by the NOAA King Air aircraft and NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell on July 24-28, 1988. Concentration determinations were made for 16 elements through the use of an X ray fluorescence instrument designed for analysis of small-mass samples. A layering effect was found; concentrations of several elements at 150 m were more than twice their respective concentrations at 15 m and 2600 m. Enrichment factors, V/Mn ratio, and correlations between concentrations suggest a Saharan mineral source, despite air mass back trajectories that show no direct continental input for up to 10 days prior to sample collection. Estimated total mineral aerosol concentrations at 15 m, 150 m, and 2600 m are 1.5, 4.1, and 2.1 μg m-3.

  8. Effects of changes in serosal chloride on electrical properties of toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Narvarte, J; Finn, A L

    1983-01-01

    Conventional microelectrode and tracer flux techniques were used to study the effects of reduction in serosal chloride concentration ([Cl]s) on the electrical properties of toad urinary bladder epithelium. Reduction in [Cl]s resulted in a transient change in transepithelial potential (Vms) (and of apical and basolateral membrane potentials) that was inversely dependent on the base-line values of those potentials. In all cases, however, there was a decrease in transepithelial resistance (Rt) that was explained by an increase in the sodium conductance of the apical membrane. In tissues in which the transepithelial potential increased, there was a rise in the active mucosal-to-serosal sodium flux. The increase in conductance was directly related to the increase in short-circuit current. The changes in Vms and Rt brought about by reduction in [Cl]s were prevented by agents known to modify sodium transport, including low mucosal sodium concentration, addition of amiloride or amphotericin B to the mucosal solution, or of ouabain to the serosal solution. The results are best explained by a primary effect of chloride reduction on sodium extrusion across the basolateral membrane, with a secondary increase in apical sodium conductance. In addition, the data provide new evidence for the existence of a basolateral chloride conductance pathway.

  9. Chlormequat chloride retards rat embryo growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiagedeer, Bayindala; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Yingjuan; Hao, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Chlormequat chloride is the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture to promote sturdier growth of grain crops by avoidance of lodging. Therefore, human exposure to chlormequat chloride is very common, but its developmental toxicity has not been studied. Thus, we investigated the developmental toxicity of chlormequat chloride by applying rat whole embryo culture (WEC) model, limb bud micromass culture and 3T3 fibroblast cytotoxicity test. Chlormequat chloride at 150μg/ml (0.93mM) retarded the rat embryo growth without causing significant morphological malformations and at 500μg/ml (3.1mM) caused both retardation and morphological malformation of the embryos. However, the proliferation and differentiation of limb bud cells were not affected by chlormequat chloride at as high as up to 1000μg/ml (6.2mM) applied. This concentration of chlormequat chloride did not affect the cell viability as examined by 3T3 fibroblast cytotoxicity test either, suggesting that cellular toxicity may not play a role in chlormequat induced inhibition of rat embryo growth. Collectively, our results demonstrated that chlormequat chloride may affect embryo growth and development without inhibiting cell viability.

  10. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the blood of impaired drivers, users of illicit drugs, and medical examiner cases.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Wayne; Holmgren, Anita; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was determined in blood samples from impaired drivers, people arrested for petty drug offenses (non-traffic cases), and GHB-related deaths. The method of analysis involved conversion of GHB into gamma-butyrolactone and determination of the latter by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and with gamma-valerolactone as the internal standard. The mean and median concentrations of GHB in blood from impaired drivers (N=473) were 90 and 84 mg/L, respectively, and offenders were predominantly men (96%) with an average age of 26 year (range 15-50 year). In 185 cases, GHB was the only drug present in blood at mean and median concentrations of 92 and 86 mg/L, respectively. People arrested for petty drug offenses (N=1061) had slightly higher GHB concentrations in their blood: median 118 mg/L for men and 111 mg/L for women. In GHB-related deaths (N=33), the mean and median concentrations were considerably higher: 307 mg/L and 190 mg/L, respectively, and the highest was 2200 mg/L. The typical signs of drug influence noted by the arresting police officers included sedation, agitation, slurred speech, irrational behaviour, jerky movements, and spitting. The short elimination half-life of GHB means that the concentrations in blood decrease rapidly and are probably a lot lower than at the time of driving, which was 30-90 min earlier.

  11. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  12. Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended.

  13. Uncertainties in risk assessment for the determination of drinking water pollutant concentrations: Cryptosporidium case study.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, L; Macgill, S M; Kay, D; Casemore, D

    2001-02-01

    There is a growing acknowledgement of the need to recognise uncertainties in the estimation of waterborne risks. In this paper, the strength of the science available to characterise Cryptosporidium risks in drinking water is investigated, in particular the determination of oocyst concentrations at various points in the chain of water supply. A recently developed scientific quality audit framework is used as a tool to guide this investigation. The framework systematically reveals the relatively greater strength of the science for the "upstream" elements (estimation of concentrations in environmental reservoirs) than for the "downstream" elements (concentrations in distribution). It is the downstream elements that have greater bearing on human health and public policy issues. It is noted that the adoption of new monitoring Regulations is likely to prompt action to strengthen knowledge of these downstream elements in the future.

  14. Concentrations of cis(Z)-clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol in a lethal case involving zuclopenthixol, diazepam, and cyamemazine.

    PubMed

    Rop, P P

    2001-01-01

    cis(Z)-Clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection in necropic samples from a postmortem case. The peripheral blood concentrations of cis(Z)-clopenthixol and trans(E)-clopenthixol were 278 and 177 ng/mL, respectively. The level of the active cis(Z)-isomer is within the toxic range. Other associated drugs' concentrations were within their therapeutic ranges. Postmortem redistribution of the drug and instability of the drug due to trans-isomerization were discussed.

  15. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  16. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  17. Relationship between pregnancy rate and serum progesterone concentration in cases of porcine embryo transfer

    PubMed Central

    Moon, JoonHo; Choi, Ji-Yei; Kang, Jung-Taek; Park, Sol Ji; Kim, Su Jin; Jang, Goo

    2014-01-01

    The level of P4 at the time of embryo transfer (ET) is important. P4 concentrations and numbers of corpora lutea for 126 recipients were evaluated. Nuclear transfer embryos were transferred into 126 surrogates. 11 maintained their pregnancy until full-term delivery, 17 miscarried, and implantation failed in 98 animals. P4 levels in the full-term group were significantly different from those of the pigs that aborted or in which implantation failed (p < 0.05). However, the numbers of corpora lutea were not significantly different. These findings indicate that the concentration of progesterone can be an important factor for successful ET in pigs. PMID:24378584

  18. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Popescu, L; Constantinescu, S; Cernescu, S

    1988-01-01

    Studies in human embryo fibroblasts infected with measles or herpes simplex virus showed a reduction in virus yield when cultures were pretreated with 1-10 mM lithium chloride doses. Maximum effect was obtained by a 1 h treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride, preceding viral infection by 19-24 hours. A specific antiviral effect against measles virus was manifest immediately after culture pretreatment. Intermittent treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride of cultures persistently infected with measles or herpes virus obtained from human myeloid K-562 cell line shows a reduction in the extracellular virus yield. In the K-562/herpes virus system, the culture treatment with lithium chloride and acyclovir (10 microM) has an additive inhibitory effect on virus production. The paper is focused on the mechanism of lithium chloride antiviral action and the expediency of lithium therapy in SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis).

