Science.gov

Sample records for chlorination environmental impact

  1. Impacts of Water Chlorination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    To learn the consequences of one aspect of technology on man and his surroundings, scientists meeting at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discussed what is known about the impacts of water chlorination. The conference produced state-of-the-art information about the technology and attempted to summarize all the information on the subject. (BT)

  2. Environmental impact assessment of chlorine in liquid crystal display glass (LCDG) based on material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kensuke; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-12-15

    Liquid crystal display glass (LCDG) may contain chlorine in trace amounts to attain some of its special properties. LCDG is primarily manufactured by glass companies, which then supply the electronic industry for utilization in the manufacture of items such as televisions, computer monitors, etc. In order to be seen as environmentally friendly, some electronic companies that utilize LCDG request that glass companies eliminate halogens such as chlorine from LCDG. The issue of halogens in products is often associated with dioxin-like problems. By using halogen-free LCDG in their manufacturing process, electronic companies aim to enhance their eco-friendly branding. Nevertheless, the real gains in terms of environmental improvement are yet to be assessed. In this study, we discussed the effectiveness of reducing or eliminating chlorine in electrical and electronic products on a scientific basis, by carrying out a quantitative assessment of cancer risk posed by potential emissions of dioxins when discarded LCDG is incinerated. The results indicate that the maximum increase of individual lifetime cancer risk is 3.2 × 10(-10). This level of cancer risk is negligible. Consequently, we suggest that there is no need to introduce stricter standards for chlorine content in LCDG, from the viewpoint of potential dioxin formation. PMID:22947227

  3. Water chlorination: An enigma for modern-day environmental chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Jolley, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of modern-day water chlorination is to reap the benefits of chlorine's excellent disinfection efficacy while minimizing its environmental impacts and byproduct toxicity. Chemists, biologists, and engineers need to work together to identify, quantify, and use most effectively the disinfectant forms of chlorine to maximize disinfection, while at the same time they also need to identify, quantify, and minimize the toxic forms of by-products produced by chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds found in water. To the extent that this is possible, we can enjoy the benefits of chlorine disinfection and minimize the human and environmental impacts of chlorination by-products. 22 refs.

  4. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  5. Impacts of water quality on chlorine and chlorine dioxide efficacy in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Benoit; Desjardins, Raymond; Mysore, Chandra; Prévost, Michele

    2005-05-01

    The impact of disinfection efficacy in natural waters was evaluated by performing disinfection assays using four untreated surface waters of various qualities and ultra-pure buffered waters as a baseline condition for comparison. Bacillus subtilis spores were spiked in these waters and disinfection assays were conducted at 22 degrees C using either free chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Assays using indigenous aerobic spores were also completed. The inactivation kinetics in natural and ultra-pure buffered waters were not statistically different (at p = 0.05) while using free chlorine, as long as disinfectant decay was taken into account. Filtering natural waters through a 0.45 microm did not improve the sporicidal efficacy of chlorine. For three out of the four waters tested, the efficacy of chlorine dioxide was greater in natural waters compared to that observed in ultra-pure buffered waters. Such results are consistent with previous observations using ultra-pure waters supplemented with NOM-extract from the Suwannee River. Similar to free chlorine results, the impact of filtration (0.45 microm) on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide was not statistically significant.

  6. Environmental availability of chlorinated organics, explosives, and metals in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.C.; Loehr, R.C.; Smith, B.P.

    1999-08-01

    Environmental availability is key to defining the extent of remediation required. Nationally recognized experts summarize what is known about the environmental availability of chlorinated organics (Perry McCarty), explosives (Judith Pennington), and metals (Rufus Chaney). It also summarizes the current use of environmental availability to set cleanup goals for petroleum hydrocarbons and identifies essential research needed to expand the knowledge base for environmental availability.

  7. Environmental distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Emmi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the concentration of PCB's and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Susquehanna River Basin sediments was performed on samples collected from New York and Pennsylvania in 1976-1979. Highest concentrations were found for PCB's, with median and range of 38 and 13-524 ng/g, respectively. Pesticides had median concentrations ranging from approx.1 ng/g for DDT, DDD, and DDE, to less than 0.1 ng/g for aldrin and dieldrin. Highest concentrations generally were found downstream from industrial centers. Concentrations of PCB's and pesticides were also determined for soil composites collected from six areas of the basin. For several pollutants, the highest levels were found in the Pennsylvania areas, especially the Conestoga River Basin site. The PCB levels were the same (approx.35 ng/g) in all New York soil composites; this was consistent with concentrations predicted from known atmospheric deposition data. Adsorption of atrazine and simazine on model substrates was stuided to elucidate the partitioning of these herbicides on river sediments. Clean sea sand had little affinity for these compounds. Adsorption on illite clay and humic acid-coated sea sand gave relatively large K/sub p/ and K/sub oc/ values compared to the values for river sediments, suggesting that the nature of the sites available for absorbing organic molecules needs further study.

  8. Impact of water quality on chlorine demand of corroding copper.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Liggett, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect against waterborne pathogens such as Legionella is particularly challenging since copper and other reactive distribution system materials can exert considerable demands. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the consumption of free chlorine associated with corroding copper pipes over time. A copper test-loop pilot system was used to control test conditions and systematically meet the study objectives. Chlorine consumption trends attributed to abiotic reactions with copper over time were different for each pH condition tested, and the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs increased with increasing pH. Orthophosphate eliminated chlorine consumption trends with elapsed time (i.e., chlorine demand was consistent across entire test runs). Orthophosphate also greatly reduced the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs. Interestingly, the total amount of chlorine consumed and the consumption rate were not pH dependent when orthophosphate was present. The findings reflect the complex and competing reactions at the copper pipe wall including corrosion, oxidation of Cu(I) minerals and ions, and possible oxidation of Cu(II) minerals, and the change in chlorine species all as a function of pH. The work has practical applications for maintaining chlorine residuals in premise plumbing drinking water systems including large buildings such as hospitals. PMID:26826646

  9. Chlorine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine ; CASRN 7782 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  10. Chlorine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical chlorine, produced in small quantities in the laboratory, is presented. The profile summarizes physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  11. Chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith

    2009-01-01

    Following a brief description of the use of chlorine as a chemical warfare agent in World War I, this chapter summarizes physical and chemical data and recent clinical and controlled laboratory studies on the irritant and lethal effects of chlorine. The mechanism of toxicity for both irritation and lethal effects is described. The mathematical relationship between concentration and exposure duration for a set endpoint is given for both an irritancy response and mortality. This information can be used to assist in time-scaling for the set endpoint to other exposure durations. Risk assessment addresses the potential for greater effects in sensitive populations such as asthmatics. A concentration of 0.5 ppm for up to 8 hours is a no-adverse-effect concentration in most sensitive subjects; whereas, a concentration of 1.0 ppm induces some sensory irritation and transient changes in respiratory tract airflow parameters. Treatment and intervention of exposed individuals is dependent upon symptoms

  12. In situ thermal desorption of soils impacted with chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Stegemeier, G.L.; Carl, F.G.; Stevenson, J.D.; Dudley, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) has been demonstrated to remove high concentrations of chlorinated solvents such as PCE and TCE even from tight clay soils. ISTD applies heat and vacuum simultaneously to subsurface soils using thermal blankets for shallow contaminants (less than 2 ft depth) and thermal wells for deeper contamination. The ISTD process possesses a high removal efficiency because the narrow range of soil thermal conductivities provides excellent sweep efficiency and because its high operating temperature increases soil permeabilities and achieves complete displacement efficiency of contaminants in the gas phase. The first full scale commercial application of the ISTD well technology is described in detail for a site in Portland, Indiana, where silty clay soil was impacted with chlorinated solvents.

  13. FATE OF PHARMACEUTICALS: EFFECTS OF CHLORINATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERSISTENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in environmental waters has become an area of concern around the world. To maximize the impact of occurrence studies, pre-screening can help determine which compounds are likely to survive waste water treatment, as well as what by-products are for...

  14. Environmental assessment before and after conversion of a kraft mill to elemental-chlorine-free bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Deardorff, T.L.; Renard, J.J.; Phillips, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    As part of our continuing efforts to understand the potential impact of biologically treated effluents to the aquatic ecosystem, we critically examined several environmental parameters before and after the conversion to elemental-chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching at a kraft pulp and paper mill. The study involved evaluation of filtrates, pulps, sludges, and wastewater treatment within the mill and an integrated field study of the receiving stream, which included comprehensive water and sediment toxicity testing, benthic community evaluations, fish health testing, and physicochemical and biological parameters of water quality. Following ECF conversion, no detectable levels of 2,3,7,8-dioxin or polychlorinated phenolic compounds at the bleach plant and no indications of detrimental impacts to the ecosystem from the effluent were found.

  15. The Environmental Impact Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchell, Robert W.; Listokin, David

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 requires an environmental impact statement for any major federal action affecting the human environment. Now many state and local governments require impact statements from state agencies or private agencies. This handbook presents a standardized approach to the development and implementation of…

  16. Environmental Impact Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Reuel Henry

    The paper explores the role of geographers in preparing environmental impact statements (EISs). In 1969 the National Environmental Policy Act mandated that an EIS be prepared for every legislative proposal that significantly affects the environmental quality. EISs must be prepared by interdisciplinary teams representing natural and social sciences…

  17. Bioremediation of soils impacted by chlorinated pesticides/herbicides and nitroaromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Seech, A.G.; Bucens, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorinated pesticide and herbicide manufacturing and application, coupled with the long natural half-lives of these compounds, has resulted in many incidents of soil contamination throughout the world. Soils impacted by nitroaromatics such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), due largely to past military activities, are also common. The potential environmental and human health risks are spawning development of various technologies to remediate these impacted soils. Bench-scale microcosm studies using four North American soils, containing (1) Metolachlor, (2) 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, (3) chlorinated pesticides (including DDT, DDD, DDE and toxaphene) and (4) TNT, were conducted. The most effective approach involved successive establishment of anoxic and oxic conditions in the soil. The anoxic/oxic cycling process, controlled by the addition of Daramend organic amendments and other agents, enhances reductive decomposition of soil contaminants (in the anoxic phase) and contaminant mineralization (in the oxic phase). Substantial reductions in contaminant concentrations have been observed. Metolachlor concentrations have been reduced from 139 to 4 mg/kg, p,p-DDT from 684 to 2 mg/kg, toxaphene from 1,045 to 244 mg/kg and TNT from 7,200 to 19 mg/kg, all in under 190 days. A patent on this technology has been granted.

  18. Environmental Impact Statements Defended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a government report that claims that government decision making has improved since federal agencies have been required to submit any proposed action in the form of an environmental impact statement for comments by the public and other agencies. (MLH)

  19. Environmental impact report (draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  20. Assessing the impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on metropolitan groundwater resources.

    PubMed

    Brusseau, Mark L; Narter, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. A majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on metropolitan water resources was assessed for Tucson, Arizona, by comparing the aggregate volume of extracted groundwater for all pump-and-treat systems associated with contaminated sites in the region to the total regional groundwater withdrawal. The analysis revealed that the aggregate volume of groundwater withdrawn for the pump-and-treat systems operating in Tucson, all of which are located at chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites, was 20% of the total groundwater withdrawal in the city for the study period. The treated groundwater was used primarily for direct delivery to local water supply systems or for reinjection as part of the pump-and-treat system. The volume of the treated groundwater used for potable water represented approximately 13% of the total potable water supply sourced from groundwater, and approximately 6% of the total potable water supply. This case study illustrates the significant impact chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites can have on groundwater resources and regional potable water supplies.

  1. Impact of January 2005 Solar Proton Events on Chlorine Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damiani, A.; Funke, B.; Marsh, D. R.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Wang, S.; Jackman, C. H.; von Clarmann, T.; Gardini, A.; Cordero, R. R.; Storini, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden changes in stratospheric chlorine species in the polar northern atmosphere, caused by the Solar Proton Events (SPEs) of 17 and 20 January 2005, have been investigated and compared with version 4 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). We used Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements to monitor the variability of ClO, HCl, HOCl and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounder (MIPAS) on ENVISAT to retrieve ClONO2. SPE-induced chlorine activation has been identified. HCl decrease occurred at nearly all the investigated altitudes with the lowest values (of less than 0.25 ppbv) on 21 January. HOCl was found to be the main active chlorine species under nighttime conditions (with increases of more than 0.2 ppbv) whereas both HOCL and CLO enhancements (about 0.1 ppbv) have been observed at the polar night terminator. Further, small ClO decreases (of less than 0.1 ppbv) and ClONO2 enhancements (0.2 ppbv) have been observed at higher latitudes (i.e., at nighttime) roughly above 2hPa. While WACCM4 reproduces most of the SPE-induced variability in the chlorine species fairly well, in some particular regions discrepancies between the modeled and measured temporal evolution of the abundances of chlorine species were found. HOCl changes are modelled very well with respect to both magnitude and geographic distribution. ClO decreases are reproduced at high latitudes, whereas ClO enhancements in the terminator region are underestimated and attributed to background variations. WACCM4 also reproduces the HCl depletion in the mesosphere but it does not show the observed decrease below about 2 hPa. Finally, WACCM4 simulations indicate that the observed ClONO2 increase is dominated by background variability, although SPE-induced production might contribute by 0.1 ppbv.

  2. Impact of January 2005 Solar Proton Events on Chlorine Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damiani, A.; Funke, B.; Marsh, D. R.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Wang, S.; Jackman, C. H.; vonClarmann, T.; Gardini, A.; Cordero, R. R.; Storini, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sudden changes in stratospheric chlorine species in the polar northern atmosphere, caused by the Solar Proton Events (SPEs) of 17 and 20 January 2005, have been investigated and compared with version 4 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). We used Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements to monitor the variability of ClO, HCl, HOCl and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounder (MIPAS) on ENVISAT to retrieve ClONO2. SPE-induced chlorine activation has been identified. HCl decrease occurred at nearly all the investigated altitudes (i.e., 10-0.5 hPa) with the strongest decrease (of about 0.25 ppbv) on 21 January. HOCl was found to be the main active chlorine species under nighttime conditions (with increases of more than 0.2 ppbv) whereas both HOCl and ClO enhancements (about 0.1 ppbv) have been observed at the polar night terminator. Further, small ClO decreases (of less than 0.1 ppbv) and ClONO2 enhancements (about 0.2 ppbv) have been observed at higher latitudes (i.e., at nighttime) roughly above 2 hPa. While WACCM4 reproduces most of the SPE-induced variability in the chlorine species fairly well, in some particular regions discrepancies between the modeled and measured temporal evolution of the abundances of chlorine species were found. HOCl changes are modelled very well with respect to both magnitude and geographic distribution. ClO decreases are reproduced at high latitudes, whereas ClO enhancements in the terminator region are underestimated and attributed to background variations. WACCM4 also reproduces the HCl depletion in the mesosphere but it does not show the observed decrease below about 2 hPa. Finally, WACCM4 simulations indicate that the observed ClONO2 increase is dominated by background variability, although SPE-induced production might contribute by 0.1 ppbv.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

  4. Transformation of graphene oxide by chlorination and chloramination: Implications for environmental transport and fate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Yang, Nan; Du, Tingting; Wang, Xinzhe; Chen, Wei

    2016-10-15

    The rapidly increasing and widespread use of graphene oxide (GO) calls for immediate attention on the environmental fate of this material. To date, very little is known about the environmental transformation of GO. This study explored the changes of physicochemical properties of GO from chlorination and chloramination, which simulated the reactions occurring in water and wastewater treatment systems. Significant changes of GO surface O-functionalities occurred and scrolling of graphene sheets (those of very large sizes) were observed upon the treatments. Chloroform, a byproduct from chlorination was also detected, indicating the ring-opening on the edge of GO nanosheets. The changes of GO surface O-functionalities were attributable to the oxidation of quinone groups of GO by chlorine or chloramine. The scrolling of large-sized GO sheets may be attributable to the destruction of benzene rings at the edge of the GO. The results of membrane filtration experiments and column transport experiments indicated that chlorination and chloramination enhanced the mobility and transport of GO, likely by increasing the colloidal stability and inhibiting the agglomeration of GO nanosheets. The findings of this study further underline the significant implications of GO transformation on the fate and transport of this new nanomaterial. PMID:27494697

  5. Transformation of graphene oxide by chlorination and chloramination: Implications for environmental transport and fate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Yang, Nan; Du, Tingting; Wang, Xinzhe; Chen, Wei

    2016-10-15

    The rapidly increasing and widespread use of graphene oxide (GO) calls for immediate attention on the environmental fate of this material. To date, very little is known about the environmental transformation of GO. This study explored the changes of physicochemical properties of GO from chlorination and chloramination, which simulated the reactions occurring in water and wastewater treatment systems. Significant changes of GO surface O-functionalities occurred and scrolling of graphene sheets (those of very large sizes) were observed upon the treatments. Chloroform, a byproduct from chlorination was also detected, indicating the ring-opening on the edge of GO nanosheets. The changes of GO surface O-functionalities were attributable to the oxidation of quinone groups of GO by chlorine or chloramine. The scrolling of large-sized GO sheets may be attributable to the destruction of benzene rings at the edge of the GO. The results of membrane filtration experiments and column transport experiments indicated that chlorination and chloramination enhanced the mobility and transport of GO, likely by increasing the colloidal stability and inhibiting the agglomeration of GO nanosheets. The findings of this study further underline the significant implications of GO transformation on the fate and transport of this new nanomaterial.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental standard reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Poster, D.L.; Schantz, M.M.; Parris, R.M.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Wise, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Natural matrix environmental sample SRMs have been developed the Analytical Chemistry Division to assist in validating measurements for organic contaminants in the environment. Many of these are well characterized for contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). SRM 1649, Organics in Urban Dust, is currently available with certified concentrations for 5 PAHs but because of the widespread use of this material in air pollution monitoring programs and to expand the usefulness of this material, the authors are further characterizing the material for a larger number of PAHs as well as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. They will also soon issue a diesel particulate extract (SRM 1975) that is well characterized for PAHS, including many nitrogen substituted compounds. In addition to natural matrix materials, solutions useful for calibrating chromatographic detector response factors and retention times, and spiking sample blanks for determination of analyte recoveries, are also available. Solution SRMs currently available contain PCS congeners, chlorinated pesticides, and PAHs. New solution SRMs in preparation will contain additional chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners (e.g., non-ortho substituted chlorobiphenyls), and perdeuterated PAHs. Recent SRM work will be presented with particular attention on the methods used for determining organic contaminant concentrations in the urban dust material and in the diesel particulate extract.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  8. Rock blasting environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Agreda, C.

    1995-12-31

    The rock blasting environmental impacts such as: flyrock, ground vibrations, air-blast, and/or noise, dust and fumes are identified and mentioned. Some comments on the correction factors that might be taken into consideration to calculate the initial velocity and the maximum projection of the rock fragments are mentioned as well. The blast fumes causes, its alleviation and protective measures are identified, described and discussed. To mitigate, minimize and/or avoid blast fumes, the AN/FO, Al/AN/FO and S/AN/FO dry blasting agents optimum equations are developed, discussed and recommended.

  9. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Cromeans, Theresa L.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Humphrey, Charles D.; Hill, Vincent R.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water. PMID:26910058

  10. The impact of high level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological impact of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10 fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated pre-chill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine treate...

  11. Impact of groundwater surface storage on chlorination and disinfection by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Padhi, R K; Satpathy, K K; Subramanian, S

    2015-09-01

    The change in water quality arising from the open storage of groundwater (GW) and its impact on chlorination and chlorination by-product formation were investigated. Water quality descriptors, such as temperature, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen contents of GW undergo substantial alteration when stored in a reservoir. Dissolved organic content (DOC) measured in the two water sources studied, i.e., GW and open reservoir water (RW), varied from 0.41 mg/L to 0.95 mg/L and 0.93 mg/L to 2.53 mg/L, respectively. Although DOC demonstrated wide variation, UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254) values for GW (0.022-0.067) and RW (0.037-0.077) did not display reciprocal variations. The chlorine demand (CD) of RW was always higher than that of GW for the corresponding sampling period. Average trihalomethane (THM) formation for RW was 50-80% higher compared to GW and thus poses an enhanced health risk. Appreciable amounts of bromide present in these water sources (0.15-0.26 mg/L in GW and 0.17-0.65 mg/L in RW) have resulted in the non-selective distribution of the four THM species. The formation of more toxic brominated THM due to chlorination of these near-coast drinking water sources must be regarded as a decisive factor for the choice of water disinfection regime.

  12. Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) for chlorine and bromine: a review of techniques and applications to elucidate environmental sources and processes.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Pieri, Francesca; Zhang, Yuan; Seed, Mike; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    Chlorinated and brominated compounds belong to the class of organohalogen compounds that have received attention because of their widespread occurrence, use and applications. Understanding the sources and transformation processes of these contaminants in the environment enables assessment of their possible impact on humans and ecosystems. Recently new and innovative methods of Compound Specific Isotope Analysis have started to be applied to characterize the origin and fate of compounds, their breakdown products and degradation rates in different environmental compartments. Almost all studies have focussed on determination of isotopes of C and H, only recently new methodologies have been developed to measure isotopes of Cl and Br. This review firstly gives a brief description of chemistry properties and geochemical cycle of chlorine and bromine followed by a summary of their uses and applications. In the second section, an overview of CSIA techniques and new challenges and successful applications are also presented.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brochure is part of a series of information packages prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Aimed at the international community, the packages focus on key environmental and public health issues being investigated by EPA. The products highligh...

  14. Environmental impact statements. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, J.I.

    1999-11-01

    This book covers all the requirements for a wide variety of environmental impact statements (EISs) on the federal, state, and local levels, including a new chapter devoted to environmental justice. Topics of discussion include the following: purpose of the environment; the legal basis for environmental impact statements; the process of preparing EISs; public participation; the natural environment earth resources; the natural environment: biology; the Man-made environment: surface water, groundwater, air, noise, hazards and nuisances, historic and cultural resources, transportation, socio-economics and environmental justice.

  15. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  16. Evaluating the Sustained Health Impact of Household Chlorination of Drinking Water in Rural Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Harshfield, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele; Turbes, Anna; Null, Clair

    2012-01-01

    The Jolivert Safe Water for Families program has sold sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine) and conducted household visits in rural Haiti since 2002. To assess the impact of the program on diarrheal disease, in 2010 we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 201 program participants and 425 control households selected at random. Fifty-six percent of participants (versus 10% of controls) had free chlorine residuals between 0.2 and 2.0 mg/L, indicating correct water treatment. Using intention-to-treat analysis, we found that significantly fewer children < 5 in participant households had an episode of diarrhea in the previous 48 hours (32% versus 52%; P < 0.001) with 59% reduced odds (odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.21–0.79). Treatment-on-treated estimates of the odds of diarrhea indicated larger program effects for participants who met more stringent verifications of participation. Diarrheal disease reduction in this long-term program was comparable with that seen in short-term randomized, controlled interventions, suggesting that household chlorination can be an effective long-term water treatment strategy. PMID:22987657

  17. Combined remediation technologies: results from field trials at chlorinated solvent impacted sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Lomheim, L.; Boparai, H. K.; Weber, K.; Austrins, L. M.; Edwards, E.; Sleep, B.; de Boer, C. V.; Garcia, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are one class of waste liquids often generated from waste mixtures in industrial processes containing surfactants, chlorinated hydrocarbons and other compounds. Chlorinated solvents, a particularly persistent NAPL contaminant, frequently contaminate water sources for decades and are one of the more common contaminants at brownfield and industrialized sites. Although considerable advances in our understanding of the phenomena governing NAPL remediation have been made, and a number of innovative remediation technologies have been developed, existing technologies are rarely able to achieve clean up goals in contaminated aquifers at the completion of remedial activities. The development and pilot scale testing of new and innovative remediation technologies is, therefore, crucial to achieve clean up goals at contaminated sites. Our research group is currently investigating a number of innovative remediation technologies, either individually or as combined remedies. This includes the applicability of nanometals and ISCO (e.g., persulfate) for contaminated site remediation. These technologies can be combined with technologies to enhance amendment delivery (e.g., electrokinetics) or create conditions favorable for enhanced biotic contaminant degradation. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a number of field trials conducted at chlorinated solvent impacted sites by our group with a particular focus on combined remediation technologies.

  18. Role of plant biomass in the global environmental partitioning of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Calamari, D.; Morosini, M.; Vighi, M. ); Bacci, E.; Focardi, S.; Gaggi, C. )

    1991-08-01

    Plant biomass plays a significant role in the global environmental partitioning phenomena and plants are good indicators of tropospheric contamination levels by chlorinated hydrocarbons. In the present research 300 samples of plants were collected in 265 areas distributed worldwide and analyzed for HCB (hexachlorobenzene), {alpha}-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), {gamma}-HCH, p,p{prime}-DDT,o,p{prime}-DDT, and p,p{prime}-DDE (degradation product of DDT). Global HCB distribution is strongly dependent on the temperature, the HCB being present mainly in samples from cold areas. The sum of DDTs show higher concentrations in samples from topical areas, while the sum of HCHs is higher in the plants from the Northern Hemisphere. These results are discussed, taking into account the role of physicochemical properties in determining the global distribution as well as the air age of the contamination.

  19. The Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    1991-01-01

    The impact of oil spills and oil fires in the Persian Gulf is discussed. Activities to be done in the classroom that simulate oil spills are presented. Sample discussion questions and direction for the activities are included. (KR)

  20. Water chlorination Vol. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Bull, R.J.; Davis, W.P.; Katz, S.; Roberts, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes the significant original contributions in the field of water chlorination of the last three years. It includes chlorination research, developments and alternatives. Issues covered include: water chlorination; risk; epidemiology; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects; toxicology of disinfectants; aquatic models and tumor induction; environmental effects; disinfection; reaction dynamics; chemical methods; drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment.

  1. Modelling the impact of chlorine and bromine emissions from large Plinian eruptions on ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenna, Hans; Krüger, Kirstin; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Large Plinian volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of atmosphere-relevant gases (e.g. S, Cl, Br) and materials into the stratosphere. If the eruption occurs in the tropics, it can have a global impact due to the dispersal through the large scale meridional overturning circulation. Most climate model studies concentrate on the sulfate aerosol effects on climate. In contrast, ozone-depletion initiated by volcanic halogens from tropical eruptions was believed to play an insignificant role for the global atmosphere, based on observations from the recent El Chichon and Pinatubo eruptions. New results regarding the halogen release by Plinian eruptions, as well as recent volcanic plume observations and model simulations facilitate now our investigation into what effect the combined chlorine and bromine emissions from large tropical eruptions have on ozone and the atmosphere in general. A complete halogen data set for the last 200 ka (Kutterolf et al., 2015), derived by the petrological method from paleo-eruptions of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), are used to force simulations with the advanced chemistry climate model WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). The goal is to quantify the impact of volcanic halogens on the preindustrial atmosphere when the background chlorine levels were low compared to the present day with the main focus on stratospheric ozone. We carried out 5 model simulations assuming that 10% of the Cl and Br (9.51e+6 kg Br and 2.93e+9 kg Cl) emitted from the average CAVA eruption is injected into the tropical stratosphere during January. The model response reveals a global impact on the ozone layer affecting via radiation also atmospheric dynamics for more than 5 years. Given the current decline in anthropogenic chlorine, the results will become relevant for future halogen-rich explosive eruptions in the tropics. References: Kutterolf, S., T. Hansteen, A. Freundt, H. Wehrmann, K. Appel, K. Krüger, and W. Pérez (2015), Bromine

  2. The impact of chlorinated solvent co-contaminants on the biodegradation kinetics of 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Shaily; Grostern, Ariel; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    1,4-Dioxane (dioxane), a probable human carcinogen, is used as a solvent stabilizer for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and other chlorinated solvents. Consequently, TCA and its abiotic breakdown product 1,1-dichloroethene (DCE) are common co-contaminants of dioxane in groundwater. The aerobic degradation of dioxane by microorganisms has been demonstrated in laboratory studies, but the potential effects of environmentally relevant chlorinated solvent co-contaminants on dioxane biodegradation have not yet been investigated. This work evaluated the effects of TCA and DCE on the transformation of dioxane by dioxane-metabolizing strain Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190, dioxane co-metabolizing strain Pseudonomas mendocina KR1, as well as Escherichia coli expressing the toluene monooxygenase of strain KR1. In all experiments, both TCA and DCE inhibited the degradation of dioxane at the tested concentrations. The inhibition was not competitive and was reversible for strain CB1190, which did not transform the chlorinated solvents. For both strain KR1 and toluene monooxygenase-expressing E. coli, inhibition of dioxane degradation by chlorinated solvents was competitive and irreversible, and the chlorinated solvents were degraded concurrently with dioxane. These data suggest that the strategies for biostimulation or bioaugmentation of dioxane will need to consider the presence of chlorinated solvents during site remediation.

  3. [Impacts of suspended solids on "tailing" phenomenon in disinfection of sewage with chlorine].

    PubMed

    Lang, Yong-Me; Liu, Chao-Bin; Yu, Yong-Zhen; Qian, Yu-Jia; Zhang, Li; Liu, Wei

    2010-06-01

    The impacts of suspended solids in secondary effluent on "tailing" phenomenon in disinfection of E. coli with chlorine were investigated using kinetic disinfection curves. Higher SS concentration led to earlier beginning of "tailing" region with lower inactivation level. Comparison between lg-lg regression analyses of disinfection curves demonstrated that the SS concentration correlated with overall inactivation rate, which decreased by 10 times while SS concentration increased from 6 to 85 mg/L. The results of segmental modeling of disinfection curves showed that the SS concentration (at a range of 10-55 mg/L) correlated with the starting time of "tailing" region as well as the log-kill at the starting point of tailing region (R2 > 0.99). The starting time was shortened from 330 min to 55 min, and the log-kill dropped from 5.8 down to 0.8 with SS concentration increasing. Better removal of SS will improve the lg-kill of E. coli at tailing region and the inactivation rate, resulting in lower cost of construction and running. In addition, higher chlorine dosage and lower pH value could slightly enhance the log-kill in the "tailing" region.

  4. Lack of enhanced effect of a chlorine dioxide-based cleaning regimen on environmental contamination with Clostridium difficile spores.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, S D; Patel, A; Tucker, D; French, G L

    2012-09-01

    Spores of Clostridium difficile may play a significant role in transmission of disease within the healthcare environment and are resistant to a variety of detergents and cleaning fluids. A range of environmental cleaning agents has recently become available, many of which claim to be sporicidal. We investigated the effect of changing to a chlorine dioxide-based cleaning regimen on C. difficile environmental contamination and patient infection rates. The prevalence of environmental contamination was unaffected with a rate of 8% (9/120) before and 8% (17/212) following the change. Rates of patient infection were also unchanged during these periods.

  5. Temporal variations in natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in eutrophic river sediments impacted by a contaminated groundwater plume.

    PubMed

    Hamonts, Kelly; Kuhn, Thomas; Vos, Johan; Maesen, Miranda; Kalka, Harald; Smidt, Hauke; Springael, Dirk; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Dejonghe, Winnie

    2012-04-15

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. Biotransformation, sorption and dilution of CAHs in the impacted river sediments have been reported to reduce discharge, but the effect of temporal variations in environmental conditions on the occurrence and extent of those processes in river sediments is largely unknown. We monitored the reduction of CAH discharge into the Zenne River during a 21-month period. Despite a relatively stable influx of CAHs from the groundwater, the total reduction in CAH discharge from 120 to 20 cm depth in the river sediments, on average 74 ± 21%, showed moderate to large temporal variations, depending on the riverbed location. High organic carbon and anaerobic conditions in the river sediments allowed microbial reductive dechlorination of both chlorinated ethenes and chlorinated ethanes. δ(13)C values of the CAHs showed that this biotransformation was remarkably stable over time, despite fluctuating pore water temperatures. Daughter products of the CAHs, however, were not detected in stoichiometric amounts and suggested the co-occurrence of a physical process reducing the concentrations of CAHs in the riverbed. This process was the main process causing temporal variations in natural attenuation of the CAHs and was most likely dilution by surface water-mixing. However, higher spatial resolution monitoring of flow transients in the riverbed is required to prove dilution contributions due to dynamic surface water-groundwater flow exchanges. δ(13)C values and a site-specific isotope enrichment factor for reductive dechlorination of the main groundwater pollutant vinyl chloride (VC) allowed assessment of changes over time in the extent of both biotransformation and dilution of VC for different scenarios in which those processes either occurred consecutively or simultaneously between 120 and 20 cm depth in the riverbed. The extent of reductive dechlorination of VC ranged from 27

  6. Environmental impact of wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J.; Teilmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied.

  7. Using Chemical Release Surveillance Data to Evaluate the Public Health Impacts of Chlorine and Its Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Anderson, Ayana; Welles, Wanda Lizak

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 80 million Americans may be at risk of a chemical exposure because they live near one of the 101 most hazardous chemical facilities or near routes used to transport hazardous chemicals. One approach to hazard reduction is to use less toxic alternatives. Chlorine, one of the chemicals posing the greatest public health danger, has several alternatives depending on the application. Methods We analyzed data collected during 1993–2008 by 17 state health departments participating in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s (ATSDR) active chemical incident surveillance program. We conducted descriptive analyses to evaluate whether five chlorine alternatives (calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chlorate, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium hypochlorite) resulted in less severe incidents. We used chi square and z-score analyses to test significance, where appropriate. Results During 1993–2008, 2040 incidents involved chlorine, and 1246 incidents involved chlorine alternatives. Nearly 30% of chlorine releases resulted in injured persons, as compared to 13% of chlorine alternatives that resulted in injury. Although similar proportions of persons injured in chlorine or chlorine alternative releases were treated on scene (18% and 14%, respectively) and at a hospital (58% and 60%, respectively), there was a greater proportion of hospital admissions following chlorine releases than there was following releases of chlorine alternatives (10 % vs. 4%) (p < 0.01). There were significantly fewer victims per release for hydrogen peroxide (0.2) than there were for chlorine (1.3) in paper manufacturing (p < 0.01). Conclusion Exposures to these five potential chlorine alternatives resulted in a lower proportion of exposed persons requiring hospital admission. To reduce acute public health injuries associated with chemical exposures, users should consider a chlorine alternative when such a substitution is reasonable. PMID:26290770

  8. [Coagulation and adsorption on treating the Yellow River and the impact on chlorine decay during chlorination process].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao; Gao, Bao-yu; Liu, Bin; Xu, Chun-hua; Yue, Qin-yan

    2010-05-01

    Two types of inorganic polymer coagulants, polyferric chloride (PFC) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), were chosen to treat the Yellow River water. Different dosages were investigated in order to investigate the turbidity, UV24, DOC and permanganate index removal efficiency and their coagulation mechanisms based on the Zeta potentials. The natural organic matter removal by the combination of coagulation and adsorption with powder activated carbon were analyzed based on different coagulant and adsorbent dosages and dosing orders. The effects of combination of coagulation and adsorption on the residual chlorine decay were analyzed. The results showed that the two coagulants had high turbidity removal efficiency ( > 90%). The UV254, DOC, permanganate index removal efficiency were 29.2%, 26.1% and 27.9% respectively for PAC coagulation and were 32.3%, 23.3% and 32.9% respectively for PFC. Electric neutralization played an important role in the PAC coagulation process while both adsorption bridging and electric neutralization performed when PFC was used. The removal percentage of organic matter increased with the increase coagulant and adsorbent. The adsorption after coagulation process gave the better UV254 and DOC removal efficiency than the coagulation after adsorption. The UV254 and DOC removal efficiency were 95.2% and 99.9% for PAC coagulation after adsorption and were 90.1% and 99.9% for PFC coagulation first. But adding powder activated carbon can improve floc settlement performance and maintained persistent disinfection effect.

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Chen, K.; Whiteside, M.; Mazzola, C.

    2011-05-10

    A train derailment occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning of January 6, 2005, and resulted in the release of a large amount of cryogenic pressurized liquid chlorine to the environment in a short time period. A comprehensive evaluation of the transport and fate of the released chlorine was performed, accounting for dilution, diffusion, transport and deposition into the local environment. This involved the characterization of a three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of local atmospheric mechanisms acting on the released chlorine, the establishment of atmospheric-hydrological physical exchange mechanisms, and aquatic dilution and mixing. This presentation will provide an overview of the models used in determining the total air-to-water mass transfer estimated to have occurred as a result of the roughly 60 tons of chlorine released into the atmosphere from the train derailment. The assumptions used in the modeling effort will be addressed, along with a comparison with available observational data to validate the model results. Overall, model-estimated chlorine concentrations in the airborne plume compare well with human and animal exposure data collected in the days after the derailment.

  10. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections.

  11. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections. PMID:25016450

  12. Impact of vegetation and ecosystems on chlorine(-36) cycling and its modeling: from simplified approaches towards more complex biogeochemical tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Yves; Redon, Paul-Olivier; Gustafsson, Malin; Marang, Laura; Bastviken, David

    2013-04-01

    Chlorine is very soluble at a global scale with chloride (Cl-), the dominating form. Because of its high mobility, chlorine is usually perceived as a good conservative tracer in hydrological studies and by analogy as little reactive in biosphere. Since 36Cl can be considered to have the same behaviour than stable Cl, a good knowledge of chlorine distribution between compartments of terrestrial ecosystems is sufficient to calibrate a specific activity model which supposes rapid dilution of 36Cl within the large pool of stable Cl and isotopic equilibrium between compartments. By assuming 36Cl redistribution similar to that of stable Cl at steady-state, specific activity models are simplified interesting tools for regulatory purposes in environmental safety assessment, especially in case of potential long term chronic contamination of agricultural food chain (IAEA, 2010). In many other more complex scenarios (accidental acute release, intermediate time frame, and contrasted natural ecosystems), new information and tools are necessary for improving (radio-)ecological realism, which entails a non-conservative behavior of chlorine. Indeed observed dynamics of chlorine in terrestrial ecosystems is far from a simple equilibrium notably because of natural processes of organic matter (SOM) chlorination mainly occurring in surface soils (Öberg, 1998) and mediated by microbial activities on a large extent (Bastviken et al. 2007). Our recent studies have strengthened the view that an organic cycle for chlorine should now be recognized, in addition to its inorganic cycle. Major results showed that: organochlorine (Clorg) formation occurs in all type of soils and ecosystems (culture, pasture, forest), leading to an average fraction of the total Cl pool in soil of about 80 % (Redon et al., 2012), chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Clorg pool and in turn to a possible high internal supply of inorganic chlorine (Clin) upon dechlorination. (Gustafsson et

  13. Theory and Practice of Environmental Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter F.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in California indicate that their effectiveness is directly related to the local political structure. Environmental planning is expected to improve as environmental impact reports gain more credence as an information base for city planners. The need for uniform impact guidelines are…

  14. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A

    2016-01-15

    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters.

  15. The impact of chlorine disinfection on biochemical oxygen demand levels in chemically enhanced primary treatment effluent.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ji; Jiang, Feng; Shang, Chii; Chau, Kwok-ming; Tse, Yuet-kar; Lee, Chi-fai; Chen, Guang-Hao; Fang, Jingyun; Zhai, Liming

    2013-01-01

    The response trends of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and organic strength after the chlorination/dechlorination process were explored through a 2-year, 5-month chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) effluent onsite monitoring program and a 2-month laboratory-scale study. The monitoring results showed that better instantaneous mixing at the chlorine injection point reduced the effect of chlorination/dechlorination on the 5-day BOD levels. The laboratory study results demonstrated that chlorination did not change the particle size distribution, dissolved organic carbon, or chemical oxygen demand of the organic content of the effluent. Nevertheless, chlorination/dechlorination strongly affected the BOD measurement when nitrification was inhibited by changing bioactivity/biodegradation rates. PMID:23863431

  16. Impact of chlorine on the cell integrity and toxin release and degradation of colonial Microcystis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiajia; Rao, La; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water sources is problematic for water authorities as they can impair drinking water quality. Chlorine as a commonly used oxidant in water treatment plants has shown the potential to lyse cyanobacterial cells, resulting in the release of secondary metabolites which are hard to be removed during conventional water treatment processes. The majority of cyanobacterial species such as Microcystis, often occur in colonial forms under natural conditions. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the influence of chlorination on individual cyanobacterial cells due to technique limitations. A syringe dispersion method combined with a fluorescence technique (SYTOX Green stain with flow cytometry), was successfully developed for the evaluation of cell integrity of colonial Microcystis. Chlorination of Microcystis-laden water was conducted at different chlorine dosages for different colonial sizes (<37, 37-270 and 270-550 μm). The results indicated that colonial Microcystis cells were more resistant to chlorine oxidation than individual cells, which may be attributed to protection from the cell-bound mucilage. There was a lag phase before cell rupture occurred and a Delayed Chick Watson Model describes the experimental data very well for the kinetics of cyanobacterial cell rupture. The growing colonial size caused increases in the lag phases but decreases in the cell lysis rates. Chlorination also induced the release of microcystins (MCs) from colonial Microcystis cells. In particular, increased levels of dissolved MCs were observed in Cheng Kung Lake (CKL) water. In summary, the reaction of chlorine with colonial cyanobacteria is more complicated than with individual cells. The efficiency of chlorine oxidation could be reduced by the cell-bound mucilage and natural water matrix. These observations may provide insights for water authorities to assess the risk to drinking water quality posed by chlorination under

  17. Impact of chlorinated disinfection on copper corrosion in hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, J. Castillo; Hamdani, F.; Creus, J.; Touzain, S.; Correc, O.

    2014-09-01

    In France, hot water quality control inside buildings is occasionally ensured by disinfection treatments using temperature increases or addition of sodium hypochlorite (between 0.5 ppm and 1 ppm residual free chlorine). This disinfectant is a strong oxidiser and it could interact with metallic pipes usually used in hot water systems. This work deals with the study of the impact of these treatments on the durability of copper pipes. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration and temperature on the copper corrosion mechanism. Copper samples were tested under dynamic and static conditions of ageing with sodium hypochlorite solutions ranging from 0 to 100 ppm with temperature at 50 °C and 70 °C. The efficiency of a corrosion inhibitor was investigated in dynamic conditions. Visual observations and analytical analyses of the internal surface of samples was studied at different ageing duration. Corrosion products were characterised by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Temperature and disinfectant were found to considerably affect the copper corrosion mechanism. Surprisingly, the corrosiveness of the solution was higher at lower temperatures. The temperature influences the nature of corrosion products. The protection efficiency is then strongly depend on the nature of the corrosion products formed at the surface of copper samples exposed to the aggressive solutions containing different concentration of disinfectant.

  18. Environmental Impact: Controlling the Overall Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westman, Walter E.; Gifford, Roger M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a rationing system designed to control environmental impact and degradation while maximizing personal choice. By assigning to every resource use and activity that causes environmental impact, a price in money-independent units (Natural Resource Units), a new system of environmental trade-offs can be established. (JR)

  19. Chemistry of saline-water chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.R.

    1981-06-01

    Vast quantities of natural waters are used by power plants for cooling purposes. This water is chlorinated to prevent slime build-up inside the cooling pipes, is circulated through the cooling system, and eventually discharged back into the water body. In order to assess the environmental impact of water chlorination, it is necessary to know what chemical compounds are produced and discharged into the receiving waters. To attack this problem, a review of the present state of knowledge of natural water chlorination chemistry was performed, and some experimental work explained the results of previous workers by showing that chlorine losses at very high doses in seawater are simply the result of chlorate and bromate formation which, however, is negligible at normal doses. The most important chlorine-produced oxidants, along with the relevant chemical reactions, were chosen as a basis for a kinetic model of saline water chlorination chemistry. Kinetic data were compiled in a computer program which simultaneously solves 24 differential equations, one for each species modelled. Estimates were made for the unknown rate constants. A purely predictive model was not possible due to the great variability in the organic demand; however, the model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions (except sunlight), and it provides a reasonably good description of a halamine chemistry under environmental conditions.

  20. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, disposition of Bureau of Mines... Impact Statement (EIS) for the disposition of the Bureau of Mines property, Twin Cities Research...

  1. Evaluating the environmental fate of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the Nordic environment using a dynamic multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Krogseth, Ingjerd S; Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) raise concerns due to their potential for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and adverse effects. An understanding of their environmental fate remains limited, partly due to the complexity of the mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a mechanistic, integrated, dynamic environmental fate and bioaccumulation multimedia model (CoZMoMAN) can reconcile what is known about environmental emissions and human exposure of SCCPs in the Nordic environment. Realistic SCCP emission scenarios, resolved by formula group, were estimated and used to predict the composition and concentrations of SCCPs in the environment and the human food chain. Emissions at the upper end of the estimated range resulted in predicted total concentrations that were often within a factor of 6 of observations. Similar model performance for a complex group of organic contaminants as for the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls strengthens the confidence in the CoZMoMAN model and implies a relatively good mechanistic understanding of the environmental fate of SCCPs. However, the degree of chlorination predicted for SCCPs in sediments, fish, and humans was higher than observed and poorly established environmental half-lives and biotransformation rate constants contributed to the uncertainties in the predicted composition and ∑SCCP concentrations. Improving prediction of the SCCP composition will also require better constrained estimates of the composition of SCCP emissions. There is, however, also large uncertainty and lack of coherence in the existing observations, and better model-measurement agreement will require improved analytical methods and more strategic sampling. More measurements of SCCP levels and compositions in samples from background regions are particularly important.

  2. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  3. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  4. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  5. Constructing Environmental Impact Statements. An Organizational Focus for Teaching Analytical Environmental Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libes, Susan M.

    1999-12-01

    Preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is the organizational focus for an undergraduate lab course in environmental chemistry. Students work collaboratively through the semester to prepare an EIS following National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines. This involves several stages of activity including a scoping process, field sampling, and laboratory analyses, modeling of the results to predict impacts, and report writing. To maximize student interest and make sampling practical, the proposed activity for which the EIS is prepared is locally based. Laboratory analyses are performed using the U.S. EPA's standard methods for turbidity, color, coliforms, nutrients, trace metals, alkalinity, petroleum hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. The completed EIS is defended in a mock public hearing at which students play assigned roles. In addition to requiring a high degree of group work, this approach emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of environmental chemistry and the difficulty of using scientific data to perform risk assessments. Preparation of an EIS is a federal or state requirement for many construction projects and hence students get a chance to experience a potential career area as well as acquire a marketable skill.

  6. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  7. Evaluation of biomarkers of environmental exposures: urinary haloacetic acids associated with ingestion of chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Haltmeier, P; Klotz, J B; Weisel, C P

    1999-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if DCAA and TCAA urinary excretion rates are valid biomarkers of chronic ingestion exposure to these disinfection by-products of chlorination of drinking water. Entire first morning urine voids, time-of-visit urine samples, and tap water samples were collected from 47 female subjects. In addition, a 48-h recall questionnaire was administered to determine the amounts and types of liquids ingested by each subject as well as other exposures that could lead to DCAA and TCAA urinary excretion. The TCAA excretion rate for the first morning urine samples was significantly correlated with the estimated 48-h TCAA ingestion exposure for 25 subjects whose ingestion exposures primarily occurred at home, while the DCAA excretion rate was not correlated with the DCAA ingestion exposure. Thus, urinary TCAA appears to be a valid biomarker of chronic ingestion exposure to TCAA from chlorinated water, while urinary DCAA is not. It is proposed that the difference in the biological half-lives between these two compounds is the rationale for this finding. The biological half-life of TCAA is longer than successive exposure intervals; thus TCAA accumulates until it reaches a steady state. The half-life of DCAA is shorter than successive exposure intervals; thus DCAA is almost completely metabolized following an exposure and is eliminated from the body. This study suggests that biological half-life, exposure interval, and sample collection interval should be considered in selecting biomarkers and designing studies to validate them.

  8. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through 08/02/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Comment Period Ends: 09/30/2013, Contact: Paul Stodola 904- 232-3271 Revision to FR Notice Published...

  9. Alaskan Environmental Impact Statements--A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Joseph J., Comp.

    This bibliography is an attempt at compiling and organizing a comprehensive list of Alaska environmental impact statements. Arrangement is by the main issuing or responsible agency and is then divided into sub-agencies. Several publications which are not official environmental impact statements, but of a similar nature, are also included. The…

  10. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  11. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. (a) The scoping process for an...

  12. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. (a) The scoping process for an...

  13. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. (a) The scoping process for an...

  14. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. (a) The scoping process for an...

  15. Determination of bromine, chlorine and iodine in environmental aqueous samples by epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D. J.; Braisted, J.; Panno, S.

    2006-01-01

    Halides, particularly Br- and Cl-, have been used as indicators of potential sources of Na+ and Cl- in surface water and groundwater with limited success. Contamination of groundwater and surface water by Na+ and Cl- is a common occurrence in growing urban areas and adversely affects municipal and private water supplies in Illinois and other states, as well as vegetation in environmentally sensitive areas. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be effectively used to determine these halogens, but often the elevated concentrations of sodium and chlorine in water samples can give rise to very high detection limits for bromine and iodine due to elevated backgrounds from the activation process. We present a detailed analytical scheme to determine Cl, Br and I in aqueous samples with widely varying Na and Cl concentrations using epithermal NAA in conjunction with Compton suppression. ?? 2006 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  16. Recent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A review.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Louise M; Leonards, Pim E G; Gaus, Caroline; de Boer, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about the high production volumes, persistency, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of chlorinated paraffin (CP) mixtures, especially short-chain CPs (SCCPs), are rising. However, information on their levels and fate in the environment is still insufficient, impeding international classifications and regulations. This knowledge gap is mainly due to the difficulties that arise with CP analysis, in particular the chromatographic separation within CPs and between CPs and other compounds. No fully validated routine analytical method is available yet and only semi-quantitative analysis is possible, although the number of studies reporting new and improved methods have rapidly increased since 2010. Better cleanup procedures that remove interfering compounds, and new instrumental techniques, which distinguish between medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and SCCPs, have been developed. While gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) remains the most commonly applied technique, novel and promising use of high resolution time of flight MS (TOF-MS) has also been reported. We expect that recent developments in high resolution TOF-MS and Orbitrap technologies will further improve the detection of CPs, including long-chain CPs (LCCPs), and the group separation and quantification of CP homologues. Also, new CP quantification methods have emerged, including the use of mathematical algorithms, multiple linear regression and principal component analysis. These quantification advancements are also reflected in considerably improved interlaboratory agreements since 2010. Analysis of lower chlorinated paraffins (

  17. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  18. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  19. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site.

  20. 78 FR 5837 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... plans to continue work on a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR... Water Reliability Study (SRWRS) was a water supply plan consistent with the Water Forum Agreement (April... (68 FR 44811). Dated: December 11, 2012. Anastasia T. Leigh, Regional Environmental Officer,...

  1. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants: chlorinated hydrocarbons in eggs of hens.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M K; Saxena, M C

    1983-12-15

    High concentrations of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues were detected by gas-liquid chromatography with an electron capture detector (3H), in eggs of hens collected from Lucknow under the pesticide monitoring programme. The present study reveals extremely high contamination of eggs, particularly with DDT and HCH residues. The eggs may be an important source of DDT and HCH build-up in the human body. Residue levels of p,p'-DDT and its metabolites p,p'-DDE and alpha, beta and gamma-isomers of HCH were higher in eggs of poultry-farm hens compared to those of domestic hens. Egg yolk contained higher levels compared with egg white, because of the lipophilic nature of pesticides and the high lipid content in the yolk. Average levels of total DDT and HCH residues in the yolk and white in the whole egg of a poultry-farm hen were found to be 18.5 and 4.6 micrograms respectively, whereas the average levels were 7.4 and 4.1 micrograms, respectively, in the whole egg of a domestic hen.

  2. Environmental monitoring and bactericidal efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas in a dental office.

    PubMed

    Kuroyama, Iwao; Osato, Shigeo; Nakajima, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-09-01

    We monitored the quantity of airborne microorganisms at 11 points (points A to K) in a dental office on a routine day of use, and tested the bactericidal efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) gas in the dental operatory after consulting hours. Fallen airborne microorganisms were collected under air-conditioning (AC) in the dental office, and under four conditions in the operatory. Specimens of the microbes were cultivated on nutrient and Sabouraud agar media (NAM and SAM). Many colonies were observed at the entrance hall and on the cabinet in a disinfection room in the NAM and SAM tests, respectively, while no colony was observed at the foot position of the operating table and treatment bed, and above the head position of the operating room in the NAM and SAM tests, respectively. In the bactericidal efficacy test using ClO₂ gas, the dental operatory could be kept clean by the use of 4 mg/L-ClO₂ gas in addition to the use of an AC with a plasma filter and the HEPA filter. PMID:20938095

  3. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  4. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  5. 75 FR 52804 - Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Stanislaus County... subsequent environmental documentation for project-specific impacts. Letters describing the proposed...

  6. 78 FR 46677 - Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal... is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... the potential for impacts and issues associated with various socioeconomic and environmental...

  7. Environmental Impact Analysis: Philosophy and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.; Goodale, Thomas L.

    Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Impact Analysis held in Green Bay, Wisconsin, January 4-5, 1972, are compiled in this report. The conference served as a forum for exchange of information among State and Federal agencies and educators on experiences with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. Hopefully, results of the…

  8. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  9. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... substantive Federal Highway Administration regulations on environmental considerations (23 CFR part 771). ... 36 CFR part 800 shall be submitted with the application. (c) Highway or highway-related facilities... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... substantive Federal Highway Administration regulations on environmental considerations (23 CFR part 771). ... 36 CFR part 800 shall be submitted with the application. (c) Highway or highway-related facilities... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section...

  11. Effects of various environmental conditions on the transformation of chlorinated solvents by Methanosarcina thermophila cell exudates.

    PubMed

    Baeseman, J L; Novak, P J

    2001-12-20

    Several microbiologically produced biomolecules have been shown to degrade chlorinated contaminants found in groundwater systems. It was discovered that the cell-free exudates of the methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila were capable of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) degradation. Characterization of the exudates suggested that the active agents were porphorinogen-type molecules, possibly containing zinc. This research was performed to determine if the exudates from M. thermophila could be used for remediation purposes. The cell exudates were found to be capable of degrading CT, CF, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. CT degradation was used to gauge exudate activity under a variety of conditions that would be encountered in the environment. The cell exudates were active when incubated in two types of soil matrices and at temperatures ranging from 4 to 23 degrees C. Over a 35-day period approximately 10.2 micromoles of CT were degraded by M. thermophila exudates. To test the hypothesis that the exudates contained either a zinc porphorinogen or a quinone, experiments were performed with zinc 5,10,15,20-tetra (4-pyridyl)-21 H, 23 H-porphine tetrakis, protoporphyrin IX zinc, and juglone. The two zinc porphyrins were capable of mediating CT degradation at rates comparable to those observed with the M. thermophila exudates; however, juglone was only capable of very slow CT transformation. The electron-transfer activity of the M. thermophila cell exudates was therefore more consistent with the activity of porphorinogens rather than quinones. Finally, in two enrichment cultures established from aquifer material and marine sediment, the possibility of excreted agents capable of degrading CT was evident.

  12. Hydrogen, socio-environmental impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. S.; Matthews, W. E.; Duff, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    The concept and logic flow of a hydrogen technology assessment are described along with a specific procedure for such an assessment. The development of hydrogen technology is discussed. Factors considered in the development and use of hydrogen include: stimulus of societal needs and technological innovations; economic factors; and social and environmental effects.

  13. A Procedure for Evaluating Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Luna B.; And Others

    This report contains one of the first procedures available to environmental impact statements. The heart of the system is a matrix which is general enough to be used as a reference checklist or a reminder of the full range of actions and impacts on the environment that may relate to any proposed action. This comparatively simple system is intended…

  14. A Manual for Conducting Environmental Impact Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, L. Ellis, Jr.; And Others

    This report presents methodologies for measuring the anticipated environmental impact of proposed highways at the conceptual, location, and design planning stages. An interdisciplinary team approach is recommended. The research emphasizes the systematic collection and evaluation of data on various types of impacts, including those related to…

  15. Chlorine Dioxide (Gas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a sterilant for use in manufacturing, laboratory equipment, medical devices, environmental surfaces, tools and clean rooms. Aqueous ClO2 is registered by the EPA as a surface disinfectant and sanitizer fo...

  16. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts......

  17. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts......

  18. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts......

  19. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts......

  20. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts......

  1. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  2. Designing environmental research for impact.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations.

  3. Designing environmental research for impact.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations. PMID:25557212

  4. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Bercz, J.P.; Jones, L.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Bawa, R.; Condie, L.

    1986-11-01

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO/sub 2/ ingestion, it seems that ClO/sub 2/ does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrient, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen.

  5. Documentation of cumulative impacts in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.A.; Canter, L.W.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations in the United States require federal agencies to apply an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in decision-making related to their actions. One aspect requires an examination of direct, indirect and cumulative impacts (CIs). Historically, cumulative impact assessment (CIA) has been given limited attention in EIA and resultant environmental impact statements (EISs), not because of its lack of importance, but owing to limitations in methodologies and procedures, including documentation consistency. The objectives of this study were to identify deficiencies in the documentation of CIs and CIA in EISs and to formulate appropriate recommendations (potential solutions) related to such deficiencies. The study involved the systematic review of 33 EISs. The results indicate that improvements have been made in documentation practices since 1990; however, inconsistencies and inadequacies still exist. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed: (1) CIs should be reported in a separate part of the Environmental Consequences section, and they should be addressed for each pertinent environmental resource; (2) a summary of CIs should be included; (3) any CIs considered not significant should be mentioned plus the reason(s) for their non-significance; (4) spatial and temporal boundaries addressed within the CIA process should be defined for pertinent environmental resources; and (5) utilized guidelines and methodologies should be described.

  6. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-09-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin`s classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects.

  7. Environmental impacts of products in china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2011-05-01

    As the Chinese economy has become an integral part of the global supply chain, quantifying the environmental impacts by Chinese industry is indispensible to understanding the environmental performance of products in general. Comprehensive and consistent environmental data infrastructure, however, is lacking in China, hindering such an understanding. In this paper, we demonstrate a simplified method for assembling and harmonizing various data sources to develop a sectoral environmental database for input-output life cycle assessment (IO-LCA). We first identified key substances by analyzing previous normalization studies and other countries' sectoral environmental databases. Data for priority substances were compiled and then adjusted and validated. The database created from this process was then used to analyze the direct and indirect environmental impacts generated by Chinese rural and urban consumptions. Expenditures on food and other basic household needs like heating and cooking were found to play a dominant role in generating environmental impacts in China, while previous studies of industrialized countries also highlighted the importance of transportation. This database provides background information for LCA through, for example, the hybrid approach, and is also conducive to ongoing efforts to develop generic life cycle inventory databases in China. PMID:21469663

  8. Environmental impact of population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, Rosamond; Matson, Pamela

    Earth's population currently numbers 5.4 billion; even given optimistic assumptions for reduction in growth rates, the number will double by the middle of the next century with most of the increase in the developing countries. Rapid population growth in the developing world raises the fundamental dilemma of how to alleviate chronic hunger and poverty in the short run while preserving the atmosphere and ecosystem services required for long-term human and biospheric sustenance. This dilemma, and the compromises required to solve it, were discussed by twenty-five researchers from five countries at the Aspen Global Change Institute 1992 Summer Science Session III, Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible?, held from August 16 to 28, in Aspen, Colo.

  9. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  10. 75 FR 47796 - Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement... notice to announce the availability for public review and comment of a Draft Joint Environmental Impact... City of San Clemente and extends approximately 3,412 ft (1,040 m) from Linda Lane to T Street....

  11. 78 FR 23953 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    .... We published the notice of intent in the Federal Register on March 4, 2013 (78 FR 14117). The public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo...

  12. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Executive Order 12898, {open_quote}Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,{close_quote} directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies` incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping.

  13. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the......

  14. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  15. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact......

  16. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  17. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the......

  18. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact......

  19. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  20. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact......

  1. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact......

  2. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the......

  3. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  4. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to affected foreign governments for information and comment. Draft Environmental Impact Statements... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared...

  5. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts would result in... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact...

  6. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental...

  7. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if such... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental environmental...

  8. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental...

  9. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if such... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental environmental...

  10. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if such... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental environmental...

  11. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental...

  12. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if such... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental environmental...

  13. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental...

  14. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental...

  15. 75 FR 62627 - Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT AGENCY: Federal Highway... that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for proposed transportation improvements in Davis County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental...

  16. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY AGENCY: Federal Highway... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Bridge Rehabilitation and Interchange Improvements Project... considered will not have a significant impact on the environment. To address these bridge conditions,...

  17. The environmental impact of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Barlow, C. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The first generation of wind turbine (WT) blades are now reaching their end of life, signalling the beginning of a large problem for the future. Currently most waste is sent to landfill, which is not an environmentally desirable solution. Awareness of this issue is rising, but no studies have fully assessed the eco impact of WT blades. The present study aims to provide a macroscopic quantitative assessment of the lifetime environmental impact of WT blades. The first stage has been to analyse global data to calculate the amount of WT blade materials consumed in the past. The life cycle environmental impact of a single WT blade has then been estimated using eco data for raw materials, manufacturing processes, transportation, and operation and maintenance processes. For a typical 45.2 meter 1.5 MW blade this is 795 GJ (CO2 footprint 42.1 tonnes), dominated by manufacturing processes and raw materials (96% of the total. Based on the 2014 installed capacity, the total mass of WTB is 78 kt, their energy consumption is 82 TJ and the carbon dioxide footprint is 4.35 Mt. These figures will provide a basis for suggesting possible solutions to reduce WTB environmental impact.

  18. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  19. Instructional Use of Environmental Impact Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgrieve, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    Environmental impact statements are informational documents representing a systematic study of long- and short-term relations between a proposed project and its environments (i.e. physical, social, economic, etc.), written for the layman, and easily adapted to the classroom for use in student research activities. (JR)

  20. OTEC power system development and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sather, N.F.

    1980-02-20

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a proven solar energy technology with enormous potential as a supplier of electric power. However, before this potential can be realized there must be significant reductions in OTEC plant investment costs estimated for state-of-the-art designs. A comprehensive survey of the opportunities for reducing costs of the heat exchangers and other components of the power system of closed-cycle OTEC plants is given. These cost-reducing inventives are strongly dependent on the extent to which the environmental impacts of OTEC plants will have to be controlled. The environmental concerns associated with the deployment of OTEC plants are reviewed, and approaches to alleviating these concerns are described. Finally, the key roles of the OTEC-1 component test facility and the OTEC pilot plant planned for a 1984 start up in providing information about the critical power system development and environmental impact problems are summarized.

  1. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  2. