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Sample records for chloride salt occluded

  1. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michele A.; Pereira, Candido

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  2. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  3. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite A

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistance sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1,000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  4. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  5. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  6. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  7. Densification of salt-occluded zeolite a powders to a leach-resistant monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Murhpy, C.D.

    1993-10-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) yields a salt waste of LiCl-KCl that contains approximately 6 wt% fission products, primarily as CsCl and SrCl{sub 2}. Past work has shown that zeolite A will preferentially sorb cesium and strontium and will encapsulate the salt waste in a leach-resistant, radiation-resistant aluminosilicate matrix. However, a method is sill needed to convert the salt-occluded zeolite powders into a form suitable for geologic disposal. We are thus investigating a method that forms bonded zeolite by hot pressing a mixture of glass frit and salt-occluded zeolite powders at 990 K (717{degree}C) and 28 MPa. The leach resistance of the bonded zeolite was measured in static leach tests run for 28 days in 363 K (90{degree}C) deionized water. Normalized release rates of all elements in the bonded zeolite were low, <1 g/m{sup 2} d. Thus, the bonded zeolite may be a suitable waste form for IFR salt waste.

  8. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods available to you and millions of other consumers. You will have the power to choose the ... cutting back and how to build a healthier relationship with food. Sea Salt Versus Table Salt Discover ...

  9. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  10. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  11. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOEpatents

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  12. Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Richmann, Michael K.

    2007-05-15

    A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

  13. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  14. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  15. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  16. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  17. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  18. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  19. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-01

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

  20. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

  1. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  2. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely used in foods for...

  3. Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Frozen Chloride Salts on Icy Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Paul; Thomas, Elena C.; Hodyss, Robert; Vu, Tuan; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Currently, our understanding of the chemical composition of Europa's surface is our best means of inferring constraints on the subsurface ocean composition and its subsequent habitability. The bulk of our knowledge of Europa surface chemistry can be traced to near infrared spectra recorded by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Galileo spacecraft. However, the usefulness of this and other remote sensing data is limited by the availability of spectral libraries of candidate materials under relevant conditions (temperature, thermal/radiation history, etc.). Chloride salts are expected to exist on the surface of Europa, and other icy bodies, based on geochemical predictions of the ocean composition. In order to help improve our understanding of Europa's surface composition, we have conducted a study of frozen chloride-salt brines prepared under simulated Europa surface conditions (vacuum, temperature, and UV irradiation) using both near IR and Raman spectroscopies. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the hydration states of various chloride salts as a function of temperature. Near IR spectroscopy of identically prepared samples was used to provide reference reflectance spectra of the identified hydrated salts. Our results indicate that at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 233 K, hydrohalite is formed from the freezing of NaCl brines, while the freezing of KCl solutions does not form KCl hydrates. In addition, the freezing of MgCl2 solutions forms a stable hexahydrate, and the freezing of CaCl2 solutions forms a hexahydrate, a tetrahydrate, and a dihydrate. Dehydration of the salts was observed as temperatures were increased, leading to a succession of hydration states in the case of CaCl2.

  4. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system.

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-02-12

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a {+-}3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of {+-}15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism.

  5. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  6. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  7. Constraints on the composition and particle size of chloride salt-bearing deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotch, Timothy D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Wolff, Michael J.; Arnold, Jessica A.; Che, Congcong

    2016-03-01

    Chloride salt-bearing deposits on Mars were discovered using the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and have been characterized by both mid-infrared (MIR) and visible-to-near-infrared (VNIR) remote sensing instruments. The chloride salt-bearing deposits exhibit a blue slope at MIR wavelengths and a featureless red slope at VNIR wavelengths. These deposits also lack strong 3 µm bands in VNIR spectra, indicating that they are desiccated compared to the surrounding regolith. The lack of VNIR spectral features suggests that an anhydrous chloride salt, the most likely of which is halite, is responsible for the observed spectral slope. In this work, we use laboratory spectra and a hybrid T-matrix/Hapke light scattering model to constrain the particle sizes and salt abundances of the Martian chloride salt-bearing deposits. Our work shows that the two broad spectral classes of these deposits observed by THEMIS can be explained by a difference in the particle size of the admixed silicate regolith. In all cases, chloride salt abundances of 10-25% are required to match the THEMIS data. The chloride salt abundances determined in this work suggest deposition in a lacustrine/playa setting or in association with late-stage groundwater upwelling.

  8. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content.

  9. GmCLC1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance through Regulating Chloride Accumulation in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peipei; Wang, Longchao; Liu, Ailin; Yu, Bingjun; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl- transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl- homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl-), on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl-/H+ antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast. We found that GmCLC1 enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic A. thaliana by reducing the Cl- accumulation in shoots and hence released the negative impact of salt stress on plant growth. Overexpression of GmCLC1 in the hairy roots of soybean sequestered more Cl- in their roots and transferred less Cl- to their shoots, leading to lower relative electrolyte leakage values in the roots and leaves. When either the soybean GmCLC1 or the yeast chloride transporter gene, GEF1, was transformed into the yeast gef1 mutant, and then treated with different chloride salts (MnCl2, KCl, NaCl), enhanced survival rate was observed. The result indicates that GmCLC1 and GEF1 exerted similar effects on alleviating the stress of diverse chloride salts on the yeast gef1 mutant. Together, this work suggests a protective function of GmCLC1 under Cl- stress. PMID:27504114

  10. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  11. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  12. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  13. Metal-free Synthesis of Ynones from Acyl Chlorides and Potassium Alkynyltrifluoroborate Salts

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Cassandra L.; Bolshan, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Ynones are a valuable functional group and building block in organic synthesis. Ynones serve as a precursor to many important organic functional groups and scaffolds. Traditional methods for the preparation of ynones are associated with drawbacks including harsh conditions, multiple purification steps, and the presence of unwanted byproducts. An alternative method for the straightforward preparation of ynones from acyl chlorides and potassium alkynyltrifluoroborate salts is described herein. The adoption of organotrifluoroborate salts as an alternative to organometallic reagents for the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds has a number of advantages. Potassium organotrifluoroborate salts are shelf stable, have good functional group tolerance, low toxicity, and a wide variety are straightforward to prepare. The title reaction proceeds rapidly at ambient temperature in the presence of a Lewis acid without the exclusion of air and moisture. Fair to excellent yields may be obtained via reaction of various aryl and alkyl acid chlorides with alkynyltrifluoroborate salts in the presence of boron trichloride. PMID:25742169

  14. Method for making a uranium chloride salt product

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    2004-10-05

    The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

  15. LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

    2008-11-21

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

  16. Chloride Released from Three Permeable Pavement Surfaces after Winter Salt Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA does not classify chloride as a priority pollutant. It is often unregulated in stormwater runoff but has been a target stressor for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) allotments developed for multiple waterbodies. Previous research has shown that road salt applications increas...

  17. Chloride Released from Three Permeable Pavement Surfaces after Winter Salt Application - journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA does not classify chloride as a priority pollutant. It is often unregulated in stormwater runoff but has been a target stressor for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) allotments developed for multiple waterbodies. Previous research has shown that road salt applications increas...

  18. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of chloride salt deposits in Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chloride salt-bearing deposits have been identified throughout the southern highlands of Mars [1] based on the lack of diagnostic spectral features of anhydrous chlorides in both the visible near infrared (VNIR) and middle infrared (MIR) wavelength ranges [1,2]. A puzzling aspect of martian chloride deposits is the apparent lack of other weathering or evaporite phases associated with most of the deposits. A global analysis over the chloride salt sites conducted by [3] found that only ~9% of the deposits they analyzed were associated with minerals such as phyllosilicates. Most of these occurrences are in Terra Sirenum where [4] noted that salt-bearing deposits lie stratigraphically above Noachian phyllosilicates. Although a variety of formation mechanisms have been proposed for these intriguing deposits, detailed geologic mapping by [5] suggests that surface water and evaporation played a dominant role. On Earth, evaporative settings are often characterized by a multitude of evaporite and phyllosilicate phases including carbonates, sulfates, and nitrates. [6] evaluated chemical divides and brine evolution for martian systems and their results indicate three pathways wherein late-stage brines favor chloride precipitation. In each case the pathway to chloride formation includes precipitation of carbonates (calcite, siderite, and/or magnesite) and sulfates (gypsum, melanterite, and/or epsomite). Here, we present the results of our detailed and systematic spectroscopic study to identify additional evaporite phases associated with salt/silicate mixtures in Terra Sirenum. [1] Osterloo et al. (2008) Science, 319, [2] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2013) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XLIV, abstract #1549 [3] Ruesch, O. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00J13 [4] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L16202, [5] Osterloo, M. M. and B. M Hynek (2015) Lunar and Planet. Sci XLVI. Abstract #1054 [6] Tosca, N. J. and S. M. McLennan (2006), Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 241.

  19. Groundwater chloride response in the Highland Creek watershed due to road salt application: A re-assessment after 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Nandana; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Howard, Ken

    2013-02-01

    SummaryChloride from road salt enters streams primarily through surface runoff and groundwater discharge. Monitoring of dry-weather flow chloride concentrations in the Highland Creek watershed of the eastern Greater Toronto Area indicates the presence of a previously unrecognised, dual porosity aquifer system whereby preferential flow associated with "urban karst" exerts a significant influence on baseflow chloride concentrations early in the year. A chloride mass balance undertaken annually over four successive salting seasons suggests that as much as 40% of the chloride applied as road salt enters the shallow aquifer resulting in a net accumulation of chloride and a gradual increase in mean baseflow chloride concentrations. Assuming current road salt application rates are continued, late summer baseflow chloride concentrations will reach around 505 mg/L, almost double present levels. Elevated chloride concentrations can affect the potability of water (the Canadian aesthetic drinking water quality guideline for chloride is 250 mg/L) and can also be toxic to aquatic organisms (CCME aquatic chronic toxicity guideline is 208 mg/L). Meeting these guidelines would require that the release of salt-laden runoff to the subsurface be reduced by over 50%.

  20. Wearable Potentiometric Chloride Sweat Sensor: The Critical Role of the Salt Bridge.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Seob; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2016-12-20

    The components of sweat provide an array of potential biomarkers for health and disease. Sweat chloride is of interest as a biomarker for cystic fibrosis, electrolyte metabolism disorders, electrolyte balance, and electrolyte loss during exercise. Developing wearable sensors for biomarkers in sweat is a major technological challenge. Potentiometric sensors provide a relatively simple technology for on-body sweat chloride measurement, however, equilibration between reference and test solutions has limited the time over which accurate measurements can be made. Here, we report on a wearable potentiometric chloride sweat sensor. We performed parametric studies to show how the salt bridge geometry determines equilibration between the reference and test solutions. From these results, we show a sweat chloride sensor can be designed to provide accurate measurements over extended times. We then performed on-body tests on healthy subjects while exercising to establish the feasibility of using this technology as a wearable device.

  1. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  2. Chloride salt mixtures affect Gordal cv. green Spanish-style table olive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bautista Gallego, J; Arroyo López, F N; Romero Gil, V; Rodríguez Gómez, F; García García, P; Garrido Fernández, A

    2011-10-01

    This work studies the effects of different sodium (in the range of 4-10%), potassium (0-4%) and calcium (0-6%) chloride salt mixtures on the fermentation profile of Gordal olives processed according to the Spanish style. For this purpose, response surface methodology based on a simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (sum of salt percentages = 10%) was used. All treatments reached appropriate titratable acidity levels, but this parameter could not be related to the initial chloride salt concentration. The presence of CaCl(2) led to lower initial and after-fermentation pHs, delayed sugar diffusion into the brine, its maximum concentration and titratable acidity formation. CaCl(2) also delayed Enterobacteriaceae and yeast sprang, decreasing their overall growth. This chloride salt also showed a tendency to reduce overall lactic acid bacteria growth. KCl had a similar behaviour to NaCl but, in general, increased overall microbial growth. Thus, a partial substitution of NaCl in Spanish-style green olives with KCl and CaCl(2) does not substantially modify the fermentation profile but does produce some changes, which, when properly managed, could help to improve product processing.

  3. Iron(III)-induced activation of chloride and bromide from modeled salt pans.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, Julian; Bleicher, Sergej; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-14

    The photochemistry of halides in sea spray aerosol, on salt pans, and on other salty surfaces leads to a formation of reactive halogen species. We investigated the photochemical formation of atomic chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br) in the gas phase in the presence of laboratory-modeled salt pans consisting of sodium chloride doped with iron(III) chloride hexahydrate (0.5 and 2 wt %). The samples were spread on a Teflon sheet and exposed to simulated sunlight in a Teflon smog chamber in purified, humidified air in the presence of a test mixture of hydrocarbons at the ppb level to determine Cl, Br, and OH formation by the radical clock method. Driven by the photolytic reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), the production rates of the Fe(III)-doped NaCl salt samples (up to10(7) atoms cm(-3) s(-1)) exceeded the release of Cl above a pure NaCl sample by more than an order of magnitude in an initially O3-free environment at low NOX. In bromide-doped samples (0.5 wt % NaBr), a part of the Cl release was replaced by Br when Fe(III) was present. Additions of sodium sulfate, sodium oxalate, oxalic acid, and catechol to NaCl/FeCl3 samples were found to restrain the activation of chloride.

  4. Fourteen-year survival of Pseudomonas cepacia in a salts solution preserved with benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Geftic, S G; Heymann, H; Adair, F W

    1979-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas cepacia that survived for 14 years (1963 to 1977) as a contaminant in an inorganic salt solution which contained commercial 0.05% benzalkonium chloride (CBC) as an antimicrobial preservative, was compared to a recent clinical isolate of P. cepacia. Ammonium acetate was present in the concentrated stock CBC solution, and served as a carbon and nitrogen source for growth when carried over into the salts solution with the CBC. The isolate's resistance to pure benzalkonium chloride was increased step-wise to a concentration of 16%. Plate counts showed 4 x 10(3) colony-forming units per ml in the salts solution. Comparison of growth rates, mouse virulence, antibiotics resistance spectra, and substrate requirements disclosed no differences between the contaminant and a recently isolated clinical strain of P. cepacia. The results indicate that it is critical that pharmaceutical solutions containing benzalkonium chloride as an antimicrobial preservative be formulated without extraneous carbon and nitrogen sources or be preserved with additional antimicrobial agents. PMID:453827

  5. ROAD SALT APPLICATION CREATES A UNIQUE CHLORIDE BIOCHEMISTRY IN AN URBAN STREAM OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent evidence from the mid-Atlantic suggests that freshwater supplies are threatened by chronic chloride inputs from road salts applied to improve highway safety. Elevated chloride levels also may limit the ability of aquatic systems to microbially process nitrate nitrogen, a ...

  6. Using chloride and other ions to trace sewage and road salt in the Illinois Waterway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, W.R.; Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Hwang, H.-H.; Martinsek, A.T.; Markus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in waterways of northern USA are increasing at alarming rates and road salt is commonly assumed to be the cause. However, there are additional sources of Cl- in metropolitan areas, such as treated wastewater (TWW) and water conditioning salts, which may be contributing to Cl- loads entering surface waters. In this study, the potential sources of Cl- and Cl- loads in the Illinois River Basin from the Chicago area to the Illinois River's confluence with the Mississippi River were investigated using halide data in stream samples and published Cl- and river discharge data. The investigation showed that road salt runoff and TWW from the Chicago region dominate Cl- loads in the Illinois Waterway, defined as the navigable sections of the Illinois River and two major tributaries in the Chicago region. Treated wastewater discharges at a relatively constant rate throughout the year and is the primary source of Cl- and other elements such as F- and B. Chloride loads are highest in the winter and early spring as a result of road salt runoff which can increase Cl- concentrations by up to several hundred mg/L. Chloride concentrations decrease downstream in the Illinois Waterway due to dilution, but are always elevated relative to tributaries downriver from Chicago. The TWW component is especially noticeable downstream under low discharge conditions during summer and early autumn when surface drainage is at a minimum and agricultural drain tiles are not flowing. Increases in population, urban and residential areas, and roadways in the Chicago area have caused an increase in the flux of Cl- from both road salt and TWW. Chloride concentrations have been increasing in the Illinois Waterway since around 1960 at a rate of about 1 mg/L/a. The increase is largest in the winter months due to road salt runoff. Shallow groundwater Cl- concentrations are also increasing, potentially producing higher base flow concentrations. Projected increases in population and

  7. Chloride absorption in salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange and salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin citrus rootstocks is linked to water use.

    PubMed

    Moya, José Luís; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Talon, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    In this work, seedlings of two citrus rootstocks, the salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and the salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.) were used to study the relationship between chloride and water uptake. The results indicated that net chloride uptake rates in both genotypes were alike and decreased linearly with the time of salinity exposure, although they were more rapidly reduced in the tolerant genotype. In each rootstock, chloride uptake rates paralleled the decreases in transpiration rates. When transpiration was modified, concomitant changes in leaf Cl(-) concentrations were observed. There was a high positive correlation between total chloride content per plant and total water absorbed. In addition, the data indicate that the tolerant genotype "excluded" more chloride, i.e. it absorbed lower amounts of chloride per volume of water. Cleopatra also possessed a less efficient root system for water uptake and a higher shoot-to-root ratio. The results show that, overall, chloride absorption is linked to water use and that further tolerance in Cleopatra is mostly conferred by superior root resistance to Cl(-) uptake. Therefore, it is proposed that chloride absorption and, hence, salt tolerance in citrus depends to a great extent upon water use.

  8. Dechlorination and stabilization of radioactive chloride salt waste in a molten state

    SciTech Connect

    In-Tae Kim; Hwan-Seo Park; Yong-Jun Cho; Hwan-Young Kim; Seong-Won Park; Eung-Ho Kim

    2007-07-01

    This study suggests a new method to stabilize the molten salt wastes generated from he pyro-processing of a LWR spent fuel. Using a conventional sol-gel process, an inorganic material (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, SAP) reactive to metal chlorides was prepared. In this paper, the reactivity of the SAP on the metal chlorides at 650-850 deg. C, the thermal stability of the reaction products and their leach-resistance under the PCT-A leach test were investigated. In the SAP, three different kinds of chains are available; Si-O-Si (main chain), Si-O-Al (side chain) and Al-O-P/P-O-P (reactive chain). Alkali metal chlorides were converted into metal aluminosilicate (Li{sub x}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-x}) and metal phosphate(Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}AlP{sub 3}O{sub 10}) while the alkaline earth and rare earth chlorides were changed into only metal phosphates (Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl and CePO{sub 4}). The conversion rate was about 96% at a salt waste/SAP weight ratio of 0.5 and a weight loss up to 1100 deg. C measured by the thermo-gravimetric analysis was below 1 Wt%. The leach rates of Cs and Sr under the PCT-A leaching condition were about 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -4} g/m{sup 3}.day, respectively. From these results, it could be concluded that the SAP developed in this study can be considered as an effective stabilizer for metal chlorides and the method of using the SAP could provide a chance to minimize the final waste volume to be disposed off. (authors)

  9. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  10. Geopolymer encapsulation of a chloride salt phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Rhys; Trout, Neil; Raud, Ralf; Clarke, Stephen; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2016-05-01

    In an effort to reduce the cost and increase the material compatibility of encapsulated phase change materials (EPCMs) a new encapsulated system has been proposed. In the current study a molten salt eutectic of barium chloride (53% wt.), potassium chloride (28% wt.) and sodium chloride (19% wt.) has been identified as a promising candidate for low cost EPCM storage systems. The latent heat, melting point and thermal stability of the phase change material (PCM) was determined by DSC and was found to be in good agreement with results published in the literature. To cope with the corrosive nature of the PCM, it was decided that a fly-ash based geopolymer met the thermal and economic constraints for encapsulation. The thermal stability of the geopolymer shell was also tested with several formulations proving to form a stable shell for the chosen PCM at 200°C and/or 600°C. Lastly several capsules of the geopolymer shell with a chloride PCM were fabricated using a variety of methods with several samples remaining stable after exposure to 600°C testing.

  11. Adsorption of N-alkylpyridinium chlorides from water and salt solutions on cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Klimenko, N.A.; Yaroshenko, N.A.; Kondratova, T.B.

    1988-09-01

    A study has been made of the adsorption of three homologues in the N-alkylpyridinium chloride series from water and salt solutions, over a wide range of concentrations, on cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membranes, Grades UAM-500 and UAM-150. When adsorption takes place from true solutions, the membrane surface is hydrophobized. In the region of micellar solutions, nonassociated molecules and micelles are adsorbed in the mesopores and supermicropores, forming a mosaic adsorption layer. The thickness of the modifying layer depends on the length of the hydrophobic radical and on the composition of the system.

  12. The Composition and Physical Properties of Chloride Salt-bearing Deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J.; Wolff, M. J.; Arnold, J. A.; Che, C.

    2015-12-01

    Anhydrous chloride salt deposits were first discovered on Mars by the 2001 Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and have been further characterized by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM and Mars Express visible/near-IR (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers. At mid-IR wavelengths, the salt-bearing deposits display a blue slope superimposed on the regional regolith spectral shape. At VNIR wavelengths, ratio spectra display a featureless red slope between 1.0 and 2.5 μm and a reduced 3 μm band, indicating that the deposits are desiccated compared to the surrounding terrain. In this work, we compare laboratory and model spectra to THEMIS spectra to evaluate the abundance and physical properties of salt in these deposits. We acquired mid-IR emissivity spectra of a suite of halite/basalt mixtures separated to <10 μm, 63-90 μm, 125-180 μm, and 250-355 μm. Halite concentrations for each size separate ranged from 1-75%. Laboratory spectra of the coarsest particulates do not adequately reproduce the spectral shapes associated with any of the Martian salt deposits. The finest particulates display spectral characteristics associated with salt deposits found in high albedo, dusty regions of Mars, and those in the middle size ranges are consistent with the spectra of most Martian salt deposits and suggest abundances between 10 and 25 wt.% salt. The increase in salt content from ~10-25% coincides with a shift in the THEMIS emissivity maximum from band 3 to band 4, suggesting this can be used as a rough indicator of salt content in remote sensing studies. We also used a hybrid T-matrix/Hapke light scattering model to model the scattering properties and mid-IR spectra of clusters of salt/silicate spheres. The model results show that as halite content is increased, the transparency of the cluster increases substantially, resulting in multiple internal scattering, and substantially reduced emissivity, consistent with the THEMIS data and laboratory spectra. Phase

  13. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  14. Nonlinear optical study of 1-(carboxymethyl)-8-hydroxyquinolin-1-ium chloride and 1-(carboxymethyl)quinolin-1-ium chloride salts by Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Arfan, A.; Allahham, A.

    2016-12-01

    Z-scan technique was used to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of 1-(carboxymethyl)-8-hydroxyquinolin-1-ium chloride and 1-(carboxymethyl)quinolin-1-ium chloride salts. The new 1-(carboxymethyl)-8-hydroxyquinolin-1-ium chloride and 1-(carboxymethyl)quinolin-1-ium chloride salts were synthesized and characterized using UV-visible, FTIR and NMR measurements and the characterization spectra confirm the expected molecular structure of the prepared salts. Measurements were performed with a CW Diode laser at 635 nm wavelength and 26 mW power. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refractive index (n2) of the 1-(carboxymethyl)-8-hydroxyquinolin-1-ium chloride was affected by OH group. The excited-state absorption cross sections (σex) and the ground -state absorption cross sections (σg) were calculated for the two studied compounds. It was found that the σex is larger than the σg, indicating that the reverse saturable absorption mechanism (RSA) is the dominating mechanism for the observed absorption nonlinearities. Our results suggest that this material should be considered as a promising candidate for future optical devices applications.

  15. Enhanced piezoresponse of electrospun PVDF mats with a touch of nickel chloride hexahydrate salt.

    PubMed

    Dhakras, Dipti; Borkar, Vivek; Ogale, Satishchandra; Jog, Jyoti

    2012-02-07

    PVDF nanofibers are prepared using electrospinning. The effect of addition of a hydrated salt, nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl(2)·6H(2)O), on the phase formation is examined. Addition of the hydrated salt (NC) is found to enhance the polar β phase by about 30%. The peak to peak piezo-voltage generated for PVDF NC is almost 0.762 V, a factor of 3 higher than that for PVDF. The fiber mats exhibit a significantly enhanced dynamic strain sensor response. The voltage generated per unit micro-strain developed during the free vibration test for PVDF was 0.119 mV whereas it was 0.548 mV for PVDF NC, exhibiting a non-linearly enhanced performance vis a vis the increase in the β phase component.

  16. Hydrogen bonding Part 38. IR and thermodynamic study of phosphorylcholine chloride calcium salt tetrahydrate and monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Kenneth M.; Akin, Anne C.

    1991-09-01

    Vapor pressure vs. H 2O content studies demonstrate that phosphorylcholine chloride calcium salt forms two hydrates, a monohydrate and a tetrahydrate, in the range 0-4 mol H 20 mol -1 of salt; there is no dihydrate or trihydrate. Equilibrium vapor pressure measurements show that ΔH 0 of dissociation per mol H 20 lost is greater for the tetrahydrate (16.08 kcal mol -1) than for the monohydrate (12.49 kcal mo -1); the lower stability of the tetrahydrate arises from entropy effects. The IR spectrum of the tetrahydrate is that of a framework clathrate hydrate and suggests that the -P0 3 group may act as a very weak hydrogen-bond acceptor. In the monohydrate the -P0 3 group is not involved in hydrogen bonding. Neither hydrate contains POH bonds.

  17. Enhanced piezoresponse of electrospun PVDF mats with a touch of nickel chloride hexahydrate salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakras, Dipti; Borkar, Vivek; Ogale, Satishchandra; Jog, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    PVDF nanofibers are prepared using electrospinning. The effect of addition of a hydrated salt, nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2.6H2O), on the phase formation is examined. Addition of the hydrated salt (NC) is found to enhance the polar β phase by about 30%. The peak to peak piezo-voltage generated for PVDF NC is almost 0.762 V, a factor of 3 higher than that for PVDF. The fiber mats exhibit a significantly enhanced dynamic strain sensor response. The voltage generated per unit micro-strain developed during the free vibration test for PVDF was 0.119 mV whereas it was 0.548 mV for PVDF NC, exhibiting a non-linearly enhanced performance vis a vis the increase in the β phase component.PVDF nanofibers are prepared using electrospinning. The effect of addition of a hydrated salt, nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2.6H2O), on the phase formation is examined. Addition of the hydrated salt (NC) is found to enhance the polar β phase by about 30%. The peak to peak piezo-voltage generated for PVDF NC is almost 0.762 V, a factor of 3 higher than that for PVDF. The fiber mats exhibit a significantly enhanced dynamic strain sensor response. The voltage generated per unit micro-strain developed during the free vibration test for PVDF was 0.119 mV whereas it was 0.548 mV for PVDF NC, exhibiting a non-linearly enhanced performance vis a vis the increase in the β phase component. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11841f

  18. Secretion by the nasal salt glands of two insectivorous lizard species is initiated by an ecologically relevant dietary ion, chloride.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Lisa C; Lechuga, Claudia; Zilinskis, Stephanie

    2010-08-01

    Salt glands are used by some vertebrates to excrete hyperosmotic NaCl or KCl solutions in response to dietary salt loads. Control of secretion varies across taxa; some secrete in response to osmotic challenges while others secrete in response to specific dietary ions. We hypothesized that differences in control could be related to different diet-related selective pressures on herbivorous, marine, and insectivorous species. We studied control of secretion and flexibility of cation (sodium or potassium) and anion (chloride or bicarbonate) secretion in two insectivorous lizard species, Schneider's skinks (Eumeces schneideri, Scincidae) and green anoles (Anolis carolinensis, Polychrotidae). Lizards were injected daily for four days with combinations of cations (potassium, sodium, and histidine control) and anions (chloride and acetate control), isoosmotic saline, or sham injection. Secretions were collected daily and analyzed for sodium, potassium, and chloride. Both species secreted only in response to chloride; sodium appeared to have a slight inhibitory effect. Regardless of cation load, skinks secreted a combination of potassium and sodium, while anoles secreted solely potassium. In both species, total cation secretion was matched closely by chloride; very little bicarbonate was secreted. As predicted, secretion in insectivorous lizards was initiated by the dietary ion ecologically most important for these species, chloride, which otherwise cannot be excreted without significant water loss (unlike the cations, which may be excreted as insoluble urate salts). This gives further support to the hypothesis that ecological factors drive the evolution of control mechanisms in lizard salt glands.

  19. Characterization of chloride transport in the unsaturated zone near salted road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lax, Samanta; Peterson, Eric W.

    2009-09-01

    The application of road salts as deicing agents contributes to the anthropogenic loading of chloride (Cl-) on the environment. Using a 2D solute model, the potential of the unsaturated zone to serve as a reservoir and the mechanisms controlling the movement of Cl- were examined. Physical properties and initial pore-water Cl- concentrations were derived from an array of soil borings. Initial pore-water concentrations show the presence of a Cl- “slug” approximately 0.75 m below the surface. Simulations show that within the unsaturated zone, Cl- transport is predominantly vertical, driven by molecular diffusion. After a 1-year simulation, a Cl- slug similar to the background observation was noted. While Cl- is retained in the unsaturated zone, a net loss of Cl- from the unsaturated zone was simulated for the first 10 years. In year 11, an equilibrium between the Cl- input and output is achieved. The presence of Cl- in the unsaturated zone becomes a long-term source of chloride to the groundwater, which eventually discharges into the surface water. Historically, surface water chemistry data support the continual discharge of chloride to the surface water in the area, further supporting the hypothesis that the unsaturated zone serves as a Cl- reservoir.

  20. The flux of methyl chloride along an elevational gradient of a coastal salt marsh, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxin; Li, Rongjin; Guo, Yingyan; Qin, Pei; Sun, Shucun

    Salt marshes have been suggested to be a large potential source for methyl chloride (CH 3Cl) that is the major natural carrier of chlorine to the stratosphere. However, the global budget of this trace gas is uncertain, and the empirical field data are still lacking. In this study, CH 3Cl fluxes were measured seasonally using static flux chambers from April 2004 to January 2005, along an elevational gradient of a coastal salt marsh in eastern China. To estimate the contribution of higher plants to the flux, plant aboveground biomass was experimentally removed and the flux difference between the treatment and the intact was examined. In addition, the flux was analyzed in relation to soil and weather conditions. Along the elevational gradient, the salt marsh generally functioned as a net sink in the growing season (from April to October 2004). The flux of CH 3Cl ranged between -1.27 and -29.33 μmol m -2 d -1 (positive for emission and negative for consumption), and the maximum negative rates occurred at the mudflat and the cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora) marsh. However, the measurements made during inundation indicated that the mudflat was a net source of the gas. In the non-growing season (from November to March), the vegetated flat, when frozen, was a minor source of methyl chloride, with an emission rate ranging from 0.27 to 9.13 μmol m -2 d -1. However, the measurements made during non-frozen periods indicate that the mudflat was a minor sink of methyl chloride. Overall, the study marsh was a large net sink for the gas because the magnitude of the consumption rates was lager than that of emission, and because the duration of the growing season was longer than that of the non-growing season. Plant aboveground biomass had a great effect on the flux. Comparative analyses showed that higher plants were present as an important source of CH 3Cl, and it could balance 17.26-67.66% of the soil consumption. The net CH 3Cl consumption rate was negatively correlated to

  1. A reactive distillation process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Lee, K. R.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    The pyrochemical process, which recovers useful resources (U/TRU metals) from used nuclear fuel using an electrochemical method, generates LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides (RECl3). It is necessary to develop a simple process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt in a hot-cell facility. For this reason, a reactive distillation process using a chemical agent was achieved as a method to separate rare earths from the LiCl-KCl waste salt. Before conducting the reactive distillation, thermodynamic equilibrium behaviors of the reactions between rare earth (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) chlorides and the chemical agent (K2CO3) were predicted using software. The addition of the chemical agent was determined to separate the rare earth chlorides into an oxide form using these equilibrium results. In the reactive distillation test, the rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were decontaminated at a decontamination factor (DF) of more than 5000, and were mainly converted into oxide (Nd2O3, CeO2, La2O3, Pr2O3) or oxychloride (LaOCl, PrOCl) forms. The LiCl-KCl was purified into a form with a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides.

  2. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  3. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  4. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  5. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  6. Effect of Sodium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate, and Salt Mixtures on Aqueous Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2016-12-06

    Dissolved inorganic salts influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amounts of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na2SO4, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH4)2SO4. Salt mixtures were also tested to establish whether the salt effect is additive. In general, the salt effect showed a decreasing trend of Na2SO4 > (NH)2SO4 > NaCl > NH4Cl > NH4NO3 for the studied organic compounds, implying the following relative strength of the salt effect of individual anions: SO4(2-) > Cl(-) > NO3(-) and of cations: Na(+) > NH4(+). The salt effect of different salts is moderately correlated. Predictive models for the salt effect were developed based on the experimental data. The experimental data indicate that the salt effect of mixtures may not be entirely additive. However, the deviation from additivity, if it exists, is small. Data of very high quality are required to establish whether the effect of constituent ions or salts is additive or not.

  7. Complex ion effects on polypeptide conformational stability: chloride and sulfate salts of guanidinium and tetrapropylammonium.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Christopher E; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2011-05-18

    The effects of chloride and sulfate salts of tetrapropylammonium (TPA(+)) and guanidinium (Gdm(+)) on the conformational stabilities of tryptophan zipper (trpzip) and α-helical (alahel) peptides were measured by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Like Gdm(+), TPA(+) interacts with the planar tryptophan indole group, perturbing the conformational stability of trpzip peptides. TPA(+) effects are largely unaffected by sulfate, indicating an absence of the heteroion pairing that is observed in concentrated Gdm(2)SO(4) solutions. TPA(+) stabilizes helical conformations in alahel peptides, indicating exclusion from the peptide bond. The observations are broadly consistent with predictions of molecular dynamics simulations [Mason, P. E.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B2009, 113, 3227-3234], indicating that the effects of complex ions on proteins are increasingly predictable in terms of ion hydration, complementary interactions with specific protein groups, and ion-pairing contributions.

  8. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  9. Hydration of lanthanide chloride salts: a quantum chemical and classical molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Cesar; Hagberg, Daniel; Spezia, Riccardo; Gagliardi, Laura

    2010-12-02

    We present the results of a quantum chemical and classical molecular dynamics simulation study of some solutions containing chloride salts of La(3+), Gd(3+), and Er(3+) at various concentrations (from 0.05 to 5 M), with the purpose of understanding their structure and dynamics and analyzing how the coordination varies along the lanthanide series. In the La-Cl case, nine water molecules surround the central La(3+) cation in the first solvation shell, and chloride is present only in the second shell for all solutions but the most concentrated one (5 M). In the Gd(3+) case, the coordination number is ∼8.6 for the two lowest concentrations (0.05 and 0.1 M), and then it decreases rapidly. In the Er(3+) case, the coordination number is 7.4 for the two lowest concentrations (0.05 and 0.1 M), and then it decreases. The counterion Cl(-) is not present in the first solvation shell in the La(3+) case for most of the solutions, but it becomes progressively closer to the central cation in the Gd(3+) and Er(3+) cases, even at low concentrations.

  10. Interactive role of nitric oxide and calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nasir; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a small diffusible, ubiquitous bioactive molecule, acts as prooxidant as well as antioxidant, and also regulates remarkable spectrum of plant cellular mechanisms. The present work was undertaken to investigate the role of nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and/or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) in the tolerance of excised mustard leaves to salt stress. After 24h, salt stressed leaves treated with SNP and/or CaCl(2), showed an improvement in the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and nitrate reductase (NR), and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and leaf ion concentration as compared with the leaves treated with NaCl only. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in H(2)O(2) content and membrane damage which is witnessed by enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage. By contrast, such increases were blocked by the application of 0.2mM SNP and 10mM CaCl(2) to salt stressed leaves. Application of SNP and/or CaCl(2) alleviated NaCl stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and by enhancing proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) accumulation with a concomitant decrease in H(2)O(2) content, TBARS and electrolyte leakage, which is manifested in the tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Moreover, application of SNP with CaCl(2) was more effective to reduce the detrimental effects of NaCl stress on excised mustard leaves. In addition to this, ameliorating effect of SNP was not effective in presence of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide]. To put all these in a nut shell, the results advocate that SNP in association with CaCl(2) plays a role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to salt stress by improving antioxidative defence system, osmolyte accumulation and ionic

  11. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  12. Single crystal, vibrational and computational studies of Theophylline (a bronchodilator drug) and its chloride salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary Novena, L.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Saminathan, K.; Sridhar, B.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal structure of Theophylline (TH) and Theophyillinium chloride monohydrate (THC) and its complete molecular structure analysis on theoretical and experimental methods is reported here. The hydrogen bonding studies were carried out as a special note of the present work. The electron density analyses of the compounds were also analyzed in view of the intermolecular interactions. Moreover, it is an ever first quantum chemical report of this drug (TH) and its chloride salt. In TH crystal, the water molecule connects the Theophylline molecules through Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond forming discrete D22(7) motif and dimeric ring R22(10) motif through Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. In THC, the two classical (Nsbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and one non-classical (Csbnd H⋯O) hydrogen bonds produce two pentameric chain C55 (16) and C55(17) motifs. These two chain motifs are interconnected by Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond and cross linked by Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Osbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to produce octametric ring R88(27) and R88(28) motifs. The solubility test is carried out to enhance the drug solubility and the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. Experimentally obtained vibrational wavenumbers are compared with the spectra obtained theoretically for both the compound. The strong intensity bands and the shifting of bands due to intermolecular hydrogen bonds are also investigated. The Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO and thermodynamic properties are calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock Theory (HF) using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set.

  13. Cellulose aerogels prepared from an aqueous zinc chloride salt hydrate melt.

    PubMed

    Schestakow, Maria; Karadagli, Ilknur; Ratke, Lorenz

    2016-02-10

    Monolithic cellulose aerogels are prepared using a salt hydrate melt based on cheap zinc chloride tetrahydrate (ZnCl2·4H2O) that can be washed out of the wet gel-body by using common solvents such as water, ethanol, isopropanol or acetone. Cellulose aerogels with concentrations of 1-5 wt.% cellulose were produced. These aerogels are characterized with respect to shrinkage, density and surface area as well as mechanical properties and micro-structure via SEM. Cellulose aerogels regenerated in acetone show a specific surface area of around 340 m(2)g(-1) being 60% higher than those regenerated in water. The onset of irreversible plastic deformation under compressive load is around 0.8 MPa for acetone-regenerated aerogels and thus a factor of two larger compared to ethanol regenerated ones. The Young's modulus depends almost linearly on the cellulose concentration which is observed for all regenerative fluids with the exception of water. The results achieved are presented in light of the polarity and ability of solvation of ZnCl2·4H2O in the regenerative fluids used.

  14. The ClC-K2 Chloride Channel Is Critical for Salt Handling in the Distal Nephron.

    PubMed

    Hennings, J Christopher; Andrini, Olga; Picard, Nicolas; Paulais, Marc; Huebner, Antje K; Cayuqueo, Irma Karen Lopez; Bignon, Yohan; Keck, Mathilde; Cornière, Nicolas; Böhm, David; Jentsch, Thomas J; Chambrey, Régine; Teulon, Jacques; Hübner, Christian A; Eladari, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Chloride transport by the renal tubule is critical for blood pressure (BP), acid-base, and potassium homeostasis. Chloride uptake from the urinary fluid is mediated by various apical transporters, whereas basolateral chloride exit is thought to be mediated by ClC-Ka/K1 and ClC-Kb/K2, two chloride channels from the ClC family, or by KCl cotransporters from the SLC12 gene family. Nevertheless, the localization and role of ClC-K channels is not fully resolved. Because inactivating mutations in ClC-Kb/K2 cause Bartter syndrome, a disease that mimics the effects of the loop diuretic furosemide, ClC-Kb/K2 is assumed to have a critical role in salt handling by the thick ascending limb. To dissect the role of this channel in detail, we generated a mouse model with a targeted disruption of the murine ortholog ClC-K2. Mutant mice developed a Bartter syndrome phenotype, characterized by renal salt loss, marked hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Patch-clamp analysis of tubules isolated from knockout (KO) mice suggested that ClC-K2 is the main basolateral chloride channel in the thick ascending limb and in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Accordingly, ClC-K2 KO mice did not exhibit the natriuretic response to furosemide and exhibited a severely blunted response to thiazide. We conclude that ClC-Kb/K2 is critical for salt absorption not only by the thick ascending limb, but also by the distal convoluted tubule.

  15. Laminar iridium coating produced by pulse current electrodeposition from chloride molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li'an; Bai, Shuxin; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Yicong

    2013-10-01

    Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, Iridium (Ir) is one of the most promising oxidation-resistant coatings for refractory materials above 1800 °C in aerospace field. However, the Ir coatings prepared by traditional methods are composed of columnar grains throughout the coating thickness. The columnar structure of the coating is considered to do harm to its oxidation resistance. The laminar Ir coating is expected to have a better high-temperature oxidation resistance than the columnar Ir coating does. The pulse current electrodeposition, with three independent parameters: average current density (Jm), duty cycle (R) and pulse frequency (f), is considered to be a promising method to fabricate layered Ir coating. In this study, laminar Ir coatings were prepared by pulse current electrodeposition in chloride molten salt. The morphology, roughness and texture of the coatings were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), profilometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the laminar Ir coatings were composed of a nucleation layer with columnar structure and a growth layer with laminar structure. The top surfaces of the laminar Ir coatings consisted of cauliflower-like aggregates containing many fine grains, which were separated by deep grooves. The laminar Ir coating produced at the deposition condition of 20 mA/cm2 (Jm), 10% (R) and 6 Hz (f) was quite smooth (Ra 1.01 ± 0.09 μm) with extremely high degree of preferred orientation of <1 1 1>, and its laminar structure was well developed with clear boundaries and uniform thickness of sub-layers.

  16. Sodium chloride crystallization from drying drops of albumin-salt solutions with different albumin concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhno, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    The salt nature of crystalline structures resulting from drying albumin-salt solutions with a low (<1 wt %) and high (7 and 9 wt %) concentration of albumin and a NaCl concentration kept at a physiological level (0.9 wt %) is experimentally substantiated. Such a conclusion is drawn from the dynamics of phase transitions, morphological studies, and differences between the physicochemical properties of albumin and salt. Obtained data give a deeper insight into the albumin and salt distributions in drying liquids.

  17. Salt crust development in paddy fields owing to soil evaporation and drainage: Contribution of chloride and deuterium profile analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünberger, Olivier; Macaigne, Peggy; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Hartmann, Christian; Sukchan, Somsak

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn Northeast Thailand lowlands with shallow saline watertable, rainfed paddy fields often present high salt concentration in the dry season, forming patches or spots of salt crusts on the soil surface. In this context, the mechanisms implied in salt concentration during dry season were studied by establishing salt budget with evaporation and drainage estimates inside and outside a saline patch. Drainage was estimated by Hydrus-1D modelling constrained by an hydrodynamic characterization and the profile of water contents at the end of dry season. Evaporation rates at the end of the dry season were computed by interpreting natural detailed profiles of deuterium (D) and chloride (Cl) contents. Because of the drastic diminution of hydraulic conductivity at saturation with depth and the decrease of groundwater level at the end of the cropping season, simulated hydrological balance with Hydrus-1D pointed out zero cumulated fluxes for depths of 39.5 cm (outside the saline patch) and 37.5 cm (inside the saline patch). Therefore, all the chloride accumulated in the very upper layers during dry season comes from the chloride that was present in the 0-39.5 cm layers before the beginning of the drying. Inside the saline patch, the tentative Cl budget is coherent with the hypothesis of saturation of the profile by aquifer saline water during the flooding. Evaporation rates computed from the diffusion of chloride and deuterium at the end of the drying season, when the aquifer level was 1.4 m deep, range between 0.121 and 0.378 mm d -1. This does not sustain the assumption of a considerable salinity contribution from the aquifer during the dry season. Moreover, evaporation estimates based on Cl and D diffusion equilibrium showed depleted rates (38-63%) inside the saline patch due to salt accumulation in the first 12 cm of the soil. In the vapour transfer layer, estimated evaporation rate based on the vapour movement of D was in the same order of magnitude than computed

  18. Analysis of the corrosion of carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-04-01

    An analysis of literature data on the corrosion of carbon steels in anoxic brines and acid chloride solutions was performed, and the results were used to assess the expected life of high-level nuclear waste package containers in a salt repository environment. The corrosion rate of carbon steels in moderately acidic aqueous chloride environments obeys an Arrhenius dependence on temperature and a (pH{sub 2}){sup {minus}1/2} dependence on hydrogen partial pressure. The cathodic reduction of water to produce hydrogen is the rate-controlling step in the corrosion process. An expression for the corrosion rate incorporating these two dependencies was used to estimate the corrosion life of several proposed waste package configurations. 42 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  20. Potential of salt-accumulating and salt-secreting halophytic plants for recycling sodium chloride in human urine in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Shklavtsova, E. S.; Balnokin, Yu. V.; Popova, L. G.; Myasoedov, N. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-07-01

    This study addresses the possibility of growing different halophytic plants on mineralized human urine as a way to recycle NaCl from human wastes in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). Two halophytic plant species were studied: the salt-accumulating Salicornia europaea and the salt-secreting Limonium gmelinii. During the first two weeks, plants were grown on Knop's solution, then an average daily amount of urine produced by one human, which had been preliminarily mineralized, was gradually added to the experimental solutions. Nutrient solutions simulating urine mineral composition were gradually added to control solutions. NaCl concentrations in the stock solutions added to the experimental and control solutions were 9 g/L in the first treatment and 20 g/L in the second treatment. The mineralized human urine showed some inhibitory effects on S. europaea and L. gmelinii. The biomass yield of experimental plants was lower than that of control ones. If calculated for the same time period (120 d) and area (1 m 2), the amount of sodium chloride taken up by S. europaea plants would be 11.7 times larger than the amount taken up by L. gmelinii plants (486 g/m 2 vs. 41 g/m 2). Thus, S. europaea is the better choice of halophyte for recycling sodium chloride from human wastes in BLSS.

  1. Damage development, phase changes, transport properties, and freeze-thaw performance of cementitious materials exposed to chloride based salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnam, Yaghoob

    Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in premature deterioration in concrete pavements and flat works that are exposed to chloride based salts. Chloride based salts can cause damage and deterioration in concrete due to the combination of factors which include: increased saturation, ice formation, salt crystallization, osmotic pressure, corrosion in steel reinforcement, and/or deleterious chemical reactions. This thesis discusses how chloride based salts interact with cementitious materials to (1) develop damage in concrete, (2) create new chemical phases in concrete, (3) alter transport properties of concrete, and (4) change the concrete freeze-thaw performance. A longitudinal guarded comparative calorimeter (LGCC) was developed to simultaneously measure heat flow, damage development, and phase changes in mortar samples exposed to sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl 2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) under thermal cycling. Acoustic emission and electrical resistivity measurements were used in conjunction with the LGCC to assess damage development and electrical response of mortar samples during cooling and heating. A low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC) was used to evaluate the chemical interaction that occurs between the constituents of cementitious materials (i.e., pore solution, calcium hydroxide, and hydrated cement paste) and salts. Salts were observed to alter the classical phase diagram for a salt-water system which has been conventionally used to interpret the freeze-thaw behavior in concrete. An additional chemical phase change was observed for a concrete-salt-water system resulting in severe damage in cementitious materials. In a cementitious system exposed to NaCl, the chemical phase change occurs at a temperature range between -6 °C and 8 °C due to the presence of calcium sulfoaluminate phases in concrete. As a result, concrete exposed to NaCl can experience additional freeze-thaw cycles due to the chemical

  2. Bromination of aromatic compounds by residual bromide in sodium chloride matrix modifier salt during heated headspace GC/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Dennis D; Ko, Saebom; Huling, Scott

    2013-12-15

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation reactions and contained aromatic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferric sulfate. Prior to GC/MS headspace analysis, the samples were acidified (pH<2), and sodium chloride was amended to the headspace vial as a matrix modifier. The brominated artifacts were generated during heated headspace analysis. Further, when samples were spiked with a mixture of volatile chlorinated and aromatic compounds (50 µg/L), poor spike recoveries of toluene and xylenes occurred, and in some cases complete loss of trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene resulted. Where poor recovery of aromatic spike compounds occurred, brominated aromatic compounds were found. The only significant source of bromine in the reaction scheme is the bromide typically present (<0.01% w/w) in the sodium chloride amended to the samples. Conversely, brominated artifacts were absent when a buffered salt mixture composed of sodium chloride and potassium phosphate dibasic/monobasic was used as a matrix modifier and raised the sample pH (pH~6). This indicated that the brominated artifacts resulted from the reaction of the aromatic compounds with BrCl, which was formed by the reaction of H2O2, chloride, and bromide under acidic conditions. An alternative matrix modifier salt is recommended that prevents the bromination reaction and avoids these deleterious effects on sample integrity during headspace analysis.

  3. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  4. Chemical compositions of sulfate and chloride salts over the last termination reconstructed from the Dome Fuji ice core, inland Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Uemura, Ryu; Miyake, Takayuki; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Motoyama, Hideaki; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Hondoh, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The flux and chemical composition of aerosols impact the climate. Antarctic ice cores preserve the record of past atmospheric aerosols, providing useful information about past atmospheric environments. However, few studies have directly measured the chemical composition of aerosol particles preserved in ice cores. Here we present the chemical compositions of sulfate and chloride salts from aerosol particles in the Dome Fuji ice core. The analysis method involves ice sublimation, and the period covers the last termination, 25.0-11.0 thousand years before present (kyr B.P.), with a 350 year resolution. The major components of the soluble particles are CaSO4, Na2SO4, and NaCl. The dominant sulfate salt changes at 16.8 kyr B.P. from CaSO4, a glacial type, to Na2SO4, an interglacial type. The sulfate salt flux (CaSO4 plus Na2SO4) inversely correlates with δ18O in Dome Fuji over millennial timescales. This correlation is consistent with the idea that sulfate salt aerosols contributed to the last deglacial warming of inland Antarctica by reducing the aerosol indirect effect. Between 16.3 and 11.0 kyr B.P., the presence of NaCl suggests that winter atmospheric aerosols are preserved. A high NaCl/Na2SO4 fraction between 12.3 and 11.0 kyr B.P. indicates that the contribution from the transport of winter atmospheric aerosols increased during this period.

  5. Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhai; Jia, Aijun; Ning, Tangyuan; Xu, Jialin; Li, Zengjia; Jiang, Gaoming

    2008-09-29

    A sand culture experiment was conducted to answer the question whether or not exogenous KNO(3) can alleviate adverse effects of salt stress in winter wheat by monitoring plant growth, K(+)/Na(+) accumulation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Seeds of two wheat cultivars (CVs), DK961 (salt-tolerant) and JN17 (salt-sensitive), were planted in sandboxes and controls germinated and raised with Hoagland nutrient solution (6 mM KNO(3), no NaCl). Experimental seeds were exposed to seven modified Hoagland solutions containing increased levels of KNO(3) (11, 16, 21 mM) or 100 mM NaCl in combination with the four KNO(3) concentrations (6, 11, 16 and 21 mM). Plants were harvested 30 d after imbibition, with controls approximately 22 cm in height. Both CVs showed significant reduction in plant height, root length and dry weight of shoots and roots under KNO(3) or NaCl stress. However, the combination of increased KNO(3) and NaCl alleviated symptoms of the individual salt stresses by improving growth of shoots and roots, reducing electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents and enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The salt-tolerant cultivar accumulated more K(+) in both shoots and roots compared with the higher Na(+) accumulation typical for the salt-sensitive cultivar. Soluble sugar content and activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be more stable in the salt-tolerant cultivar. Our findings suggest that the optimal K(+)/Na(+) ratio of the nutrient solution should be 16:100 for both the salt-tolerant and the salt-sensitive cultivar under the experimental conditions used, and that the alleviation of NaCl stress symptoms through simultaneously applied elevated KNO(3) was more effective in the salt-tolerant than in the salt-sensitive cultivar.

  6. Reactivity of NaCl with Secondary Organic Acids: An Important Mechanism of the Chloride Depletion in Sea Salt Particles Mixed with Organic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Kelly, S.; Gilles, M. K.; Shilling, J. E.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sea salt particles, one of the major sources of atmospheric aerosols, undergo complex multi-phase reactions and have profound consequences on their physical and chemical properties, thus on climate. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of sea salt chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids. Some studies have also showed that the chloride deficit cannot be fully compensated for this mechanism. We present an important pathway contributing to this chloride depletion: reactions of weak organic acids with sea salt particles. NaCl particles internally mixed with secondary organic materials generated from the reactions of limonene and alpha-pinene with ozone served as surrogates for sea salt particles mixed with organic materials. Chemical imaging analysis of these particles was conducted using complementary techniques including computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and micro-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). Substantial chloride depletion and formation of organic salts were observed along with distinctive changes in particle morphology after hydration/dehydration processes. The results indicate that secondary organic acids can effectively react with NaCl particles resulting in displacement of chloride and release of gaseous HCl. This is consistent with a recent field study showing chloride depletion in sea salt particles mixed with organic materials which cannot be fully compensated by inorganic acid displacement. Although the formation of the organic salts is not thermodynamically favored in bulk aqueous solution, these reactions are driven by the high volatility and evaporation of gaseous HCl in particles, especially during hydration/dehydration processes. The

  7. Chloride dynamics in a restored urban stream and the influence of road salts on water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services from these widely used de-icers. Preliminary analysis identified a probable connection between road salt application and a stream wat...

  8. Salting-out solvent extraction for the off-line preconcentration of benzalkonium chloride in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    So, T S; Huie, C W

    2001-07-01

    The use of salting-out effect for the off-line preconcentration of charged analytes in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated for the first time. Using benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as model compound, a mixture of cationic surfactants consisting of even-numbered alkylbenzyl quaternary ammonium homologues (C8-C18), the addition of appropriate amounts of sodium chloride and acetonitrile in the sample solution (2 mL sample volume) was found to be capable of providing ca. 40-fold enhancement in detection sensitivity. In addition to affording a preconcentrating effect due to the extraction of BAK in the smaller volume water-miscible organic solvent phase (acetonitrile), the organic solvent also serves to improve the peak area and shape of the longer chain surfactants. Optimal experimental conditions, such as volume of acetonitrile and concentration of sodium chloride, for the preconcentration of BAK with good preconcentration factors and reproducibility were investigated. The usefulness of the present method was demonstrated for the improved determination of BAK present in commercially available industrial and pharmaceutical products.

  9. The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

  10. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P < 0.05]. In these salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P < 0.05; NE+NS: 11.1 ± 1.1; NE+HS: 10.8 ± 0.4). NE infusion did not alter NCC expression in animals maintained on NS; however, dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC expression was prevented in animals challenged with NE. Chronic NCC antagonism abolished the salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  11. Rapid, easy cyanation of aryl bromides and chlorides using nickel salts in conjunction with microwave promotion.

    PubMed

    Arvela, Riina K; Leadbeater, Nicholas E

    2003-11-14

    We report here a fast, easy, and efficient method for the preparation of aryl nitriles from aryl bromides and chlorides. The methodology for aryl bromides involves the use of either Ni(CN)(2) or NaCN and NiBr(2). With aryl chlorides, a mix of NaCN and NiBr(2) is used and the reaction proceeds via the in situ formation of the corresponding aryl bromide. The reaction can be performed in air and is complete within 10 min.

  12. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-10-06

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects.

  13. EVIDENCE OF CORROSIVE GAS FORMED BY RADIOLYSIS OF CHLORIDE SALTS IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion and pitting have been observed in headspace regions of stainless steel containers enclosing plutonium oxide/salt mixtures. These observations are consistent with the formation of a corrosive gas, probably HCl, and transport of that gas to the headspace regions of sealed containers. The NH{sub 4}Cl films found on the walls of the sealed containers is also indicative of the presence of HCl gas. Radiolysis of hydrated alkaline earth salts is the probable source of HCl.

  14. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  15. Dietary salt regulates the phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK kinases and the sodium chloride cotransporter through aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Chiga, Motoko; Rai, Tatemitsu; Yang, Sung-Sen; Ohta, Akihito; Takizawa, Toichiro; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2008-12-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is caused by mutations in the WNK1 and WNK4 genes (WNK with-no-lysine kinase). In a mouse model of this disease where a mutant of Wnk4 D561A was knocked in, increased phosphorylation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) was found and the transporter was concentrated on the apical membrane of the distal tubules. In addition, we recently found that other kinases, such as the oxidative stress response kinase-1/STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (OSR1/SPAK), also showed increased phosphorylation in these mice. Here we determined whether this kinase cascade is regulated by dietary salt intake. We found that the phosphorylation states of NCC and OSR1/SPAK were increased by low-salt diets and decreased by high-salt diets; a regulation completely lost in the knock-in mice. Increased phosphorylation was reversed by spironolactone and this decreased phosphorylation was reversed by administration of exogenous aldosterone. These studies suggest that that the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade may be a novel effector system of aldosterone action in the kidney.

  16. The role of the binding salt sodium salicylate in semidilute ionic cetylpyridinium chloride micellar solutions: a rheological and scattering study.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, D; Pasquino, R; Stellbrink, J; Szekely, N; Krutyeva, M; Radulescu, A; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Grizzuti, N

    2016-12-21

    The micellar system based on cetylpyridinium chloride (CPyCl) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) in brine solution is investigated on both macro- and micro-length scales through rheology and scattering measurements. The linear viscoelasticity of the system and its structural parameters are explored by systematically changing the amount of NaSal over an extremely wide range of concentrations, thus producing salt-to-surfactant molar ratios from zero to about 8.5. As a result, the well-known non-monotonic behaviour of the zero-shear rate viscosity as a function of salinity can be connected to micellar morphological changes, whose driving force is represented by the simultaneous binding and screening actions of NaSal. The viscosity behaviour can be seen as a direct consequence of consecutive lengthening/shortening of the contour length, where the micelles attempt to minimize the electrostatic charge density on their surface. Along similar lines, the scattering measurements of the semidilute solutions show that the local stiffness of the micellar chain changes with increasing salt content influencing the elasticity of the resulting network. Within this general view, the branching of the micelles can be seen as a side effect attributable to the main character of the play, namely, the binding salt NaSal, whereas the overall dynamics of the system is driven by the considerable changes in the entanglement density of the micellar network.

  17. Microbial stability and quality of seasoned cracked green Aloreña table olives packed in diverse chloride salt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2013-11-01

    This work was conducted to determine the effect of the partial replacement of NaCl by KCl and CaCl2 (expressed as percentages, wt/vol) on the microbial stability and physicochemical characteristics of seasoned cracked olives using a simplex centroid mixture design. Neither Enterobacteriaceae nor lactic acid bacteria were found during the 50 days that olive packages were monitored. Therefore, microbial instability was considered due to the growth of yeasts, which were the only detected microorganisms; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia membranifaciens were the most relevant species. Yeasts decreased during the first 21 to 30 days after packing, but their populations rose to 3.5 log CFU/ml by the end of the storage period, clearly causing product deterioration. The partial substitution of NaCl with the other chloride salts slightly altered the phase of microbial inhibition and regrowth. Most of the quality characteristics were not affected by the use of the alternative salt mixtures, but the pH values and Cl(-) concentrations in brine decreased as the CaCl2 concentration increased. Hence, seasoned cracked table olives can be produced using a lower proportion of NaCl without causing significant changes in the shelf life and product quality, although further detailed studies are necessary to guarantee the stability of products packed with specific salt mixtures.

  18. Upregulation of apical sodium-chloride cotransporter and basolateral chloride channels is responsible for the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Giovambattista; Rizzo, Maria; Garavaglia, Maria Lisa; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Mugione, Alessandra; Ferrari, Patrizia; Paulmichl, Markus; Lang, Florian; Loffing, Johannes; Carrel, Monique; Damiano, Sara; Wagner, Carsten A; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Meyer, Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    We investigated which of the NaCl transporters are involved in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats were studied 3 mo after birth. In MHS, compared with normotensive strain (MNS), mRNA abundance, quantified by competitive PCR on isolated tubules, was unchanged, both for Na+/H+ isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na+-K+-2Cl- (NKCC2), but higher (119%, n = 5, P < 0.005) for Na+-Cl- (NCC) in distal convoluted tubules (DCT). These results were confirmed by Western blots, which revealed: 1) unchanged NHE3 in the cortex and NKCC2 in the outer medulla; 2) a significant increase (52%, n = 6, P < 0.001) of NCC in the cortex; 3) alpha- and beta-sodium channels [epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)] unaffected in renal cortex and slightly reduced in the outer medulla, while gamma-ENaC remained unchanged. Pendrin protein expression was unaffected. The role of NCC was reinforced by immunocytochemical studies showing increased NCC on the apical membrane of DCT cells of MHS animals, and by clearance experiments demonstrating a larger sensitivity (P < 0.001) to bendroflumethiazide in MHS rats. Kidney-specific chloride channels (ClC-K) were studied by Western blot experiments on renal cortex and by patch-clamp studies on primary culture of DCT dissected from MNS and MHS animals. Electrophysiological characteristics of ClC-K channels were unchanged in MHS rats, but the number of active channels in a patch was 0.60 +/- 0.21 (n = 35) in MNS rats and 2.17 +/- 0.59 (n = 23) in MHS rats (P < 0.05). The data indicate that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, there is a strong upregulation, both of NCC and ClC-K along the DCT, which explains the persistence of hypertension.

  19. Preparation of Ferrotitanium Alloy from Ilmenite by Electrochemical Reduction in Chloride Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Can-can; Hua, Yi-xin; Chen, Kong-hao; Jie, Ya-fei; Zhou, Zhong-ren; Ru, Juan-jian; Xiong, Li; Gong, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Ferrotitanium alloy is prepared by electrochemical reduction from ilmenite in LiCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 molten salts, respectively. The products prepared are observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). It is shown that Fe2Ti can be prepared from ilmenite in LiCl-KCl molten salt at 1073 K with a cell voltage of 3.2 V. Ilmenite can be electrochemically reduced to FeTi in LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 molten salt under the same condition. It is indicated that CaCl2 can promote the reaction and is favors the deoxidization of the FeTiO3.

  20. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Highly Dense NiCr-Based Coatings in Chloride Salt Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Enwei; Yin, Song; Ji, Hua; Huang, Qian; Liu, Zekun; Wu, Shuhui

    2017-03-01

    To make cities more environmentally friendly, combustible wastes tend to be incinerated in waste-to-energy power plant boilers. However, release of chlorine gas (Cl2) during incineration causes serious problems related to hot corrosion of boiler tubes and poses a safety threat for such plants. In this study, a pseudo-de Laval nozzle was employed in a twin-wire arc spray system to enhance the velocity of in-flight particles. Highly dense NiCr-based coatings were obtained using the modified nozzle gun. The coating morphology was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and hot corrosion testing was carried out in a synthetic molten chloride salt environment. Results showed that the dense NiCr-based coatings exhibited high resistance against corrosion by chlorine, which can be related to the typical splat lamellar microstructure and chemical composition as well as minor alloying elements such as Ti and Mo.

  1. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of osmotic backwash induced by high salt (NaCl) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning. SWRO membranes were deliberately fouled by feeding seawater from an open intake located on the Arabian Gulf Coast without dosing chemicals. The fouled membranes were subjected to offline cleaning with the salt solution of up to 25 % concentration. Despite the partial removal of foulants from the membrane surface, SWRO membrane performance could not be restored, indicating the ineffectiveness of osmotic backwash in aiding offline salt cleaning. Similarly, online osmotic backwash was found to be not only ineffective in removing foulants from membrane surfaces but actually increased the fouling rate, as indicated by faster fouling rates compared to other cases. Although the driving force required for the osmotic backwash existed, the generated back flow proved to be insufficient to detach foulants from membrane surfaces. During the study period, the average SWRO membrane flux was maintained between 19 and 23 LMH, whereas the average generated back flow flux by high salt concentration solution was only 11 LMH, which was not adequate to remove foulants from membrane surfaces. Moreover, it seems that the membrane configuration as well as inherent microstructure of SWRO membrane places certain constraints on the osmotic backwash process and renders osmotic backwash ineffective in tackling SWRO membrane fouling. Hence, chemical cleaning is essential to restore SWRO membrane performance whenever fouling occurs, and the use of highly concentrated salt solution does not have any significant benefit. Membrane autopsy revealed only an insignificant accumulation of biofouling layer despite the absence of disinfection. However, it was shown that culturable biofilm bacteria species

  2. Sodium Chloride Diffusion during Muscle Salting Evidenced by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Imaging.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Rénata; Peyrin, Frédéric; Vénien, Annie; Hénot, Jean Marc; Astruc, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    To better understand the relationship between the muscle structure and NaCl transfers in meat, we used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze brined and dry-salted rat muscles. The muscles were freeze-dried to avoid the delocalization of soluble ions that happens in regular dehydration through a graded series of ethanol. Na and Cl maps were superimposed on SEM images to combine the muscle structure and NaCl diffusion. Brining causes rapid diffusion of NaCl through the tissue. Most brine diffuses in a linear front from the muscle surface, but a small proportion enters through the perimysium network. The muscle area penetrated by brine shows heterogeneous patterns of NaCl retention, with some connective tissue islets containing more NaCl than other parts of perimysium. NaCl penetration is considerably slower after dry salting than after brining.

  3. Hypertension, dietary salt intake, and the role of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride transporter NCCT.

    PubMed

    Glover, Mark; Zuber, Annie Mercier; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2011-02-01

    A high salt intake in industrialized countries is an important cardiovascular risk factor. It remains at typically twice the maximum recommended levels of 5-6 g/day, and halving this would have enormous public health benefit in preventing stroke and cardiovascular disease. Salt homeostasis can also be affected pharmacologically by diuretic drugs that target mechanisms within the distal kidney nephron to cause salt wasting. Indeed, thiazide-type diuretics are among the most widely used agents in the management of hypertension and work by blocking NCCT, the NaCl-transporter in the distal nephron. The biology of this membrane transporter was not previously well understood until the discovery of the molecular basis of a rare familial form of hypertension called Gordon syndrome (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2, PHAII). This has established that the NCCT transporter is dynamically regulated in the kidney by WNK kinases and a signaling cascade using a second kinase called SPAK. Common polymorphisms in the SPAK gene have recently been shown to affect blood pressure in human cohorts and removing its function lowers blood pressure in mice. The SPAK-deficient mouse actually has a phenotype reminiscent of Gitelman syndrome. This suggests that specific inhibitors of SPAK kinase may provide a novel class of diuretic drugs to lower blood pressure through salt wasting. The expectation is that SPAK inhibitors would mimic the on-target effects of thiazides but not their adverse off-target effects. An antihypertensive drug that could lower blood pressure with the efficacy of a thiazide without producing metabolic side effects such as hyperuricaemia or impaired glucose tolerance is therapeutically very attractive. It also exemplifies how data coming from the rare monogenic hypertension syndromes can together with genome-wide association studies in hypertension deliver novel druggable targets.

  4. Candidate waste forms for immobilisation of waste chloride salt from pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Olufson, K.; Chironi, I.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Farnan, I.

    2012-01-01

    Sodalite/glass bodies prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at ˜850 °C/100 MPa are candidates for immobilising fission product-bearing waste KCl-LiCl pyroprocessing salts. To study the capacity of sodalite to structurally incorporate such pyroprocessing salts, K, Li, Cs, Sr, Ba and La were individually targeted for substitution in a Na site in sodalite (Na vacancies targeted as charge compensators for alkaline and rare earths) and studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after sintering in the range of 800-1000 °C. K and Li appeared to enter the sodalite, but Cs, Sr and Ba formed aluminosilicate phases and La formed an oxyapatite phase. However these non-sodalite phases have reasonable resistance to water leaching. Pure chlorapatite gives superior leach resistance to sodalite, and alkalis, alkaline and rare earth ions are generally known to enter chlorapatite, but attempts to incorporate simulated waste salt formulations into HIPed chlorapatite-based preparations or to substitute Cs alone into the structure of Ca-based chlorapatite were not successful on the basis of scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited severe water leachability, mainly in regard to Cs release. Attempts to substitute Cs into Ba- and Sr-based chlorapatites also did not look encouraging. Consequently the use of apatite alone to retain fission product-bearing waste pyroprocessing salts from electrolytic nuclear fuel reprocessing is problematical, but chlorapatite glass-ceramics may be feasible, albeit with reduced waste loadings. Spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl, does not appear to be suitable for incorporation of Cl-bearing waste containing fission products.

  5. Effects of pH, sodium chloride, and curing salt on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts.

    PubMed

    Pott, S; Koethe, M; Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Daugschies, A; Straubinger, R K; Fehlhaber, K; Ludewig, M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common zoonotic parasites in the world. The parasite causes no or mild symptoms in immunocompetent humans. However, a high potential hazard exists for seronegative pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. The consumption of meat containing tissue cysts or oocyst-contaminated vegetables and fruits or the handling of cat feces poses a high risk of infection with T. gondii. It is known that raw minced meat, raw fresh sausages, and locally produced raw meat products are possible causes of T. gondii infection. The infectivity of T. gondii tissue cysts in meat products depends, among other factors, on the pH and the salt concentration. Therefore, the impact of these two factors on the tissue cysts was examined. For this purpose, dissected musculature and brain from experimentally infected mice (donor mice) were placed in a cell culture medium (RPMI 1640). The medium was adjusted to different pH values (pH 5, 6, and 7) with lactic acid and to different salt concentrations (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%) with sodium chloride (NaCl) or nitrite-enriched curing salt (NCS) for the various tests. After storage at 4°C for different time periods, the materials were fed to bioassay mice. Later, the brains were examined for presence of T. gondii to assess the infectivity. The data show that T. gondii tissue cysts have a high pH tolerance. Cysts were infectious in the muscle for up to 26 days (pH 5). In contrast to their tolerance to pH, cysts were very sensitive to salt. Muscle cysts survived at an NaCl concentration of up to 2.0% only, and for no longer than 8 days. At NaCl concentrations of 2.5 and 3.0%, the cysts lost their infectivity after 1 day. When NCS instead of NaCl was used under the same conditions, T. gondii muscle cysts retained infectivity for only 4 days at 2.0%. Consequently, NCS (NaCl plus 0.5% nitrite) has a stronger effect on T. gondii cysts than does common table salt. Sausages produced with low NaCl concentration and short

  6. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  7. The effects of particle-size distribution and chloride depletion of sea-salt aerosols on estimating atmospheric deposition at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkel, M. J. Ten

    Estimating atmospheric deposition in a coastal region cannot be done without taking care of the size distribution and amount of chloride depletion of sea-salt aerosols. Size distribution of the dry deposition particles is important when the approach of Ulrich (1983, Effects of Accumulation of Air Pollutants in Forest Ecosystems, pp. 33-45. Reidel, Dordrecht) is used to estimate total atmospheric deposition levels in a coastal area. A sodium deposition model demonstrated that the presumption of an equal size of sodium aerosols and chloride, potassium, magnesium and calcium aerosols is not valid in the coastal zone. Modelled aerosol diameter distribution showed that more than 50% of the aerosols deposited in this zone is larger than 20 μm. Besides an anthropogenic source, the reaction of nitric or sulphuric acid with sea-salt aerosols, by which HCl (g) is formed, can be a second source of an excess of chloride in throughflow compared to sodium. The newly formed HCl can deposit as dry deposition on a vegetation, and not as dry bulk deposition. Chloride loss in the bulk deposition at the coastal sites was up to 35% in summertime. Chloride depletion also affects the calculation of potential acid deposition (PAD) in the coastal zone. Part of the NO 3- and excess SO 42- deposition should not be taken into account when calculating the PAD, because it is neutralized by the sea-salt. This effect decreases very soon with increasing distance to the sea. Implementing chloride depletion in calculating yearly PAD at 500 m from the coastline decreased the PAD with 26%. At 2000 m this decrease was 14%. However, in some cases PAD values on a fortnightly base were observed to decrease more than 50% after implementing chloride depletion.

  8. Hemolysis induced by PMIVSD occluder.

    PubMed

    Rao, D Sheshagiri; Barik, Ramachandra; Siva Prasad, Akula

    2016-09-01

    Hemolysis related to occluder, prosthetic valve, and prosthetic ring used for mitral valve annuloplasty are not very unusual. However, hemolysis related to transcathetor closure of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (PMIVSD) is infrequent. A close follow-up for spontaneous resolution with or without blood transfusion has been reported in a few cases. Occasionally, surgical retrieval is unavoidable or lifelong blood transfusion is required if surgery cannot be done because of higher risk. In this illustration, we have showed a close follow-up of a case of hemolysis induced by atrial septal occluder used for VSD closure after myocardial infarction. Despite successful device closure of PMIVSD which is difficult, a close watch is needed for complications like residual leak, device embolization, and hemolysis.

  9. Comparison of cation exchange resins for recovering americium and plutonium from chloride salts

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R.A.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Macroreticular and microreticular cation exchange resins were compared for their capability of recovering americium and plutonium from solutions of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium chlorides. Americium and plutonium breakthrough capacity and elution behavior of the resins were determined. Of the resins tested, Dowex MSC-1 was selected as the most efficient because of its favorable capacity and excellent elution behavior. Actinide eluting agents were also studied. More concentrated (9.0M) nitric acid was found to elute plutonium faster than 7.0M HNO/sub 3/ used previously while 7.0M HNO/sub 3/-0.1M NaNO/sub 2/ eluted americium fastest. 4 tables.

  10. Occluded motion alters event perception.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Gyoba, Jiro

    2013-04-01

    We employed audiovisual stream/bounce displays, in which two moving objects with crossing trajectories are more likely to be perceived as bouncing off, rather than streaming through, each other when a brief sound is presented at the coincidence of the two objects. However, Kawachi and Gyoba (Perception 35:1289-1294, 2006b) reported that the presence of an additional moving object near the two objects altered the perception of a bouncing event to that of a streaming event. In this study, we extended this finding and examined whether alteration of the event perception could be induced by the visual context, such as by occluded object motion near the stream/bounce display. The results demonstrated that even when the sound was presented, the continuous occluded motion strongly biased observers' percepts toward the streaming percept during a short occlusion interval (approximately 100 ms). In contrast, when the continuous occluded motion was disrupted by introducing a spatiotemporal gap in the motion trajectory or by removing occlusion cues such as deletion/accretion, the bias toward the streaming percept declined. Thus, we suggest that a representation of object motion generated under a limited occlusion interval interferes with audiovisual event perception.

  11. Methyl-methionine as a precursor for methyl chloride and dimethyl sulphide produced in terrestrial salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, I.; Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    Volatile organic halocarbons (VOX) play an important role in the photochemical processes of the lower atmosphere and information on the geogenic origin of these compounds will help to understand global VOX budgets and fluxes. However, investigations concerned with occurrence of VOX in fluid inclusions of rocks and minerals are scarce (Harnisch and Eisenhauer, 1998; Svensen et al., 2009). The composition of volatile organic carbons (VOC) trapped in fluid inclusions of halite crystals deposited in recent salt pans was analysed using a purge and trap GC-MS technique. Besides an array of identified volatile compounds we noticed the occurrence of chloromethane (MeCl), dimethylsulfide (DMS) or both in most of a divers set of samples. Methyl chloride with an atmospheric burden of 4 to 5 Tg, is the most abundant halocarbon in the atmosphere. It plays a significant role in chlorine-catalyzed ozone destruction in the stratosphere (Keppler et al., 2005; Montzka and Frazer, 2003). DMS is the major natural, mainly marine, source of sulphur in the atmosphere and contributes to both the tropospheric burden of sulphur as well as cloud properties via oxidation to acidic aerosols (Kloster et al., 2006; Sievert et al., 2007). It is also known that a conversion of methionine (MET) to dimethylsulfonium-propionate by phytoplankton takes place, which in turn serves as the main precursor for DMS emission from the surface ocean to the atmosphere (Sievert et al., 2007). In search of a possible precursor for the above mentioned two compounds we hypothesize that the compounds trapped in the fluid inclusions represent compounds originally formed in the immediately subjacent sediment. MET, as one of three sulfur containing amino acids, could potentially serve as a precursor for MeCl and DMS formed in salt lake environments. To test these hypotheses, we measured selected sediment samples that correspond to the previously measured salt samples. Separately, we studied the temperature dependence of

  12. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt on Phase Changes and Damage Development in Cementitious Materials

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Yaghoob; Dick, Sarah; Wiese, Andrew; Davis, Jeffrey; Bentz, Dale; Weiss, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The conventional CaCl2-H2O phase diagram is often used to describe how calcium chloride behaves when it is used on a concrete pavement undergoing freeze-thaw damage. However, the chemistry of the concrete can alter the appropriateness of using the CaCl2-H2O phase diagram. This study shows that the Ca(OH)2 present in a hydrated portland cement can interact with CaCl2 solution creating a behavior that is similar to that observed in isoplethal sections of a ternary phase diagram for a Ca(OH)2-CaCl2-H2O system. As such, it is suggested that such isoplethal sections provide a reasonable model that can be used to describe the behavior of concrete exposed to CaCl2 solution as the temperature changes. Specifically, the Ca(OH)2 can react with CaCl2 and H2O resulting in the formation of calcium oxychloride. The formation of the calcium oxychloride is expansive and can produce damage in concrete at temperatures above freezing. Its formation can also cause a significant decrease in fluid ingress into concrete. For solutions with CaCl2 concentrations greater than about 11.3 % (by mass), it is found that calcium oxychloride forms rapidly and is stable at room temperature (23 °C). PMID:26692655

  13. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt on Phase Changes and Damage Development in Cementitious Materials.

    PubMed

    Farnam, Yaghoob; Dick, Sarah; Wiese, Andrew; Davis, Jeffrey; Bentz, Dale; Weiss, Jason

    2015-11-01

    The conventional CaCl2-H2O phase diagram is often used to describe how calcium chloride behaves when it is used on a concrete pavement undergoing freeze-thaw damage. However, the chemistry of the concrete can alter the appropriateness of using the CaCl2-H2O phase diagram. This study shows that the Ca(OH)2 present in a hydrated portland cement can interact with CaCl2 solution creating a behavior that is similar to that observed in isoplethal sections of a ternary phase diagram for a Ca(OH)2-CaCl2-H2O system. As such, it is suggested that such isoplethal sections provide a reasonable model that can be used to describe the behavior of concrete exposed to CaCl2 solution as the temperature changes. Specifically, the Ca(OH)2 can react with CaCl2 and H2O resulting in the formation of calcium oxychloride. The formation of the calcium oxychloride is expansive and can produce damage in concrete at temperatures above freezing. Its formation can also cause a significant decrease in fluid ingress into concrete. For solutions with CaCl2 concentrations greater than about 11.3 % (by mass), it is found that calcium oxychloride forms rapidly and is stable at room temperature (23 °C).

  14. Development of a niobium-doped titania inert anode for titanium electrowinning in molten chloride salts.

    PubMed

    Snook, Graeme A; McGregor, Katherine; Urban, Andrew J; Lanyon, Marshall R; Donelson, R; Pownceby, Mark I

    2016-08-15

    The direct electrochemical reduction of solid titanium dioxide in a chloride melt is an attractive method for the production of titanium metal. It has been estimated that this type of electrolytic approach may reduce the costs of producing titanium sponge by more than half, with the additional benefit of a smaller environmental footprint. The process utilises a consumable carbon anode which releases a mixture of CO2 and CO gas during electrolysis, but suffers from low current efficiency due to the occurrence of parasitic side reactions involving carbon. The replacement of the carbon anode with a cheap, robust inert anode offers numerous benefits that include: elimination of carbon dioxide emissions, more efficient cell operation, opportunity for three-dimensional electrode configurations and reduced electrode costs. This paper reports a study of Nb-doped titania anode materials for inert anodes in a titanium electrolytic reduction cell. The study examines the effect of niobium content and sintering conditions on the performance of Nb-doped TiO2 anodes in laboratory-scale electrolysis tests. Experimental findings, including performance in a 100 h laboratory electrolysis test, are described.

  15. Corrosion of alloys in a chloride molten salt (NaCl-LiCl) for solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.; Tirawat, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation solar power conversion systems in concentrating solar power (CSP) applications require high-temperature advanced fluids in the range of 600-800 degrees C. Current commercial CSP plants use molten nitrate salt mixtures as the heat transfer fluid and the thermal energy storage (TES) media while operating with multiple hours of energy capacity and at temperatures lower than 565 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the nitrates cannot be used because they decompose. Molten chloride salts are candidates for CSP applications because of their high decomposition temperatures and good thermal properties; but they can be corrosive to common alloys used in vessels, heat exchangers, and piping at these elevated temperatures. In this article, we present the results of the corrosion evaluations of several alloys in eutectic 34.42 wt% NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650-700 degrees C in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical evaluations were performed using open-circuit potential followed by a potentiodynamic polarization sweep. Corrosion rates were determined using Tafel slopes and Faraday's law. A temperature increase of as little as 50 degrees C more than doubled the corrosion rate of AISI stainless steel 310 and Incoloy 800H compared to the initial 650 degrees C test. These alloys exhibited localized corrosion. Inconel 625 was the most corrosion-resistant alloy with a corrosion rate of 2.80+/-0.38 mm/year. For TES applications, corrosion rates with magnitudes of a few millimeters per year are not acceptable because of economic considerations. Additionally, localized corrosion (intergranular or pitting) can be catastrophic. Thus, corrosion-mitigation approaches are required for advanced CSP plants to be commercially viable.

  16. Rubidium chloride tolerant callus cultures of rice (Oryza sativa L.) accumulate more potassium and cross tolerate to other salts.

    PubMed

    Naga Amrutha, R; Jogeswar, G; Srilaxmi, P; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2007-09-01

    Callus cultures from salt tolerant (CSR-10) and susceptible (Swarnadhan) varieties of Oryza sativa L. were established in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing lethal concentrations (50 mM) of rubidium chloride (RbCl) as a selective agent. While 95-100% cells were viable in callus cultures grown without RbCl, viability was 75% in 50 mM RbCl selected cultures. Growth of RbCl selected calli in presence of salt was comparable to that of callus grown without it. Cells tolerant to RbCl showed more vacuoles and accumulated more K(+) in comparison with their corresponding controls. Suspension cultures were established and uptake of (86)Rb(+) was measured at 10 and 20 min intervals, which revealed a linear relationship between the absorption of K(+) and time. Callus cultures (560-day-old) tolerant to 50 mM RbCl regenerated shoots with 35-40% frequencies in both the varieties, but the same age-old callus grown in the medium devoid of RbCl did not show any organogenesis. Callus cultures that are tolerant to 50 mM RbCl when exposed to 25 mM LiCl, 50 mM NaCl, 50 mM KCl and 25 mM CsCl also exhibited cross tolerance in both the varieties. This is the first time that a callus line of rice resistant to RbCl was raised and shown to accumulate a major cation K(+ )and also an increased influx of it.

  17. Mapping of road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge and estimation of chloride load to a small stream in southern New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Trowbridge, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of chloride in excess of State of New Hampshire water-quality standards (230 mg/l) have been measured in watersheds adjacent to an interstate highway (I-93) in southern New Hampshire. A proposed widening plan for I-93 has raised concerns over further increases in chloride. As part of this effort, road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge was mapped with terrain electrical conductivity (EC) electromagnetic (EM) methods in the fall of 2006 to identify potential sources of chloride during base-flow conditions to a small stream, Policy Brook. Three different EM meters were used to measure different depths below the streambed (ranging from 0 to 3 m). Results from the three meters showed similar patterns and identified several reaches where high EC groundwater may have been discharging. Based on the delineation of high (up to 350 mmhos/m) apparent terrain EC, seven-streambed piezometers were installed to sample shallow groundwater. Locations with high specific conductance in shallow groundwater (up to 2630 mmhos/m) generally matched locations with high streambed (shallow subsurface) terrain EC. A regression equation was used to convert the terrain EC of the streambed to an equivalent chloride concentration in shallow groundwater unique for this site. Utilizing the regression equation and estimates of onedimensional Darcian flow through the streambed, a maximum potential groundwater chloride load was estimated at 188 Mg of chloride per year. Changes in chloride concentration in stream water during streamflow recessions showed a linear response that indicates the dominant process affecting chloride is advective flow of chloride-enriched groundwater discharge. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Solid-State (17)O NMR of Oxygen-Nitrogen Singly Bonded Compounds: Hydroxylammonium Chloride and Sodium Trioxodinitrate (Angeli's Salt).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiasheng; Kong, Xianqi; Terskikh, Victor; Wu, Gang

    2015-07-23

    We report a solid-state NMR study of (17)O-labeled hydroxylammonium chloride ([H(17)O-NH3]Cl) and sodium trioxodinitrate monohydrate (Na2[(17)ONNO2]·H2O, Angeli's salt). The common feature in these two compounds is that they both contain oxygen atoms that are singly bonded to nitrogen. For this class of oxygen-containing functional groups, there is very limited solid-state (17)O NMR data in the literature. In this work, we experimentally measured the (17)O chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling tensors. With the aid of plane-wave DFT computation, the (17)O NMR tensor orientations were determined in the molecular frame of reference. We found that the characteristic feature of an O-N single bond is that the (17)O nucleus exhibits a large quadrupolar coupling constant (13-15 MHz) but a rather small chemical shift anisotropy (100-250 ppm), in sharp contrast with the nitroso (O═N) functional group for which both quantities are very large (e.g., 16 MHz and 3000 ppm, respectively).

  19. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Yoon, Dalsung; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl3sbnd ZrCl4sbnd LiClsbnd KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl4 show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl4 and ZrCl2 as the function of temperature can be expressed as DZr(IV) = 0.00046exp(-3716/T) and DZr(II) = 0.027exp(-5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl4 at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl3 and ZrCl4 indicate that high concentrations of UCl3 hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl4 while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl4 increases.

  20. Synthesis of high-molecular-weight polymer of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate by radiation-induced polymerization at high pressure. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, I.; Okada, T.; Sasuga, T.; Takehisa, M.; Machi, S.

    1981-02-01

    Polymer of the methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its copolymer with acrylamide are used as cationic flocculants for the treatment of waste water containing organic suspensions. As reported, radiation-induced polymerization is one of the most convenient methods because of its temperature independence of initiation and extremely large G-value. In general, a flocculant with higher molecular weight has larger flocculation effects. The high-molecular-weight products were prepared in high monomer concentration and a low dose rate. This paper concerns the polymerization and copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate at high pressure, up to 7000 kg/cm/sup 2/, providing high-molecular-weight cationic flocculants.

  1. Characteristics of nitrogen release from synthetic zeolite Na-P1 occluding NH4NO3.

    PubMed

    Park, Man; Kim, Jong Su; Choi, Choong Lyeal; Kim, Jang-Eok; Heo, Nam Ho; Komarneni, Sridhar; Choi, Jyung

    2005-08-18

    Zeolites can accommodate a considerable amount of occluded salt such as NH4NO3, which can serve as a good source of slow-release plant nutrient. This study evaluates the kinetics of ion release from NH4NO3-occluded Na-P1 (N-NaP) using a simulated soil solution and deionized water as leaching solutions. The patterns of ion releases were examined as a function of leaching time under both static and continuous-flow conditions for more than one month. Releases of both NH4+ and NO3- from N-NaP were found to be slow and steady under both the above conditions. The soil solution affected the release of NH4+ and NO3- differently, while deionized water released nearly the same equivalents of these ions. This clearly indicates that ion release from salt-occluded zeolite involves two different reactions, cation exchange and dissolution. The kinetics of ion release from occluded NH4NO3 under static condition was best described by the standard Elovich model while the power function model best expressed these under continuous-flow condition. The initial ion release patterns under both conditions exhibited considerable deviation from the simulated models, probably as a result of the presence of hydrated occluded NH4NO3. Flow condition and the presence of electrolytes in leaching solution affected the release kinetics significantly. Release of occluded NH4NO3 was delayed by the presence of the NH4NO3 coated on zeolite crystals. These results indicate that the ion release property of occluded salt could be predicted and controlled. This study clearly shows that NH4NO3-occluded zeolites could be developed as slow release fertilizers.

  2. Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

    2006-01-17

    Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack

  3. Diagnosis of sources of current inefficiency in industrial molten salt electrolysis cells by Raman spectroscopy: A topical report on chlorides: Topical report, June 1982-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-06-01

    Molten salt electrolysis, a very energy-intensive process, is used in the extraction of light metals. Aluminum production by the Hall process and magnesium production in the Dow and I.G. Farbenindustrie cells constitute the major commercial applications of metal electrowinning from molten-salt media at present. The energy input into the electrolysis cell is in the form of direct current, and the energy efficiencies in the magnesium or aluminum processes are only in the 30 to 40% range. Major energy reductions are achieved by reducing the cell voltage or by increasing the current efficiency. Goal of the research is to identify the sources of the current losses occurring in molten salt electrolysis. This research worked on the systems of I.G. Farben magnesium chloride and Alcoa smelting aluminum chloride processes. Raman spectra were measured and analyzed for each component or their mixtures of the electrolyte for magnesium and aluminum reduction in chloride melts. Raman measurements were also conducted on the melts of industrial composition for aluminum and magnesium electrolysis. In laboratory-scale cells which imitated industrial practice, Raman spectra were measured in situ during electrolysis in attempts to identify the streamers, coloration of electrolyte, and any subvalent species. They were known to occur only during electrolysis, and they have been reported to be possible current losses. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to obtain information about the generation of subvalent species which were not detected by Raman measurement. These were thought to be kinetic entities present only during electrolysis. Results of Raman spectroscopy and electrochemistry of magnesium and aluminum reduction from molten chloride bath are presented. The results would be useful to establish the basis for the study of electrolysis of aluminum from molten fluoride media. 119 refs., 66 figs.

  4. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales.

  5. The dangerous new synthetic drug α-PVP as the hydrated chloride salt α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone hydrochloride 0.786-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew R; Bernal, Ivan; Lalancette, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), a dangerous designer drug, is now being marketed around the world as a harmless `bath salt', when in reality it is a powerful β-ketone phenethylamine stimulant. A sample of the free base from a recent law-enforcement seizure was crystallized as the HCl salt [systematic name: 1-(1-oxo-1-phenylpentan-2-yl)pyrrolidin-1-ium chloride 0.786-hydrate], C15H22NO(+)·Cl(-)·0.786H2O. In the crystal structure, the propyl chain is nearly perpendicular to both the phenyl ring and the carbonyl group. The hydrogen-bonding scheme involves the quaternary N atom, the Cl(-) anion and the partially occupied (0.786) water molecule, forming centrosymmetric dimers.

  6. Dietary salt modulates the sodium chloride cotransporter expression likely through an aldosterone-mediated WNK4-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lingyun; Feng, Xiuyan; Liu, Defeng; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yiqian; Niu, Bowen; Gu, Yong; Cai, Hui

    2012-03-01

    WNK is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutation in WNK1 or WNK4 kinase results in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) featuring hypertension, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is known to be regulated by phosphorylation and trafficking. Dietary salt and hormonal stimulation, such as aldosterone, also affect the regulation of NCC. We have previously reported that WNK4 inhibits NCC protein expression. To determine whether dietary salt affects NCC abundance through WNK4-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effects of dietary salt change with or without aldosterone infusion (1 mg/kg/day) on NCC and WNK4 expression in rats. We found that high-salt (HS, 4% NaCl) diet significantly inhibits NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while enhancing WNK4 mRNA and protein expression, whereas low-salt (LS, 0.07% NaCl) diet increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while reducing WNK4 expression. We also found that aldosterone infusion in HS-fed rats increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance, but decreases WNK4 expression. Administration with spironolactone (0.1 g/kg/day) in LS-fed rats decreases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while increasing WNK4 expression. We further showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in HS-fed rats, but decreased in LS-fed rats. In HEK293 cells, over-expressed WNK4 increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of WNK4 expression decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Aldosterone treatment for 3 h decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that dietary salt change affects NCC protein abundance in an aldosterone-dependent mechanism likely via the WNK4-ERK1/2-mediated pathway.

  7. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of <350°C, ammonium salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while

  8. Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 × 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 × 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 × 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous

  9. Deliquescence-induced wetting and RSL-like darkening of a Mars analogue soil containing various perchlorate and chloride salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Jacob; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2016-05-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are flow-like features on Mars characterized by a local darkening of the soil thought to be generated by the formation and flow of liquid brines. One possible mechanism responsible for forming these brines could be the deliquescence of salts present in the Martian soil. We show that the JSC Mars-1a analogue soil undergoes a darkening process when salts dispersed in the soil deliquesce, but forming continuous liquid films and larger droplets takes much longer than previously assumed. Thus, RSL may not necessarily require concurrent flowing liquid water/brine or a salt-recharge mechanism, and their association with gullies may be the result of previously flowing water and deposited salts during an earlier warmer and wetter period. In addition, our results show that electrical conductivity measurements correlate well with the deliquescence rates and provide better overall characterization than either Raman spectroscopy or estimates based on deliquescence relative humidity.

  10. Cyclic Voltammetry of Silver Chloride in Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRY), Fused salts, Silver, Reduction(Chemistry), Dissolving, ChloridesSilver chloride, Cyclic voltammetry , *VoltammetryThe technique of cyclic ... voltammetry was employed to study the deposition and dissolution of silver metal at platinum wire electrodes in molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  12. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Peredo-Alvarez, Víctor M; Sarma, S S; Nandini, S

    2003-06-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 +/- 0.04 g l-1) than B. patulus (2.14 +/- 0.09 g l-1). The maximal population density (mean +/- standard error) for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 (algal level) was 80 +/- 5 ind. ml-1, which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 +/- 7 ind. ml-1) under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 +/- 0.5 days) for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 +/- 1 day). The highest rates of population increase (r values) for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 +/- 0.012 and 0.367 +/- 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.

  13. Effects of road salts on groundwater and surface water dynamics of socium and chloride in an urban restored stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Road salts are a growing environmental concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na+ and Cl− in Minebank Run (MBR), an urban stream in Maryland, USA. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current basef...

  14. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  15. Determination of activity coefficient of lanthanum chloride in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt as a function of cesium chloride and lanthanum chloride concentrations using electromotive force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagri, Prashant; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-12-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of lanthanides in molten salt systems is of significant scientific interest for the spent fuel reprocessing of Generation IV reactors. In this study, the apparent standard reduction potential (apparent potential) and activity coefficient of LaCl3 were determined in a molten salt solution of eutectic LiCl-KCl as a function of concentration of LaCl3. The effect of adding up to 1.40 mol % CsCl was also investigated. These properties were determined by measuring the open circuit potential of the La-La(III) redox couple in a high temperature molten salt electrochemical cell. Both the apparent potential and activity coefficient exhibited a strong dependence on concentration. A low concentration (0.69 mol %) of CsCl had no significant effect on the measured properties, while a higher concentration (1.40 mol %) of CsCl caused an increase (become more positive) in the apparent potential and activity coefficient at the higher range of LaCl3 concentrations.

  16. Fermentation profiles of Manzanilla-Aloreña cracked green table olives in different chloride salt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-05-01

    NaCl plays an important role in table olive processing affecting the flavour and microbiological stability of the final product. However, consumers demand foods low in sodium, which makes necessary to decrease levels of this mineral in fruits. In this work, the effects of diverse mixtures of NaCl, CaCl(2) and KCl on the fermentation profiles of cracked directly brined Manzanilla-Aloreña olives, were studied by means of response surface methodology based in a simplex lattice mixture design with constrains. All salt combinations led to lactic acid processes. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae populations was always limited and partially inhibited by the presence of CaCl(2). Only time to reach half maximum populations and decline rates of yeasts, which were higher as concentrations of NaCl or KCl increased, were affected, and correspondingly modelled, as a function of salt mixtures. However, lactic acid bacteria growth parameters could not be related to initial environmental conditions. They had a longer lag phase, slower growth and higher population levels than yeasts. Overall, the presence of CaCl(2) led to a slower Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria growth than the traditional NaCl brine but to higher yeast activity. The presence of CaCl(2) in the fermentation brines also led to higher water activity, lower pH and combined acidity as well as a faster acidification while NaCl and KCl had fairly similar behaviours. Apparently, NaCl may be substituted in diverse proportions with KCl or CaCl(2) without substantially disturbing water activity or the usual fermentation profiles while producing olives with lower salt content.

  17. Effect of the salt-induced micellar microstructure on the nonlinear shear flow behavior of ionic cetylpyridinium chloride surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudino, D.; Pasquino, R.; Kriegs, H.; Szekely, N.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Lettinga, M. P.; Grizzuti, N.

    2017-03-01

    The shear flow dynamics of linear and branched wormlike micellar systems based on cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate in brine solution is investigated through rheometric and scattering techniques. In particular, the flow and the structural flow response are explored via velocimetry measurements and rheological and rheometric small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments, respectively. Although all micellar solutions display a similar shear thinning behavior in the nonlinear regime, the experimental results show that shear banding sets in only when the micelle contour length L ¯ is sufficiently long, independent of the nature of the micellar connections (either linear or branched micelles). Using rheometric SANS, we observe that the shear banding systems both show very similar orientational ordering as a function of Weissenberg number, while the short branched micelles manifest an unexpected increase of ordering at very low Weissenberg numbers. This suggests the presence of an additional flow-induced relaxation process that is peculiar for branched systems.

  18. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Formation of N,N,N‧,N‧-tetramethylformamidinium disulphide from the chemical and electrochemical oxidation of tetramethylthiourea: Vibrational spectra and crystal structure of the chloride dihydrate salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzán, A. E.; Güida, J. A.; Piatti, R. C. V.; Arvia, A. J.; Piro, O. E.; Sabino, J. R.; Castellano, E. E.

    2007-12-01

    The N, N, N', N'-tetramethylformamidinium disulphide (TMFDS) was prepared from either the electro-oxidation of tetramethylthiourea (TMTU) on platinum electrodes in aqueous perchloric acid solution or the chemical oxidation of TMTU with hydrogen peroxide in hydrochloric acid-containing absolute ethanol. The electrochemical formation of TMFDS at different potentials was followed by in situ FTIRRAS spectroscopy. The IR and Raman spectra of TMFDS chemically formed as a chloride dihydrate were determined and compared to the product produced electrochemically. The crystal structure of the chloride salt [N(CH 3) 2] 2C dbnd S sbnd S dbnd C [N(CH 3) 2] 2Cl 2·2H 2O, as determined by X-ray diffraction, crystallises in the monoclinic C2/ c space group with a = 23.267(1), b = 10.824(1), c = 17.774(1) Å, β = 126.91(1)°, and Z = 8. The structure was solved from 2489 reflections with I > 2 σ( I) and refined to an agreement R1-factor of 0.0405. The two molecular halves of the dimeric [N(CH)2]2C dbnd S sbnd S dbnd C [N(CH)2]22+ ion are linked by a disulphide single bond [ d(S sbnd S) = 2.0454(9) Å] and related to each other by a non-crystallographic pseudo two-fold axis. DFT structure optimisation and normal mode frequencies were calculated using the 6-311G(d,f) basis set at DFT theory level. An estimation of the free energy for the dimer formation and rate ratio for the homogeneous and heterogeneous processes are presented. These data are consistent with the electrochemical mechanism of the anodic formation of TMFDS 2+ from TMTU electro-oxidation in acid solutions.

  20. Chloride salt of conducting polyaniline synthesized in the presence of CeO2: Structural analysis of the core-shell nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, J. S. M.; de Souza, S. M.; Trovati, G.; Sanches, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    Chloride salt of conducting Polyaniline (ES-PANI) was synthesized in the presence of cerium dioxide (CeO2) for structural and morphological evaluation of the resulting core-shell nanocomposite. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), estimative of crystallinity percentage, Le Bail Method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and DC electrical conductivity were used for materials characterization. The resulting nanocomposite was constituted of three phases as identified by X-Ray Diffraction: ES-PANI, CeO2 and CeCl3(H2O)7, chloride hepta-hydrate cerium. Crystallinity of ES-PANI and nanocomposite were estimated around 40 and 85%, respectively. XRD patterns were also used to perform the Le Bail Method. This refinement allowed structural characterization of each phase, obtainment of cell parameters and crystallite size and shape. For ES-PANI and CeCl3(H2O)7, crystallites showed a prolate-like shape with an average size of 21 Å and 104 Å, respectively. CeO2 crystallites presented much larger size, as expected, with isotropic average size of 490 Å. SEM images showed that the nanocomposite has a core-shell morphology with both ES-PANI nanofibers and CeCl3(H2O)7 particles coating the CeO2 particles. The polymerization of ES-PANI over the CeO2 particles in order to form the nanocomposite affected the natural chain alignment of the polymer, resulting in better molecular rearrangement and larger crystallites. Finally, measurements of DC electrical conductivity of ES-PANI and nanocomposite have showed values of 1.11 × 10-4 and 2.22 × 10-4 S/cm, respectively. Nanocomposite has showed electrical conductivity 50 times greater than the pure ES-PANI. Thus, in this work we have reported a systematic structural and morphological investigation of PANI/CeO2/CeCl3(H2O)7 core-shell nanocomposite.

  1. Individual differences in sour and salt sensitivity: detection and quality recognition thresholds for citric acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-05-01

    Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified Harris-Kalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another.

  2. [The effects of occluding dysfunction on marginal parodontopathies].

    PubMed

    Stănescu, S; Ispirescu, M; Ispirescu, D; Swoboda, M L

    1990-01-01

    Occluding dysfunction (occluding dysharmony, occluding trauma) is an important etiologic factor of parodontal disease. It is an integrating element of the destructive process which characterizes the parodontal disease. Occluding dysfunction does not trigger gingivitis, or the development of parodontal pouches, but it does exert an influence on the progress and the importance of parodontal pouches determined by local irritation due to tartar and to bacterial plaques. Occluding dysfunction and the inflammation of parodontal tissues are different processes which occur in the course of the same disease namely of marginal parodonthitis. The inflammation develops in the gums and propagates in the parodontal sustaining tissues. Occluding dysfunction (also known as occluding dysharmony or occluding trauma) occurs in the parodontal sustaining tissues, and both determine tissue destruction. Occluding dysfunction and inflammation become codestructive factors which are interconnected, and are both capable to determine clinical and radiologic changes which are typical for diseased marginal parodontium. Due to the fact that individuals have variable parodontal reactions to local irritation factors, and considering the fact that inflammation and occluding dysfunction occur together but with variable degrees of severity, it is possible that they will not determine in all cases intraosseus pouches with angular lesions, or crater-like lesions. However, when we are confronted with such lesions it is very likely that the combined effects of inflammation and occluding dysfunction are at the origin.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  7. Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

  8. Identification of partially occluded firearms through partonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Abdullah N.; Hempelmann, Christian F.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakova, Nona N.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper we study the problem of weapon identification and threat assessment from a single image with a partially occluded weapon. This problem poses very severe restrictions. To successfully identify a weapon from its parts we extend the first firearm ontology with the meronymic (partonomic) principle which lets us distinguish parts of a gun (e.g., lock, barrel, stock, scope). Adding classes of meronymic information provides meta-data (necessary for threat assessment) and allows for fast and accurate search. Searching for a weapon is treated conceptually as searching for the sum of its parts. An expanding active contour and morphological techniques are applied to partition weapons and extract boundaries, and a minimal inscribed complex polygon. Finite numerical sequences are generated, from the extracted geometric features, and are used to label partonomic nodes and perform quick and accurate search. The paper reports experimental results on weapons partitioning and search.

  9. Laser thermal probe recanalization of occluded arteries.

    PubMed

    White, R A; White, G H

    1989-04-01

    Applications of laser energy for treatment of vascular disease have recently received much attention; metal-tipped laser probes are being investigated as a device for recanalization of occluded arteries, especially as an adjunct to balloon dilatation. Developments in instrumentation and techniques have reduced the incidence of complications, notably perforation, to an acceptable level. Initial data show that recanalization of iliac, femoral, and popliteal lesions can be accomplished in a majority of cases, with the chance of success being inversely proportional to the length of occlusion. Results in the tibial vessels are disappointing. Patency of the treated vessels at 12 months appears to be superior to that of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for similar lesions but inferior to that of surgical bypass for all occlusions greater than 3 cm in length.

  10. Understanding the microcrystal tests of three related phenethylamines: the ortho-metallated (±)-amphetamine formed with gold(III) chloride, and the tetrachloridoaurate(III) salts of (+)-methamphetamine and (±)-ephedrine.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A

    2013-04-01

    The ortho-metallation product of the reaction of (±)-amphetamine with gold(III) chloride, [D,L-2-(2-aminopropyl)phenyl-κ(2)N,C(1)]dichloridogold(III), [Au(C9H12N)Cl2], and the two salts resulting from crystallization of (+)-methamphetamine with gold(III) chloride, D-methyl(1-phenylpropan-2-yl)azanium tetrachloridoaurate(III), (C10H16N)[AuCl4], and of (±)-ephedrine with gold(III) chloride, D,L-(1-hydroxy-1-phenylpropan-2-yl)(methyl)azanium tetrachloridoaurate(III), (C10H16NO)[AuCl4], have different structures. The first makes a bidentate complex directly with a dichloridogold(III) group, forming a six-membered ring structure; the second and third each form a salt with [AuCl4](-) (each has two formula units in the asymmetric unit). The organic components are all members of the same class of stimulants that are prevalent in illicit drug use. These structures are important contributions to the understanding of the microcrystal tests for these drugs that have been employed for well over 100 years.

  11. Grapevine and Arabidopsis Cation-Chloride Cotransporters Localize to the Golgi and Trans-Golgi Network and Indirectly Influence Long-Distance Ion Transport and Plant Salt Tolerance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sam W.; Wege, Stefanie; Qiu, Jiaen; Blackmore, Deidre H.; Walker, Amanda R.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Walker, Rob R.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Plant cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) have been implicated in conferring salt tolerance. They are predicted to improve shoot salt exclusion by directly catalyzing the retrieval of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions from the root xylem. We investigated whether grapevine (Vitis vinifera [Vvi]) CCC has a role in salt tolerance by cloning and functionally characterizing the gene from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that VviCCC shares a high degree of similarity with other plant CCCs. A VviCCC-yellow fluorescent protein translational fusion protein localized to the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network and not the plasma membrane when expressed transiently in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll protoplasts. AtCCC-green fluorescent protein from Arabidopsis also localized to the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, VviCCC targeted to the plasma membrane, where it catalyzed bumetanide-sensitive 36Cl–, 22Na+, and 86Rb+ uptake, suggesting that VviCCC (like AtCCC) belongs to the Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter class of CCCs. Expression of VviCCC in an Arabidopsis ccc knockout mutant abolished the mutant’s stunted growth phenotypes and reduced shoot Cl– and Na+ content to wild-type levels after growing plants in 50 mm NaCl. In grapevine roots, VviCCC transcript abundance was not regulated by Cl– treatment and was present at similar levels in both the root stele and cortex of three Vitis spp. genotypes that exhibit differential shoot salt exclusion. Our findings indicate that CCC function is conserved between grapevine and Arabidopsis, but neither protein is likely to directly mediate ion transfer with the xylem or have a direct role in salt tolerance. PMID:26378102

  12. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils.

  13. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradies, Henrich H.; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  14. Equilibrium Model for Ion Exchange Between Multivalent Cations and Zeolite-A in a Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2005-10-01

    A two-site equilibrium model that previously only accommodated monovalent cations has been extended to include divalent and trivalent cations for ion exchange between zeolite-A and molten chloride salts, a process being considered for concentrating nuclear fission products into high level waste forms. Equilibrium constants were determined by fitting the model to equilibrium data sets for ion exchange between zeolite-A and Cs ternary salt (CsCl-LiCl-KCl), Rb ternary salt (RbCl-LiCl-KCl), Na ternary salt (NaCl-LiCl-KCl), Sr ternary salt (SrCl2-LiCl-KCl), and U ternary salt (UCl3-LiCl-KCl). The results reveal a good fit between the experimental data sets and the model. The two ion exchange sites, framework sites and occluded sites, demonstrate different relative selectivities for the cations. It was found that Sr2_ is the preferred cation in the ion exchange site, and Cs_ is the preferred cation in the occlusion site. Meanwhile, Li_ has the highest combined selectivity when both ion exchange and occlusion sites are considered. Interestingly, divalent and trivalent species are more preferred in the ion exchange site than the monovalent species with the exception of Li_.

  15. An Improved Analytical Method for Atmospheric Chlorides in Tropic Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    Chloride Electrode Chloride Analysis Methodology Tropic Regions Diphenylcarbazone- Panama Canal Zone Tropic Test Center Bromphenol Blue Salt Wet Candle 20...ambient salt has been measured for corrosion studies by wet- candle sampling and determining water-soluble chlorides by manual mercuric nitrate titration...of total chloride in wet- candle samplers. For the past 8 years atmospheric salt has been measured at tropic test sites by the wet- candle method

  16. Decoding information about dynamically occluded objects in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Caplovitz, Gideon P

    2017-02-01

    During dynamic occlusion, an object passes behind an occluding surface and then later reappears. Even when completely occluded from view, such objects are experienced as continuing to exist or persist behind the occluder even though they are no longer visible. The contents and neural basis of this persistent representation remain poorly understood. Questions remain as to whether there is information maintained about the object itself (i.e. its shape or identity) or non-object-specific information such as its position or velocity as it is tracked behind an occluder, as well as which areas of visual cortex represent such information. Recent studies have found that early visual cortex is activated by "invisible" objects during visual imagery and by unstimulated regions along the path of apparent motion, suggesting that some properties of dynamically occluded objects may also be neurally represented in early visual cortex. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging in human subjects to examine representations within visual cortex during dynamic occlusion. For gradually occluded, but not for instantly disappearing objects, there was an increase in activity in early visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3). This activity was spatially-specific, corresponding to the occluded location in the visual field. However, the activity did not encode enough information about object identity to discriminate between different kinds of occluded objects (circles vs. stars) using MVPA. In contrast, object identity could be decoded in spatially-specific subregions of higher-order, topographically organized areas such as ventral, lateral, and temporal occipital areas (VO, LO, and TO) as well as the functionally defined LOC and hMT+. These results suggest that early visual cortex may only represent the dynamically occluded object's position or motion path, while later visual areas represent object-specific information.

  17. Enhancement by sodium chloride of the selectivity of thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar for isolating Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, G K; DeWitt, W E; Gangarosa, E J; McCormack, W M

    1976-01-01

    In this study we utilized the salt-tolerant characteristics of vibrios to develop a more selective medium by addition of NaCl to thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar. The effect of adding salt to TCBS agar varied greatly among brands of TCBS agar and between lots of the same brand. The addition of salt at concentrations as high as 1.5% (2.5% total NaCl) caused the inhibition of growth of three species of commonly encountered normal bowel flora and one strain of classical Vibrio cholerae but did not compromise the use of TCBS agar for isolation of V. cholerae biotype El Tor. PMID:965476

  18. Graph Laplace for occluded face completion and recognition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yue; Dai, Qionghai; Zhang, Zengke

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes a spectral-graph-based algorithm for face image repairing, which can improve the recognition performance on occluded faces. The face completion algorithm proposed in this paper includes three main procedures: 1) sparse representation for partially occluded face classification; 2) image-based data mining; and 3) graph Laplace (GL) for face image completion. The novel part of the proposed framework is GL, as named from graphical models and the Laplace equation, and can achieve a high-quality repairing of damaged or occluded faces. The relationship between the GL and the traditional Poisson equation is proven. We apply our face repairing algorithm to produce completed faces, and use face recognition to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the GL method for occluded face completion.

  19. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  20. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  1. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity.

  2. Hydrogen-bonded and π-interaction assembly in two 8-alkoxycarbonyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride salts.

    PubMed

    Mesto, E; Quaranta, E

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structures of 8-phenoxycarbonyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride, C16H21N2O2(+)·Cl(-), (I), and 8-methoxycarbonyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride monohydrate, C11H19N2O2(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, (II), recently reported by Carafa, Mesto & Quaranta [Eur. J. Org. Chem. (2011), pp. 2458-2465], are analysed and discussed with a focus on crystal interaction assembly. Both compounds crystallize in the space group P2(1)/c. The crystal packings are characterized by dimers linked through π-π stacking interactions and intermolecular nonclassical hydrogen bonds, respectively. Additional intermolecular C-H···Cl interactions [in (I) and (II)] and classical O-H···Cl hydrogen bonds [in (II)] are also evident and contribute to generating three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks.

  3. Technical and economic feasibility of salt-gradient solar ponds at the Truscott Brine Lake of the Red River Chloride Control Project. A report to the House-Senate Committee on Appropriations of the Ninety-Seventh Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The Truscott Brine Lake is being constructed to impound highly brackish water from a number of sources which would normally flow into the Wichita River, a tributary of the Red River in Knox County, Texas. A 35.4-km (22-mile) pipeline is being constructed to carry the brines from their primary source to the Truscott Brine Lake site. The reservoir is designed to contain 100 years of brine emissions from three chloride emission areas in the Wichita River Basin. The solar ponds and power generating facilities would be located in the Bluff Creek Arm of Truscott Brine Lake. The Truscott Brine Lake study includes: survey of suitability of Truscott Lake site, review of solar pond technology, preconceptual design of solar salt pond power plant, and economic evaluation.

  4. Synthesis of cationic flocculant by radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide in aqueous solution. II. Copolymerization at higher monomer concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, I.; Fukuzaki, H.; Okada, T.; Okada, T.; Okamoto, J.; Machi, S.

    1981-05-01

    The radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide was studied to prepare a polymer flocculant that can be handled as a solid. The product obtained in the presence of 5 to 20% water was a solid and could be ground to a powder without drying. In order to obtain a water-soluble polymer at a higher concentration, the effect of various additives on the copolymerization was investigated and found that alcohols bearing a hydrogen atom attached to the tertiary carbon atom effectively inhibit intermolecular crosslinking to give water-soluble polymer. It is suggested that the formation of water-insoluble polymer is predominantly attributable to the crosslinking of polymer chains rather than to the imidation of amide groups. Copolymerization in the presence of isopropyl alcohol as inhibitor of the crosslinking was also studied and compared with that reported previously, which was carried out at a lower monomer concentration without additives.

  5. A Taxonomy of 3D Occluded Objects Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Al-ghamdi, Jarallah Saleh

    2016-03-01

    The overall performances of object recognition techniques under different condition (e.g., occlusion, viewpoint, and illumination) have been improved significantly in recent years. New applications and hardware are shifted towards digital photography, and digital media. This faces an increase in Internet usage requiring object recognition for certain applications; particularly occulded objects. However occlusion is still an issue unhandled, interlacing the relations between extracted feature points through image, research is going on to develop efficient techniques and easy to use algorithms that would help users to source images; this need to overcome problems and issues regarding occlusion. The aim of this research is to review recognition occluded objects algorithms and figure out their pros and cons to solve the occlusion problem features, which are extracted from occluded object to distinguish objects from other co-existing objects by determining the new techniques, which could differentiate the occluded fragment and sections inside an image.

  6. Robotic Assisted Cannulation of Occluded Retinal Veins

    PubMed Central

    Meenink, Thijs C. M.; Janssens, Tom; Vanheukelom, Valerie; Naus, Gerrit J. L.; Beelen, Maarten J.; Meers, Caroline; Jonckx, Bart; Stassen, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a methodology for cannulating porcine retinal venules using a robotic assistive arm after inducing a retinal vein occlusion using the photosensitizer rose bengal. Methodology Retinal vein occlusions proximal to the first vascular branch point were induced following intravenous injection of rose bengal by exposure to 532nm laser light delivered by slit-lamp or endolaser probe. Retinal veins were cannulated by positioning a glass catheter tip using a robotically controlled micromanipulator above venules with an outer diameter of 80μm or more and performing a preset piercing maneuver, controlled robotically. The ability of a balanced salt (BSS) solution to remove an occlusion by repeat distention of the retinal vein was also assessed. Results Cannulation using the preset piercing program was successful in 9 of 9 eyes. Piercing using the micromanipulator under manual control was successful in only 24 of 52 attempts, with several attempts leading to double piercing. The best location for cannulation was directly proximal to the occlusion. Infusion of BSS did not result in the resolution of the occlusion. Conclusion Cannulation of venules using a robotic microassistive arm can be achieved with consistency, provided the piercing is robotically driven. The model appears robust enough to allow testing of therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating a retinal vein thrombus and its evolution over time. PMID:27676261

  7. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  8. Substrate binding and formation of an occluded state in the leucine transporter.

    PubMed

    Celik, Leyla; Schiøtt, Birgit; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2008-03-01

    Translocation through the extracellular vestibule and binding of leucine in the leucine transporter (LeuT) have been studied with molecular dynamics simulations. More than 0.1 mus of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on different combinations of LeuT, bound substrate, and bound structural Na(+) ions to describe molecular events involved in substrate binding and in the formation of the occluded state and to investigate the dynamics of this state. Three structural features are found to be directly involved in the initial steps of leucine transport: a Na(+) ion directly coordinated to leucine (Na-1), two aromatic residues closing the binding site toward the extracellular vestibule (Tyr-108 and Phe-253), and a salt bridge in the extracellular vestibule (Arg-30 and Asp-404). These features account for observed differences between simulations of LeuT with and without bound substrate and for a possible pathway for leucine binding and thereby formation of the occluded LeuT binding site.

  9. EXCESS FREE ENERGIES OF BINARY MOLTEN SALT MIXTURES FROM EMF DATA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SALTS , *FREE ENERGY), (*HALIDES, FREE ENERGY), ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, THERMOCHEMISTRY, SILVER COMPOUNDS, LEAD COMPOUNDS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS...CERIUM COMPOUNDS, CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, SODIUM CHLORIDE, CHLORIDES, BROMIDES, IODIDES

  10. Chloride salt type/ionic strength and refrigeration effects on antioxidant enzymes and lipid oxidation in cattle, camel and chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Gheisari, Hamid Reza; Motamedi, Hossien

    2010-10-01

    The effects of NaCl and KCl at varying ionic strengths on catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and lipid oxidation in ground Longissimus dorsi (LD) of cattle and camel and breast muscle of chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. NaCl and KCl significantly increased 2-thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values. TBARS and peroxide values increased and GSH-Px activity decreased during 4 day storage in the 4 degrees C, but catalase activity was stable. Salt type had no consistent effect on GSH-Px and catalase activities. Chicken samples had lower enzyme activities and TBARS content than cattle and camel. Their peroxide values were lower than camel samples. Camel meat showed higher catalase activity and TBARS content than cattle meat. Results indicated that negative correlation between lipid oxidation and GSH-Px activity and the accelerated lipid oxidation in salted meat may be partly related to a decrease in GSH-Px activity.

  11. Developments in Young Infants' Reasoning about Occluded Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Andrea; Baillargeon, Renee

    2002-01-01

    Eight experiments were conducted to examine 3- and 3.5-month-old infants' responses to occlusion events. The results revealed two developments, one in infants' knowledge of when objects should and should not be occluded and the other in infants' ability to posit additional objects to make sense of events that would otherwise violate their…

  12. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  17. Segmentation of occluded hematopoietic stem cells from tracking.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Walter C; Winter, Mark R; Wait, Eric; Lodder, Mels; Schumacher, Ton; Naik, Shalin H; Cohen, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Image sequences of live proliferating cells often contain visual ambiguities that are difficult even for human domain experts to resolve. Here we present a new approach to analyzing image sequences that capture the development of clones of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from live cell time lapse microscopy. The HSCs cannot survive long term imaging unless they are cultured together with a secondary cell type, OP9 stromal cells. The HSCs frequently disappear under the OP9 cell layer, making segmentation difficult or impossible from a single image frame, even for a human domain expert. We have developed a new approach to the segmentation of HSCs that captures these occluded cells. Starting with an a priori segmentation that uses a Monte Carlo technique to estimate the number of cells in a clump of touching cells, we proceed to track and lineage the image data. Following user validation of the lineage information, an a posteriori resegmentation step utilizing tracking results delineates the HSCs occluded by the OP9 layer. Resegmentation has been applied to 3031 occluded segmentations from 77 tracks, correctly recovering over 84% of the occluded segmentations.

  18. The structure and evolution of a wintertime occluded front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarikivi, Pirkko; Puhakka, Timo

    1990-01-01

    A study, making use of serial radiosonde soundings, weather radar measurements and aircraft reports, has been made of the structure of a deeply occluded wintertime front. The sounding interval during the frontal passage was exceptionally short. The synoptic-scale front-relative flow could be described using the concepts of cyclone warm and cold conveyor belt flows (WCB and CCB) only in its initial stages. During the final stages of the occlusion process, the WCB became diffuse, the CCB weakened and penetrated below the occluded front, and a third relatively dry, cool, and diffluent airflow of mid-tropospheric origin was established above the occluded front. The subsynoptic structure of the occlusion was characterized by a warm frontal zone and, lying above it, a series of "warm tongues" and "cold surges" with a wavelength of about 100km. The related circulations were also responsible for the formation of the observed banded structures in the snowfall, and agreed with the observed distributions of wind, humidity and temperature. As a whole, the warm tongues and the cold surges together with their related circulations transferred warm moist air upwards and northwards as required in the occlusion process. The observed wavelength, as well as the thermal and kinematic features of the circulations agreed well with the theory of conditional symmetric instability (CSI), though in this case, only small areas with pure CSI were found. The most significant area with CSI was found behind the occluded surface front at the top of the moist layer, while the other areas of CSI, found at higher elevations both above and on the occluded frontal surface were clearly smaller. This was considered to be related to the time history and the life-cycle of the roll circulations probably produced by the CSI.

  19. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the imbalance. In persons with too much base, urine chloride measurements can tell the healthcare practitioner whether the cause ... healthcare practitioner will look at whether the chloride measurement changes ... an acid-base imbalance and helps to guide treatment. ^ Back to ...

  20. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  1. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  2. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  3. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  4. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  5. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E.; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L.; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E.; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts. PMID:26964500

  6. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-03-11

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts.

  7. Modeling signal loss in surficial marine sediments containing occluded gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Trevor

    2003-03-01

    The presence of occluded gas in inland lakes, harbor muds, and surficial marine sediments is well documented. Surficial gassy sediments cause underlying beds to be acoustically impenetrable to seismic surveys; therefore, the modeling of signal loss arising from mudline reflection and transmission absorption is of particular interest. The Anderson and Hampton [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 1890-1903 (1980)] model for attenuation in gassy sediments was evaluated against the physical and acoustical properties of eight laboratory silty clay soils containing different amounts of occluded gas in bubbles of 0.2- to 1.8-mm diameter. The model was shown to give good agreement with measured data over the lower frequencies of bubble resonance and above resonance. It did not agree with measured data at frequencies below resonance, for which the model did not simulate the bulk properties of the gassy soils. The Mackenzie [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32, 221-231 (1960)] model for reflection loss was also examined for the gassy soils. The maximum reflection losses of 6 dB, at a grazing angle of 40°, does not wholly support speculation by Levin [Geophysics 27, 35-47 (1962)] of highly reflective pressure-release boundaries arising from substantial reflection and absorption losses in gassy sediments. It was found that mudlines formed from sediments with significant occluded gas may be successfully penetrated, although the substantial absorption loss arising from signal transmission through the sediment prevents penetration of the surficial layers to much beyond a meter in depth.

  8. The evaluation of the pyrochemistry for the treatment of Gen IV nuclear fuels Inert matrix chlorination studies in the gas phase or molten chloride salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, S.; Péron, F.; Lacquement, J.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the fuels for the future Gen IV nuclear reactors will be totally different from those of PWR, especially for the GFR concept including a closed cycle. In these reactors, fissile materials (carbides or nitrides of actinides) should be surrounded by an inert matrix. In order to build a reprocessing process scheme, the behavior of the potential inert matrices (silicon carbide, titanium nitride, and zirconium carbide and nitride) was studied by hydro- and pyrometallurgy. This paper deals with the chlorination results at high temperature by pyrometallurgy. For the first time, the reactivity of the matrix towards chlorine gas was assessed in the gas phase. TiN, ZrN and ZrC are very reactive from 400 °C whereas it is necessary to be over 900 °C for SiC to be as fast. In molten chloride melts, the bubbling of chlorine gas is less efficient than in gas phase but it is possible to attack the matrices. Electrochemical methods were also used to dissolve the refractory materials, leading to promising results with TiN, ZrN and ZrC. The massive SiC samples used were not conductive enough to be studied and in this case specific SiC-coated carbon electrodes were used. The key point of these studies was to find a method to separate the matrix compounds from the fissile material in order to link the head to the core of the process (electrochemical separation or liquid-liquid reductive extraction in the case of a pyrochemical reprocessing).

  9. Major increase in endopeptidase activity of human cathepsin B upon removal of occluding loop contacts.

    PubMed

    Nägler, D K; Storer, A C; Portaro, F C; Carmona, E; Juliano, L; Ménard, R

    1997-10-14

    The main feature distinguishing cathepsin B from other cysteine proteases of the papain family is the presence of a large insertion loop, termed the occluding loop, which occupies the S' subsites of the enzyme. The loop is held in place mainly by two contacts with the rest of the enzyme, involving residues His110 and Arg116 on the loop that form salt bridges with Asp22 and Asp224, respectively. The influence of this loop on the endopeptidase activity of cathepsin B has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) substrates. Wild-type cathepsin B displays poor activity against the substrates Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp and Abz-QVVAGA-EDDnp as compared to cathepsin L and papain. Appreciable increases in kcat/KM were observed for cathepsin B containing the single mutations D22A, H110A, R116A, and D224A. The highest activity however is observed for mutants where both loop to enzyme contacts are disrupted. For the triple-mutant D22A/H110A/R116A, an optimum kcat/KM value of 12 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 was obtained for hydrolysis of Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp, which corresponds to a 600-fold increase relative to wild-type cathepsin B and approaches the level of activity observed with cathepsin L or papain. By comparison, the mutations have little effect on the hydrolysis of Cbz-FR-MCA. The influence of the mutations on the pH dependency of activity also indicates that the complexity of pH activity profiles normally observed for cathepsin B is related to the presence of the occluding loop. The major increase in endopeptidase activity is attributed to an increase in loop "flexibility" and suggests that the occluding loop might move when an endopeptidase substrate binds to the enzyme. The possible contribution of these interactions in regulating endopeptidase activity and the implications for cathepsin B activity in physiological or pathological conditions are discussed.

  10. The interrelation of hydraulic and electrical conductivities, streaming potential, and salt filtration during the flow of chloride brines through a smectite layer at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ilham

    1988-03-01

    Solutions of NaCl and NaCl-CaCl 2 were forced through a clay plug made by compacting the 0.5-2.0 μm size fraction of Cheto montmorillonite. The initial concentration of NaCl solution was 1.10 molal ( m), and that of NaCl-CaCl 2 solution was 0.92 m in NaCl and 0.075 m in CaCl 2. The thickness of the clay plug was 0.5 cm. Two experiments were carried out, one with the NaCl solution and one with the NaCl-CaCl 2 solution. It took six to seven weeks to achieve constancy of effluent chemical composition and of streaming potential. Compaction pressure ( Pc) in these room temperature experiments was 34.5 MPa (5000 psi), differential hydraulic pressure across the clay was 13.8 MPa (2000 psi), and mean hydraulic pressure ( Pmh) was 15.9 MPa (2300 psi). These values of Pc and Pmh are approximate for a depth of 1525 m in sedimentary basins. Hydraulic flow rate, streaming potential, and brine chemical composition were measured periodically until steady state. Electrical conductance of the clay plug was measured in the beginning and at the end of each experimental run. The presence of Ca 2+ in the brine resulted in lower hydraulic conductivity and streaming potential but slightly higher electrical conductivity. The electroviscous effect was shown to cause a significant reduction in the flow rate. The experimental results conform to the predictions of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, for both Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl systems, under these simulated subsurface conditions. Salt filtration efficiencies of 48% were measured. In the Na-Ca-Cl system, Na + was preferentially transported through the clay relative to Ca 2+.

  11. Molecular modeling of the structure and dynamics of the interlayer and surface species of mixed-metal layered hydroxides: Chloride and water in hydrocalumite (Friedel's salt)

    SciTech Connect

    KALINICHEV,ANDREY G.; KIRKPATRICK,R. JAMES; CYGAN,RANDALL T

    2000-01-17

    The dynamical behavior of Cl{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O molecules in the interlayer and on the (001) surface of the Ca-aluminate hydrate hydrocalumite (Friedel's salt) over a range of temperatures from {minus}100 to 300 C is studied using the technique of isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics computer simulations. This phase is currently the best available model compound for other, typically more disordered, mixed-metal layered hydroxides. The computed crystallographic parameters and density are in good agreement with available X-ray diffraction data and the force field developed for these simulations preserves the structure and density to within less than 2% of their measured values. In contrast to the highly ordered arrangement of the interlayer water molecules interpreted from the X-ray data, the simulations reveal significant dynamic disorder in water orientations. At all simulated temperatures, the interlayer water molecules undergo rapid librations (hindered hopping rotations) around an axis essentially perpendicular to the layers. This results in breaking and reformation of hydrogen bonds with the neighboring Cl{sup {minus}} anions and in a time-averaged nearly uniaxial symmetry at Cl{sup {minus}}, in good agreement with recent {sup 35}Cl NMR measurements. Power spectra of translational, vibrational, and vibrational motions of interlayer and surface Cl{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O were calculated as Fourier transforms of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions and compared with the corresponding spectra and dynamics for a bulk aqueous solution. The ordered interlayer space has significant effects on the motions. Strong electrostatic attraction between interlayer water molecules and Ca atoms in the principal layer makes the Ca{hor_ellipsis}OH{sub 2} bond direction the preferred axis for interlayer water librations. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Cl{sup {minus}} as an outer-sphere surface complex is almost three times that of inner-sphere Cl

  12. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  13. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  14. Salt and nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Maalouf, Naim M; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium chloride intake is nowadays globally known as one of the major threats for cardiovascular health. However, there is also important evidence that it may influence idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis onset and recurrence. Higher salt intake has been associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia, which are major risk factors for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt restriction can be an effective means for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. Thus in this paper, we review the complex relationship between salt and nephrolithiasis, pointing out the difference between dietary sodium and salt intake and the best methods to assess them, highlighting the main findings of epidemiologic, laboratory and intervention studies and focusing on open issues such as the role of dietary salt in secondary causes of nephrolithiasis.

  15. Recanalization of an occluded popliteal artery following posterior knee dislocation.

    PubMed

    Kirby, L; Abbas, J; Brophy, C

    1999-11-01

    Posterior knee dislocation results in popliteal artery injury in up to one-third of cases. Prompt recognition and treatment of arterial injury is essential for limb salvage. We report a case of complete occlusion of the popliteal artery following posterior knee dislocation treated with saphenous vein bypass without exclusion of the injured arterial segment. Follow-up duplex scanning demonstrated a patent vein graft and a patent ipsilateral popliteal artery. This report suggests that, in some instances, a traumatically occluded popliteal artery may recanalize, and that revascularization with a bypass graft may be the preferred method of repair, particularly in young patients.

  16. Subintimal Recanalization of Occluded Stents: The Substent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Diamantopoulos, Athanasios Katsanos, Konstantinos; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Siablis, Dimitris

    2013-08-01

    PurposeApplication of metal stents is complicated by neointimal hyperplasia leading to vessel restenosis and reocclusion. Treatment options in cases presenting with complete occlusion of the stented segment and recurrent critical limb ischemia (CLI) are limited. We present the option of the subintimal/substent technique in dealing with occluded stents.MethodsThe study included patients presenting with recurrent CLI due to impaired blood flow as a result of complete occlusion of previously inserted metal stents and unsuccessful intraluminal crossing of the lesion via either the antegrade or retrograde approach. In these cases, crossing the occlusion through the subintimal/substent plane was attempted. Primary end points included technical success, safety of the procedure, clinical improvement, and limb salvage, while secondary end points were patient survival, primary patency, and vessel restenosis rates at 1-year follow-up. Study end points were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsBetween July 2006 and October 2011, a total of 14 patients (mean age 69.14 {+-} 12.59 years, 12 men) were treated with the substent technique and included in the analysis. Technical success rate was 85.71 % (12 of 14), with a total lesion length of 193.57 {+-} 90.78 mm. The mean occluded stented segment length was 90.21 {+-} 44.34 mm. In 10 (83.33 %) of 12 cases, a new stent had to be placed by the side of the old occluded one, while the remaining two cases (16.67 %) were treated only with balloon angioplasty. No serious adverse events were noted during the immediate postprocedural period. All successfully treated patients improved clinically. Estimated limb salvage was 90.9 %, and patient survival rate was 90.0 % at 1 year's follow-up. Primary patency was 45.50 % and vessel restenosis 77.30 %.ConclusionSubintimal recanalization of occluded metal stents through the substent plane is a valuable alternative treatment option, especially in patients with recurrent CLI with few

  17. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  18. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  19. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  20. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  1. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  2. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  3. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  4. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  5. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  6. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  7. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  8. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  9. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  10. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  11. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  12. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05

    Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be

  13. Experimental determination of the solubility constant for magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate (Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, phase 5) at room temperature, and its importance to nuclear waste isolation in geological repositories in salt formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Deng, Haoran; Nemer, Martin; Johnsen, Shelly

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the solubility constant of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, termed as phase 5, is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl 2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant in logarithmic units at 25 °C for the following reaction, MgCl(OH)·4HO+5H=3Mg+9HO(l)+Cl is calculated as 43.21 ± 0.33 (2 σ) based on the specific interaction theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 °C are derived as -3384 ± 2 (2 σ) kJ mol -1 and -3896 ± 6 (2 σ) kJ mol -1, respectively. MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH) 2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH) 2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Phase 5, and its similar phase, phase 3 (Mg 2Cl(OH) 3·4H 2O), could have a significant role in influencing the geochemical conditions in geological repositories for nuclear waste in salt formations where MgO or brucite is employed as engineered barriers. Based on our solubility constant for phase 5 in combination with the literature value for phase 3, we predict that the composition for the invariant point of phase 5 and phase 3 would be mMg = 1.70 and pmH = 8.94 in the Mg-Cl binary system. The recent WIPP Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculations indicate that phase 5, instead of phase 3, is indeed a stable phase when the WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl-dominated brine associated with the Salado Formation, equilibrates with actinide-source-term phases, brucite, magnesium carbonates, halite and anhydrite. Therefore, phase 5 is important to the WIPP, and potentially important to other repositories in salt formations.

  14. Intuitive physical reasoning about occluded objects by inexperienced chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of nature and nurture in higher cognition appear to be intractable if one restricts one's attention to development in humans. However, in other domains, such as sensory development, much information has been gained from controlled rearing studies with animals. Here, we used a similar experimental strategy to investigate intuitive reasoning about occluded objects. Newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) were reared singly with a small object that became their social partner. They were then accustomed to rejoin such an imprinting object when it was made to move and disappear behind either one of two identical opaque screens. After disappearance of the imprinting object, chicks were faced with two screens of different slants, or of different height or different width, which may or may not have been compatible with the presence of the imprinting object hidden beneath/behind them. Chicks consistently chose the screen of slant/height/width compatible with the presence of the object beneath/behind it. Preventing chicks from touching and pecking at the imprinting object before testing did not affect the results, suggesting that intuitive reasoning about physical objects is largely independent of specific experience of interaction with objects and of objects' occluding events. PMID:21270036

  15. Feature-based active contour model and occluding object detection.

    PubMed

    Memar, Sara; Ksantini, Riadh; Boufama, Boubakeur

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for image segmentation and object detection. The proposed strategy consists of two major stages. The first one corresponds to image segmentation, which is based on the active contour model (ACM) algorithm, using an automatic selection of the best candidate features among gradient, polarity, and depth, coupled with a combination of them by the kernel support vector machine (KSVM). Although existing techniques, such as the ones based on ACM, perform well in the single-object case and non-noisy environments, these techniques fail when the scene consists of multiple occluding objects, with possibly similar colors. Thus, the second stage corresponds to the identification of salient and occluded objects based on the fuzzy C-mean algorithm (FCM). In this stage, the depth is included as another clue that allows us to estimate the cluster number and to make the clustering process more robust. In particular, complex occlusions can be handled this way, and the objects can be properly segmented and identified. Experimental results on real images and on several standard datasets have shown the success and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Electronic eye occluder with time-counting and reflection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karitans, V.; Ozolinsh, M.; Kuprisha, G.

    2008-09-01

    In pediatric ophthalmology 2 - 3 % of all the children are impacted by a visual pathology - amblyopia. It develops if a clear image isn't presented to the retina during an early stage of the development of the visual system. A common way of treating this pathology is to cover the better-seeing eye to force the "lazy" eye to learn seeing. However, children are often reluctant to wear such an occluder because they are ashamed or simply because they find it inconvenient. This fact requires to find a way how to track the regime of occlusion because results of occlusion is a hint that the actual regime of occlusion isn't that what the optometrist has recommended. We design an electronic eye occluder that allows to track the regime of eye occlusion. We employ real-time clock DS1302 providing time information from seconds to years. Data is stored in the internal memory of the CPU (EEPROM). The MCU (PIC16F676) switches on only if a mechanical switch is closed and temperature has reached a satisfactory level. The occlusion is registered between time moments when the infrared signal appeared and disappeared.

  17. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, Candido

    1999-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  18. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  19. Salt, Chlor-Alkali, and Related Heavy Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommaraju, Tilak V.

    The chemical category of inorganic salts encompasses many substances that dissociate completely in water, but only one salt, sodium chloride, is referred to by the common name, salt. Sodium chloride is ubiquitous in both its occurrence and its many uses. To date, there are over 14,000 uses for salt.1 Salt is used as a feedstock for many chemicals including chlorine, caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), synthetic soda ash (sodium carbonate), sodium chlorate, sodium sulfate, and metallic sodium. By indirect methods, sodium chloride is also used to produce hydrochloric acid and many other sodium salts. In its natural mineral form, salt may take on some color from some of the trace elements and other salts present, however, pure sodium chloride is a white to colorless crystalline substance, fairly soluble in water.2 Also known as halite, the substance is an essential nutrient to humans and animals for proper bodily functions.

  20. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  1. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  2. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  4. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  5. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  7. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Main occluding area in partially edentulous patients: changes before and after implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Nishinaka, H; Kashiwabara, T; Nagao, K; Ichikawa, T

    2012-09-01

    The 'main occluding area', the location where food crushing occurs during the first stroke of mastication, is reported to be an important concept; however, it is currently limited to findings in individuals with normal dentition. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the location, area and bite force of the main occluding area before and after implant treatments. We enrolled 50 partially edentulous and 22 normally dentate subjects. To identify the location of the main occluding area, each subject was instructed to freely bite once on a dental stopping using the partially edentulous side or the normally dentate area. The location, occluding contact area and bite force of the main occluding area before and after the implant treatments were analysed. The main occluding area was located at a reproducible location in the partially edentulous and normally dentate subjects. This location was principally the first molar region, and for the partially edentulous patients with missing teeth in the molar regions, it moved from the premolar region to the first molar region after treatment. The occluding contact area and bite force for the main occluding area increased (P < 0·05) after the implant treatment in the partially edentulous patients with missing teeth in the molar regions. These results suggest that the main occluding area can be restored to the first molar region after implant treatment and may be an important factor in the assessment of prosthodontic treatment.

  9. Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2σ) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2σ) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2σ) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K

  10. Treatment of Descending Thoracic Aneurysm with an Intraaortic Occluder

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, Domingo; Frank, L.; Del Rio, M.; Gallo, A.; Navia, J.; Bertolozzi, E.; Bracco, D.; Cesareo, V.

    1987-01-01

    Elective treatment of descending thoracic aneurysms involves direct surgery, with Dacron graft replacement of the diseased aortic segment. When the patient's condition contraindicates major surgery, however, the surgeon should consider using an extraanatomic approach—implanting an ascending aorta-to-abdominal aorta Dacron bypass graft in a ventral position and leaving the diseased segment undisturbed. After such a procedure, the descending thoracic aorta must be excluded from the normal circulation. For this purpose, we have designed an intraaortic occluding technique in which an umbrella-like device is implanted immediately distal to the left subclavian artery. This technique has proved safe and uncomplicated in canine experiments and is ready for clinical trials. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:196-205) Images PMID:15229741

  11. AngioJet Thrombectomy for Occluded Dialysis Fistulae: Outcome Data

    SciTech Connect

    Littler, Peter Cullen, Nicola; Gould, Derek; Bakran, Ali; Powell, Steven

    2009-03-15

    This study evaluates AngioJet thrombectomy of occluded autogenous dialysis fistulae and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in a UK hemodialysis population. Comparison is made with published data of alternative percutaneous thrombectomy methods. All patients with occluded dialysis fistulae who sought care at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital between October 2006 and June 2008 were included in the study. All patients were treated with the AngioJet Rheolytic Thrombectomy Device (Possis, Minneapolis, MN). Demographics, time of occlusion, adjunctive therapies, complications, and follow-up data have been prospectively recorded. A total of 64 thrombectomy procedures were performed in 48 patients. Forty-four autogenous fistulas were treated in 34 patients (19 brachiocephalic, 8 radiocephalic, and 7 transposed brachiobasilic). Twenty PTFE grafts were treated in 14 patients (9 brachioaxillary, 3 brachiocephalic loop grafts, 1 brachiobasilic, and 1 femoro-femoral). The average length of occlusion was 24 cm. Average time to intervention was 4 days. Immediate primary patency was 91%. Primary patency at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, was 71%, 60%, and 37%. Secondary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 87%, 77%, and 62%, respectively. Angioplasty was carried out in all procedures. Patients required stent insertion in 34 of the 64 thrombectomies to treat angioplasty-resistant stenoses. Complications included a puncture-site hematoma, and three angioplasty-related vein ruptures in one patient, all treated with covered stent grafts. Two cases of distal brachial arterial embolization were successfully treated by thrombosuction. AngioJet thrombectomy in dialysis access occlusion is safe and effective, comparing favorably with other methods.

  12. Shape Matching Of Two-Dimensional Occluded Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Yu-Shan; Chu, Jwo-Liang

    1987-10-01

    Recognition of partially occluded object is a desirable function in a computer vision system, especially one employed in an industrial automation environment. In this controlled environment, the objects to be recognized can be constrained to a relatively flat region (plane of image), and thus be easily modelled by polygons. This paper studies issues in such a computer vision system and presents algorithms for the various processes involved in occluded polygon matching and recognition. The recognition process is carried out by model matching. The scene may contain unknown model objects which may overlap or touch each other, giving rise to partial occlusion. Both the model and the scene objects are represented by their polygon approximations. Features used for matching are extracted from line segments connecting all possible pairs of vertices in the polygon. They are: vertex types at two ends of line segment, angles of these vertices, line type, and line length. A polygon clipping algorithm based on geometrical properties is used to determine the types of line segments. We also develop a context-free grammar for recognizing line types. To speed up the recognition process, only priority features are used in the initial matching. The priority features are identified after some analysis of the geometrical properties of polygons with occlusion. A consistency check also reduces the pool of candidates for matching. The matching algorithm superposes the model object on the scene along line segments in sequence and checks the dissimilarity between the region enclosed by the scene polygon and the region enclosed by the model polygon appearing in the scene. A dissimilarity measure based on the phenomenon of light illumination and the theory of fuzzy subset has been designed to measure the edge consistency between the scene and candidate model to select the best possible fit.

  13. Crystal structure of 4-carbamoylpyridinium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Simon M.; Prior, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydro­chloride salt of isonicotinamide, C6H7N2O+·Cl−, has been synthesized from a dilute solution of hydro­chloric acid in aceto­nitrile. The compound displays monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c) at 150 K, similar to the related hydro­chloride salt of nicotinamide. The asymmetric unit contains one protonated isonicotinamide mol­ecule and a chloride anion. An array of hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, including a peculiar bifurcated pyridinium–chloride inter­action, results in linear chains running almost perpendicularly in the [150] and [1-50] directions within the structure. A description of the hydrogen-bonding network and comparison with similar compounds are presented. PMID:27375858

  14. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  15. Phonation Threshold Pressure Measurement with a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine if a semi-occluded vocal tract could be used to measure phonation threshold pressure. This is in contrast to the shutter technique, where an alternation between a fully occluded tract and an unoccluded tract is used. Method: Five male and 5 female volunteers phonated through a thin straw held…

  16. Form Perception of Partly Occluded Shapes in 4-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Tessa C. J.; Vrins, Sven; Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; van Lier, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Two habituation experiments were conducted to investigate how 4-month-old infants perceive partly occluded shapes. In the first experiment, we presented a simple, partly occluded shape to the infants until habituation was reached. Then we showed either a probable completion (one that would be predicted on the basis of both local and global cues)…

  17. Skin and soft tissue necrosis from calcium chloride in a deicer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min P; Raho, Vittorio J; Mak, John; Kaynar, A Murat

    2007-01-01

    Calcium chloride salt is the principle ingredient of many commercially available deicers. Calcium chloride melts snow and ice by its osmotic action. We present a case of skin and soft tissue necrosis associated with the use of a calcium chloride-containing deicer. Although calcium chloride is known to produce soft tissue necrosis if it extravasates during intravenous administration, necrosis and skin sloughing has rarely been described after topical exposure to this salt. Calcium chloride likely produces tissue injury from the heat liberated by mixing calcium chloride with water (exothermic reaction) and from direct calcium deposits in the skin (calcinosis cutis) and soft tissue.

  18. Real life identification of partially occluded weapons in video frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2016-05-01

    We empirically test the capacity of an improved system to identify not just images of individual guns, but partially occluded guns and their parts appearing in a videoframe. This approach combines low-level geometrical information gleaned from the visual images and high-level semantic information stored in an ontology enriched with meronymic part-whole relations. The main improvements of the system are handling occlusion, new algorithms, and an emerging meronomy. Well-known and commonly deployed in ontologies, actual meronomies need to be engineered and populated with unique solutions. Here, this includes adjacency of weapon parts and essentiality of parts to the threat of and the diagnosticity for a weapon. In this study video sequences are processed frame by frame. The extraction method separates colors and removes the background. Then image subtraction of the next frame determines moving targets, before morphological closing is applied to the current frame in order to clean up noise and fill gaps. Next, the method calculates for each object the boundary coordinates and uses them to create a finite numerical sequence as a descriptor. Parts identification is done by cyclic sequence alignment and matching against the nodes of the weapons ontology. From the identified parts, the most-likely weapon will be determined by using the weapon ontology.

  19. Using polygons to recognize and locate partially occluded objects.

    PubMed

    Koch, M W; Kashyap, R L

    1987-04-01

    We present computer vision algorithms that recognize and locate partially occluded objects. The scene may contain unknown objects that may touch or overlap giving rise to partial occlusion. The algorithms revolve around a generate-test paradigm. The paradigm iteratively generates and tests hypotheses for compatibility with the scene until it identifies all the scene objects. Polygon representations of the object's boundary guide the hypothesis generation scheme. Choosing the polygon representation turns out to have powerful consequences in all phases of hypothesis generation and verification. Special vertices of the polygon called ``corners'' help detect and locate the model in the scene. Polygon moment calculations lead to estimates of the dissimilarity between scene and model corners, and determine the model corner location in the scene. An association graph represents the matches and compatibility constraints. Extraction of the largest set of mutually compatible matches from the association graph forms a model hypothesis. Using a coordinate transform that maps the model onto the scene, the hypothesis gives the proposed model's location and orientation. Hypothesis verification requires checking for region consistency. The union of two polygons and other polygon operations combine to measure the consistency of the hypothesis with the scene. Experimental results give examples of all phases of recognizing and locating the objects.

  20. Animal Experimental Study of the Fully Biodegradable Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Occluder

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-feng; Huang, Xin-miao; Cao, Jiang; Hu, Jian-qiang; Bai, Yuan; Jiang, Hai-bing; Li, Zhao-feng; Chen, Ying; Wang, Wei; Qin, Yong-wen; Zhao, Xian-xian

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility, safety, biocompatibility, and degradation features of a fully biodegradable occluder for closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) in an acute canine model. The ASD was created in 20 healthy mongrel dogs by the brockenbrough needle, and the fully biodegradable occluders were implanted by self-made delivery system. The success rate and complications were observed. Acute ASD models were successfully created in 18 dogs, and 16 occluders were successfully implanted in the ASD models. Animals were sacrificed at different times after procedure. The cardiac gross anatomy showed that all occluders were stable in the interatrial septum, no vegetation or thrombus formation was observed on the surface of all occluders. They were embedded into endogenous host tissue gradually at 12-week follow-up. Different periods of pathological observations suggested that the occluders degraded gradually over about 24 weeks and essentially became an integral part of the septum. Transcatheter closure of ASD in acute canine model using the fully biodegradable ASD occluder has the potential of a high successful rate of technique, excellent biocompatibility, and fewer complications with adequate, immediate, and short-term results. PMID:23093859

  1. Transcatheter Closure of Bilateral Multiple Huge Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Homemade Double-Umbrella Occluders

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Hongshan Xu Ke; Shao Haibo

    2008-07-15

    A 28-year-old man underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of three huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using homemade double-umbrella occluders and stainless steel coils. Thoracic CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and pulmonary angiography were used for treatment planning and follow-up. The diameters of the feeding vessels were 11 mm, 13 mm, and 14 mm, respectively. This report demonstrates the novel design and utility of the double-umbrella occluder, an alternative tool for treatment of large PAVMs.

  2. Successful Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varix Mainly Draining into the Pericardiophrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, Ken; Nishida, N. Matsui, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Nakamura, K.; Miki, Y.

    2012-02-15

    Two cases of gastric varices were treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein at our hospital, and both were successful. One case developed left hydrothorax. Gastric varices did not bled and esophageal varices were not aggravated in both cases for 24-30 months thereafter. These outcomes indicate the feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein.

  3. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes: First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied the structural properties, thermal stability, and electrochemical response of the membranes to understand chloride migration and transport. Finally, the membranes are tested in a prototype solid-state chloride-ion battery setup. The feasibility of the membranes for their potential use in anion batteries is discussed.

  4. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  5. Structural/Functional Role of Chloride in Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Rivalta, Ivan; Amin, Muhamed; Luber, Sandra; Vassiliev, Serguei; Pokhrel, Ravi; Umena, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamiya, Nobuo; Bruce, Doug; Brudvig, Gary W.; Gunner, M. R.; Batista, Victor S.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride binding in photosystem II (PSII) is essential for photosynthetic water oxidation. However, the functional roles of chloride and possible binding sites, during oxygen evolution, remain controversial. This paper examines the functions of chloride based on its binding site revealed in the X-ray crystal structure of PSII at 1.9 Å resolution. We find that chloride depletion induces formation of a salt-bridge between D2-K317 and D1-D61 that could suppress proton transfer to the lumen. PMID:21678923

  6. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  7. Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at

  8. Spectra of Low-Temperature Chlorine Salt Hydrates and Implications for Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Dalton, J. B., III; Chevrier, V. F.; Jamieson, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Low-temperature spectra of chloride and (per)chlorate salts exhibit diagnostic features that should allow for their detection, if present. Chlorine salts lower the activity of water, limiting potential life.

  9. Single crystal to single crystal [2+2] photoreactions in chloride and sulphate salts of 4-amino-cinnamic acid via solid-solution formation: a structural and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    d'Agostino, Simone; Spinelli, Floriana; Boanini, Elisa; Braga, Dario; Grepioni, Fabrizia

    2016-01-31

    A set of molecular salts with general formula [1H]nA·xH2O (1 = 4-amino-cinnamic acid, A(n-) = NO3(-), BF4(-), PF6(-), SO4(2-), x = 0, 1) was prepared and structurally characterized. [1H]Cl and [1H]2SO4·H2O(II) were found to undergo an SCSC stepwise [2+2] photodimerization, which was followed by X-ray diffraction; a kinetic analysis was performed on single crystals of both salts. In the case of [1H]Cl the photoreaction was also studied on polycrystalline materials.

  10. Solution-Derived, Chloride-Containing Minerals as a Waste Form for Alkali Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Lepry, William C.

    2012-10-01

    Sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2] and cancrinite [(Na,K)6Ca2Al6Si6O24Cl4] are environmentally stable, chloride-containing minerals and are a logical waste form option for the mixed alkali chloride salt waste stream that is generated from a proposed electrochemical separations process during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to the volatility of chloride salts at moderate temperatures, the ideal processing route for these salts is a low-temperature approach such as the sol-gel process. The sodalite structure can be easily synthesized by the sol-gel process; however, it is produced in the form of a fine powder with particle sizes on the order of 1–10 µm. Due to the small particle size, these powders require additional treatment to form a monolith. In this study, the sol-gel powders were pressed into pellets and fired to achieve > 90% of theoretical density. The cancrinite structure, identified as the best candidate mineral form in terms of waste loading capacity, was only produced on a limited basis following the sol-gel process and converted to sodalite upon firing. Here we discuss the sol-gel process specifics, chemical durability of select waste forms, and the steps taken to maximize chloride-containing phases, decrease chloride loss during pellet firing, and increase pellet densities.

  11. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  12. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  13. Watershed scale chloride storage across a gradient of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellen, C. C.; Oswald, C. J.; Oni, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sodium chloride is the main de-icing agent used during the winter in Canada and the northern United States. However, little is known about the long term fate, residence time, and ecological effects of chloride. This talk integrates work taking place across three sites in Southern Ontario, Canada: Hamilton Harbour, the Toronto lakeshore, and Lake Simcoe. We quantify chloride inputs, outputs, and changes in storage for a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. For the three winter months (January, February, March), we show that stream water chloride concentrations approach those of brackish waters for urban watersheds. Chloride is also highly persistent, with stream water chloride concentrations decreasing from the winter months and approaching baseline levels only in July. These baseline levels are greater than 100 mg Cl/l in the urban watersheds, suggesting high levels of chloride storage in soil and groundwater. Using road salt application rates and groundwater levels and chloride concentrations, we estimate the magnitude and residence time of the chloride pools in a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. Our results suggest that the magnitude and residence time of chloride storage varies with urbanization and other factors. We show that summer baseflow concentrations do approach the EPA's chronic exposure guideline of 230 mg Cl/l, implying more work is needed to understand the in stream and downstream ecological effects of chloride.

  14. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Amy B.; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  16. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  17. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  18. Successful Percutaneous Retrieval of Embolized Septal Occluder Device from Aortic Arch and Placement of a Newer Septal Occluder Device in Combined Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Sandeep; Webel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Embolization of the Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO) device (St. Jude Medical, Minnesota) after percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) is a rare and potentially catastrophic complication. Percutaneous retrieval of the embolized device is gaining ground as an acceptable method, although these patients are usually subsequently referred for open surgical closure of the ASD. We present a unique case of percutaneous retrieval embolized ASO device and placement of newer larger ASO device in a single procedure. PMID:28116175

  19. Catching What We Can't See: Manual Interception of Occluded Fly-Ball Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects

  20. A diffusive anomaly of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2008-02-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are presented for the self-diffusion coefficient of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions. At temperatures above the freezing point of pure water, the self-diffusion coefficient is a monotonically decreasing function of salt concentration. Below the freezing point of pure water, however, the self-diffusion coefficient is a non-monotonic function of salt concentration, showing a maximum at approximately one molal salt. This suggests that sodium chloride, which is considered a structure-making salt at room temperature, becomes a structure-breaking salt at low temperatures. A qualitative understanding of this effect can be obtained by considering the effect of ions on the residence time of water molecules near other water molecules. A consideration of the freezing point depression of aqueous sodium chloride solutions suggests that the self-diffusion coefficient of water in supercooled sodium chloride solutions is always higher than that in pure (supercooled) water at the same temperature.

  1. A correlation-based algorithm for recognition and tracking of partially occluded objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a correlation-based algorithm consisting of a set of adaptive filters for recognition of occluded objects in still and dynamic scenes in the presence of additive noise is proposed. The designed algorithm is adaptive to the input scene, which may contain different fragments of the target, false objects, and background to be rejected. The algorithm output is high correlation peaks corresponding to pieces of the target in scenes. The proposed algorithm uses a bank of composite optimum filters. The performance of the proposed algorithm for recognition partially occluded objects is compared with that of common algorithms in terms of objective metrics.

  2. Numerical procedure to determine geometric view factors for surfaces occluded by cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed to determine geometric view factors between connected infinite strips occluded by any number of infinite circular cylinders. The procedure requires a two-dimensional cross-sectional model of the configuration of interest. The two-dimensional model consists of a convex polygon enclosing any number of circles. Each side of the polygon represents one strip, and each circle represents a circular cylinder. A description and listing of a computer program based on this procedure are included in this report. The program calculates geometric view factors between individual strips and between individual strips and the collection of occluding cylinders.

  3. Fractured occluder disc: a previously unrecognized complication of the Starr-Edwards disc prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Malouf, J F; Hannoush, H M; Odell, J A

    2001-01-01

    Fracture of the occluder disc of a low-profile Starr-Edwards prosthesis is a hitherto unrecognized complication. We describe a patient who presented with right heart failure and severe pulmonary hypertension 27 years after mitral valve replacement with a model 6520 caged-disc prosthesis. At surgery, there was a longitudinal split in the occluder disc, and organized thrombus was lodged between the split segments. This case offers a unique opportunity to study the long-term effects of wear on the polyethylene poppet and Stellite cage.

  4. Late embolization of prosthetic mitral valve occluder with survival following reoperation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A; Leatherman, L L; Norman, J C; Cooley, D A

    1975-02-01

    Embolization of the occluder from a prosthetic mitral valve is an extremely rare event. Previous reports in the literature have described the uniformly fatal outcome of this complication. A case in which the occluder from a Wada-Cutter mitral prosthesis embolized five years following implantation is presented. The patient survived following emergency reoperation. Several unique features of escaped mitral poppet are discussed. Depending upon cardiac reserves, patients who have this complication may live long enough to allow emergency operative intervention and eventual recovery.

  5. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters.

    PubMed

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I

    2007-10-11

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  6. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate.

  7. THE BEHAVIOR OF SUPERALLOY OXIDE FILMS IN MOLTEN SALTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NICKEL ALLOYS , CORROSION), (*FILMS, OXIDES), CORROSION RESISTANT ALLOYS , SALTS, CORROSIVE LIQUIDS, HIGH TEMPERATURE, NICKEL COMPOUNDS, SODIUM...COMPOUNDS, SULFATES, CHLORIDES, CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS , MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS , COBALT ALLOYS , ALUMINUM ALLOYS , TITANIUM ALLOYS , IRON ALLOYS , NICKEL, OXIDATION

  8. Disentangling effects of structure and knowledge in perceiving partly occluded shapes: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hazenberg, Simon J; van Lier, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs) we investigated the influence of object knowledge on perceiving partly occluded shapes. We created stimuli based on well-known objects of which the middle part was occluded. Object completions that were compatible with structure consisted of the connection of the visible fragments by smoothly extending their contours. In contrast, object completions that were incompatible with structure consisted of separate disconnected completions of the fragments. Furthermore, object completions could be in line with, or conflict with expectations based on knowledge. We measured ERPs when hidden parts were revealed by removing the occluder, and observed an early positive ERP peaking around 115-140ms at occipital sites, presumably triggered by physical differences. Most importantly, we observed a positive ERP peaking around 300-400ms at parieto-occipital sites that could be related to influences of both structure and knowledge. An additional analysis controlling for differential stimulus characteristics revealed similar conclusions. All in all, we demonstrate that the interpretation of partly occluded shapes is not solely driven by stimulus structure, but that it can also be influenced by knowledge of objects.

  9. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Via the Pericardiacophrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimatsu, Rika Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kotaro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a case of gastric varix without a gastrorenal shunt that drained through the left pericardiacophrenic vein, which entered the left brachiocephalic vein. For this case we successfully performed balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, in which sclerotic agents were infused via the left pericardiacophrenic vein approached from the left subclavian vein.

  10. Voice Training and Therapy with a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract: Rationale and Scientific Underpinnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Voice therapy with a semi-occluded vocal tract has a long history. The use of lip trills, tongue trills, bilabial fricatives, humming, and phonation into tubes or straws has been hailed by clinicians, singing teachers, and voice coaches as efficacious for training and rehabilitation. Little has been done, however, to provide the…

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapsner-Smith, Mara R.; Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal…

  12. Cotton-Top Tamarins' ("Saguinus Oedipus") Expectations about Occluded Objects: A Dissociation between Looking and Reaching Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Laurie R.; Seelig, David; Hauser, Marc D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent work with human infants and toddlers suggests a dissociation between performance on looking and reaching tasks. Specifically, infants appear to generate accurate representations of occluded objects and their actions when tested in expectancy violation looking tasks but often fail to use this information when reaching for occluded objects.…

  13. Modeling Fate and Transport of Chloride from Deicers in Urban Floodplains: Implications for Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Road salting in urban areas of the northeastern United States increases chloride concentrations in urban streams. Groundwater storage of saline road runoff results in increased surface water chloride concentrations through time, even in non-winter months. Stream-groundwater (SW-GW) interactions promote buffering of large seasonal swings in stream chloride concentrations, resulting in lower surface water chloride in winter and higher concentrations in summer, relative to streams hydrologically disconnected from riparian floodplains. However, the hydrogeologic processes controlling salt storage and transport in urban floodplain aquifers have not been fully investigated. We developed a 3D numerical groundwater flow and solute transport model of an urban floodplain in Syracuse, New York, using MODFLOW and MT3DMS. We ran the model for 1 year, calibrating to three conditions: water table elevations along a riparian transect, measurements of net groundwater flux to the stream along the 500-m reach, and chloride concentrations in groundwater through time in riparian wells. Chloride enters the riparian aquifer via three pathways: hillslope groundwater discharge, hyporheic exchange, and groundwater recharge during overbank flooding events. Winter overbank flooding events are the primary source of chloride to floodplain sediments. While hillslope groundwater discharge results in relatively uniform chloride through time in high conductivity units, surficial floodplain sediments with lower conductivity have high chloride concentrations from winter overbank flood events. When compared to road salt application rates (up to 20 tons of salt per lane kilometer per year), the 0.013 km2 floodplain holds only a tiny fraction of chloride applied in a watershed (>100 km of road in the watershed). To promote riparian aquifer storage of road salt and buffering of stream chloride concentrations, urban planners should design urban floodplains for frequent winter flooding events, and allow

  14. Recognition of partially occluded threat objects using the annealed Hopefield network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jung H.; Yoon, Sung H.; Park, Eui H.; Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of partially occluded objects has been an important issue to airport security because occlusion causes significant problems in identifying and locating objects during baggage inspection. The neural network approach is suitable for the problems in the sense that the inherent parallelism of neural networks pursues many hypotheses in parallel resulting in high computation rates. Moreover, they provide a greater degree of robustness or fault tolerance than conventional computers. The annealed Hopfield network which is derived from the mean field annealing (MFA) has been developed to find global solutions of a nonlinear system. In the study, it has been proven that the system temperature of MFA is equivalent to the gain of the sigmoid function of a Hopfield network. In our early work, we developed the hybrid Hopfield network (HHN) for fast and reliable matching. However, HHN doesn't guarantee global solutions and yields false matching under heavily occluded conditions because HHN is dependent on initial states by its nature. In this paper, we present the annealed Hopfield network (AHN) for occluded object matching problems. In AHN, the mean field theory is applied to the hybird Hopfield network in order to improve computational complexity of the annealed Hopfield network and provide reliable matching under heavily occluded conditions. AHN is slower than HHN. However, AHN provides near global solutions without initial restrictions and provides less false matching than HHN. In conclusion, a new algorithm based upon a neural network approach was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the automated inspection of threat objects from x-ray images. The robustness of the algorithm is proved by identifying occluded target objects with large tolerance of their features.

  15. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  16. Novel Paradigms of Salt and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenguang; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Sanders, Paul W

    2017-02-20

    Salt resistance/sensitivity refers specifically to the effect of dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake on BP. Increased dietary salt intake promotes an early and uniform expansion of extracellular fluid volume and increased cardiac output. To compensate for these hemodynamic changes and maintain constant BP in salt resistance, renal and peripheral vascular resistance falls and is associated with an increase in production of nitric oxide. In contrast, the decline in peripheral vascular resistance and the increase in nitric oxide are impaired or absent in salt sensitivity, promoting an increase in BP in these individuals. Endothelial dysfunction may pose a particularly significant risk factor in the development of salt sensitivity and subsequent hypertension. Vulnerable salt-sensitive populations may have in common underlying endothelial dysfunction due to genetic or environmental influences. These individuals may be very sensitive to the hemodynamic stress of increased effective blood volume, setting in motion untoward molecular and biochemical events that lead to overproduction of TGF-β, oxidative stress, and limited bioavailable nitric oxide. Finally, chronic high-salt ingestion produces endothelial dysfunction, even in salt-resistant subjects. Thus, the complex syndrome of salt sensitivity may be a function of the endothelium, which is integrally involved in the vascular responses to high salt intake.

  17. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  18. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered.

  19. A Trail of Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the relative abundances of sulfur (in the form of sulfur tri-oxide) and chlorine at three Meridiani Planum sites: soil measured in the small crater where Opportunity landed; the rock dubbed 'McKittrick' in the outcrop lining the inner edge of the crater; and the rock nicknamed 'Guadalupe,' also in the outcrop. The 'McKittrick' data shown here were taken both before and after the rover finished grinding the rock with its rock abrasion tool to expose fresh rock underneath. The 'Guadalupe' data were taken after the rover grounded the rock. After grinding both rocks, the sulfur abundance rose to high levels, nearly five times higher than that of the soil. This very high sulfur concentration reflects the heavy presence of sulfate salts (approximately 30 percent by weight) in the rocks. Chloride and bromide salts are also indicated. Such high levels of salts strongly suggest the rocks contain evaporite deposits, which form when water evaporates or ice sublimes into the atmosphere.

  20. Microwave evaluation of accelerated chloride ingress in mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C.; Case, T.; Castle, M.; Zoughi, R.; Kurtis, K.

    2001-04-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures can be induced by the presence of chloride ions near the steel/concrete interface. To show the potential of microwave nondestructive testing techniques for evaluating chloride ingress, 8″×8″×8″ mortar specimens with different mixture designs were prepared. To accelerate chloride ingress, they were exposed to cyclical wet/dry conditions, where the wet condition included exposure to salt bath. A complete discussion of the results will be presented in this paper.

  1. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  2. [Gustatory sensitivity to sodium chloride and potassium chloride and certain parameters of sodium metabolism in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mineev, V N; Suparnovich, I Iu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine threshold gustatory sensitivity (TGS) to sodium chloride and potassium chloride in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) taking into account a number of factors responsible for the enhanced risk of development and progress of this disease. Forty five practically healthy subjects were compared with 139 asthmatic patients; a separate group comprised patients treated permanently with oral glucocorticoids and those having non-pulmonary allergy. Chemically pure solutions of sodium and potassium chlorides were used in the dripping test to assess TGS. Asthmatic patients had enhanced TGS to sodium chloride compared with healthy subjects. TGS values were especially high in non-allergic bronchial asthma and minimal in allergic asthma when they were unrelated to the phase of the disease. TGS to potassium chloride in asthmatic patients also differed from that in healthy subjects; more patients were bitter-insensitive or sensitive only to high concentrations of potassium chloride. Patients treated with systemic glucocorticoids had the highest TGS to sodium chloride. Patients with non-pulmonary allergy and allergic BA had very similar TGS to potassium chloride. TGS to sodium chloride in the former was lower than in healthy subjects and patients with allergic BA. Asthmatic patients had a higher sodium ion concentration in erythrocytes than normal subjects; it reached maximum values in persons used to add salt to fully cooked food.

  3. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  4. Pigeons do not perceptually complete partly occluded photos of food: an ecological approach to the "pigeon problem".

    PubMed

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2005-04-29

    Humans routinely complete partly occluded objects to recognize the whole objects. However, a number of studies using geometrical figures and even conspecific images have shown that pigeons fail to do so. In the present study, we tested whether pigeons complete partially occluded objects in a situation simulating a natural feeding context. In Experiment 1, we trained pigeons to peck at any photograph of food and not to peck at any containing a non-food object. At test, we presented both photos of food partly occluded by pigeon's feather and photos simply truncated at the same part. We predicted that if the pigeons perceptually completed the occluded portion, then they would discriminate the photos of occluded food better than the truncated photos. The result was that the pigeons pecked at the truncated photos earlier than the occluded photos. Placing the occluder next to all of the stimuli in Experiment 2 or substituting indented lozenge for the feather in Experiment 3 did not affect the results. Thus, even in a simulated ecologically significant situation, pigeons continued to not show evidence of perceptual completion.

  5. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium if you have heart disease. Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if ... heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema. High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): ...

  6. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic attacks depression suicidal thoughts paranoia delusions and hallucinations distorted sense of reality decreased ability to think ... of bath salts may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis ...

  7. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    PubMed

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  8. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Bronchial Carcinoid Diagnosed by Balloon-Occluded Pulmonary Arterial Sampling.

    PubMed

    Yotsukura, Masaya; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Asakura, Keisuke; Kamiyama, Ikuo; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kurihara, Isao; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Asamura, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old man with Cushing syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumor. A small nodule was located in close association with the lateral segmental branch of the pulmonary artery in the left upper lobe. Blood samples were obtained from various branches of the pulmonary artery by balloon-occluded retrograde sampling for the measurement of location-specific serum ACTH levels. After confirmation that the pulmonary nodule was responsible for the increased ACTH secretion, lobectomy was performed. This report demonstrates the usefulness of balloon-occluded retrograde pulmonary arterial sampling for the preoperative diagnosis of an ACTH-producing tumor whose diagnosis is difficult to confirm.

  9. Structure of an antibacterial peptide ATP-binding cassette transporter in a novel outward occluded state

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Hassanul G.; Tong, Zhen; Mathavan, Indran; Li, Yanyan; Iwata, So; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Beis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae produce antimicrobial peptides for survival under nutrient starvation. Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is an antimicrobial peptide with a unique lasso topology. It is secreted by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter McjD, which ensures self-immunity of the producing strain through efficient export of the toxic mature peptide from the cell. Here we have determined the crystal structure of McjD from Escherichia coli at 2.7-Å resolution, which is to the authors’ knowledge the first structure of an antibacterial peptide ABC transporter. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate McjD-dependent immunity to MccJ25 through efflux of the peptide. McjD can directly bind MccJ25 and displays a basal ATPase activity that is stimulated by MccJ25 in both detergent solution and proteoliposomes. McjD adopts a new conformation, termed nucleotide-bound outward occluded. The new conformation defines a clear cavity; mutagenesis and ligand binding studies of the cavity have identified Phe86, Asn134, and Asn302 as important for recognition of MccJ25. Comparisons with the inward-open MsbA and outward-open Sav1866 structures show that McjD has structural similarities with both states without the intertwining of transmembrane (TM) helices. The occluded state is formed by rotation of TMs 1 and 2 toward the equivalent TMs of the opposite monomer, unlike Sav1866 where they intertwine with TMs 3–6 of the opposite monomer. Cysteine cross-linking studies on the McjD dimer in inside-out membrane vesicles of E. coli confirmed the presence of the occluded state. We therefore propose that the outward-occluded state represents a transition intermediate between the outward-open and inward-open conformation of ABC exporters. PMID:24920594

  10. Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality Mark A. Livingston∗ Naval Research Laboratory...effectively impossible with all icon styles, whereas in the case of partial overlap, the Ground Plane had a clear advantage. Keywords: Augmented reality , human

  11. Late Migration of Amplatzer Septal Occluder Device to the Descending Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Hyun; Yi, Gi-Jong; Song, Suk-Won

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) has become an increasingly common procedure. Serious complications of the procedure, such as cardiac migration, are rare, and usually occur <72 hours after device placement. In this report, we present the case of a patient who underwent successful surgical treatment for the migration of an ASD occluder device to the thoracic aorta 12 months after ASD closure. PMID:28180104

  12. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Taura, Kojiro; Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  13. Closure of aorto-right ventricular tunnel with Amplatzer duct occluder II.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, I B; Narasimhan, Chitra; Agarwal, Ashish

    2013-04-01

    Aorto-right ventricular tunnel (ARVT) is a very rare, congenital, abnormal extracardiac channel that connects the ascending aorta at or above the sinotubular junction to the cavity of the right ventricle. Only 16 cases have been reported thus far in the English literature. We report the first transcatheter closure of ARVT with the Amplatzer duct occluder II in an infant, with both coronary arteries arising from the left coronary sinus and with biventricular apical non-compaction.

  14. Relief of Buttock Claudication by Percutaneous Recanalization of an Occluded Superior Gluteal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Senechal, Quentin; Auguste, Mario C.; Louail, Bertrand; Lagneau, Pierre; Pernes, Jean Marc

    2000-03-15

    We report a case of a woman presenting with right severe buttock claudication and normal neurological and osteoarticular examination, in whom a guidewire recanalization and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of an occluded right superior gluteal artery (SGA) has provided relief of her symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of percutaneous recanalization of the SGA. PTA can be considered the treatment of choice for buttock claudication caused by SGA stenosis or occlusion.

  15. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  16. Endocarditis and Incomplete Endothelialization 12 Years after Amplatzer Septal Occluder Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Allan K.; Starr, Joanne P.; Gates, Richard N.; Berdjis, Farbouch

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy had a 15-mm atrial septal defect repaired percutaneously with use of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. At age 16 years, he presented with a week's history of fever, chills, dyspnea, fatigue, and malaise. Cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.25 × 1.5-cm pedunculated mass on the left aspect of the atrial septum just superior to the mitral valve, and a smaller vegetation on the right inferior medial aspect of the septum. At surgery, visual examination of both sides of the septum revealed granulation tissue, the pedunculated mass, the small vegetation, and exposed metal wires that suggested incomplete endothelialization of the occluder. We removed the occluder and patched the septal defect. The patient returned to full activity after 4 months and was asymptomatic 3 years postoperatively. Our report reinforces the need for further investigation into prosthetic device endothelialization, endocarditis prophylaxis, and recommended levels of physical activity in patients whose devices might be incompletely endothelialized. In addition to reporting our patient's case, we review the medical literature on this topic. PMID:27303238

  17. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  18. Association between autistic traits and emotion adaptation to partially occluded faces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwen; Burns, Edwin; Xu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged exposure to a happy face makes subsequently presented faces appear sadder: the facial emotion aftereffect (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of faces. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population by autistic traits using the autism-quotient (AQ). Prior work has not found any association between AQ and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum. In the present study, we tested whether AQ was associated with FEA to partially occluded faces. We hypothesized that inferring emotion from such faces would require participants to process their viewable parts as a gestalt percept, thus we anticipated this ability would diminish as autistic traits increased. In Experiment 1, we partially occluded the adapting faces with aligned or misaligned opaque bars. Both conditions produced significant FEAs, with aftereffects and AQ negatively correlated. In Experiment 2, we adapted participants to obscured faces flickering in luminance, and manipulated the facilitation of holistic perception by varying the synchronization of this flickering. We found significant FEAs in all conditions, but abolished its association with AQ. In Experiment 3, we showed that the association between AQ and FEA in the occluded conditions in Experiment 1 was not due to the recognizability or perceived emotional intensity of our adaptors; although the overall FEAs were linked to emotional intensity. We propose that increasing autistic traits are associated with diminishing abilities in perceiving emotional faces as a gestalt percept.

  19. Reduced performance of prey targeting in pit vipers with contralaterally occluded infrared and visual senses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Deng, Huanhuan; Brauth, Steven E; Ding, Li; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    Both visual and infrared (IR) senses are utilized in prey targeting by pit vipers. Visual and IR inputs project to the contralateral optic tectum where they activate both multimodal and bimodal neurons. A series of ocular and pit organ occlusion experiments using the short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) were conducted to investigate the role of visual and IR information during prey targeting. Compared with unoccluded controls, snakes with either both eyes or pit organs occluded performed more poorly in hunting prey although such subjects still captured prey on 75% of trials. Subjects with one eye and one pit occluded on the same side of the face performed as well as those with bilateral occlusion although these subjects showed a significant targeting angle bias toward the unoccluded side. Performance was significantly poorer when only a single eye or pit was available. Interestingly, when one eye and one pit organ were occluded on opposite sides of the face, performance was poorest, the snakes striking prey on no more than half the trials. These results indicate that, visual and infrared information are both effective in prey targeting in this species, although interference between the two modalities occurs if visual and IR information is restricted to opposite sides of the brain.

  20. Realization of an aerial 3D image that occludes the background scenery.

    PubMed

    Kakeya, Hideki; Ishizuka, Shuta; Sato, Yuya

    2014-10-06

    In this paper we describe an aerial 3D image that occludes far background scenery based on coarse integral volumetric imaging (CIVI) technology. There have been many volumetric display devices that present floating 3D images, most of which have not reproduced the visual occlusion. CIVI is a kind of multilayered integral imaging and realizes an aerial volumetric image with visual occlusion by combining multiview and volumetric display technologies. The conventional CIVI, however, cannot show a deep space, for the number of layered panels is limited because of the low transmittance of each panel. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel optical design to attain an aerial 3D image that occludes far background scenery. In the proposed system, a translucent display panel with 120 Hz refresh rate is located between the CIVI system and the aerial 3D image. The system modulates between the aerial image mode and the background image mode. In the aerial image mode, the elemental images are shown on the CIVI display and the inserted translucent display is uniformly translucent. In the background image mode, the black shadows of the elemental images in a white background are shown on the CIVI display and the background scenery is displayed on the inserted translucent panel. By alternation of these two modes at 120 Hz, an aerial 3D image that visually occludes the far background scenery is perceived by the viewer.

  1. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R; James Laurinat, J

    2006-08-22

    Chloride (Cl{sup -}) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO{sub 2} sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl{sup -} from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H{sup +}) and up to 5 M Cl{sup -}. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H{sup +}, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), facilitated by the presence of NO{sub 2}, strongly affects the rate of Cl{sup -} removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl{sup -} salt solution without pre-heating the NO{sub 2} gas has minimal effect on Cl{sup -} removal rates when the contact times between NO{sub 2} and the salt solution are on the order of seconds.

  2. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  3. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  4. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  5. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  6. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  7. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  8. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  9. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  10. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  11. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  12. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  13. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  14. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  15. Sea salt particles react with organic acids in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-10-01

    Sea salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), particles lofted into the atmosphere by the motion of ocean waves affect atmospheric chemistry; these particles can undergo reactions with trace atmospheric gases and internal mixing with anthropogenic pollutants depositing on particle surface. Several studies have found that NaCl particles in the atmosphere are depleted in chloride and have attributed this to reactions with inorganic acids. However, reactions with inorganic acids do not fully account for the observed chloride depletion in some locations; it has been suggested that organic acids, likely of anthropogenic origin, may also play a role in chloride depletion, but results have been uncertain.

  16. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  17. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes.

  18. Recognition of Partially Occluded Objects Based on the Three Different Color Spaces (RGB, YCbCr, HSV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose an algorithm that can recognize partially occluded objects under different variations by computing three histograms of colour spaces (RGB, HSV, YCbCr). The dataset used in this research are from kitchen apparatuses. It is created by the researcher and include two parts: referenced objects (18 single objects) and tested objects (occluded objects) made from two single objects to represent the occluded object under different variations (scale, rotation, transformation) with varying percentage of occlusion (30-90 %). Three different colour spaces histogram (RGB, HIS, YCbCr) are used for extracting the features. Histogram intersection distance works for matching objects. Computation histograms and matching process are used to each block of image that given by image division process and finally compared the performance of each colour space by evaluating the accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust for identifying occluded objects and it could work at high occlusion.

  19. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  20. Salt intake and reproductive function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Digby, S N; Chadwick, M A; Blache, D

    2011-06-01

    Producers have the possibility to combat human-induced dryland salinity by planting salt-tolerant plants such as saltbush. Saltbush has the potential to be used as a source of food for livestock at a time and place where pasture is not viable. However, saltbush contains high concentrations of sodium chloride salt and some other anti-nutritional factors that have the potential to affect feed and water intake and, directly or indirectly, the reproductive capacity of sheep. High-salt diet during gestation induces a small modification of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has an important role in the maintenance of the salt-water balance in non-pregnant and pregnant sheep. In contrast, the main effect of salt ingestion during pregnancy is observed on the biology of the offspring, with changes in the response of the RAS to salt ingestion and altered thirst threshold in response to an oral salt ingestion. These changes, observed later in life, are the result of fetal programming following the ingestion of salt by the mother. It seems that the exposure to salt during pregnancy could provide an advantage to the offspring because of this adaptive response. The response may be particularly useful, for example, when grazing herbivores are fed halophytic forages adapted to saline soils.

  1. Computational evaluation of aortic occlusion and the proposal of a novel, improved occluder: Constrained endo-aortic balloon occlusion.

    PubMed

    de Vaal, M H; Gee, M W; Stock, U A; Wall, W A

    2016-12-01

    Because aortic occlusion is arguably one of the most dangerous aortic manipulation maneuvers during cardiac surgery in terms of perioperative ischemic neurological injury, the purpose of this investigation is to assess the structural mechanical impact resulting from the use of existing and newly proposed occluders. Existing (clinically used) occluders considered include different cross-clamps (CCs) and endo-aortic balloon occlusion (EABO). A novel occluder is also introduced, namely, constrained EABO (CEABO), which consists of applying a constrainer externally around the aorta when performing EABO. Computational solid mechanics are employed to investigate each occluder according to a comprehensive list of functional requirements. The potential of a state of occlusion is also considered for the first time. Three different constrainer designs are evaluated for CEABO. Although the CCs were responsible for the highest strains, largest deformation, and most inefficient increase of the occlusion potential, it remains the most stable, simplest, and cheapest occluder. The different CC hinge geometries resulted in poorer performance of CC used for minimally invasive procedures than conventional ones. CEABO with a profiled constrainer successfully addresses the EABO shortcomings of safety, stability, and positioning accuracy, while maintaining its complexities of operation (disadvantage) and yielding additional functionalities (advantage). Moreover, CEABO is able to achieve the previously unattainable potential to provide a clinically determinable state of occlusion. CEABO offers an attractive alternative to the shortcomings of existing occluders, with its design rooted in achieving the highest patient safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  3. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counts, T.

    1985-12-01

    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  4. The impact of sodium chloride and volume depletion in the chronic kidney disease of congenital chloride diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wedenoja, Satu; Ormälä, Timo; Berg, Ulla B; Halling, Stella F Edström; Jalanko, Hannu; Karikoski, Riitta; Kere, Juha; Holmberg, Christer; Höglund, Pia

    2008-10-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea is due to mutations in the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange (SLC26A3) which results in sodium chloride and fluid depletion leading to hypochloremic and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. Although treatment with sodium and potassium chloride offers protection from renal involvement in childhood, the long-term renal outcome remains unclear. Here we describe two cases of congenital chloride diarrhea-associated end-stage renal disease with transplantation. Further, we show that there is a high incidence of mild chronic kidney disease in 35 other patients with congenital chloride diarrhea. The main feature of the renal injury was nephrocalcinosis, without hypercalciuria or nephrolithiasis with small sized kidneys and commensurately reduced glomerular filtration rates. This suggests that diarrhea-related sodium chloride and volume depletion, the first signs of non-optimal salt substitution, promote urine supersaturation and crystal precipitation. The poor compliance with salt substitution along with long-lasting hypochloremic and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis is likely to induce progressive calcification and renal failure. Both our patients developed nephrocalcinosis in the transplanted kidneys suggesting that this complication is a consequence of intestinal SLC26A3 deficiency. Interestingly, the transporter is expressed in the distal nephron but the recurrence of nephrocalcinosis in the transplanted kidney suggests that it does not play a significant renal role in this syndrome.

  5. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. PMID: 101209392 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101209392 Mason JB. Vitamins, trace ...

  6. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  7. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  8. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production ...

  9. Salt excretion in Suaeda fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Ammari, Manel; Mssedi, Dorsaf; Benzerti, Maali; Snoussi, Sana; Abdelly, C

    2010-09-01

    Suaeda fruticosa is a perennial "includer" halophyte devoid of glands or trichomes with a strong ability of accumulating and sequestrating Na(+) and Cl(-). We were interested in determining whether leaf cuticle salt excretion could be involved as a further mechanism in salt response of this species after long-term treatment with high salinity levels. Seedlings had been treated for three months with seawater (SW) diluted with tap water (0, 25, 50 and 75% SW). Leaf scanning electron microscopy revealed a convex adaxial side sculpture and a higher accumulation of saline crystals at the lamina margin, with a large variability on repartition and size between treatments. No salt gland or salt bladder was found. Threedimensional wax decorations were the only structures found on leaf surface. Washing the leaf surface with water indicated that sodium and chloride predominated in excreted salts, and that potassium was poorly represented. Optimal growth of whole plant was recorded at 25% SW, correlating with maximum Na(+) and Cl(-) absolute secretion rate. The leaves of plants treated with SW retained more water than those of plants treated with tap water due to lower solute potential, especially at 25% SW. Analysis of compatible solute, such as proline, total soluble carbohydrates and glycinebetaine disclosed strong relationship between glycinebetaine and osmotic potential (r = 0.92) suggesting that tissue hydration was partly maintained by glycinebetaine accumulation. Thus in S. fruticosa , increased solute accumulation associated with water retention, and steady intracellular ion homeostasis confirms the "includer" strategy of salt tolerance previously demonstrated. However, salt excretion at leaf surface also participated in conferring to this species a capacity in high salinity tolerance.

  10. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  11. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Toyota, Yoshiyuki; Joshi, Prerna; Puneet, Puhup; Vedarajan, Raman; Takekawa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide) (LiNTf2), the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported. PMID:25405738

  12. CHLORIDE RETENTION IN EXPERIMENTAL HYDRONEPHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Norman M.; Pulford, D. Schuyler

    1923-01-01

    1. In acute experimental hydronephrosis chloride retention occurs as well as retention of water, urea, and phenolsulfonephthalein. 2. If both water and chlorides are retained there may be no appreciable rise in the plasma chloride content. 3. When chlorides are retained, but not water, the chloride content of the plasma rises strikingly. 4. After the removal of the ureteral obstruction in acute hydronephrosis all renal functions, water, urea, and chloride excretion, may be rapidly restored in equal degree, or the chlorides may be retained temporarily while there is free excretion of water and urea. 5. In chronic hydronephrosis adequate daily excretion of urea and chlorides may be maintained by a compensatory polyuria. 6. Chloride retention or an abnormal chloride excretion may occur in certain renal lesions when there is no change in the urea, phenolsulfonephthalein, or water excretion. PMID:19868720

  13. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  14. The enthalpy of occlusion of the LiC1-KC1 eutectic salt in zeolite 4A.

    SciTech Connect

    Lexa, D.; Chemical Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature {Delta}{sub 9cc}H{sub m}(T{sub fus}) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that up to a mole fraction of the salt x = 0.931 in the (salt + zeolite) mixture, which is near the expected zeolite occlusion limit, {Delta}{sub occ}H{sub m}(T{sub fus}) was negative and directly proportional to x . Thus, within this composition range, the partial molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature is constant and equal to - (24 {+-}1)kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}.

  15. Late endocarditis of Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device in a child

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Neerod K; Kiraly, Laszlo; Murala, John SK; Tamas, Csaba; Talo, Haitham; El Badaoui, Hazem; Tofeig, Magdi; Mendonca, Malaika; Sajwani, Sameer; Thomas, Mary A; Al Doory, Sura Ahmed; Khan, Mohammad D

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis following atrial septal defect closure using Amplatzer device in a child is extremely rare. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed late bacterial endocarditis, 6 years after placement of an Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device. Successful explantation of the device and repair of the resultant septal defect was carried out using a homograft patch. The rare occurrence of this entity prompted us to highlight the importance of long-term follow up, review the management and explore preventive strategies for similar patients who have multiple co-morbidities and a cardiac device. A high index of suspicion is warranted particularly in pediatric patients. PMID:26516426

  16. Late endocarditis of Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device in a child.

    PubMed

    Jha, Neerod K; Kiraly, Laszlo; Murala, John Sk; Tamas, Csaba; Talo, Haitham; El Badaoui, Hazem; Tofeig, Magdi; Mendonca, Malaika; Sajwani, Sameer; Thomas, Mary A; Al Doory, Sura Ahmed; Khan, Mohammad D

    2015-10-26

    Bacterial endocarditis following atrial septal defect closure using Amplatzer device in a child is extremely rare. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed late bacterial endocarditis, 6 years after placement of an Amplatzer atrial septal occluder device. Successful explantation of the device and repair of the resultant septal defect was carried out using a homograft patch. The rare occurrence of this entity prompted us to highlight the importance of long-term follow up, review the management and explore preventive strategies for similar patients who have multiple co-morbidities and a cardiac device. A high index of suspicion is warranted particularly in pediatric patients.

  17. Cathepsin B Inhibitors: Combining Dipeptide Nitriles with an Occluding Loop Recognition Element by Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An active site mapping of human cathepsin B with dipeptide nitrile inhibitors was performed for a combinatorial approach by introducing several points of diversity and stepwise optimizing the inhibitor structure. To address the occluding loop of cathepsin B by a carboxylate moiety, click chemistry to generate linker-connected molecules was applied. Inhibitor 17 exhibited Ki values of 41.3 nM, 27.3 nM, or 19.2 nM, depending on the substrate and pH of the assay. Kinetic data were discussed with respect to the conformational selection and induced fit models. PMID:26985300

  18. A SECOND CASE OF LATE EMBOLIZATION OF PROSTHETIC MITRAL VALVE OCCLUDER WITH SURVIVAL FOLLOWING REOPERATION

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Adib H.; O'Hare, James E.; Schocket, Lee I.; Pinckley, James N.

    1975-01-01

    A 51-year-old male with acute fulminating pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock secondary to severe mitral insufficiency from dislodgment of the disc occluder in a Wada-Cutter valve was treated by immediate open heart procedure with a Bjork-Shiley mitral valve replacement. The patient survived and remains well. This is the second patient reported to survive operation and replacement of a malfunctioning prosthetic mitral valve from which the poppet escaped and embolized. The first case was reported by Hughes et al1 in February, 1975. Some striking similarities, as well as differences, in these two cases are discussed. Images PMID:15215920

  19. A SECOND CASE OF LATE EMBOLIZATION OF PROSTHETIC MITRAL VALVE OCCLUDER WITH SURVIVAL FOLLOWING REOPERATION.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Adib H.; O'Hare, James E.; Schocket, Lee I.; Pinckley, James N.

    1975-01-01

    A 51-year-old male with acute fulminating pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock secondary to severe mitral insufficiency from dislodgment of the disc occluder in a Wada-Cutter valve was treated by immediate open heart procedure with a Bjork-Shiley mitral valve replacement. The patient survived and remains well. This is the second patient reported to survive operation and replacement of a malfunctioning prosthetic mitral valve from which the poppet escaped and embolized. The first case was reported by Hughes et al(1) in February, 1975. Some striking similarities, as well as differences, in these two cases are discussed.

  20. Subintimal Double-Barrel Restenting of an Occluded Primary Stented Superficial Femoral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lohle, Paul N.M.; Lampmann, Leo E.H.

    2007-01-01

    In-stent re-stenosis is a frequent complication of endovascular stents, especially in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Endovascular re-intervention of in- or peri-stent occlusive disease consists of recanilization through the occluded stent. In our case report, we describe the endovascular treatment of a previously placed stent in the SFA. We unintentionally passed the affected stent subintimally, in a double barrel fashion next to the first stent. The procedure was without any complications and with a successfull angiographic result. At one year follow-up the patient still has no complaints and the stent is still patent. PMID:17410397

  1. Recognition Of Partially Occluded Workpieces By A Knowledge-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpico, S. B.; Vernazza, G.; Dellepiane, S.; Angela, P.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-based system is presented that is oriented toward partially occluded 2-D workpiece recognition in TV camera images. The generalized Hough transform is employed to extract elementary edge patterns. Intrinsic and relational information regarding elementary patterns is computed and then stored inside a net of frames. A similar net of frames is employed for workpiece model representation, for an easy matching with the previous net. A set of production rules provide the heuristics to find hints for locating focus-of-attention regions, while other production rules specify modalities for applying a hypothesis-generation-and-test process. Experimental results on a set of 20 workpieces are reported.

  2. Application of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration to Gastric Varices Complicating Refractory Ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Tetsuya; Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Sugimoto, Koji; Fujii, Masahiko; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Izaki, Kenta; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-15

    We report two cases of gastric varices complicated by massive ascites that disappeared after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). The first patient had progressive gastric varices that continued to enlarge even after three episodes of esophagogastric variceal bleeding, and the second patient was admitted to our hospital because of the bleeding from gastric varices. After B-RTO procedures in both patients, significant improvement of the ascites, hepatic function reserve, and hypoalbuminemia was observed. Although further experience is needed, our experience points to the likelihood of the amelioration of ascites after B-RTO.

  3. Use of a straight, side-hole delivery sheath for improved delivery of Amplatzer ASD occluder.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Shelby; Asnes, Jeremy D; Srinath, Gowdagere; Preminger, Tamar J; Prieto, Lourdes R; Latson, Larry A

    2007-01-01

    The Amplatzer ASD occluder may be difficult to position in some patients with a large atrial septal defect (ASD) or deficiency of one or more atrial septal rims. We developed a method to modify a Mullins transseptal sheath to enhance delivery. The resulting sheath is straight and has an exit orifice essential in the side of the distal portion of the sheath-a straight, side-hole (SSH) delivery sheath. We have used this modified delivery sheath in 140 successive patients with excellent results. The techniques of sheath modification and delivery of the device using the modified sheath are described.

  4. Hydrogen bonding. Part 17. IR and NMR study of the lower hydrates of choline chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Kenneth M.; Avci, Günsel F.

    1984-09-01

    Choline chloride forms two lower hydrates — a dihydrate and a monohydrate — with quite unusual properties. The dihydrate is a highly structured liquid salt; the IR spectrum is similar to that of a crystalline framework clathrate hydrate, and there are separate 1H-NMR signals for the cation hydroxyl and water protons. The dihydrate is a crystalline solid at reduced pressure. The crystalline monohydrate only exists at reduced pressure; at atmospheric pressure it disproportionates to liquid dihydrate and anhydrous choline chloride. The anhydrous choline chloride thus formed is a previously unreported crystal modification of choline chloride.

  5. Pattern Formation in Drying Drops of Polyelectrolyte - Salt Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Deniz; Belyi, Vladimir A.

    2005-03-01

    We use optical microscopy, AFM, and SEM to investigate salt patterns formed during evaporation of aqueous solutions of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) and sodium chloride (NaPSS/NaCl). Observed patterns exhibit significantly larger variety than in the simple "drying coffee drop" experiments. We find that varying the concentration ratios of polyelectrolyte/salt solutions leads to formation of qualitatively different patterns, including radially grown salt deposits, concentric rings of salt and other structures. Our results indicate that these patterns are also sensitive to evaporation rate of the droplet. However molecular weight of the polymer appears to have little to no effect on the observed patterns.

  6. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  7. Secondary cyclogenesis along an occluded front leading to damaging wind gusts: windstorm Kyrill, January 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Hoepp, Simona A.; Fink, Andreas H.; Gray, Suzanne L.

    2015-04-01

    Windstorm Kyrill affected large parts of Europe in January 2007. In this study the formation of a secondary cyclone, Kyill II, along the occluded front of the mature cyclone Kyrill and the occurrence of severe wind gusts as Kyrill II passed over Germany are investigated with the help of high-resolution regional climate model simulations. Kyrill underwent an explosive cyclogenesis south of Greenland. Later in its life cycle secondary cyclogenesis occurred just west of the British Isles. The formation of Kyrill II along the occluded front was associated (a) with frontolytic strain and (b) with strong diabatic heating in combination with a developing upper-level shortwave trough. Sensitivity studies with reduced latent heat release feature a similar development but a weaker secondary cyclone, revealing the importance of diabatic processes during the formation of Kyrill II. Kyrill II moved further towards Europe and its development was favoured by a split jet structure aloft, which maintained the cyclone's exceptionally deep core pressure (below 965 hPa) for at least 36 hours. The occurrence of hurricane force winds related to the strong cold front over North and Central Germany is analysed using convection-permitting simulations. The lower troposphere exhibits conditional instability, a turbulent flow and evaporative cooling. Simulation at high spatio-temporal resolution suggests that the downward mixing of high momentum (the wind speed at 875 hPa widely exceeded 45 m s-1) accounts for widespread severe surface wind gusts, which is in agreement with observed widespread losses.

  8. Cochlear excitation by the near-field component during stimulation through the partially occluded round window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weddell, Thomas D.; Yarin, Yury M.; Drexl, Markus; Russell, Ian J.; Elliott, Stephen J.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.

    2015-12-01

    The round window membrane (RW) provides pressure relief when the cochlea is excited by sound. While normal function of the RW is important for effective stimulation of the cochlea through the conventional oval window route, the cochlea can be stimulated successfully in non-conventional ways (e.g. through bone conduction, through the RW, and through perforations in the cochlea's apical turn). We report measurements of cochlear function from guinea pigs when the cochlea was stimulated at acoustic frequencies by movements of a miniature magnet which partially occluded the RW. Neural response latencies to acoustic and RW stimulation were similar and taken to indicate that both means of stimulation resulted in the generation of conventional travelling waves along the cochlear partition. It was concluded that the relatively high impedance of the ossicles, as seen from the cochlea, enabled the region of the RW not occluded by the magnet, to act as a pressure shunt during RW stimulation. We propose that travelling waves, similar to those due to acoustic far-field pressure changes, are driven by a jet-like, near-field component of a complex fluid-pressure field, which is generated by the magnetically vibrated RW.

  9. Ring array transducers for real-time 3-D imaging of an atrial septal occluder.

    PubMed

    Light, Edward D; Lindsey, Brooks D; Upchurch, Joseph A; Smith, Stephen W

    2012-08-01

    We developed new miniature ring array transducers integrated into interventional device catheters such as used to deploy atrial septal occluders. Each ring array consisted of 55 elements operating near 5 MHz with interelement spacing of 0.20 mm. It was constructed on a flat piece of copper-clad polyimide and then wrapped around an 11 French O.D. catheter. We used a braided cabling technology from Tyco Electronics Corporation to connect the elements to the Volumetric Medical Imaging (VMI) real-time 3-D ultrasound scanner. Transducer performance yielded a -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 20% centered at 4.7 MHz without a matching layer vs. average bandwidth of 60% centered at 4.4 MHz with a matching layer. Real-time 3-D rendered images of an en face view of a Gore Helex septal occluder in a water tank showed a finer texture of the device surface from the ring array with the matching layer.

  10. Smooth muscle cell proliferation in the occluded rat carotid artery: lack of requirement for luminal platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship of intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation in the permanently occluded rat carotid artery to the presence or absence of luminal platelets was examined. Blood was rinsed from the arterial lumen immediately after occlusion and was replaced by autologous, citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP, 6 to 20 X 10(5) platelets/microliter) or filtered platelet-poor plasma (PPP, less than 100 platelets/microliter). Occluded arteries were studied after 1 to 28 days by light and electron microscopy. Events occurring within the first 2 days included fibrin clot formation, endothelial degeneration and denudation, transmural migration of polymorphonucelar leukocytes and monocytes, and, in PRP-filled arteries, degranulation and disappearance of platelets. By 7 days a neointima was formed by macrophages and undifferentiated cells. The latter cells had some features of vascular smooth muscle cells and were apparently derived from medial cells which traversed the internal elastic lamina. After 14 days, identifiable smooth muscle cells emerged as the predominant cell type in a rapidly growing intimal plaque. No differences could be discerned between arteries originally filled with PRP or PPP. This experimental model is similar to atherosclerosis in dimensions of avascular area and in coexistence of degenerative, inflammatory, and proliferative processes. Cell proliferation deep within an atherosclerotic plaque could be initiated by factors other than platelets, perhaps by products of inflammatory cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 5 PMID:426040

  11. Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, Adel; Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine; Frizon, Fabien

    2012-08-15

    Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

  12. Overexpression of Pendrin in Intercalated Cells Produces Chloride-Sensitive Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Thibaut; Picard, Nicolas; Miller, R. Lance; Riemondy, Kent A.; Houillier, Pascal; Sohet, Fabien; Ramakrishnan, Suresh K.; Büsst, Cara J.; Jayat, Maximilien; Cornière, Nicolas; Hassan, Hatim; Aronson, Peter S.; Hennings, Jean Christopher; Hübner, Christian A.; Nelson, Raoul D.; Chambrey, Régine

    2013-01-01

    Inherited and acquired disorders that enhance the activity of transporters mediating renal tubular Na+ reabsorption are well established causes of hypertension. It is unclear, however, whether primary activation of an Na+-independent chloride transporter in the kidney can also play a pathogenic role in this disease. Here, mice overexpressing the chloride transporter pendrin in intercalated cells of the distal nephron (TgB1-hPDS mice) displayed increased renal absorption of chloride. Compared with normal mice, these transgenic mice exhibited a delayed increase in urinary NaCl and ultimately, developed hypertension when exposed to a high-salt diet. Administering the same sodium intake as NaHCO3 instead of NaCl did not significantly alter BP, indicating that the hypertension in the transgenic mice was chloride-sensitive. Moreover, excessive chloride absorption by pendrin drove parallel absorption of sodium through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and the sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (Ndcbe), despite an appropriate downregulation of these sodium transporters in response to the expanded vascular volume and hypertension. In summary, chloride transport in the distal nephron can play a primary role in driving NaCl transport in this part of the kidney, and a primary abnormality in renal chloride transport can provoke arterial hypertension. Thus, we conclude that the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger pendrin plays a major role in controlling net NaCl absorption, thereby influencing BP under conditions of high salt intake. PMID:23766534

  13. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  14. Sodium chloride deficiency in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, U; Göçmen, A; Kiper, N; Coşkun, T; Yilmaz, E; Ozgüç, M

    1994-11-01

    Sodium chloride deficiency (SCD) was observed within the 1st year of life in 12 of 46 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients between July 1989 and September 1992. All patients showed sweating, loss of appetite, fever, vomiting, irritation, dehydration, weakness, and cyanosis during an attack. Mean plasma sodium, potassium and chloride levels were 122.9 (range 106-135), 2.5 (range 1.6-3.5), and 73.3 (range 60-90) mEq/l respectively. Alkalosis and elevated plasma renin activity were detected in all patients. Of the patients, 50% showed microscopic haematuria, and hypercalciuria was detected in two out of four patients. Low urinary sodium and high urinary potassium were observed in the four examined patients. Increased creatinine, BUN and uric acid values returned to normal with treatment. All the patients were treated initially with intravenous fluids and electrolyte solutions. All patients were less than 7 months of age during the first attack, five received only breast milk and the others breast milk with formula milk. Their oral salt supplement was 2-4 mEq/kg per day, which is recommended for CF patients, but could be deficient in excessively sweating infants. The genotype of these patients might be cause of high salt losses. F508 is the most common mutation with the frequency of 38% in our CF patients with SCD, but the frequency of unknown mutations is high (54%).

  15. Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

  16. Identification of a new class of chloride-bearing unit on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Chloride salts have previously been identified on Mars using the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Chloride deposits have been identified in THEMIS data by a distinctive blue slope over the 8-12 μm spectral range. These same deposits show a featureless red slope relative to the surrounding terrain over the ~1-2.6 μm range in CRISM data. In Terra Sirenum, chloride deposits are found in contact with Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates. The geologic settings of these deposits suggests that the ancient Martian crust was chemically altered, producing the phyllosilicates, and the chlorides were deposited in a second, later wetting event. The identification of chloride salt-bearing deposits on Mars has been somewhat controversial due to the lack of diagnostic spectral absorption features of anhydrous chlorides in both the VNIR and MIR spectral ranges. Despite this, these materials do have relatively unique spectral properties. For example, the distinctive blue slope of chloride deposits in THEMIS data is due to the fact that anhydrous chloride salts have a low emissivity over the THEMIS spectral range. Laboratory data have additionally shown that the characteristic CRISM spectra for these regions can be explained by mixtures of anhydrous chloride salts and silicates. Here, we report on a new class of chloride salt-bearing deposits. Like those that have been previously described, they exhibit a distinct blue slope in THEMIS data, but they all have high emissivities in bands 4, 5, and 6, with spectra that resemble silicate transmission spectra. There are two possible causes for this unusual spectral behavior. These deposits could be cold, low emissivity surfaces that reflect the warm downwelling radiance from a dusty sky, as has been seen in Mini-TES spectra of Fe-Ni meteorites at Meridiani Planum. Alternatively, these deposits could be composed of fine

  17. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  18. Road Salts as Environmental Constraints in Urban Pond Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Robin J.; Swan, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as density and biomass of primary producers and consumers. From May – July 2009, we employed a 2×2×2 full-factorial design to manipulate chloride concentration (low = 177 mg L−1 Cl−/high = 1067 mg L−1 Cl−), gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles (presence/absence) and source of stormwater pond algae and zooplankton inoculum (low conductance/high conductance urban ponds) in 40, 600-L mesocosms. Road salt did serve as a constraint on zooplankton community structure, driving community divergence between the low and high chloride treatments. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll [a] µg L−1) in the mesocosms was significantly greater for the high conductance inoculum (P<0.001) and in the high chloride treatment (P = 0.046), whereas periphyton biomass was significantly lower in the high chloride treatment (P = 0.049). Gray treefrog tadpole time to metamorphosis did not vary significantly between treatments. However, mass at metamorphosis was greater among tadpoles that experienced a faster than average time to metamorphosis and exposure to high chloride concentrations (P = 0.039). Our results indicate differential susceptibility to chloride salts among algal resources and zooplankton taxa, and further suggest that road salts can act as a significant environmental constraint on urban stormwater pond communities. PMID:24587259

  19. Lewis-Acid/Base Effects on Gallium Volatility in Molten Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.

    2001-02-26

    It has been proposed that GaCl{sub 3} can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl{sub 3} is quite volatile (boiling point, 201 C), the behavior of GaCl{sub 3} dissolved in chloride salts is different due to solution effects and is critically dependent on the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis-acid/base character). In this report, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis-acid and Lewis-base salts is compared. It was found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and enhanced in acidic melts. The implications of these results on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems are significant.

  20. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  1. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jin; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S)-8-aza-2-azonia­bicyclo­[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-8-meth­oxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carb­oxy­lic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4 +·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxi­floxa­cinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water mol­ecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxi­floxa­cinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3) and 0.118 (3) Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water mol­ecule and chloride anions participate in O—H⋯O, O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding; weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure. PMID:22058817

  2. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for municipal supply wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Andrew; Gharabaghi, Bahram; McBean, Ed; Levison, Jana; Parker, Beth

    2015-12-01

    De-icing agents containing chloride ions used for winter road maintenance have the potential to negatively impact groundwater resources for drinking water supplies. A novel methodology using commonly-available geospatial data (land use, well head protection areas) and public accessible data (salt application rates, hydrometric data) to identify salt vulnerable areas (SVAs) for groundwater wells is developed to prioritize implementation of better management practices for road salt applications. The approach uses simple mass-balance terms to collect chloride input from 3 pathways: surface runoff, shallow interflow and baseflow. A risk score is calculated, which depends on the land use within the respective municipal supply well protection area. Therefore, it is plausible to avoid costly and extensive numerical modeling (which also would bear many assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties). The method is applied to perform a vulnerability assessment on twenty municipal water supply wells in the Grand River watershed, Ontario, Canada. The calculated steady-state groundwater recharge chloride concentration for the supply wells is strongly correlated to the measured transient groundwater chloride concentrations in the case study evaluation, with an R2 = 0.84. The new method provides a simple, robust, and practical method for municipalities to assess the long-term risk of chloride contamination of municipal supply wells due to road salt application.

  3. Nonlinear Flow Rate Response to Pumping Frequency and Reduced Hemolysis in the Drastically Under-Occluded Pulsatile Roller Pump.

    PubMed

    Yap, Choon Hwai; Lai, Chang Quan; Loh, Ivan Guang Hui; Ong, Thaddaeus Zhongren

    2017-02-01

    Roller pumps are widely used in many medical procedures including cardiopulmonary bypass, left/right ventricular assist, and hemodialysis. However, to date, the problem of the roller pumping mechanism causing significant hemolysis remains unresolved. It has been shown that with under-occlusion of the roller pump, hemolysis can be reduced, but significant reduction of the mean flow rate also takes place due to backflow through the under-occlusion. We performed an investigation of the flow dynamics of an under-occluded roller pump which featured significantly higher amount of under-occlusion than previously investigated. Our results showed that the mean flow rate produced by the pump has a strong, nonlinear dependence on pumping frequency. Mean flow rate generally increases with the pumping frequency and the degree of maximum occlusion except at certain frequencies where sharp reductions were observed. These frequencies coincide with the fundamental frequency of the system and its harmonics, bearing resemblance to the impedance pump, suggesting that the drastically under-occluded roller pump is a unique device that employs the pumping mechanisms of both roller pumping and impedance pumping. At the appropriate frequencies, this under-occluded roller pump could sustain sufficiently high flow rates for clinical uses. Blood damage potential of the under-occluded roller pump was compared to a fully occluded roller pump via the assay of free-plasma hemoglobin, and it was found that the under-occlusion reduced hemolysis by about half for any given flow rate. The drastically under-occluded roller pumping reported in this study, therefore, has the potential of being translated into an improved clinical blood pump.

  4. Acquisition of nonlinear forward optics in generative models: two-stage "downside-up" learning for occluded vision.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Satohiro; Watanabe, Masataka

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-stage learning method which implements occluded visual scene analysis into a generative model, a type of hierarchical neural network with bi-directional synaptic connections. Here, top-down connections simulate forward optics to generate predictions for sensory driven low-level representation, whereas bottom-up connections function to send the prediction error, the difference between the sensory based and the predicted low-level representation, to higher areas. The prediction error is then used to update the high-level representation to obtain better agreement with the visual scene. Although the actual forward optics is highly nonlinear and the accuracy of simulated forward optics is crucial for these types of models, the majority of previous studies have only investigated linear and simplified cases of forward optics. Here we take occluded vision as an example of nonlinear forward optics, where an object in front completely masks out the object behind. We propose a two-staged learning method inspired by the staged development of infant visual capacity. In the primary learning stage, a minimal set of object basis is acquired within a linear generative model using the conventional unsupervised learning scheme. In the secondary learning stage, an auxiliary multi-layer neural network is trained to acquire nonlinear forward optics by supervised learning. The important point is that the high-level representation of the linear generative model serves as the input and the sensory driven low-level representation provides the desired output. Numerical simulations show that occluded visual scene analysis can indeed be implemented by the proposed method. Furthermore, considering the format of input to the multi-layer network and analysis of hidden-layer units leads to the prediction that whole object representation of partially occluded objects, together with complex intermediate representation as a consequence of nonlinear transformation from non-occluded to

  5. Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jr., Thomas P.

    1992-12-01

    Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl2-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl2-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl2 using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl2 may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl2-AgCl and CaCl2-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl2-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl2-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl2 as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Transcathether closure of a right pulmonary artery-to-left atrial fistula using Amplatzer muscular ventricular septal defect occluder.

    PubMed

    Ece, Ibrahim; Uner, Abdurrahman; Cuce, Ferhat; Balli, Sevket

    2014-10-01

    A right pulmonary artery-to-left atrial fistula is a very rare cyanotic congenital heart defect and is characterized by cyanosis and normal auscultation of the heart. Interventional closure of the fistula using occluder devices and coils has been rarely reported. We report the successful closure of a RPA-to-left atrial fistula using an Amplatzer muscular ventricular septal defect occluder in a child with cyanosis. The two-dimensional echocardiogram with bubble contrast study demonstrated the communication between right pulmonary artery and left atrium. Computerized tomography confirmed the diagnosis and delineated the anatomy.

  7. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Nowak, Paul S.; Zoughi, Reza

    1999-12-01

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  8. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Zoughi, Reza; Nowak, Paul S.

    1999-12-02

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  9. An observer for an occluded reaction-diffusion system with spatially varying parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Sean; Bollt, Erik M.

    2017-03-01

    Spatially dependent parameters of a two-component chaotic reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model describing ocean ecology are observed by sampling a single species. We estimate the model parameters and the other species in the system by autosynchronization, where quantities of interest are evolved according to misfit between model and observations, to only partially observed data. Our motivating example comes from oceanic ecology as viewed by remote sensing data, but where noisy occluded data are realized in the form of cloud cover. We demonstrate a method to learn a large-scale coupled synchronizing system that represents the spatio-temporal dynamics and apply a network approach to analyze manifold stability.

  10. Late erosion of Amplatzer septal occluder device resulting in cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Melvin, Amber L; Ling, Frederick S; Knight, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) is a minimally invasive technique that offers an alternative to conventional surgical repair. There are risks imposed by this technique; however, they compare favourably with risks of surgical closure. Here, we present a case of a 59-year old male with late erosion of an Amplatzer septal occluder device resulting in cardiac tamponade 5 years after device placement. To the best of our knowledge, cardiac tamponade this late after device placement has not yet been reported. Septal occlusion device erosion remains a major issue among the risks imposed by device closure of an ASD. More data are needed to better understand its true causes and possible solutions.

  11. An External Focus of Attention Enhances Manual Tracking of Occluded and Visible Targets

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Matthew; Porter, Jared; Russell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the enhancement effects of an external focus of attention (FOA) in the context of a manual tracking task, in which participants tracked both visible and occluded targets. Three conditions were compared, which manipulated the distance of the FOA from the participant as well as the external/internal dimension. As expected, an external FOA resulted in lower tracking errors than an internal FOA. In addition, analyses of participants’ movement patterns revealed a systematic shift toward higher-frequency movements in the external FOA condition, consistent with the idea that an external FOA exploits the natural movement dynamics available during skilled action. Finally, target visibility did not influence the effect of focused attention on tracking performance, which provides evidence for the proposal that the mechanisms that underlie FOA do not depend directly on vision. PMID:23346062

  12. Occluded target viewing and identification high-resolution 2D imaging laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Dippel, George F.; Cecchetti, Kristen D.; Wikman, John C.; Drouin, David P.; Egbert, Paul I.

    2007-09-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has developed a high-resolution 2D imaging laser radar (LADAR) system that has proven its ability to detect and identify hard targets in occluded environments, through battlefield obscurants, and through naturally occurring image-degrading atmospheres. Limitations of passive infrared imaging for target identification using medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) atmospheric windows are well known. Of particular concern is that as wavelength is increased the aperture must be increased to maintain resolution, hence, driving apertures to be very larger for long-range identification; impractical because of size, weight, and optics cost. Conversely, at smaller apertures and with large f-numbers images may become photon starved with long integration times. Here, images are most susceptible to distortion from atmospheric turbulence, platform vibration, or both. Additionally, long-range identification using passive thermal imaging is clutter limited arising from objects in close proximity to the target object.

  13. Particle Filtering with Region-based Matching for Tracking of Partially Occluded and Scaled Targets*

    PubMed Central

    Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Visual tracking of arbitrary targets in clutter is important for a wide range of military and civilian applications. We propose a general framework for the tracking of scaled and partially occluded targets, which do not necessarily have prominent features. The algorithm proposed in the present paper utilizes a modified normalized cross-correlation as the likelihood for a particle filter. The algorithm divides the template, selected by the user in the first video frame, into numerous patches. The matching process of these patches by particle filtering allows one to handle the target’s occlusions and scaling. Experimental results with fixed rectangular templates show that the method is reliable for videos with nonstationary, noisy, and cluttered background, and provides accurate trajectories in cases of target translation, scaling, and occlusion. PMID:22506088

  14. Effect of structural composition and position of occlusion on the legibility of occluded Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yung-Chin; Liao, Ching-Chih

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the effect of structural composition, position of occlusion, and education background on response time and accuracy rate of adult participants in recognition of occluded Chinese characters used in graphic design. Based on 18 Chinese characters selected from the top 4,000 most commonly used characters, a recognition experiment was conducted. Results indicated that, for the characters with two different composition structures, the right position was the best position of occlusion because the recognition of the radical or feature of a character would be least affected, leading to a shorter response time and more accurate reading comprehension. Educational background did not have a significant influence on response time and recognition accuracy.

  15. Glucose Transporters are Abundant in Cells with "Occluding" Junctions at the Blood-Eye Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harik, Sami I.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Whitney, Paul M.; Andersson, Lars; Lundahl, Per; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Perry, George

    1990-06-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose.

  16. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varices: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Sato, Morio; Kishi, Kazushi; Terada, Masaki; Shioyama, Yasukazu; Kimura, Masashi; Suzuki, Kenzo; Kutsukake, Yasumichi; Ushimi, Takashi; Tanaka, Junji; Hayashi, Seishu; Tanaka, Satoshi

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BORTO) for gastric varices. Methods: BORTO was performed in 14 patients with gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. The gastric varices were confirmed by endoscopy, and their feeding and draining veins were identified by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and angiography. A 6 Fr Simmons-shaped balloon catheter was inserted into the gastrorenal shunt. The balloon was inflated, and 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol was infused slowly through the catheter. Patients were followed up with endoscopy and enhanced CT at 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure and every 6 months thereafter. Results: The gastric varices completely disappeared in 12 of 14 patients and was partially resolved in the remaining 2 patients. Neither a recurrence nor an aggravation of gastric varices were found. No major complications were experienced. Conclusion: BORTO is a safe and effective treatment for gastric varices.

  17. Recanalisation of an occluded modified Blalock-Taussig shunt by balloon dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Sreeram, N; Walsh, K; Peart, I

    1993-01-01

    A four year old boy with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect had an acute cyanotic episode three years after undergoing a right-sided, 6 mm diameter, modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. On admission no continuous murmur could be heard from the shunt and the typical high velocity, continuous flow profile of the shunt could not be identified by Doppler echocardiography. At catheterisation a right subclavian artery angiogram confirmed shunt occlusion. From the subclavian artery, an 0.035 inch wire was used to enter the occluded shunt and then the pulmonary artery. Balloon angioplasty of the entire length of the shunt was performed with 6 mm diameter balloon. After angioplasty the arterial oxygen saturation increased from 63% to 83%. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin followed by warfarin. Repeat catheterisation and angiography eight days later confirmed wide patency of the shunt. Images PMID:8260283

  18. Effect of iron and salt on prodigiosin synthesis in Serratia marcescens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, M. P.; Munoz, E. F.

    1973-01-01

    Iron requirements of Serratia marcescens for growth and prodigiosin synthesis are investigated. Sodium chloride of sea salt is shown to be responsible for inhibition of prodigiosin synthesis in the microorganism. The role of sodium chloride in the terminal biosynthetic pathway of the pigment is discussed.

  19. Emergency surgical approach to device emboli due to migration of the atrial septal defect occluder

    PubMed Central

    Yetkin, Ufuk; Akyildiz, Zehra Ilke; Gokalp, Orhan; Tetik, Omer; Lafci, Banu; Ergene, Oktay; Gurbuz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Atrial septal defect (ASD) transcatheter occlusion techniques are now established as the preferred method and have become an alternative to surgery under extracorporeal circulation. In this study, we aimed to present our emergency surgical approach to cases of device embolization due to migration of the atrial septal defect occluder. Material and methods Between June 2009 and June 2011, 6 patients underwent emergency operations due to device emboli secondary to migration of the transcatheter atrial septal defect occluder during the early period. Mean age was 25.5 years (15–45) and 3 of the patients were female (50%). The diagnosis was made via transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) preoperatively. Results All of these 6 patients underwent emergency operations. Mean postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 2.2 days and mean hospital stay was 6 days. No early or late postoperative mortality was seen. Mean postoperative follow-up time was 19.3 months (range: 5–28 months). Early- and late-period TTE examinations showed no residual interatrial shunting. One patient developed a right atrial thrombus in the postoperative 22nd month as a complication of long-term follow-up. He was treated with anticoagulant therapy for 6 months with complete resolution at the TTE. Conclusions Transcatheter occlusion of secundum type ASD provides prominent clinical improvement, as well as a regression in dimensions of cardiac chambers. Nevertheless, this technique has drawbacks such as distal migration and residual shunts. Consequently, we think that unfavorable anatomy and device diameter are major issues in device migration. Oversizing also increases the migration risk. PMID:25097575

  20. Fast moving texture has opposite effects on the perceived speed of visible and occluded object trajectories.

    PubMed

    Battaglini, Luca; Contemori, Giulio; Maniglia, Marcello; Casco, Clara

    2016-10-01

    In a series of psychophysical experiments, we altered the perceived speed of a spot (target) using a grayscale texture moving in the same (iso-motion) or opposite (anti-motion) direction of the target. In Experiment 1, using a velocity discrimination task (2IFC), the target moved in front of the texture and was perceived faster with anti-motion than iso-motion texture. The integration and segregation of motion signals in high-level motion areas may have accounted for the illusion. In Experiment 2, by asking observers to estimate the time-to-contact (TTC) with a bar indicating the end of the invisible trajectory, we showed that this illusory visible speed, due to anti- (iso-) texture, reduced (increased) the subsequent estimated duration of occluded target trajectory. However, in Experiment 3, when the target disappeared behind the iso-motion texture, the TTC was estimated shorter than anti- and static textures. In Experiment 4, using an interruption paradigm, we found negative Point of Subjective Equalities (PSEs) with iso-motion but not static texture, suggesting that iso-motion led to overestimation of the hidden speed. However, sensitivity to target speed differences, as assessed by JNDs and d'values was not affected. Results of Experiments 3 and 4 indicate that only the iso-texture affected the estimated target speed, but with opposite polarity compared to visible motion, suggesting a different origin of speed bias. Because our results show that visuospatial tracking was facilitated by the fast iso-motion, we conclude that motion of the occluded target was tracked by shifting visuospatial attention.

  1. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  2. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... you cook, replace salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. ...

  3. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations.

  4. Molecular and Thermodynamic Mechanisms of the Chloride-dependent Human Angiotensin-I-converting Enzyme (ACE)*

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Christopher J.; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Akif, Mohd; Sturrock, Edward D.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE), a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis, cleaves the vasoactive angiotensin-I, bradykinin, and a number of other physiologically relevant peptides. sACE consists of two homologous and catalytically active N- and C-domains, which display marked differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. A series of single substitution mutants were generated and evaluated under varying chloride concentrations using isothermal titration calorimetry. The x-ray crystal structures of the mutants provided details on the chloride-dependent interactions with ACE. Chloride binding in the chloride 1 pocket of C-domain ACE was found to affect positioning of residues from the active site. Analysis of the chloride 2 pocket R522Q and R522K mutations revealed the key interactions with the catalytic site that are stabilized via chloride coordination of Arg522. Substrate interactions in the S2 subsite were shown to affect chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket. The Glu403-Lys118 salt bridge in C-domain ACE was shown to stabilize the hinge-bending region and reduce chloride affinity by constraining the chloride 2 pocket. This work demonstrated that substrate composition to the C-terminal side of the scissile bond as well as interactions of larger substrates in the S2 subsite moderate chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket of the ACE C-domain, providing a rationale for the substrate-selective nature of chloride dependence in ACE and how this varies between the N- and C-domains. PMID:24297181

  5. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion

  6. Convention and Inventiveness in an Occluded Academic Genre: A Case Study of Retention-Promotion-Tenure Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyon, Sunny

    2008-01-01

    Among Swales' (1996) list of occluded academic genres, retention-promotion-tenure (RPT) evaluations have been little studied. These evaluative reports, however, can inform EAP researchers, teachers, and students about ways that writers both follow and transgress discourse conventions to fulfill various purposes through an institutional text.…

  7. Occluded Cigarette Smoke Causing Localized Chloracne Like Comedones (Podium) Skin Diseases Associated with Agent Orange and Other Organochlorines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-20

    This document contains an ethical review and approval, from the Department of the Air Force Air Education and Training Command, for a poster ... presentation entitled Skin Diseases Associated with Agent Orange and Other Organochlorines and a podium presentation entitled Occluded Cigarette Smoke Causing Localized Chloracne Like Comedones.

  8. Live three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography-guided transcatheter closure of a mitral paraprosthetic leak by Amplatzer occluder.

    PubMed

    Biner, Simon; Rafique, Asim M; Kar, Saibal; Siegel, Robert J

    2008-11-01

    Recently introduced real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography allows online accurate assessment of cardiac structures. Initial experience indicates that this new technique provides improved anatomic definition and novel views of complex cardiac abnormalities in valve anatomy. We demonstrated the utility of live 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assisted transcatheter closure of a mitral prosthesis paravalvular leak by Amplatzer occluder.

  9. Late Presentation of Persistent Left Superior Caval Vein in a Univentricular Heart with Successful Transcutaneous Occlusion Using Cera Lifetech Atrial Septal Occluder

    PubMed Central

    AL-Ammouri, Iyad; Alhourani, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of persistent left superior caval vein in a univentricular heart presenting with progressive and disabling cyanosis in a 35-year-old man eighteen years after his Kawashima operation. The vein was successfully occluded using an atrial septal occluder with significant improvement of symptoms and oxygen saturation. PMID:25431683

  10. Electrical impedance and HV plasma images of high dilutions of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, R

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports impedance data and high voltage plasma photographic plates of high dilutions of sodium chloride in water submitted to the homeopathic dilution and succession up to 30cH. Extremely low concentrations of the original salt, even beyond Avogadro number, clearly differ from 'pure' water and; the action of sodium chloride on the electrical properties of water is inverted at high dilution.

  11. DNA unwinding by ring-shaped T4 helicase gp41 is hindered by tension on the occluded strand.

    PubMed

    Ribeck, Noah; Saleh, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The replicative helicase for bacteriophage T4 is gp41, which is a ring-shaped hexameric motor protein that achieves unwinding of dsDNA by translocating along one strand of ssDNA while forcing the opposite strand to the outside of the ring. While much study has been dedicated to the mechanism of binding and translocation along the ssDNA strand encircled by ring-shaped helicases, relatively little is known about the nature of the interaction with the opposite, 'occluded' strand. Here, we investigate the interplay between the bacteriophage T4 helicase gp41 and the ss/dsDNA fork by measuring, at the single-molecule level, DNA unwinding events on stretched DNA tethers in multiple geometries. We find that gp41 activity is significantly dependent on the geometry and tension of the occluded strand, suggesting an interaction between gp41 and the occluded strand that stimulates the helicase. However, the geometry dependence of gp41 activity is the opposite of that found previously for the E. coli hexameric helicase DnaB. Namely, tension applied between the occluded strand and dsDNA stem inhibits unwinding activity by gp41, while tension pulling apart the two ssDNA tails does not hinder its activity. This implies a distinct variation in helicase-occluded strand interactions among superfamily IV helicases, and we propose a speculative model for this interaction that is consistent with both the data presented here on gp41 and the data that had been previously reported for DnaB.

  12. [Sodium chloride in food rations and dinners in mass catering institutions].

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Respondek, W; Zareba, M

    2001-01-01

    The sodium chloride content in meals given by mass catering institution in all over country in 1988-1998 years was estimated. This study included daily food rations from 183 mass catering institution as hospitals, sanatoriums for both children and adults, boarding schools, infant schools and social welfare homes. We assessed also school dinners from 422 randomized selected schools and dinners from 55 internal and 56 surgical departments of provincial and regional hospitals in Poland. The mass of each meal was evaluated and sodium chloride content by Mohr's method was assessed. In most cases the salt content by 100 g of meal of 1000 kcal was calculated. The dinners and daily food rations analyze showed that sodium chloride content in meals was much higher than value recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Salt amount in daily food rations of both children and adults was above 16 g. This value didn't include salt added to meals by boarders. School dinners provided about 7-10 g of salt. The average sodium chloride content in hospital dinners was about 16-20 g. In each studied group the NaCl content per 100 g of meal was similarly high and was 0.7-0.9 g. The results of this study show that meals given by mass catering institutions can increase risk of hypertension, strokes and gastric cancers because of high sodium chloride content.

  13. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature

  14. Synthesis of α-Diketones from Alkylaryl- and Diarylalkynes Using Mercuric Salts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Both alkylarylalkynes and diarylalkynes 1 are converted into the α-diketones 2 in good yield by the use of mercuric salts, e.g., mercuric nitrate hydrate or mercuric triflate, in the presence of water. Other mercuric salts, e.g., sulfate, chloride, acetate, or trifluoroacetate, do not provide the diketone product. A possible mechanism is proposed. PMID:24684513

  15. Chloride Sources and Losses in Two Tile-Drained Agricultural Watersheds.

    PubMed

    David, Mark B; Mitchell, Corey A; Gentry, Lowell E; Salemme, Ronald K

    2016-01-01

    Chloride is a relatively unreactive plant nutrient that has long been used as a biogeochemical tracer but also can be a pollutant causing aquatic biology impacts when concentrations are high, typically from rock salt applications used for deicing roads. Chloride inputs to watersheds are most often from atmospheric deposition, road salt, or agricultural fertilizer, although studies on agricultural watersheds with large fertilizer inputs are few. We used long-term (21 and 17 yr) chloride water quality data in two rivers of east-central Illinois to better understand chloride biogeochemistry in two agricultural watersheds (Embarras and Kaskaskia), the former with a larger urban land use and both with extensive tile drainage. During our sampling period, the average chloride concentration was 23.7 and 20.9 mg L in the Embarras and Kaskaskia Rivers, respectively. Annual fluxes of chloride were 72.5 and 61.2 kg ha yr in the Embarras and Kaskaskia watersheds, respectively. In both watersheds, fertilizer chloride was the dominant input (∼49 kg ha yr), with road salt likely the other major source (23.2 and 7.2 kg ha yr for the Embarras and Kaskaskia watersheds, respectively). Combining our monitoring data with earlier published data on the Embarras River showed an increase in chloride concentrations as potash use increased in Illinois during the 1960s and 1970s with a lag of about 2 to 6 yr to changes in potash inputs based on a multiple-regression model. In these agricultural watersheds, riverine chloride responds relatively quickly to potash fertilization as a result of tile-drainage.

  16. (Bioenergetics of salt tolerance): Progress report, 1980-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    We have developed novel and useful techniques based on ESR probes for measuring intracellular volumes and membrane permeability, as well as adapted more commonly used ones for various measurements in work on salt tolerance. Biological membrane systems, ranging from simpler (halobacteria and cyanobacteria) to more complex (sugar beet leaf segments) have been studied where specific problems related to salt tolerance and ionic transport were identified. The role of sodium and chloride transport in maintaining cellular volumes were studied with respect to the events which take place during adaptation to salt and their relationship to nitrate assimilation. 14 refs.

  17. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  18. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  19. Influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood products: A review.

    PubMed

    Mariutti, Lilian R B; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-04-01

    Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is a widely used additive in food industry due to its preservation and antimicrobial properties provided by its ability to reduce water activity. Moreover, the addition of salt to meat and seafood aims at improving water retention capacity and enhancing flavor due to its influence on the activity of some enzymes responsible for flavor development. On the other hand, salt added in meat and seafood can favor lipid oxidation, which is one of the main responsibles for quality losses in the food industry. In this review, the main mechanisms of fatty acids and cholesterol oxidation are described as well as the influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood. Besides, the possible mechanisms of the pro-oxidant action of sodium chloride are presented and potential solutions to inhibit the salt action in lipid oxidation and decrease the salt content in food are discussed.

  20. The role of microphysics in the development of mesoscale areas of high winds around occluded cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, T. P.; Knippertz, P.; Blyth, A.

    2012-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones are an integral part of the weather in north-western Europe and can be associated with heavy precipitation and strong winds. While synoptic-scale aspects of these storms are often satisfactorily forecast several days in advance, mesoscale features within these systems such as bands of heavy rain or localized wind maxima, which are often the cause of the most damaging effects, are significantly less well understood and predicted by operational forecasts. Accurate predictions of the location, timing and intensity of these features are, however, highly important for the mitigation of the adverse effects that they bring. This is one of the motivations for the UK consortium DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExtraTropical storms) that is focused on improving the understanding and predictability of these potentially damaging mesoscale features embedded within larger synoptic-scale extratropical storms. The project is based around a number of field campaigns using the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146 research aircraft along with other remote and in-situ measurements. An overview of the project will be presented by Geraint Vaughan in this session. This study analyses the effects of microphysics on the mesoscale dynamics within extratropical storms, in particular the high wind areas around occluded fronts wrapped around the core of a matured cyclonic storm. It has been hypothesized that evaporation and melting of hydrometeors in this region can lead to downward momentum transport and thereby increase near-surface winds (sometimes referred to as sting jets). The main tool for this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. High-resolution simulations are run for several cases from the DIAMET field campaigns to examine how the development of strong winds around occluded fronts is affected by the microphysics. The model results using different microphysics schemes are compared with the

  1. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  2. Uranyl tungstate and zirconium tungstate in salt melts

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, A.I.; Bragina, R.A.; Kazantsev, G.N.; Korshunov, I.A.

    1988-05-01

    The article discusses the preparation, properties, and behavior of uranyl tungstate and zirconium tungstate in salt melts. Procedures for their preparation are presented. The radiographic and IR spectroscopic characteristics, the thermal stability, and solubility and stability in chloride-tungstate melts of different composition have been studied.

  3. Reducing salt intake in the Americas: Pan American Health Organization actions.

    PubMed

    Legetic, Branka; Campbell, Norm

    2011-08-01

    This article outlines the rationale for reducing dietary salt and some of the Pan American Health Organization actions to facilitate reductions in dietary salt in the Americas. Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride and other sodium salts) is a major cause of increased blood pressure, which increases risk for stroke, heart disease, and kidney disease. Reduction in salt intake is beneficial for people with hypertension and those with normal blood pressure. The World Health Organization recommends a population salt intake of less than 5 grams/person/day with a Pan American Health Organization expert group recommendation that this be achieved by 2020 in the Americas. In general, the consumption of salt is more than 6 grams/day by age 5 years, with consumption of salt averaging between 9 and 12 grams per day in many countries. Recent salt intake estimates from Brazil (11 grams of salt/day), Argentina (12 grams of salt/day), Chile (9 grams of salt/day) and the United States (8.7 grams of salt/day) confirm that high salt intakes are prevalent in Americas. Sources of dietary salt vary, from 75% of it coming from processed food in developed countries, to 70% coming from discretionary salt added in cooking or at the table in parts of Brazil. The Pan American Health Organization has launched a regionwide initiative called the ?Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Through Dietary Salt Reduction,? led by an expert working group. Working closely with countries, the expert group developed resources to aid policy development through five subgroups: (a) addressing industry engagement and product reformulation; (b) advocacy and communication; (c) surveillance of salt intake, sources of salt in the diet, and knowledge and opinions on salt and health; (d) salt fortification with iodine; and (e) national-level health economic studies on salt reduction.

  4. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  5. Salt addiction: a different kind of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Tekol, Yalcin

    2006-01-01

    Under the headline "drug addiction" the medical world has exclusively been interested in psychoactive drugs. For diagnosis of substance dependence (addiction), DSM-IV-TR has determined seven criteria, and fulfilling at least tree of them signifies addiction. When studied salt intake according to these criteria it is seen that most of them are fulfilled, showing that sodium chloride, which is not classified under the psychoactive drugs, is capable of producing addiction. Namely: at the beginning of salt abstinence, anorexia and slight nausea during meal time (withdrawal symptoms); about 1000-fold difference of per capita salt consumption between several human societies, and life-long continuation of discretional salt intake behaviour (high dose and very long duration of use); difficulty of restriction of salt intake (unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control); lack of success of salt restriction campaigns in hypertensive patients (substance use despite health problem). Additionally, the decrease of salt preferences of individuals whose salt intake are restricted for some time, and vice versa, signifies tolerance. On the other hand, it is evident that as the main culprit of developing systemic hypertension and as producing or promoting some other important health problems, salt intake causes millions of deaths in the world yearly. The recognition of addicting property of salt will facilitate combating these health problems.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-28

    The Savannah River Site has a mission to dissolve fissile materials and disposition them. The primary fissile material is plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}). To support dissolution of these materials, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and demonstrated a vacuum salt distillation (VSD) apparatus using both representative radioactive samples and non-radioactive simulant materials. Vacuum salt distillation, through the removal of chloride salts, increases the quantity of materials suitable for processing in the site's HB-Line Facility. Small-scale non-radioactive experiments at 900-950 C show that >99.8 wt % of the initial charge of chloride salt distilled from the sample boat with recovery of >99.8 wt % of the ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) - the surrogate for PuO{sub 2} - as a non-chloride bearing 'product'. Small-scale radioactive testing in a glovebox demonstrated the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from 13 PuO{sub 2} samples. Chloride concentrations were distilled from a starting concentration of 1.8-10.8 wt % to a final concentration <500 mg/kg chloride. Initial testing of a non-radioactive, full-scale production prototype is complete. A designed experiment evaluated the impact of distillation temperature, time at temperature, vacuum, product depth, and presence of a boat cover. Significant effort has been devoted to mechanical considerations to facilitate simplified operation in a glovebox.

  7. Spectroscopic investigation of actinide speciation in concentrated chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Runde, W.; Neu, M.P.; Conradson, S.D.; Clark, D.L.; Palmer, P.D.; Reilly, S.D.; Scott, B.L.; Tait, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    The proposed disposal of nuclear waste in geological salt formations, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (USA) and the Gorleben site (Germany), raises a fundamental question: To what degree actinides will be solubilized and mobilized upon interaction with chloride ions? Actinide solubilities in highly concentrated chloride solutions are about one order of magnitude higher than in similar inert electrolyte (NaClO{sub 4}) solutions. This increased solubility is due to interactions between actinide and chloride ions. Contradictory results exist regarding the interaction mechanism between actinide and chloride ions. Specifically, both inner-sphere complex formation and ion pair association have been implicated in the interpretation of spectrophotometric and extraction data. To address this controversy, the authors investigated the interaction between actinide ions in the (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) oxidation states and chloride ions using a multi-method approach. Spectroscopic techniques (TRLFS, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, EXAFS) were used to distinguish between changes in the inner coordination sphere of the actinide ion and effects of ion pairing, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction were used to determine structural details of the actinide chloro complexes formed in solution and solid states.

  8. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    PubMed

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique; Zanni, Hélène; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress.

  9. Spin accumulation in thin Cs salts on contact with optically polarized Cs vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2011-09-15

    The spin angular momentum accumulates in the Cs nuclei of salt on contact with optically pumped Cs vapor. The spin polarization in stable chloride as well as dissociative hydride indicates that nuclear dipole interaction works in spin transferring with a lesser role of atom exchange. In the solid film, not only the spin buildup but also the decay of enhanced polarization is faster than the thermal recovery rate for the bulk salt. Eliminating the signal of thick salt, we find that the nuclear spin polarization in the chloride film reaches over 100 times the thermal equilibrium.

  10. Effects of salts and temperatures on post-irradiation growth of Penicillium exposed to ultraviolet

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, R.; Siegel, B.Z.; Siegel, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of Penicillium notatum colonies after uv irradiation of dried mycelium or spores was studied in relation to post-irradiation temperature and salt environment. Dried mycelium and spores behaved differently with respect to sensitivity to temperature, salts and uv, especially the latter. Threshold inhibitory doses for spores were modified markedly either at 4 C or in magnesium and calcium chlorides. It is suggested that these temperature and salt effects are related to prevention of photochemical membrane damage.

  11. Salt controls feeding decisions in a blood-sucking insect.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Gina; Pereira, Marcos H; Barrozo, Romina B

    2017-04-01

    Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0.1-0.15M) and in presence of the phagostimulant ATP. Conversely, feeding solutions that do not contain salts or have a high-salt concentration (>0.3M) are not ingested by insects. Notably, we show that feeding decisions of insects cannot be explained as an osmotic effect, because they still feed over hyperosmotic solutions bearing the optimal salt concentration. Insects perceive optimal-salt, no-salt and high-salt solutions as different gustatory information, as revealed the electromyogram recordings of the cibarial pump. Moreover, because insects do a continuous gustatory monitoring of the incoming food during feeding, sudden changes beyond the optimal sodium concentration decrease and even inhibit feeding. The administration of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, noticeably reduces the ingestion of the optimal sodium solution but not of the optimal potassium solution. Salt detection seems to occur at least through two salt receptors, one amiloride-sensitive and another amiloride-insensitive. Our results confirm the importance of the gustatory system in R. prolixus, showing the relevant role that salts play on their feeding decisions.

  12. Fabrication of graded TiN coatings on nitinol occluders and effects on in vivo nickel release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zi, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yanhong; Zeng, Weijun; Chu, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    A nano-structured TiN/Ti coating with a total thickness of 0.9 mum was deposited on nitinol cardiac occluders using the filtered multi-arc vacuum ion plating technique at less than 300 degrees C. The coating was composed of laminated TiN/Ti layers with thickness of about 100 nm. The cardiac occluders made of a nitinol mesh with and without a graded nano-structured titanium nitride (TiN) coating were implanted into the hearts of rams. The nickel concentration of the whole blood of the animals were measured one week, one month, three months, and six months after implantation and compared to that before operation. The nickel concentration in the neo-endocardium covered occluders was also measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After one week, the nickel content in the blood increased by a factor of three compared to the level before operation and decreased afterwards returning to the normal level after six months when endothelialization was complete. Statistical analyses showed that the TiN coating could mitigate nickel release into blood (P<0.01). For example, the nickel concentration released from the control increased from about 2.65+/-1.20 microg/kg, the normal concentration, to 7.30+/-1.00 microg/kg but just from 2.56+/-1.16 microg/kg to 4.68+/-1.29 microg/kg from the TiN coated occluder after 7 days. The nickel concentration in the neo-endocardium covered and TiN coated occluders reached 17.0+/-8.05 microg/kg in two months after implantation. In comparison, it was 31.0+/-5.72 microg/kg for the occluder without the TiN coating. While normal concentration of nickel in endocardium is also 2.6+/-1.09 microg/kg. Our results demonstrate that the graded TiN coating can significantly reduce nickel release into the endocardium (P<0.01) under in vivo conditions.

  13. Eight salt forms of sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Buist, Amanda R; Dennany, Lynn; Kennedy, Alan R; Manzie, Craig; McPhie, Katherine; Walker, Brandon

    2014-09-01

    Proton transfer to the sulfa drug sulfadiazine [systematic name: 4-amino-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide] gave eight salt forms. These are the monohydrate and methanol hemisolvate forms of the chloride (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium chloride monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Cl(-) · H2O, (I), and 2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium chloride methanol hemisolvate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Cl(-) · (0.5)CH(3)OH, (II)); a bromide monohydrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Br(-) · H2O, (III)), which has a disordered water channel; a species containing the unusual tetraiodide dianion [bis(2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium) tetraiodide, 2C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · I4(2-), (IV)], where the [I4](2-) ion is located at a crystallographic inversion centre; a tetrafluoroborate monohydrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium tetrafluoroborate monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · BF(4)(-) · H2O, (V)); a nitrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium nitrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · NO(3)(-), (VI)); an ethanesulfonate {4-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]anilinium ethanesulfonate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · C(2)H(5)SO(3)(-), (VII)}; and a dihydrate of the 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate {4-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]anilinium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · HOC(6)H(4)SO(3)(-) · 2H2O, (VIII)}. All these structures feature alternate layers of cations and of anions where any solvent is associated with the anion layers. The two sulfonate salts are protonated at the aniline N atom and the amide N atom of sulfadiazine, a tautomeric form of the sulfadiazine cation that has not been crystallographically described before. All the other salt forms are instead protonated at the aniline group and on one N atom of the pyrimidine ring. Whilst all eight species are based upon

  14. Sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to venous distension in an occluded limb.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Leuenberger, Urs A; Gao, Zhaohui; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2011-12-01

    We recently showed that a fixed volume (i.e., 40 ml) of saline infused into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure. In the present report, we hypothesized that the volume and rate of infusion would influence the magnitude of the sympathetic response. Blood pressure, heart rate, and MSNA were assessed in 13 young healthy subjects during forearm saline infusions (arrested circulation). The effects of different volumes of saline (i.e., 2%, 3%, 4%, or 5% forearm volume at 30 ml/min) and different rates of infusion (i.e., 5% forearm volume at 10, 20, or 30 ml/min) were evaluated. MSNA and blood pressure responses were linked with the infusion volume. Infusion of 5% of forearm volume evoked greater MSNA responses than did infusion of 2% of forearm volume (Δ11.6 ± 1.9 vs. Δ3.1 ± 1.8 bursts/min and Δ332 ± 105 vs. Δ38 ± 32 units/min, all P < 0.05). Moreover, greater MSNA responses were evoked by saline infusion at 30 ml/min than 10 ml/min (P < 0.05). Sonographic measurements confirmed that the saline infusions induced forearm venous distension. The results suggest that volume and rate of saline infusion are important factors in evoking sympathetic activation. We postulate that venous distension contributes to cardiovascular autonomic adjustment in humans.

  15. Lifting the Humic Veil: A Novel Approach to Quantitating Occluded Iron in Peat Porewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverica, T. J.; Kane, E. S.; Marcarelli, A. M.; Green, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic conditions common in peatlands lead microbes to reduce alternative electron acceptors for respiration in the order of their energetic yield: nitrate, manganese, ferric iron (Fe[III]), sulfate, and CO2. Many studies of peatland respiration report high CO2 fluxes that cannot be completely explained by measured pathways of microbial metabolism: it appears that an unquantified pool of electron acceptors is driving respiration and the efflux of CO2. The notion that undetected iron reduction may be an important contributing factor to these fluxes has been proposed, but has yet to be addressed. Among the possible causes for this anomaly is the widespread use of colorimetric assays for iron quantitation and speciation. Peat porewater contains high concentrations of dissolved humic and fulvic acids that occlude Fe(III), blocking colorimetric complex formation, potentially leading to an underestimate of Fe(III) in these challenging analytical matrices. We evaluated a novel ionic liquid extraction method in a variety of temperate peatland porewater samples and compared these results to data acquired simultaneously using colorimetric methods. We found a >50% average improvement in accuracy for total iron quantitation using ionic liquid extraction. Moreover, ionic liquid extraction of peat porewater consistently recovered Fe(III) whereas colorimetric methods detected 50-100% less, suggesting that DOM bound Fe(III) is not reliably detected using colorimetric assays in these systems and may represent a previously unidentified pool of electron acceptors in peat porewater.

  16. Laser scoop desobliteration: a method for minimally invasive remote recanalization of chronically occluded superficial femoral arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heneweer, Carola; Siggelkow, Markus; Helle, Michael; Petzina, Rainer; Wulff, Asmus; Schaefer, Joost P.; Berndt, Rouven; Rusch, Rene; Wedel, Thilo; Klaws, Guenther; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Röcken, Christoph; Jansen, Olav; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Joachim; Groß, Justus

    2015-02-01

    Stenosis and occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are most common in arterial occlusive disease. There are numerous interventional, surgical, and combined approaches to reconstitute maximum blood supply to the lower limb; however, despite intense clinical research, the long-term success rates are still poor. We present the first results with a catheter prototype for laser-based minimal invasive endarterectomy, called laser scoop desobliteration (LSD). The tip of a glass fiber containing a catheter was modified with a spatula head design and connected to an ultraviolet laser. It was tested in cadavers fixed with the Thiel embalming technique preserving tissue consistency, flexibility, and plasticity. After longitudinal arteriotomy of the SFA, a circular dissection between media and adventitia was performed. Then the LSD catheter was inserted and propagated with a progress of 1 mm/s. Afterward, the atheroma core, which showed a plain surface without substantial attaching tissue debris, was removed. Histological examination of the vessel wall showed that the dissection was performed at the media/adventitia interface. In summary, the constructed LSD catheter allowed a rapid and easy way to perform an endarterectomy, thereby offering an innovative approach in the treatment of chronic occluded SFA.

  17. Red cell distribution width predicts totally occluded infarct-related artery in NSTEMI.

    PubMed

    Açıkgöz, Sadık Kadri; Akboğa, Mehmet Kadri; Açıkgöz, Eser; Yayla, Çağrı; Şensoy, Barış; Aydoğdu, Sinan

    2016-08-01

    Objective Since non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients with totally occluded infarct-related artery (TO-IRA) have worse prognosis, it is important to recognize TO-IRA in NSTEMI. Red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are novel markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and were associated with poor clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome. In the present study, association of RDW and MPV with the presence of TO-IRA in NSTEMI was investigated. Methods Data of 201 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography with a diagnosis of NSTEMI were analyzed. Independent predictors of TO-IRA were investigated with logistic regression analysis. Results Sixty-six (32.8%) of the patients had TO-IRA. In patients with TO-IRA, RDW and troponin-T were significantly higher and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was lower. MPV did not differ between groups. Circumflex (CX) IRA was more common in TO-IRA group. The ROC curve analysis showed that the RDW at a cut-point of 13.95% has 76% sensitivity and 66% specificity in detecting TO-IRA. RDW, troponin-T, LVEF and CX-IRA were independent predictors of TO-IRA in NSTEMI, but MPV was not. Conclusion RDW is a cheap and readily available marker that may have a role to predict TO-IRA in NSTEMI.

  18. Holographic quantitative imaging of sample hidden by turbid medium or occluding objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Miccio, L.; Merola, F.; Memmolo, P.; Gennari, O.; Paturzo, Melania; Netti, P. A.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Digital Holography (DH) numerical procedures have been developed to allow imaging through turbid media. A fluid is considered turbid when dispersed particles provoke strong light scattering, thus destroying the image formation by any standard optical system. Here we show that sharp amplitude imaging and phase-contrast mapping of object hidden behind turbid medium and/or occluding objects are possible in harsh noise conditions and with a large field-of view by Multi-Look DH microscopy. In particular, it will be shown that both amplitude imaging and phase-contrast mapping of cells hidden behind a flow of Red Blood Cells can be obtained. This allows, in a noninvasive way, the quantitative evaluation of living processes in Lab on Chip platforms where conventional microscopy techniques fail. The combination of this technique with endoscopic imaging can pave the way for the holographic blood vessel inspection, e.g. to look for settled cholesterol plaques as well as blood clots for a rapid diagnostics of blood diseases.

  19. Wnt-5a occludes Aβ oligomer-induced depression of glutamatergic transmission in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ;) oligomers have been recognized to be early and key intermediates in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related synaptic dysfunction. Aβ oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impair rodent spatial memory. Wnt signaling plays an important role in neural development, including synaptic differentiation. Results We report here that the Wnt signaling activation prevents the synaptic damage triggered by Aβ oligomers. Electrophysiological analysis of Schaffer collaterals-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices indicates that Wnt-5a increases the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and both AMPA and NMDA components of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), without modifying the paired pulse facilitation (PPF). Conversely, in the presence of Aβ oligomers the fEPSP and EPSCs amplitude decreased without modification of the PPF, while the postsynaptic scaffold protein (PSD-95) decreased as well. Co-perfusion of hippocampal slices with Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers occludes against the synaptic depression of EPSCs as well as the reduction of PSD-95 clusters induced by Aβ oligomers in neuronal cultures. Taken together these results indicate that Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers inversely modulate postsynaptic components. Conclusion These results indicate that post-synaptic damage induced by Aβ oligomers in hippocampal neurons is prevented by non-canonical Wnt pathway activation. PMID:20205789

  20. Laser restoration of flow in occluded ventricular shunts for pediatric neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christens-Barry, William A.; Guarnieri, Michael; Carson, Benjamin S.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the use of short pulses of infrared ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) light from a Ho:YAG laser to photofragment occlusions and restore flow in ventricular shunts, which provide the sole means of maintaining proper intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus patients. These experiments employed model tissues, a polymeric model compound, and patient explants in order to determine appropriate pulse energies and delivery rates for removal of occlusions material. Laser energy doses and rates of occlusion removal were established for these materials. Laser energy doses that do not damage the shunt device or surrounding tissue were identified. Optical fibers (25 ga. or smaller) can be introduced through the dome of current shunt devices and threaded to the occlusion site. Clinical application will require the continued development of an introducer tool for the transcutaneous insertion of the optical fiber into the shunt device and irrigation techniques for removing the occlusion detritus generated by photofragmentation treatment. Using this approach, a minimally invasive and benign procedure for in situ restoration of flow in occluded neurological implant devices becomes possible.

  1. Laser scoop desobliteration: a method for minimally invasive remote recanalization of chronically occluded superficial femoral arteries.

    PubMed

    Heneweer, Carola; Siggelkow, Markus; Helle, Michael; Petzina, Rainer; Wulff, Asmus; Schaefer, Joost P; Berndt, Rouven; Rusch, Rene; Wedel, Thilo; Klaws, Guenther; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Röcken, Christoph; Jansen, Olav; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Joachim; Groß, Justus

    2015-02-01

    Stenosis and occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are most common in arterial occlusive disease. There are numerous interventional, surgical, and combined approaches to reconstitute maximum blood supply to the lower limb; however, despite intense clinical research, the long-term success rates are still poor. We present the first results with a catheter prototype for laser-based minimal invasive endarterectomy, called laser scoop desobliteration (LSD). The tip of a glass fiber containing a catheter was modified with a spatula head design and connected to an ultraviolet laser. It was tested in cadavers fixed with the Thiel embalming technique preserving tissue consistency, flexibility, and plasticity. After longitudinal arteriotomy of the SFA, a circular dissection between media and adventitia was performed. Then the LSD catheter was inserted and propagated with a progress of 1 mm∕s. Afterward, the atheroma core, which showed a plain surface without substantial attaching tissue debris, was removed. Histological examination of the vessel wall showed that the dissection was performed at the media/adventitia interface. In summary, the constructed LSD catheter allowed a rapid and easy way to perform an endarterectomy, thereby offering an innovative approach in the treatment of chronic occluded SFA.

  2. Evaluation of the occluded carbon within husk phytoliths of 35 rice cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xing; Liu, Qin; Gu, Jie; Chen, Xiang; Zhu, Keya

    2016-12-01

    Rice is a well-known silicon accumulator. During its periods of growth, a great number of phytoliths are formed by taking up silica via the plant roots. Concurrently, carbon in those phytoliths is sequestrated by a mechanism of long-term biogeochemical processes within the plant. Phytolith occluded C (PhytOC) is very stable and can be retained in soil for longer than a millennium. In this study, we evaluated the carbon biosequestration within the phytoliths produced in rice seed husks of 35 rice cultivars, with the goal of finding rice cultivars with relatively higher phytolith carbon sequestration efficiencies. The results showed that the phytolith contents ranged from 71.6 mg•g‒1 to 150.1 mg•g‒1, and the PhytOC contents ranged from 6.4 mg•g‒1 to 38.4 mg•g‒1, suggesting that there was no direct correlation between the PhytOC content and the content of rice seed husk phytoliths ( R = 0.092, p>0.05). Of all rice cultivars, six showed a higher carbon sequestration efficiency in phytolith seed husks. Additionally, the carbon biosequestration within the rice seed husk phytoliths was approximately 0.45‒3.46 kg-e-CO2•ha‒1•yr‒1. These rates indicate that rice cultivars are a potential source of carbon biosequestration which could contribute to the global carbon cycle and climate change.

  3. Differential Adsorption of Occluded and Nonoccluded Insect-Pathogenic Viruses to Soil-Forming Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Peter D.; Richards, Andrew R.; Williams, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Soil represents the principal environmental reservoir of many insect-pathogenic viruses. We compared the adsorption and infectivity of one occluded and two nonoccluded viruses, Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) (Baculoviridae), Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) (Dicistroviridae), and Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Iridoviridae), respectively, in mixtures with a selection of soil-forming minerals. The relative infective titers of HaSNPV and CrPV were unchanged or slightly reduced in the presence of different minerals compared to their titers in the absence of the mineral. In contrast, the infective titer of IIV-6 varied according to the mineral being tested. In adsorption studies, over 98% of HaSNPV occlusion bodies were adsorbed by all the minerals, and a particularly high affinity was observed with ferric oxide, attapulgite, and kaolinite. In contrast, the adsorption of CrPV and IIV-6 differed markedly with mineral type, with low affinity to bentonites and high affinity to ferric oxide and kaolinite. We conclude that interactions between soil-forming minerals and insect viruses appear to be most important in nucleopolyhedroviruses, followed by invertebrate iridescent viruses, and least important in CrPV, which may reflect the ecology of these pathogens. Moreover, soils with a high content of iron oxides or kaolinite would likely represent highly effective reservoirs for insect-pathogenic viruses. PMID:16820456

  4. Expertise differences in anticipatory judgements during a temporally and spatially occluded task

    PubMed Central

    Smeeton, Nicholas J.; Williams, A. Mark

    2017-01-01

    There is contradictory evidence surrounding the role of critical cues in the successful anticipation of penalty kicks in soccer. In the current study, skilled and less-skilled soccer goalkeepers were required to anticipate when viewing penalty kicks that were both spatially (full body; hip region) and temporally (–160 ms, –80 ms before, foot–ball contact) occluded. The skilled group outperformed the less-skilled group in all conditions. Participants performed better in the full body condition when compared to hip region condition. Performance in the hip only condition was significantly better than chance for the skilled group across all occlusion conditions. However, the less-skilled group were no better than chance in the hip condition for the early occlusion points when predicting direction and height. Later temporal occlusion conditions were associated with increased performance both in the correct response and correct direction analyses, but not for correct height. These data suggest that postural information solely from the hip region may be used by skilled goalkeepers to make accurate predictions of penalty kick direction, however, information from other sources are needed in order to make predictions of height. Findings demonstrate how the importance of anticipation cues evolve over time, which has implications for the design of training programs to enhance perceptual-cognitive skill. PMID:28170412

  5. The production of phytolith-occluded carbon in China's forests: implications to biogeochemical carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Beilei; Yang, Xiaomin

    2013-09-01

    The persistent terrestrial carbon sink regulates long-term climate change, but its size, location, and mechanisms remain uncertain. One of the most promising terrestrial biogeochemical carbon sequestration mechanisms is the occlusion of carbon within phytoliths, the silicified features that deposit within plant tissues. Using phytolith content-biogenic silica content transfer function obtained from our investigation, in combination with published silica content and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) data of leaf litter and herb layer in China's forests, we estimated the production of phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) in China's forests. The present annual phytolith carbon sink in China's forests is 1.7 ± 0.4 Tg CO2  yr(-1) , 30% of which is contributed by bamboo because the production flux of PhytOC through tree leaf litter for bamboo is 3-80 times higher than that of other forest types. As a result of national and international bamboo afforestation and reforestation, the potential of phytolith carbon sink for China's forests and world's bamboo can reach 6.8 ± 1.5 and 27.0 ± 6.1 Tg CO2  yr(-1) , respectively. Forest management practices such as bamboo afforestation and reforestation may significantly enhance the long-term terrestrial carbon sink and contribute to mitigation of global climate warming.

  6. Microwave ablation versus laser ablation in occluding lateral veins in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-hong; Wang, Xiao-ping; Su, Wen-juan; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Increasing number of endovenous techniques are available for the treatment of saphenous vein reflux and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a frequently used method. A newly developed alternative, based on thermal therapy, is endovenous microwave ablation (EMA). This study evaluated the effect of the two procedures, in terms of coagulation and histological changes, in occluding lateral veins in goats. Twelve animals were randomized into two group, with 6 treated with EMA (EMA group), and the rest 6 with EVLA (EVLA group). Results of coagulation, including coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet activation, were assessed at three or four different time points: before, immediately after, 24 h (and 48 h) after ablation. The diameter change, a measure of efficacy, was ultrasonographically measured before and 1 month after the ablation. Histological changes were grossly and microscopically evaluated immediately, 1 and 3 month(s) after the ablation. The length of the ablated vein and preoperative average diameter were comparable between the two groups. In both EMA and EVLA groups, several coagulation parameters, fibrinolysis and platelet activation parameters only underwent slight changes. Ultrasound imaging displayed that the diameter reduction of the veins treated by EMA was significantly larger than by EVLA, in consistent with the results of macroscopic examination. Microscopic examination revealed necrosis and thickening of the vein wall, and occlusion of the lumen within 3 months after ablation in both EMA and EVLA groups. It is concluded that EMA is a minimally invasive therapy, which appears to be safe and effective for treatment of lateral veins in goats.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal Function Exercises (VFE), an established set of exercises that utilize oral semi-occlusions. Method Twenty subjects (16 women, 4 men) with dysphonia and/or vocal fatigue were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: (a) immediate FRT therapy, (b) immediate VFE therapy, (c) delayed FRT therapy, or (d) delayed VFE therapy. Subjects receiving delayed therapy served as a no-treatment control group. Results Voice Handicap Index (Jacobson et al., 1997) scores showed significant improvement for both treatment groups relative to the no-treatment group. Comparison of the effect sizes suggests FRT therapy is noninferior to VFE in terms of reduction in Voice Handicap Index scores. Significant reductions in Roughness on the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (Kempster, Gerratt, Verdolini Abbott, Barkmeier-Kraemer, & Hillman, 2009) were found for the FRT subjects, with no other significant voice quality findings. Conclusions VFE and FRT therapy may improve voice quality of life in some individuals with dysphonia. FRT therapy was noninferior to VFE in improving voice quality of life in this study. PMID:25675335

  8. Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Siemer, D.D.

    2013-07-01

    Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

  9. Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E

    2012-05-30

    Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue.

  10. Formation of Recurrent Slope Lineae on Mars by Rewetting of Salt Deposits Formed in an Earlier Wetter Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, J.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Kounaves, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    The typical darkening of RSL can be reproduced by the deliquescent wetting of a perchlorate- or chloride-containing martian simulant soil if exposed to a relative humidity higher than the deliquescence relative humidity of the salt-soil mixture.

  11. Genetic Decreases in Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Salt-Sensitive Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Simon W. M.; Krege, John H.; Oliver, Paula M.; Hagaman, John R.; Hodgin, Jeffrey B.; Pang, Stephen C.; Flynn, T. Geoffrey; Smithies, Oliver

    1995-02-01

    To determine if defects in the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system can cause hypertension, mice were generated with a disruption of the proANP gene. Homozygous mutants had no circulating or atrial ANP, and their blood pressures were elevated by 8 to 23 millimeters of mercury when they were fed standard (0.5 percent sodium chloride) and intermediate (2 percent sodium chloride) salt diets. On standard salt diets, heterozygotes had normal amounts of circulating ANP and normal blood pressures. However, on high (8 percent sodium chloride) salt diets they were hypertensive, with blood pressures elevated by 27 millimeters of mercury. These results demonstrate that genetically reduced production of ANP can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension.

  12. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    PubMed

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts.

  13. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and Chloride Hydrates within Mars Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Wang, A.

    2012-12-01

    thermodynamics and kinetics properties of chloride hydrates. The goals are to determine (1) the stability fields of Mg-, Fe2+-, Fe3+-, Ca-, Al-, Na-chloride hydrates in RH-T space, especially the phase boundaries of hydrates-deliquescence; (2) the rate of their dehydration, and especially the rate of their deliquescence as function of T, P, and PH2O; (3) the RH level that each chloride hydrate can maintain in an enclosure at T relevant to those within Mars subsurface. We will report the experimental results from (3), and will compare them with a similar set of data from hydrous sulfates (Mg, Fe, Ca, Al). The criticality of learning the property (3) is that the deliquescence of a hydrous salt at a T only occurs when RH is higher than a threshold. For example, deliquescence of ferricopiapite would happen when RH > 75% at 0°C. If the environmental RH is lower, the dehydration of hydrous salt will go through solid-solid phase transition, instead of deliquescence, such that water would be released to the atmosphere and brine would not form. It is possible that deliquescence of both hydrous sulfates and chlorides (as well as the melting of Cl-enriched brines) contributed the RSL. Our working hypothesis favors chloride hydrates because dry chloride (after releasing water) in RSL would not be visible by Vis-NIR spectroscopy, which is consistent with the mission observations.

  14. GUSTO V: combination drug treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Askari, Arman T; Lincoff, A Michael

    2002-07-01

    The combination of abciximab in full doses and reteplase in half doses did not significantly reduce the rate of mortality at 30 days in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) when compared with reteplase in full doses in the Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO V) trial. However, subgroup analysis indicates that the combined regimen reduced the complications of acute MI, representing an important alternative strategy for pharmacologic reperfusion.

  15. Multiple Osmotic Stress Responses in Acidihalobacter prosperus Result in Tolerance to Chloride Ions.

    PubMed

    Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S; Lazcano, Marcelo; McCredden, Timothy J; Bryan, Christopher G; Mulroney, Kieran T; Steuart, Robert; Jackaman, Connie; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2016-01-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms (pH optima for growth of ≤3) are utilized for the extraction of metals from sulfide minerals in the industrial biotechnology of "biomining." A long term goal for biomining has been development of microbial consortia able to withstand increased chloride concentrations for use in regions where freshwater is scarce. However, when challenged by elevated salt, acidophiles experience both osmotic stress and an acidification of the cytoplasm due to a collapse of the inside positive membrane potential, leading to an influx of protons. In this study, we tested the ability of the halotolerant acidophile Acidihalobacter prosperus to grow and catalyze sulfide mineral dissolution in elevated concentrations of salt and identified chloride tolerance mechanisms in Ac. prosperus as well as the chloride susceptible species, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Ac. prosperus had optimum iron oxidation at 20 g L(-1) NaCl while At. ferrooxidans iron oxidation was inhibited in the presence of 6 g L(-1) NaCl. The tolerance to chloride in Ac. prosperus was consistent with electron microscopy, determination of cell viability, and bioleaching capability. The Ac. prosperus proteomic response to elevated chloride concentrations included the production of osmotic stress regulators that potentially induced production of the compatible solute, ectoine uptake protein, and increased iron oxidation resulting in heightened electron flow to drive proton export by the F0F1 ATPase. In contrast, At. ferrooxidans responded to low levels of Cl(-) with a generalized stress response, decreased iron oxidation, and an increase in central carbon metabolism. One potential adaptation to high chloride in the Ac. prosperus Rus protein involved in ferrous iron oxidation was an increase in the negativity of the surface potential of Rus Form I (and Form II) that could help explain how it can be active under elevated chloride concentrations. These data have been used to create a model

  16. Multiple Osmotic Stress Responses in Acidihalobacter prosperus Result in Tolerance to Chloride Ions

    PubMed Central

    Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S.; Lazcano, Marcelo; McCredden, Timothy J.; Bryan, Christopher G.; Mulroney, Kieran T.; Steuart, Robert; Jackaman, Connie; Watkin, Elizabeth L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms (pH optima for growth of ≤3) are utilized for the extraction of metals from sulfide minerals in the industrial biotechnology of “biomining.” A long term goal for biomining has been development of microbial consortia able to withstand increased chloride concentrations for use in regions where freshwater is scarce. However, when challenged by elevated salt, acidophiles experience both osmotic stress and an acidification of the cytoplasm due to a collapse of the inside positive membrane potential, leading to an influx of protons. In this study, we tested the ability of the halotolerant acidophile Acidihalobacter prosperus to grow and catalyze sulfide mineral dissolution in elevated concentrations of salt and identified chloride tolerance mechanisms in Ac. prosperus as well as the chloride susceptible species, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Ac. prosperus had optimum iron oxidation at 20 g L−1 NaCl while At. ferrooxidans iron oxidation was inhibited in the presence of 6 g L−1 NaCl. The tolerance to chloride in Ac. prosperus was consistent with electron microscopy, determination of cell viability, and bioleaching capability. The Ac. prosperus proteomic response to elevated chloride concentrations included the production of osmotic stress regulators that potentially induced production of the compatible solute, ectoine uptake protein, and increased iron oxidation resulting in heightened electron flow to drive proton export by the F0F1 ATPase. In contrast, At. ferrooxidans responded to low levels of Cl− with a generalized stress response, decreased iron oxidation, and an increase in central carbon metabolism. One potential adaptation to high chloride in the Ac. prosperus Rus protein involved in ferrous iron oxidation was an increase in the negativity of the surface potential of Rus Form I (and Form II) that could help explain how it can be active under elevated chloride concentrations. These data have been used to create a

  17. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  18. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  19. A Retrospective Comparative Study of Tunneled Haemodialysis Catheters Inserted Through Occluded or Collateral Veins Versus Conventional Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Steven; Chan, Tze Yuan; Bhat, Rammohan; Lam, Kimberly; Narlawar, Ranjeet S.; Cullen, Nicola; Littler, Peter

    2010-08-15

    Tunneled hemodialysis catheters become essential in dialysis access when there is no possibility of using a functioning arteriovenous fistula. Collateral or occluded veins visible on ultrasound are used for puncture and passage of catheters into the central venous system. Chronically occluded veins are crossed with guidewires to allow dilatation and subsequent passage of hemodialysis catheters. We performed a retrospective analysis of patient demographics, comorbidities, procedural complications, functional survival, performance, and history of previous vascular access. The study group was compared with two control groups in which dialysis catheters were inserted either by radiologists in the interventional suite or by clinicians on the wards. Nineteen patients from the study group were compared with same number of patients in both control groups. The mean age of the study group was higher compared with the control groups. There was no significant difference in mean functional survival, infection rates, dialysis pump speeds in the first 2 weeks, and procedural complications between the study group and the controls. The study group had a significantly higher number of previous vascular access interventions, longer dialysis careers, and more comorbidities. Tunneled dialysis catheter placement by way of collateral or occluded veins appears safe and effective. These techniques give the operator further options when faced with patients possessing challenging vascular access. Indeed, there may be a case for preferential use of these veins to keep patent central veins in reserve.

  20. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  1. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Popescu, L; Constantinescu, S; Cernescu, S

    1988-01-01

    Studies in human embryo fibroblasts infected with measles or herpes simplex virus showed a reduction in virus yield when cultures were pretreated with 1-10 mM lithium chloride doses. Maximum effect was obtained by a 1 h treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride, preceding viral infection by 19-24 hours. A specific antiviral effect against measles virus was manifest immediately after culture pretreatment. Intermittent treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride of cultures persistently infected with measles or herpes virus obtained from human myeloid K-562 cell line shows a reduction in the extracellular virus yield. In the K-562/herpes virus system, the culture treatment with lithium chloride and acyclovir (10 microM) has an additive inhibitory effect on virus production. The paper is focused on the mechanism of lithium chloride antiviral action and the expediency of lithium therapy in SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis).

  2. Tropospheric chemistry of internally mixed sea salt and organic particles: Surprising reactivity of NaCl with weak organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, Pascal; Shutthanandan, Janani

    2012-08-01

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected onboard the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and in particular hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles, may result in formation of organic salts that will modify the acidity, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aged particles.

  3. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

    2012-08-03

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

  4. Hydrogen bonding. Part 19. IR and NMR study of the lower hydrates of choline fluoride and acetylcholine chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Kenneth M.; Avci, Günsel F.; Desantis, Nancy J.; Thiel, Anne C.

    1985-05-01

    Acetylcholine chloride, like choline chloride, forms a liquid salt dihydrate, and a crystalline monohydrate that only exists at reduced pressure; at atmospheric pressure the monohydrate disproportionates into liquid dihydrate and anhydrous acetylcholine chloride. Both choline and acetylcholine chlorides give endothermic dissolution in water. In contrast, choline fluoride gives exothermic dissclution in water, and forms an extra-ordinarily stable monohydrate in which choline cation hydroxyls form strong hydrogen bonds to an H 4O 2F 2-2 cluster anion. Since the hydration behavior of choline fluoride is like that of unsubstituted tetraalkylammonium fluorides, the unusual hydration behavior of choline and acetyline chlorides results from the presence of chloride ion, and is not an intrinsic property of cholinergic cations.

  5. Infrared spectra of cesium chloride aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2000-10-01

    The aqueous solutions of CsCl were studied at room temperature by infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the entire solubility range, 0-1200 g/L, using attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling. The influence of anomalous dispersion on the IR-ATR spectra was evaluated by calculating the imaginary refractive index, k(ν), of each sample. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the number and abundance of species in the solutions. FA applied to both k(ν) spectra and IR-ATR spectra produced two principal spectra with a similar abundance of species. This result indicates that, even at high salt concentration, the optical effects do not influence the chemical analysis of IR-ATR spectra. The spectral modifications related to the salt concentrations are mainly first order. Second order effects were observed, but being weak, were not investigated. The two principal spectra are related to the two species present in the solution: pure water and CsCl-solvated water. From the latter, 2.8±0.4 water molecules were calculated to be associated with each close-bound Cs+/Cl- ion pair. In the case of KCl and NaCl aqueous solutions, both of which showed the same number of species, the number of water molecules associated to an ion pair was 5.0±0.4. That the latter number is different from that of CsCl indicates that the interaction between water molecules and ion pairs is different when cation Na or K in the chloride salt is replaced by Cs.

  6. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project was to try to understand the adaptive mechanisms that organisms develop in order to respond to a sudden transformation in their environment to a salt shock.'' To study this problem we used a fresh water oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium known as Synecoccus 6311. This organism suffers injury after this sudden exposure to high concentrations of sodium chloride equivalent to or even higher than that in sea water. Yet they are able to re-establish their photosynthetic activity which is partially injured and return to virtually normal growth rates. Identification of the temporal sequence of changes involved in adaptation to this stress was the rationale. Indeed this project employed a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, including electron spin resonance techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance to study the bioenergetics and transport mechanisms, growth and energy changes in these organisms and how the structural components of the cells changed in response to adaptation to growth at high salinity. The problem has relevance for higher plants because most of the arable farmland in the work is already under use and that which is not used is usually in salite environments. Hence, understanding basic mechanisms of salt tolerance is a fundamental biological problem with great applications for bioproductivity and agriculture. 18 refs.

  7. Fenestration closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II in patients after total cavo-pulmonary connection

    PubMed Central

    Dryżek, Paweł; Morgan, Gareth J.; Mazurek-Kula, Anna; Moll, Jacek J.; Moll, Jadwiga A.; Qureshi, Shakeel; Moszura, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Creation of a fenestration during completion of a total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) has been associated with a reduction in early mortality and morbidity. However, the long-term benefits are negated by an associated limitation in exercise tolerance and the potential risks of thrombo-embolic complications. We sought to describe the safety and efficacy of an Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO II) for transcatheter fenestration closure following TCPC. Material and methods Between January 2000 and July 2014, 102 patients underwent percutaneous closure of extra-cardiac TCPC fenestrations with a range of devices. Patients in whom fenestration closure was performed with an ADO II and who had at least 6 months of follow-up were included in this study. Results Forty-seven patients had successful fenestration occlusion with an ADO II. The mean oxygen saturation and mean systemic venous pressures increased from 84.8 ±6.1% before to 97.6 ±2.9% (p < 0.001) after and from 14.2 ±2.15 mm Hg before to 15.6 ±2.2 mm Hg after closure (p < 0.001). Eight patients developed heart failure symptoms, managed by optimization of medical therapy, with 1 patient requiring device removal to reopen the fenestration. Color Doppler transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated residual flow across the device in 18 (38%), 10 (22%), 5 (11%) and 4 (9%) patients before discharge, at 1 and 6 months, and at the latest outpatient visit, respectively. Conclusions The ADO II can be safely and effectively used to close fenestrations in extra-cardiac type Fontan completions. Many of the design features of this device confer potential benefit in this population. PMID:28261286

  8. A new type of model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis for solving the occluded marker problem.

    PubMed

    Kaptein, B L; Valstar, E R; Stoel, B C; Rozing, P M; Reiber, J H C

    2005-11-01

    Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) measures micromotion of an orthopaedic implant with respect to its surrounding bone. A problem in RSA is that the markers are sometimes overprojected by the implant itself. This study describes the so-called Marker Configuration Model-based RSA (MCM-based RSA) that is able to measure the pose of a rigid body in situations where less than three markers could be detected in both images of an RSA radiograph. MCM-based RSA is based on fitting a Marker Configuration model (MC-model) to the projection lines from the marker projection positions in the image to their corresponding Roentgen foci. An MC-model describes the positions of markers relative to each other and is obtained using conventional RSA. We used data from 15 double examinations of a clinical study of total knee prostheses and removed projections of the three tibial component markers, simulating occlusion of markers. The migration of the tibial component with respect to the bone, which should be zero, for the double examination is a measure of the accuracy of algorithm. With the new algorithm, it is possible to estimate the pose of a rigid body of which one or two markers are occluded in one of the images of the RSA radiograph with high accuracy as long as a proper MC-model of the markers in the rigid body is available. The new algorithm makes RSA more robust for occlusion of markers. This improves the results of clinical RSA studies because the number of lost RSA follow-up moments is reduced.

  9. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  10. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Ackerman, John P.; Battles, James E.; Johnson, Terry R.; Pierce, R. Dean

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800.degree. C. to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein.

  11. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-08-25

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure.

  12. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    PubMed

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  13. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  14. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentat...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy Secondary to Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Kato, Takeharu; Tanaka, Osamu; Matsushima, Shigenori; Ito, Hirotoshi; Okuyama, Chio; Ushijima, Yo; Shiga, Kensuke; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2002-06-15

    We report a 70-year-old woman with hepatic encephalopathy due to an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that was successfully occluded by percutaneous transcatheter embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and microcoils.

  16. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  17. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... risks of using synthetic cathinones (bath salts)? Another danger of bath salts is that they might contain ... Drugs: Is There a Way to Reduce the Dangers? June 09, 2015 / The NIDA Blog Team Concert ...

  18. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  19. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current

  20. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  1. Mechanism of chemical activation of sodium chloride in the presence of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Anja K K; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been shown to promote chlorination of glycerol during thermal processing. However, the detailed mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Preliminary experiments have indicated that the reaction mixture should contain an amino acid and it should be dissolved thoroughly in water in order to induce chlorination. These observations are consistent with the process of dissociation of sodium chloride and its re-association with amino acid and eventual formation of the chlorinating agent in the form of the hydrochloride salt. Release of HCl from this salt can be manifested in chlorination and hydrolytic reactions occurring during thermal processing. The generation of HCl at room temperature from a mixture of sodium chloride and glycine was confirmed through spectrophotometric monitoring of the pH. Hydrolytic and chlorination reactions were demonstrated through monitoring of formation of HMF and chlorinated products under pyrolytic conditions using glucose or sucrose and amino acid mixtures.

  2. The development of a new generation of methyl chloride synthesis catalyst.

    PubMed

    McInroy, Alastair R; Winfield, John M; Dudman, Chris C; Jones, Peter; Lennon, David

    2016-07-04

    In previous work by the authors, aspects of the surface chemistry connected with methyl chloride synthesis over an η-alumina catalyst have been examined. This communication considers a role for Group 1 metal salts to modify the catalytic performance of the well characterised η-alumina catalyst. Firstly, based on a previously postulated mechanism for the reaction of methanol on η-alumina, a mechanism for methyl chloride synthesis over the η-alumina catalyst is proposed. Secondly, the validity of the new mechanism is tested by observing how the (i) type and (ii) loading of the Group 1 metal salt may perturb methyl chloride selectivity. The outcomes of these measurements are rationalised with reference to the postulated mechanism. Overall, this study represents an example of how a proposed reaction mechanism has been used to inform and guide a catalyst development strategy for a large-scale industrial process.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471.

    PubMed

    Neysens, Patricia; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-11-15

    A kinetic investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on cell growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 and amylovorin L471 production was carried out through in vitro experiments using a temperature and pH prevailing during sourdough fermentations. Sodium chloride interfered both with cell growth and bacteriocin production. Biomass formation and amylovorin L471 production decreased in the presence of increasing salt concentrations. Maximum bacteriocin activities were observed after the addition of 10 g l(-1) of NaCl, while the maximum specific growth rate reached an optimum at 5 g l(-1) of NaCl. High salt concentrations (20-40 g l(-1)) resulted in biphasic fermentation profiles. Based on these results, incorporation of 5-10 g l(-1) of sodium chloride in the water phase of type II sourdough preparations might be beneficial to enhance bacterial growth and amylovorin L471 production, and so contribute to the competitiveness of the strain in a sourdough environment.

  4. Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Surface and Wetting Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Cocamidopropyl Betaine.

    PubMed

    Staszak, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Daria; Michocka, Katarzyna

    Surfactants are important ingredients of personal care products and household products. The main characteristic of these compounds is to decrease the surface tension of solvent and resulting many properties such as contact angle, foam properties etc. The coexistence of other ingredients in the product may affect the properties of surfactants. One of the main components contained in almost every personal care and household product is sodium chloride. The main aim of this work was to determine the effect of this salt on some surface and usage properties of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB). From our experiments it was shown that the effect of added sodium chloride in the aqueous solutions of CAPB on the properties is the opposite to the one described in the literature for cationic and anionic surfactants, i.e., CMC increases with increasing ionic strength, foam height decreases with increasing salt concentration. Our investigation showed that sodium chloride makes worse the properties of the CAPB solutions examined in this work.

  5. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%).

  6. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  7. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  8. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  9. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  10. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  11. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    EEEElhIhEEEEEE 1111 1 - MI(CRO( fy Hl ff1Sf UIIIUN Ift I IA I~t Research and Development Technical Report DELET - TR - 78 - 0563 - F Cq LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE ...2b(1110) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery -10/1/78 - 11/30/80 6. PNING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Z %A a.~as B.,OWRACT OR...block number) Inorganic Electrolyte battery, Thionyl Chloride , lithium , high rate D cell, high rate flat cylindrical cell, laser designator battery. C//i

  12. [Evaluation of potassium iodide in Polish dietary salt].

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, E; Rokicka, B; Gajda, J; Jarecka, J; Oraczewska, A; Karłowski, K

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of iodine deficiency occurring still in Poland include serious health disorders in the population, such as psycho- somatic retardation, hypothyroidism, endemic goitre, even cretinism. Administration of iodized edible salt with daily diet is an effective method for prevention of iodine deficiency. The condition of success is the proper level of potassium iodide in this salt and adequate distribution of iodized salt in various regions of the country. Successful iodine prophylaxis should be based on iodination of edible salt in amounts of 30 +/- 10 mg of KJ/kg. The permission given in the period from February to May 1994 by the General Sanitary Inspector for the production and marketing of edible salt iodized in proportions of 30 +/- 10 mg KJ/kg opened the possibility of starting its production in salt mines. The purpose of the presently reported work was to assess, in cooperation with the Province Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, the adequacy of iodination of the Polish edible salt produced in the years 1994-1995. The study was carried out according to the Polish Standard "Salt (Sodium Chloride) /PN-80/C-84081.35. Potassium iodide determination by photo colorimetric method." In 1995 the number of edible salt samples analyzed was 2484, and this number included 2129 samples of iodized salt. Potassium iodide content agreeing with the above permission was found in 122 samples, that is in 57.4% of iodized salt samples. In 603 samples (28.3%) of iodized salt this content was below that given in the permissions. In 1994 this study was carried out taking 2172 samples of edible salt, including 1586 samples of iodized salt. The content of potassium iodide agreeing with the permissions (30 +/- 10 mg/kg) was found in 342 samples (28, 1%), but 272 (22.4%) samples of iodized salt produced by salt mines contained lower amounts of potassium iodide than the amount indicated in the permissions, but still within the limits set down in the Polish Standard (20 +/- 5 mg

  13. The Cap1–claudin-4 regulatory pathway is important for renal chloride reabsorption and blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yongfeng; Yu, Miao; Yang, Jing; Gonzales, Ernie; Perez, Ronaldo; Hou, Mingli; Tripathi, Piyush; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.; Hamm, L. Lee; Hou, Jianghui

    2014-01-01

    The paracellular pathway through the tight junction provides an important route for transepithelial chloride reabsorption in the kidney, which regulates extracellular salt content and blood pressure. Defects in paracellular chloride reabsorption may in theory cause deregulation of blood pressure. However, there is no evidence to prove this theory or to demonstrate the in vivo role of the paracellular pathway in renal chloride handling. Here, using a tissue-specific KO approach, we have revealed a chloride transport pathway in the kidney that requires the tight junction molecule claudin-4. The collecting duct-specific claudin-4 KO animals developed hypotension, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis due to profound renal wasting of chloride. The claudin-4–mediated chloride conductance can be regulated endogenously by a protease—channel-activating protease 1 (cap1). Mechanistically, cap1 regulates claudin-4 intercellular interaction and membrane stability. A putative cap1 cleavage site has been identified in the second extracellular loop of claudin-4, mutation of which abolished its regulation by cap1. The cap1 effects on paracellular chloride permeation can be extended to other proteases such as trypsin, suggesting a general mechanism may also exist for proteases to regulate the tight junction permeabilities. Together, we have discovered a theory that paracellular chloride permeability is physiologically regulated and essential to renal salt homeostasis and blood pressure control. PMID:25157135

  14. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Veronica; Sbrana, Francesca; Vassalli, Massimo; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses. PMID:27936151

  15. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Bregante, Monica; Carpaneto, Armando; Piazza, Veronica; Sbrana, Francesca; Vassalli, Massimo; Faimali, Marco; Gambale, Franco

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses.

  16. Movement of road salt to a small New Hampshire lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Bukaveckas, P.A.; Buso, D.C.; Likens, G.E.; Shapiro, A.M.; Winter, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Runoff of road salt from an interstate highway in New Hampshire has led to contamination of a lake and a stream that flows into the lake, in spite of the construction of a diversion berm to divert road salt runoff out of the lake drainage basin. Chloride concentration in the stream has increased by over an order of magnitude during the 23 yr since the highway was opened, and chloride concentration in the lake has tripled. Road salt moves to the lake primarily via the contaminated stream, which provides 53% of all the chloride to the lake and only 3% of the total streamflow to the lake. The stream receives discharge of salty water froth leakage through the diversion berm. Uncontaminated ground water dilutes the stream downstream of the berm. However, reversals of gradient during summer months, likely caused by transpiration from deciduous trees, result in flow of contaminated stream water into the adjacent ground water along the lowest 40-m reach of the stream. This contaminated ground water then discharges into the lake along a 70-m-wide segment of lake shore. Road salt is pervasive in the bedrock between the highway and the lake, but was not detected at all of the wells in the glacial overburden. Of the 500 m of shoreline that could receive discharge of saly ground water directly from the highway, only a 50-m-long segment appears to be contaminated.

  17. Numerical modelling of chloride propagation in the quaternary aquifer of the southern Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, U.; Gudera, T.; Elsass, P.; Wirsing, G.

    2005-09-01

    The deep groundwater in the quaternary gravel sequence of the southern Upper Rhine Graben locally contains high chloride concentrations near the river Rhine between Fessenheim (France) in the South and Breisach (Germany) in the North. This historical pollution is mainly due to past infiltration from the former brine storage basins of the French potash mines on the “Fessenheim Island” and—to a lesser extent—from the leaching of the salt dumps of the German potash mines in Buggingen and Heitersheim. The spreading of the salt plume was investigated by means of a groundwater model. The aim of the model was to understand the brine movement, the present distribution of chloride as defined by recent hydrochemical investigations, and to select locations for new reconnaissance boreholes. The geological structure was reproduced by a three layer model, which was calibrated for steady state flow conditions. The hydraulic conductivity of the first layer was determined by comparing measured and calculated heads in the model area. The vertical resolution was refined to simulate the density-dependent salt transport processes. The transport of the salt plumes was simulated over a 40-year period, starting at the beginning of brine storage in the 1950s. The relevant transport parameters have been estimated in a sensitivity analysis, where the simulated breakthrough curves of chloride concentration have been compared with the measured data. The results of the groundwater model indicate that brines containing approximately 1 million tons of chloride are still present at the bottom of the aquifer. These highly concentrated salt brines mix with fresh water from the upper part of the aquifer. This dispersive process leads to the formation of a plume of chloride-rich water extending downstream, where pumping wells for several local water supplies are located.

  18. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  19. Physical and conductivity properties of poly (vinyl chloride) ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Nira; Panda, H. S.; Kapusetti, Govinda; Jaiswal, Shilpa; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2011-02-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)(PVC) is a cheapest plastic. Importance of PVC based ionomer has been gradually being popularizing due to compatibility of PVC with a number of salts to replace polyethylene oxide based ionomer. Under present investigation few of chloride group of PVC chain have been replaced by basic thiouronium group and these thiouronium groups are further oxidized to sulfonate group. Introduction of thiouronium group in PVC is confirmed through FTIR and further its oxidation to sulfonate group is also confirmed by FTIR. Conductivity in different stoichiometric ratio of PVCTU and PVCSO3H was studied and found that PVCTU: PVCSO3H in 1:1 ratio has conductivity near to pure PVC (10-9 Ohm-1 cm-1) and increases with proportion of PVCSO3Na in the mixture (10-6 Ohm-1 cm-1) for pure PVC, PVCTU has less conductivity not much significant.

  20. Inhibitions by hydrogen-occluding silica microcluster to melanogenesis in human pigment cells and tyrosinase reaction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-melanogenetic efficacy of hydrogen-occluding silica microcluster (H2-Silica), which is a silsesquioxane-based compound with hydrogen interstitially embedded in a matrix of caged silica, against melanogenesis in HMV-II human melanoma cells and L-DOPA-tyrosinase reaction [EC1.14.18.1]. HMV-II cells were subjected to oxidative stress by ultraviolet ray-A (UVA) exposure of 3-times of 0.65 J/cm2 summed up to 1.95 J/cm2. After UVA irradiation, HMV-II cells were stimulated to produce melanin by 2.72-fold more abundantly than unirradiated control. When HMV-II cells were treated with H2-Silica of 20 ppm or kojic acid of 28.4 ppm before and after UVA-irradiation, the amount of melanin was repressed to 12.2% or 14.5% as compared to that of UVA-irradiated control, respectively. That is, H2-Silica exhibited a comparable efficacy to the whitening agent kojic acid. The H2-Silica could prevent melanogenesis in HMV-II cells by low-level doses at 1-10 ppm, and cell viability and apoptosis event did not change even by high-level doses at 100-1000 ppm. On the contrary, kojic acid was cytotoxic at the concentration of 14-28 ppm or more. By microscopic observation, H2-Silica suppressed such properties indicative of melanin-rich cells as cellular hypertrophy, cell process formation, and melanogenesis around the outside of nuclei. The enzymatic assay using L-DOPA and mushroom tyrosinase demonstrated that H2-Silica restrained UVA-mediated melanin formation owing to down-regulation of tyrosinase activity, which could be attributed to scavenging of free radicals and inhibition of L-DOPA-to-dopachrome oxidation by hydrogen released from H2-Silica. Thus H2-Silica has a potential to prevent melanin production against UVA and serves as a skin-lightening ingredient for supplements or cosmetics.

  1. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  2. Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-10-21

    The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can

  3. Too much salt and how we can get rid of it.

    PubMed

    Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Blasche, Gerhard; Dorner, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Humans evolved on potassium-rich diets containing only small amounts of sodium. Nowadays, sodium intake considerably exceeds potassium intake. However, from the evolutionary point of view we are not accustomed to such high salt (sodium chloride) ingestion. The consequences of a high dietary salt intake are primarily elevated blood pressure with a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, but also a higher probability of developing kidney diseases and stomach cancer. High sodium consumption is favored by an extremely 'salty' environment, where palatable salty food is frequently available promoting a dietary salt overload of the human body. To efficiently achieve a consistent reduction in dietary salt intake, sodium content of food should be reduced and eating behavior modified. This review covers both of these aspects, including the reasons why we are not 'programmed' to cope with high salt loads, the clinical consequences of a high salt consumption and the possibilities of reducing dietary salt intake and getting rid of the 'salty' environment.

  4. Understanding potential futures of riverine chloride impairment in New England USA due to climate change, groundwater storage, and human activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, S.; Thorn, A.; Wollheim, W. M.; Wake, C. P.; Mineau, M.

    2015-12-01

    Road salt impairment may threaten future potability of urban water resources and stress aquatic life throughout snowy temperate watersheds. We contrast scenarios to project chloride flux, storage, and impairment throughout the Merrimack R. watershed, NH/MA, USA using the river-network scale Non-point Anthropogenic Chloride Loading (NACL) model, built within the Framework for Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System (FrAMES). NACL simulates five chloride sources and represents long-term subsurface storage as mobile-immobile exchange at the catchment (grid-cell) scale. Tested scenarios that contrast major drivers include: road salt application rates (current recommendations versus recent inventories); groundwater storage uncertainty (low versus high storage effect); development (dispersed versus urban infilling) and future climate (low [B1] versus high [A1FI] carbon emission scenarios). Simulations that reduce road salt application rates to recommended levels significantly reduce threshold-dependent impaired river length from 20 to 5% within a few years, driven by flushing from headwater catchments. Concentrations downstream, however, decrease modestly and lag the change in loading because of chloride released slowly from groundwater storage. The scenarios suggest best practices and urban infill can mitigate legacy chloride contamination over a few decades. Conversely, dispersed development increases the near-term extent of threshold impaired river length, but downstream concentrations rise slowly as chloride concentrations increase in previously pristine groundwater pools. A warming climate plays a small role until late in the century when reduced snowfall from high emissions scenarios requires less road salting. Reducing road salt use is necessary to mitigate chloride impairment, but expectations and monitoring programs should acknowledge that achieving reasonable water quality goals will take years.

  5. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  6. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  7. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food... subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium compounds consisting primarily...

  8. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-93-5) may be safely used in food in... cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The additive is used as follows: (1) As a fine mist spray of an ambient...

  9. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS... (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08... hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed...

  17. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  18. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  19. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  20. Chlorate salts and solutions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.; Berget, Deanna J.; Adams, Robert D.

    2012-04-01

    Chlorate (ClO3-) is an intermediate oxidation species between chloride (Cl-) and perchlorate (ClO4-), both of which were found at the landing site by the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL). The chlorate ion is almost as stable as perchlorate, and appears to be associated with perchlorate in most terrestrial reservoirs (e.g. Atacama and Antarctica). It is possible that chlorate contributed to the ion sensor response on the WCL, yet was masked by the strong perchlorate signal. However, very little is known about chlorate salts and their effect on the stability of water. We performed evaporation rate experiments in our Mars simulation chamber, which enabled us to determine the activity of water for various concentrations. From this we constructed solubility diagrams for NaClO3, KClO3, Mg(ClO3)2 and Ca(ClO3)2, and determined the Pitzer parameters for each salt. Chlorate salt eutectic temperatures range from 270 K (KClO3) to 204 K (Mg(ClO3)2). Modeling the addition of chlorate to the initial WCL solutions shows that it precipitates in concentrations comparable to other common salts, such as gypsum and epsomite, and implies that chlorates may play an important role in the wet chemistry on Mars.