  19. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. High Concentrations of Measles Neutralizing Antibodies and High-Avidity Measles IgG Accurately Identify Measles Reinfection Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Jennifer S.; Hickman, Carole J.; Mercader, Sara; Redd, Susan; McNall, Rebecca J.; Williams, Nobia; McGrew, Marcia; Walls, M. Laura; Rota, Paul A.; Bellini, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 9% of the measles cases reported from 2012 to 2014 occurred in vaccinated individuals. Laboratory confirmation of measles in vaccinated individuals is challenging since IgM assays can give inconclusive results. Although a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay result from an appropriately timed specimen can provide confirmation, negative results may not rule out a highly suspicious case. Detection of high-avidity measles IgG in serum samples provides laboratory evidence of a past immunologic response to measles from natural infection or immunization. High concentrations of measles neutralizing antibody have been observed by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays among confirmed measles cases with high-avidity IgG, referred to here as reinfection cases (RICs). In this study, we evaluated the utility of measuring levels of measles neutralizing antibody to distinguish RICs from noncases by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Single and paired serum samples with high-avidity measles IgG from suspected measles cases submitted to the CDC for routine surveillance were used for the analysis. The RICs were confirmed by a 4-fold rise in PRN titer or by RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, while the noncases were negative by both assays. Discrimination accuracy was high with serum samples collected ≥3 days after rash onset (area under the curve, 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.854 to 0.993). Measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml identified RICs with 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 74 to 98%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 82 to 100%). Therefore, when serological or RT-qPCR results are unavailable or inconclusive, suspected measles cases with high-avidity measles IgG can be confirmed as RICs by measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml. PMID:27335386

  1. Use of bromide:Chloride ratios to differentiate potential sources of chloride in a shallow, unconfined aquifer affected by brackish-water intrusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, D.C.; Fleck, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Brackish water from Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries has entered the Aquia aquifer in east-central Anne Arundel County, Maryland, USA. This determination was made based on chloride analyses of water samples collected in wells screened in the Aquia aquifer between October 1988 and May 1989. The Aquia aquifer, which is composed of fine- to medium-grained sand, is a shallow, unconfined aquifer in this area. Land use is primarily urban, consisting of a mixture of residential and light commercial areas. Associated with the urban setting is the potential for chloride contamination to enter the Aquia aquifer from anthropogenic sources, such as residential septic-tank effluent, leaky public sewer lines, road-deicing salt, stormwater infiltration basins, and domestic water-conditioning recharge effluent. In order to map the distribution of bay-water intrusion in the Aquia aquifer, chloride derived from Chesapeake Bay was differentiated from chloride derived from anthropogenic sources by comparing the ratio of dissolved bromide to dissolved chloride (bromide:chloride) in groundwater to the distinctive ratio in Chesapeake Bay water. Two additional factors considered in determining the source of the chloride were nitrogen concentrations and well-screen positions of sampled wells in relation to the estimated depth of the fresh-water/brackish-water interface. Of 36 Aquia-aquifer water samples with chloride concentrations greater than 30 mg/L, 22 had bromide:chloride ratios similar to the ratio in Chesapeake Bay water, an indication that bay water is the primary source of the chloride. Of the other 14 samples with bromide:chloride ratios dissimilar to the ratio in Chesapeake Bay water, seven were from wells where screen positions were substantially above the estimated fresh-water/brackish-water interface. Three of these samples had nitrogen concentrations (as nitrite plus nitrate) greater than 3.0 mg/L, an indication that chloride in these groundwater samples comes from

  2. The influence of sulphates on chloride binding and pore solution chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.

    1997-12-01

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and OPC/ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) 65% cements containing 2.0 to 9.0% sulphates derived from sodium sulphate and calcium sulphate were investigated in respect to their chloride binding properties and the concentrations of chloride and hydroxyl ions in the pore solutions. Chlorides derived from sodium and calcium chlorides were introduced at the time of mixing. The results indicate that calcium sulphate has a different effect on chloride binding and the pore solution chemistry than sodium sulphate. The slag cement has higher chloride binding capacities as a result of simple replacement for OPC, but at the same sulphate contents, the slag cement does not give the expected higher binding capacities, suggesting that the difference in sulphate content between the two cements may be the main reason for their different chloride binding behavior.

  3. Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

  4. Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

  5. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-24

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  6. Internal Concentration and Time Are Important Modifiers of Toxicity: The Case of Chlorpyrifos on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Jeoung; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-09-06

    The internal concentration of chemicals in exposed organisms changes over time due to absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes since chemicals are taken up from the environment. Internal concentration and time are very important modifiers of toxicity when biomarkers are used to evaluate the potential hazards and risks of environmental pollutants. In this study, the responses of molecular biomarkers, and the fate of chemicals in the body, were comprehensively investigated to determine cause-and-effect relationships over time. Chlorpyrifos (CP) was selected as a model chemical, and Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to CP for 4 h using the passive dosing method. Worms were then monitored in fresh medium during a 48-h recovery regime. The mRNA expression of genes related to CYP metabolism (cyp35a2 and cyp35a3) increased during the constant exposure phase. The body residue of CP decreased once it reached a peak level during the early stage of exposure, indicating that the initial uptake of CP rapidly induced biotransformation with the synthesis of new CYP metabolic proteins. The residual chlorpyrifos-oxon concentration, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, continuously increased even after the recovery regime started. These delayed toxicokinetics seem to be important for the extension of AChE inhibition for up to 9 h after the start of the recovery regime. Comprehensive investigation into the molecular initiation events and changes in the internal concentrations of chemical species provide insight into response causality within the framework of an adverse outcome pathway.

  7. Codeine concentrations in human samples in a case of fatal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Tracqui, A; Mangin, P

    1991-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was employed to quantify codeine in biological fluids and tissues in a death attributed to oral codeine ingestion. The blood concentration of codeine was 22.1 mg/l. Results are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  8. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively. PMID:28125034

  9. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  10. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Devilee, R.A.; Sandwijk, A. van; Reuter, M.A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studies include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  11. Assessment of metal concentrations in tap-water - from source to the tap: a case study from Szczecin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górski, Józef; Siepak, Marcin

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in June 2010 for 100 tap-water samples, collected directly at consumers in the older part of the city of Szczecin (Poland). Increased concentrations of metals were thus detected. This concerns mainly Fe (19% of samples showed concentrations above drinking-water quality standards) and Pb (5%). In some samples, the maximum admissible concentration levels for Mn, Cu and Ni were also exceeded. This was not the case for Al, despite the use of aluminium compounds during water treatment; the Al concentrations in treated water were, however, significantly higher than in raw water. It was also found that (1) the corrosive properties of water (low alkalinity and increased concentration of sulphates), (2) the water-treatment processes causing a decrease of the pH and an increase of the CO2, and (3) transport of the treated water over long distances (30 km) provide favourable conditions for the leaching of metals from water-pipe networks. The type of material used in domestic plumbing and the content of Ce, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cd in the tap-water at consumers show a correlation. The high content of Pb is mainly a result of lead pipes connecting the network to the buildings

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation with copper sulfate or tribasic copper chloride on the growth performance, liver copper concentrations of broilers fed in floor pens, and stabilities of vitamin E and phytase in feeds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Run L; Zhang, Zheng J; Steward, Fred A; Luo, Xugang; Liu, Bin

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted using a total of 840, 1-day-old, Arbor Acres commercial male broilers to compare copper (Cu) sulfate and tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC, Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl) as sources of supplemental Cu for broilers fed in floor pens. Chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments for six replicate pens of 20 birds each, and were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (10.20 mg/kg Cu) supplemented with 0, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg Cu from either Cu sulfate or TBCC for 21 days. Chicks fed 200 mg/kg Cu as TBCC had a higher (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than those consuming other diets. Liver Cu contents of broilers fed diets supplemented with TBCC were numerically lower (P > 0.05) than those of broilers fed diets supplemented with Cu sulfate. The vitamin E contents and the phytase activities in the feed fortified with TBCC were higher (P < 0.01) and numerically higher (P > 0.05) compared with those in the feeds fortified with Cu sulfate stored at room temperature, respectively. The vitamin E contents in liver and plasma of broilers fed diets supplemented with TBCC were higher (P < 0.05) than those of birds fed diets supplemented with Cu sulfate. This result indicates that TBCC is more effective than Cu sulfate in improving the growth of broilers fed in floor pens, and it is chemically less active than Cu sulfate in promoting the undesirable oxidation of vitamin E in feeds.

  13. Impact of sodium chloride on the expansion of a liquid-liquid miscibility gap in an API/water system. Case study of Brivaracetam.

    PubMed

    Couvrat, Nicolas; Mahieux, Julien; Fours, Baptiste; Cartigny, Yohann; Schenkel, Eric; Aerts, Luc; Quéré, Luc; Coquerel, Gérard

    2016-12-30

    Brivaracetam, or (2S)-2-[(4R)-2-oxo-4-propyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl] butanamide, is an active pharmaceutical ingredient designed for the treatment of epilepsy. During the development of the IV administration mode, a liquid-liquid miscibility gap has been observed with pure water, isotonic and hypertonic solutions (vehicle at 0.9% w/w and 5%w/w NaCl respectively). The study reveals that the NaCl concentration has a direct impact on the extent of the demixing domain; from a sub-micronic demixing in pure water towards a macroscopic miscibility gap in hypertonic aqueous solutions. The thorough exploration of these heterogeneous equilibria led to define experimental parameters for safe IV injections without risk of liquid - liquid miscibility gap at 37°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thiocyanate and chloride as competing substrates for myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed Central

    van Dalen, C J; Whitehouse, M W; Winterbourn, C C; Kettle, A J

    1997-01-01

    The neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase uses H2O2 to oxidize chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. Chloride is considered to be the physiological substrate. However, a detailed kinetic study of its substrate preference has not been undertaken. Our aim was to establish whether myeloperoxidase oxidizes thiocyanate in the presence of chloride at physiological concentrations of these substrates. We determined this by measuring the rate of H2O2 loss in reactions catalysed by the enzyme at various concentrations of each substrate. The relative specificity constants for chloride, bromide and thiocyanate were 1:60:730 respectively, indicating that thiocyanate is by far the most favoured substrate for myeloperoxidase. In the presence of 100 mM chloride, myeloperoxidase catalysed the production of hypothiocyanite at concentrations of thiocyanate as low as 25 microM. With 100 microM thiocyanate, about 50% of the H2O2 present was converted into hypothiocyanite, and the rate of hypohalous acid production equalled the sum of the individual rates obtained when each of these anions was present alone. The rate of H2O2 loss catalysed by myeloperoxidase in the presence of 100 mM chloride doubled when 100 microM thiocyanate was added, and was maximal with 1mM thiocyanate. This indicates that at plasma concentrations of thiocyanate and chloride, myeloperoxidase is far from saturated. We conclude that thiocyanate is a major physiological substrate of myeloperoxidase, regardless of where the enzyme acts. As a consequence, more consideration should be given to the oxidation products of thiocyanate and to the role they play in host defence and inflammation. PMID:9359420

  15. Effect of Adrenalectomy on the Renal Response to Chloride Depletion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Luke, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    These experiments were aimed at investigating renal behavior towards chloride, as distinct from sodium, during dietary deprivation of these ions in adrenalectomized rats. Adrenalectomized and shamoperated control rats were maintained on saline for 3 wk, then chloride conservation during a very low chloride intake was assessed both with an abundant sodium intake (as buffered sodium phosphate in the drinking water) and after subsequent withdrawal of sodium. When sodium intake was high, there was no difference in chloride conservation between adrenalectomized and control animals, and sodium balance and weight were maintained similarly in both groups. At the same time, both experimental and control rats developed significant hypokalemia and elevation of the plasma bicarbonate levels as compared to other control rats ingesting a normal diet. In another group of adrenalectomized rats sodium phosphate was withdrawn, after normal chloride conservation was observed, and the low-salt diet continued. Negative sodium balance developed and was associated with a negative chloride balance, whereas sham-operated rats continued to conserve sodium and chloride. In further studies during polyuria, both adrenalectomized and control rats developed urinary chloride concentrations of less than 1 meq/liter. Thus adrenalectomized rats can maintain chloride balance on a low chloride, high sodium intake, in contrast to their inability to conserve sodium on a low-sodium intake. It is concluded that renal tubular reabsorption of chloride in adrenalectomized rats is adequate to establish and maintain very low urinary chloride concentrations, which may imply active chloride transport in the papillary collecting duct despite the absence of adrenocortical hormone. In addition, the typical renal response to chloride deprivation, enhanced loss of potassium and accelerated reabsorption of bicarbonate, is not dependent on adrenocortical hormones. PMID:4436435

  16. Modeling Fate and Transport of Chloride from Deicers in Urban Floodplains: Implications for Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Road salting in urban areas of the northeastern United States increases chloride concentrations in urban streams. Groundwater storage of saline road runoff results in increased surface water chloride concentrations through time, even in non-winter months. Stream-groundwater (SW-GW) interactions promote buffering of large seasonal swings in stream chloride concentrations, resulting in lower surface water chloride in winter and higher concentrations in summer, relative to streams hydrologically disconnected from riparian floodplains. However, the hydrogeologic processes controlling salt storage and transport in urban floodplain aquifers have not been fully investigated. We developed a 3D numerical groundwater flow and solute transport model of an urban floodplain in Syracuse, New York, using MODFLOW and MT3DMS. We ran the model for 1 year, calibrating to three conditions: water table elevations along a riparian transect, measurements of net groundwater flux to the stream along the 500-m reach, and chloride concentrations in groundwater through time in riparian wells. Chloride enters the riparian aquifer via three pathways: hillslope groundwater discharge, hyporheic exchange, and groundwater recharge during overbank flooding events. Winter overbank flooding events are the primary source of chloride to floodplain sediments. While hillslope groundwater discharge results in relatively uniform chloride through time in high conductivity units, surficial floodplain sediments with lower conductivity have high chloride concentrations from winter overbank flood events. When compared to road salt application rates (up to 20 tons of salt per lane kilometer per year), the 0.013 km2 floodplain holds only a tiny fraction of chloride applied in a watershed (>100 km of road in the watershed). To promote riparian aquifer storage of road salt and buffering of stream chloride concentrations, urban planners should design urban floodplains for frequent winter flooding events, and allow

  17. Prediction of worst case concentrations due to landfill emissions in absence of historical emissions in absence of historical meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Kura, B.; Lea, W.R.

    1995-08-01

    Planning for a new landfill site in a given locality requires a detailed environmental impact analysis to evaluate qualitative and quantitative impacts on the surrounding environment. Among several environmental parameters of interest, air quality is of the utmost concern due to landfill gas emissions. Methane and carbon dioxide are the two principal gases in the landfill gas with small percentage of ammonia, and other VOC gases. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the worst case methane concentrations assuming sample meteorological conditions. As an example, a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill of size 100 m x 100 m was considered with different fill heights (10 m, 50 m and 100 m). The isopleths (lines of equal concentration) for methane are plotted using the dispersion model. Also, the curves for methane concentration versus downwind distance are provided for various fill heights.

  18. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  19. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  20. Trace element and cytokine concentrations in patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP): A case control study.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Laura; Gaber, Timo; Kühnen, Peter; Morhart, Rolf; Unterbörsch, Heinz; Schomburg, Lutz; Seemann, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare inherited disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification. Disease onset, severity and symptoms vary between FOP patients, as does the frequency and activity of so-called flare-ups, during which tendons, ligaments, muscle and soft tissue are replaced by bone. Traumata, infections or other stressors are known inducers of flare-ups, and the hormone Activin A may be involved in disease activity; however, reliable biomarkers for FOP activity are missing, and the basal trace element and inflammatory state of patients are unknown. We hypothesized that FOP patients develop characteristic deficiencies in inflammation-related trace elements and display a chronically increased inflammatory cytokine level, collectively aggravating disease course and flare-up risk. Serum samples from 15 FOP patients and 25 relatives were collected under highest quality standards. Concentrations of Cu, Se and Zn were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and 27 cytokines along with Activin A by specific antibody-based techniques. Data were tested for normal distribution and analyzed by parametric or non-parametric tests. Concentrations of Se and Cu were not different between the groups, while Zn levels were slightly higher in FOP as compared to controls (1110±251 vs. 970±176ng/ml, P=0.04). The average concentrations of cytokines and Activin A were not different. When focusing on the two patients with self-reported flare-ups, again no obvious differences were noted. The cytokines Eotaxin, G-CSF, hbFGF and TNF-α were within the upper half of measured concentrations, and may warrant further longitudinal analyses. Our data do not support the hypothesis that FOP patients display a characteristic pattern of trace elements or have a generally increased tone of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Assessment of PM2.5 concentrations on Human Health: A case study of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, P.; Mishra, D.

    2015-12-01

    Connection of air quality with human health is well established in the literature. However the associated health risks due to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is not well known in India, while the assigned mean threshold values are 60 μg/m3 for 24-hour period and 40 μg/m3 for annual period. Both are considered safe concentration limits regarding human health effects. However, the daily and annually concentrations of PM2.5 were observed more than three times of NAAQS in the present study for a year. This study relates the incessant exposure to significant levels of PM2.5 to deleterious health effects, such as heart and lung diseases. The relation between environmental air quality and human health has been studied through different parameters e.g., hazard quotient (HQ), lifetime incremental cancer risk (LICR), and individual risk for different groups of ages in Delhi, the capital city of India. These analysis lead to additional insights into health disparities and may suggest that more rigorous strategies. This may be application to other urban areas across the nation. In this study, we propose to quantify such impacts through estimation of different health risk factors.

  2. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production - A Case Study from Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glina, Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village). Studied peatland is managed by "Torf Corporation" company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles) Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian), after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface), the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands). Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  3. Concentric Ring Method for generating pollen maps. Quercus as case study.

    PubMed

    Oteros, Jose; Valencia, Rosa Mª; Del Río, Sara; Vega, Ana Mª; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Mandrioli, Paolo; Fernández-González, Delia

    2017-01-15

    Mapping pollen concentrations is of great interest to study the health impact and ecological implications or for forestry or agronomical purposes. A deep knowledge about factors affecting airborne pollen is essential for predicting and understanding its dynamics. The present work sought to predict annual Quercus pollen over the Castilla and León region (Central and Northern Spain). Also to understand the relationship between airborne pollen and landscape. Records of Quercus and Quercus pyrenaica pollen types were collected at 13 monitoring sites over a period of 8years. They were analyzed together with land use data applying the Concentric Ring Method (CRM), a technique that we developed to study the relationship between airborne particle concentrations and emission sources in the region. The maximum correlation between the Quercus pollen and forms of vegetation was determined by shrubland and "dehesa" areas. For the specific Qi pyrenaica model (Q. pyrenaica pollen and Q. pyrenaica forest distribution), the maximum influence of emission sources on airborne pollen was observed at 14km from the pollen trap location with some positive correlations up to a distance of 43km. Apart from meteorological behavior, the local features of the region can explain pollen dispersion patterns. The method that we develop here proved to be a powerful tool for multi-source pollen mapping based on land use.

  4. Eutrophication Increases Phytoplankton Methylmercury Concentrations in a Coastal Sea-A Baltic Sea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Soerensen, Anne L; Schartup, Amina T; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G; Undeman, Emma; Björn, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Eutrophication is expanding worldwide, but its implication for production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic monomethylmercury (MeHg) is unknown. We developed a mercury (Hg) biogeochemical model for the Baltic Sea and used it to investigate the impact of eutrophication on phytoplankton MeHg concentrations. For model evaluation, we measured total methylated Hg (MeHgT) in the Baltic Sea and found low concentrations (39 ± 16 fM) above the halocline and high concentrations in anoxic waters (1249 ± 369 fM). To close the Baltic Sea MeHgT budget, we inferred an average normoxic water column Hg(II) methylation rate constant of 2 × 10(-4) d(-1). We used the model to compare Baltic Sea's present-day (2005-2014) eutrophic state to an oligo/mesotrophic scenario. Eutrophication increases primary production and export of organic matter and associated Hg to the sediment effectively removing Hg from the active biogeochemical cycle; this results in a 27% lower present-day water column Hg reservoir. However, increase in organic matter production and remineralization stimulates microbial Hg methylation resulting in a seasonal increase in both water and phytoplankton MeHg reservoirs above the halocline. Previous studies of systems dominated by external MeHg sources or benthic production found eutrophication to decrease MeHg levels in plankton. This Baltic Sea study shows that in systems with MeHg production in the normoxic water column eutrophication can increase phytoplankton MeHg content.

  5. Paradoxical bronchospasm from benzalkonium chloride (BAC) preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution in a patient with acute severe asthma. A case report and literature review of airway effects of BAC.

    PubMed

    George, Mathew; Joshi, Saumya Vinod; Concepcion, Emily; Lee, Haesoon

    2017-01-01

    Nebulized bronchodilator solutions are available in the United States as both nonsterile and sterile-filled products. Sulfites, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), or chlorobutanol are added to nonsterile products to prevent bacterial growth. Bronchoconstriction from inhaled BAC is cumulative, prolonged, and correlates directly with basal airway responsiveness. The multi-dose dropper bottle of albuterol sulfate solution contains 50 μg BAC per/2.5 mg of albuterol, which may be below or at the lower limit of the threshold dose for bronchoconstriction. However, with repeated albuterol nebulization, the effect can be additive and cumulative, often exceeding the bronchoconstriction threshold. We report a case of a 17 years old patient, who received 32 mg of BAC via nebulization over a period of 3.5 days that probably caused persistent bronchospasm evidenced by failure to improve clinically and to increase peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from 125 L/min (27% of predicted value) to 300 L/min (68% of predicted value) within 2 hours of withdrawing BAC. The patient's respiratory status and PEFR improved dramatically once the nebulization solution was switched to BAC free lev-albuterol solution. The pediatric providers, particularly the emergency department physicians, intensivists and pulmonologists need to be aware of this rare albeit possible toxicity to the respiratory system caused by BAC used as a preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution.

  6. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion

  7. Cobalt chloride induces apoptosis and zinc chloride suppresses cobalt-induced apoptosis by Bcl-2 expression in human submandibular gland HSG cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kazumi; Okamura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Kaya; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ogawa-Iyehara, Hiroaki; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effects of cobalt chloride on human submandibular gland cells, HSG cells were exposed to various concentrations of cobalt chloride. Cobalt chloride induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HSG cells as determined by phase-contrast microscopy and WST-1 cell viability assay. By using the Hoechst 33342 staining, marked nuclear condensation and fragmentation of chromatin were observed in cobalt chloride-treated cells. Cobalt chloride induced DNA ladder formation in HSG cells in both dose- and time-dependent manner with maximal effect at a concentration of 0.5 mM and 48 h, respectively. Cobalt chloride inhibited the expression of both Bcl-2 protein and mRNA in dose- and time-dependent manner. Zinc chloride recovered the cobalt-suppressed Bcl-2 expression and protected against cobalt-induced apoptosis in HSG cells. Our results show that the pathway of the apoptosis in HSG cells is regulated by cobalt chloride and zinc chloride. Our results also indicate that cobalt-induced apoptotic steps in HSG cells are related to the production of Bcl-2 protein.

  8. Experimental and modeling study of chloride ingress into concrete and reinforcement corrosion initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui

    Effects of reinforcement and coarse aggregate on chloride ingression into concrete and reinforcement corrosion initiation have been studied with experimental and modeling (finite element method) analyses. Once specimens were fabricated and exposed to a chloride solution, various experimental techniques were employed to determine the effect of reinforcement and coarse aggregate on time-to-corrosion and chloride ingress and concentration at corrosion locations. Model analyses were performed to verify and explain the experimental results. Based upon the results, it was determined that unexpectedly higher chloride concentrations were present on the top of the rebar trace than that to the side at the same depth and an inverse concentration gradient (increasing [ Cl-] with increasing depth) occurred near the top of rebars. Also, coarse aggregate volume profile in close proximity to the rebar and spatial distribution of these aggregates, in conjunction with the physical obstruction afforded by reinforcement to chloride flow, complicates concrete sampling for Cl- intended to define the critical concentration of this species to initiate corrosion. Modeling analyses that considered cover thickness, chloride threshold concentration, reinforcement size and shape, and coarse aggregate type and percolation confirmed the experimental findings. The results, at least in part, account for the relatively wide spread in chloride corrosion threshold values reported in the literature and illustrate that more consistent chloride threshold concentrations can be acquired from mortar or paste specimens than from concrete ones.

  9. Electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride solution in a diaphragm cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kubasov, V.L.; Ivanter, I.A.; Druzhinin, E.A.; Vorob'eva, V.B.

    1986-02-10

    In some cases, as in the production of iodine and bromine, dilute solutions of sodium chloride remain unutilized. In view of the existence of large amounts of unutilized spent sodium chloride solutions and their harmful effect when discharged into the environment, it is desirable to develop a process for production of chlorine and alkali with high current efficiencies, satisfying industrial requirements, from dilute sodium chloride solutions. The authors have therefore studied electrolysis of solutions containing 160 and 180 kg/m/sup 3/ of sodium chloride, having pH of 11.0-11.5, close in composition to solutions from the Cheleken chemical factory. The chlorine and alkali current efficiencies and the compositions of the anolyte, catholyte, and anode gas were determined.

  10. Chloride and bromide sources in water: Quantitative model use and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Kyle N.; Short, Michael A.; McPhail, D. C.

    2017-06-01

    Dissolved chloride is a commonly used geochemical tracer in hydrological studies. Assumptions underlying many chloride-based tracer methods do not hold where processes such as halide-bearing mineral dissolution, fluid mixing, or diffusion modify dissolved Cl- concentrations. Failure to identify, quantify, or correct such processes can introduce significant uncertainty to chloride-based tracer calculations. Mass balance or isotopic techniques offer a means to address this uncertainty, however, concurrent evaporation or transpiration can complicate corrections. In this study Cl/Br ratios are used to derive equations that can be used to correct a solution's total dissolved Cl- and Br- concentration for inputs from mineral dissolution and/or binary mixing. We demonstrate the equations' applicability to waters modified by evapotranspiration. The equations can be used to quickly determine the maximum proportion of dissolved Cl- and Br- from each end-member, providing no halide-bearing minerals have precipitated and the Cl/Br ratio of each end member is known. This allows rapid evaluation of halite dissolution or binary mixing contributions to total dissolved Cl- and Br-. Equation sensitivity to heterogeneity and analytical uncertainty is demonstrated through bench-top experiments simulating halite dissolution and variable degrees of evapotranspiration, as commonly occur in arid environments. The predictions agree with the experimental results to within 6% and typically much less, with the sensitivity of the predicted results varying as a function of end-member compositions and analytical uncertainty. Finally, we present a case-study illustrating how the equations presented here can be used to quantify Cl- and Br- sources and sinks in surface water and groundwater and how the equations can be applied to constrain uncertainty in chloride-based tracer calculations.

  11. Concentrations of AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA and Driving Behavior in Suspected Impaired Driving Cases.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brianna L; Couper, Fiona J

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews case reports for 58 suspected impaired driving cases that were positive for the synthetic cannabinoids AB-CHMINACA or AB-PINACA. All cases were submitted to the Washington State Patrol Toxicology Laboratory in 2014 from either Washington State or State of Alaska law enforcement agencies. The population of drivers was predominantly male (95%), with a mean age of 28 years (range, 18-61 years). The range of blood concentrations was 0.6->10 ng/mL for AB-CHMINACA (N = 33) and 0.6-41.3 ng/mL for AB-PINACA (N = 25). Drug Recognition Expert exams were performed in 10 cases for each AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA. Horizontal gaze nystagmus was observed in 50 and 60% of the cases, respectively. Overall, several physiological indicators varied from those typically observed with marijuana use. The majority of these cases had very poor driving; subjects were involved in an accident, found passed out in a vehicle or were called in as a suspected impaired driver. Slurred speech, confusion, lack of coordination/dexterity and lethargy were commonly observed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    EEEElhIhEEEEEE 1111 1 - MI(CRO( fy Hl ff1Sf UIIIUN Ift I IA I~t Research and Development Technical Report DELET - TR - 78 - 0563 - F Cq LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE ...2b(1110) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery -10/1/78 - 11/30/80 6. PNING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Z %A a.~as B.,OWRACT OR...block number) Inorganic Electrolyte battery, Thionyl Chloride , lithium , high rate D cell, high rate flat cylindrical cell, laser designator battery. C//i

  13. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

  14. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  15. A Cyclist's Guide to Ionic Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, Arthur M.

    1998-11-01

    A simple analogy to help students understand ionic concentration is presented. A common problem among beginning chemistry students is the failure to recognize that in a solution containing 0.1 mol L-1 sodium chloride, the concentration of chloride ion is 0.1 mol L-1, not 0.05 mol L-1. Similarly, many students do not understand that in a solution containing 0.1 mol L-1 magnesium chloride, the concentration of chloride ion is 0.2 mol L-1. To help students overcome such problems, an analogy has been developed in which a salt such as sodium chloride is compared to a unicycle, consisting of a frame and a wheel; magnesium chloride is compared to a bicycle, consisting of a frame and two wheels; and so on. Complete (i.e., 100%) dissociation is assumed throughout the discussion.

  16. The Sweat Metabolome of Screen-Positive Cystic Fibrosis Infants: Revealing Mechanisms beyond Impaired Chloride Transport.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Adriana N; Mathiaparanam, Stellena; Brick, Lauren; Keenan, Katherine; Gonska, Tanja; Pedder, Linda; Hill, Stephen; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2017-08-23

    The sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in support of universal newborn screening programs. However, it provides ambiguous results for intermediate sweat chloride cases while not reflecting disease progression when classifying the complex CF disease spectrum given the pleiotropic effects of gene modifiers and environment. Herein we report the first characterization of the sweat metabolome from screen-positive CF infants and identify metabolites associated with disease status that complement sweat chloride testing. Pilocarpine-stimulated sweat specimens were collected independently from two CF clinics, including 50 unaffected infants (e.g., carriers) and 18 confirmed CF cases. Nontargeted metabolite profiling was performed using multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry as a high throughput platform for analysis of polar/ionic metabolites in volume-restricted sweat samples. Amino acids, organic acids, amino acid derivatives, dipeptides, purine derivatives, and unknown exogenous compounds were identified in sweat when using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, including metabolites associated with affected yet asymptomatic CF infants, such as asparagine and glutamine. Unexpectedly, a metabolite of pilocarpine, used to stimulate sweat secretion, pilocarpic acid, and a plasticizer metabolite from environmental exposure, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalic acid, were secreted in the sweat of CF infants at significantly lower concentrations relative to unaffected CF screen-positive controls. These results indicated a deficiency in human paraoxonase, an enzyme unrelated to mutations to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and impaired chloride transport, which is a nonspecific arylesterase/lactonase known to mediate inflammation, bacterial biofilm formation, and recurrent lung infections in affected CF children later in life. This work sheds new light into the

  17. Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Song; Sucheston, Lara E.; Millen, Amy E.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Nesline, Mary K.; Davis, Warren; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Hwang, Helena; Kulkarni, Swati; Edge, Stephen B.; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. Methods and Findings In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. Conclusion In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant

  18. [Algorithm for estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in case II water body based on bio-optical model].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Jin; Mausushita, Bunki

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, a novel retrieval method for estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters based on bio-optical model was proposed and was tested with the data measured in the laboratory. A series of reflectance spectra, with which the concentration of each sample constituent (for example chlorophyll-a, NPSS etc.) was obtained from accurate experiments, were used to calculate the absorption and backscattering coefficients of the constituents of the case II waters. Then non-negative least square method was applied to calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a and non-phytoplankton suspended sediments (NPSS). Green algae was firstly collected from the Kasumigaura lake in Japan and then cultured in the laboratory. The reflectance spectra of waters with different amounts of phytoplankton and NPSS were measured in the dark room using FieldSpec Pro VNIR (Analytical Spectral Devises Inc. , Boulder, CO, USA). In order to validate whether this method can be applied in multispectral data (for example Landsat TM), the spectra measured in the laboratory were resampled with Landsat TM bands 1, 2, 3 and 4. Different combinations of TM bands were compared to derive the most appropriate wavelength for detecting chlorophyll-a in case II water for green algae. The results indicated that the combination of TM bands 2, 3 and 4 achieved much better accuracy than other combinations, and the estimated concentration of chlorophyll-a was significantly more accurate than empirical methods. It is expected that this method can be directly applied to the real remotely sensed image because it is based on bio-optical model.

  19. Intracranial subdural hematomas with elevated rivaroxaban concentration and subsequently detected spinal subdural hematoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Koga, Masatoshi; Matsuki, Takayuki; Hino, Tenyu; Yokota, Chiaki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2016-07-01

    A 79-year-old lean man with a height of 157cm and weight of 42kg (body mass index, 17.2kg/m(2)) receiving rivaroxaban developed an intracranial subdural hematoma and was treated conservatively. Because he had a reduced creatinine clearance of 44mL/min, his dosage of rivaroxaban was reduced from 15 to 10mg daily according to official Japanese prescribing information. However, he developed bilateral intracranial subdural hematomas 2weeks later. Plasma rivaroxaban concentration on anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay was elevated at 301ng/mL, suggesting excessive accumulation. He underwent burr hole drainage and resumed anticoagulation with warfarin. Subsequently, he developed a lumbosacral hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged without neurological sequelae. The main cause of the increased concentration of rivaroxaban was believed to be his older age and low body weight. The etiology of the spinal hematoma was suspected to be the migration of intracranial hematoma to the spinal subdural space.

  20. [Determination of methanol concentration by GC-MS in a fatal case poisoning].

    PubMed

    Moaleş, Doina; Spac, A F; Gavriliu, Carmen; Bădără, M; Iftimie, Dorina; Butnaru, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Due to the consumption of alcoholic beverages with methanol content above the admitted limit, a woman from Bacău died at the Bacău County Hospital after 9 hours of hospitalization. For the toxicological examination blood, liver, bile, stomach, intestine and kidney samples were analyzed in order to establish the concentration of methanol. Determination of methanol was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analyzing the distillates obtained from blood and organs. We used an Agilent Technologies 7890 A gas chromatograph coupled to an Agilent Technologies 7683 C spectrometer. Helium was employed as mobile phase and a Phenomenex Zebron ZW-Plus polar column represented the stationary phase. Spectra acquisition mode: SIM, mass range followed: 15-500 atomic mass units, interpretation of the obtained results: Agilent Technologies ChemStation software. After peak integration on the chromatograms, the following values of methanol concentration were obtained: 1.720 g per thousand in blood, 0.795 g per thousand in liver, 2.661 g per thousand in bile, 2.287 g per thousand in stomach, 1.639 g per thousand in intestine and 1.590 g per thousand in kidney; the results have proved a large quantity of ingested methanol. They have also highlighted the absorption and distribution pattern of the methanol within the body.

  1. Unnatural and Violent Death in Cases with High Blood Alcohol Concentration- Autopsy Study.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Danica; Živković, Vladimir; Lukić, Vera; Nikolić, Slobodan

    2017-02-23

    The use of alcohol increases the risk of dying from unnatural or violent causes. The presented study explored the distribution of age, gender, cause, and circumstances of death in persons who died in an unnatural and violent manner, with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) higher than 0.3 g/dL, and where the cause of death was not alcohol intoxication. We defined the control (0 < BAC < 0.3 g/dL) and study (BAC ≥ 0.3 g/dL) groups, as in subjects with these concentrations, there is a significant risk of gross intoxication, stupor, and death. The subjects from the study group were older, with no difference in gender distribution. Traffic accidents were the most common fatal event in both groups, followed by suicides. Other accidents (choking on food and exposure to fire) were more frequent in the study group. Compared to the control group, subjects from the study group were older persons whose deaths were mainly accidental.

  2. Ab initio prediction of vacancy properties in concentrated alloys: The case of fcc Cu-Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.

    2015-05-01

    Vacancy properties in concentrated alloys continue to be of great interest because nowadays ab initio supercell simulations reach a scale where even defect properties in disordered alloys appear to be within reach. We show that vacancy properties cannot generally be extracted from supercell total energies in a consistent manner without a statistical model. Essential features of such a model are knowledge of the chemical potential and imposition of invariants. In the present work, we derive the simplest model that satisfies these requirements and we compare it with models in the literature. As illustration we compute ab initio vacancy properties of fcc Cu-Ni alloys as a function of composition and temperature. Ab initio density functional calculations were performed for SQS supercells at various compositions with and without vacancies. Various methods of extracting alloy vacancy properties were examined. A ternary cluster expansion yielded effective cluster interactions (ECIs) for the Cu-Ni-Vac system. Composition and temperature dependent alloy vacancy concentrations were obtained using statistical thermodynamic models with the ab initio ECIs. An Arrhenius analysis showed that the heat of vacancy formation was well represented by a linear function of temperature. The positive slope of the temperature dependence implies a negative configurational entropy contribution to the vacancy formation free energy in the alloy. These findings can be understood by considering local coordination effects.

  3. Chloride transport in human erythrocytes and ghosts: a quantitative comparison.

    PubMed

    Funder, J; Wieth, J O

    1976-11-01

    1. Homogeneous preparations of resealed ghosts with intracellular KCl concentrations between 15 and 900 mM could be prepared. Virtually all ghosts sealed to chloride. The chloride transport system was found not to be damaged: a quantitative comparison of the self-exchange of 36Cl- across intact and resealed membranes showed that both the transport capacity and a number of characteristic properties were identical (saturation kinetics, temperature dependence and the effect of inhibitors). 2. Due to the absence of intracellular titratable buffers intracellular chloride concentration in ghosts vary only slightly between pH5 and 11. The unidirectional exchange flux was constant between pH 7 and 11, showing that the transport system does not have a functionally important titratable group in the alkaline range, as previously assumed. The decrease of transport below pH 7 is similar in intact erythrocytes and ghosts. 3. Mean cellular volume of the resealed ghosts was a function of the amount of KCl added at 'reversal', before the ghosts are sealed. The ghosts shrank by osmosis when KCl was added to the suspension of 'unsealed' ghosts. The reflexion coefficient of sucrose (and therefore the osmotic effect) is larger than that of KCl. It was, therefore, possible to demonstrate that volume changes do not affect the chloride transport across the human red cell membrane. Unidirectional chloride fluxes at a KCl concentration of 165 mM were independent of ghost volume (100-40 mum3).

  4. Performance of para-Pak Ultra ECOFIX compared with Para-Pak Ultra formalin/mercuric chloride-based polyvinyl alcohol for concentration and permanent stained smears of stool parasites.

    PubMed

    Fedorko, D P; Williams, E C; Nelson, N A; Mazyck, T D; Hanson, K L; Cartwright, C P

    2000-05-01

    ECOFIX is a mercury and formalin-free fecal preservative that can be used for concentration of stool specimens and preparation of permanently-stained slides. In this study, the standard two-vial ParaPak Ultra system was compared with ECOFIX Ultra for the detection of intestinal parasites. A total of 261 specimens in 92 sets (77 with 3 specimens, 15 with 2 specimens) were collected in ECOFIX, formalin, and low viscosity polyvinyl alcohol (LV-PVA). Concentrations were performed from ECOFIX using Hemo-De and saline and from formalin using ethyl acetate and formalin. To prepare permanently-stained smears, ECOSTAIN (a modification of Wheatley's trichrome stain) was used on ECOFIX material and Wheatley's trichrome stain was used on specimens preserved in PVA. A total of 157 protozoa and helminths were detected; 132 (84.1%) were recovered in formalin/PVA and 129 (82.2%) in ECOFIX. In permanently-stained smears, 139 protozoa were observed, 116 (83.5%) in PVA-preserved material and 117 (84.2%) in ECOFIX. Fecal concentration yielded 111 parasites (103 protozoa and 8 helminths), of which 98 (88.3%) were detected in formalin-fixed stool and 48 (43.2%) in ECOFIX. Significantly fewer ECOFIX-preserved concentrates were positive for Blastocystis hominis (35 versus 15, p-value <0.001) and Endolimax nana (19 versus 2, p-value <0.001). In conclusion, use of the ECOFIX Ultra collection device in combination with ECOSTAIN resulted in largely comparable recovery of enteric parasites to the conventional two-vial ParaPak Ultra system when both sedimentation-concentration and permanently stained smears were performed, and 2-3 specimens per patient were evaluated.

  5. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  6. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  7. Concentric-Electrode Organic Electrochemical Transistors: Case Study for Selective Hydrazine Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Pecqueur, Sébastien; Lenfant, Stéphane; Guérin, David; Alibart, Fabien; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    We report on hydrazine-sensing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) with a design consisting of concentric annular electrodes. The design engineering of these OECTs was motivated by the great potential of using OECT sensing arrays in fields such as bioelectronics. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-based OECTs have been studied as aqueous sensors that are specifically sensitive to the lethal hydrazine molecule. These amperometric sensors have many relevant features for the development of hydrazine sensors, such as a sensitivity down to 10−5 M of hydrazine in water, an order of magnitude higher selectivity for hydrazine than for nine other water-soluble common analytes, the capability to entirely recover its base signal after water flushing, and a very low operation voltage. The specificity for hydrazine to be sensed by our OECTs is caused by its catalytic oxidation at the gate electrode, and enables an increase in the output current modulation of the devices. This has permitted the device-geometry study of the whole series of 80 micrometric OECT devices with sub-20-nm PEDOT:PSS layers, channel lengths down to 1 µm, and a specific device geometry of coplanar and concentric electrodes. The numerous geometries unravel new aspects of the OECT mechanisms governing the electrochemical sensing behaviours of the device—more particularly the effect of the contacts which are inherent at the micro-scale. By lowering the device cross-talk, micrometric gate-integrated radial OECTs shall contribute to the diminishing of the readout invasiveness and therefore further promote the development of OECT biosensors. PMID:28287475

  8. Mesoscale circulation systems and ozone concentrations during ESCOMPTE: a case study from IOP 2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Thürauf, J.; Corsmeier, U.; Saїd, F.; Fréjafon, E.; Perros, P. E.

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of 'Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d'Emissions' (ESCOMPTE) is to generate a relevant data set for testing and evaluating mesoscale chemistry-transport models (CTMs). During ESCOMPTE, measurements have been performed at numerous surface stations, by radars and lidars, and several aircraft in the planetary boundary layer. The data from these different sources have been merged to obtain a consistent description of the spatial distribution of wind, temperature, humidity, and ozone for the photosmog episode on June 25, 2001 (IOP 2b). On this day, moderate synoptic winds favour the evolution of different mesoscale circulation systems. During daytime, the sea breeze penetrates towards the north in the Rhône valley. As the winds above the sea breeze layer come from the east, polluted air from the metropolitan area of Marseille leads to an increase of ozone at elevated layers above the convective boundary layer (CBL). At the mountainous station of Luberon about 55 km north of Marseille around noon, when the CBL top surpasses the height of the mountain summit, polluted air with ozone concentrations of about 120 ppbv arrived from southerly directions, thus indicating the passage of the city plume of Marseille. At Cadarache and Vinon in the Durance valley, about 60 km inland, the ozone maximum at the surface and at flight level 920 m MSL appears between 14 and 15 UTC. At this time, southwesterly valley winds prevail in the valley, while southerly winds occur above. This finding highlights the height-dependent advection of ozone due to interacting mesoscale circulation systems. These dynamical processes need to be represented adequately in CTMs to deliver a realistic description of the ozone concentration fields.

  9. Concentric-Electrode Organic Electrochemical Transistors: Case Study for Selective Hydrazine Sensing.

    PubMed

    Pecqueur, Sébastien; Lenfant, Stéphane; Guérin, David; Alibart, Fabien; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2017-03-11

    We report on hydrazine-sensing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) with a design consisting of concentric annular electrodes. The design engineering of these OECTs was motivated by the great potential of using OECT sensing arrays in fields such as bioelectronics. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-based OECTs have been studied as aqueous sensors that are specifically sensitive to the lethal hydrazine molecule. These amperometric sensors have many relevant features for the development of hydrazine sensors, such as a sensitivity down to 10(-5) M of hydrazine in water, an order of magnitude higher selectivity for hydrazine than for nine other water-soluble common analytes, the capability to entirely recover its base signal after water flushing, and a very low operation voltage. T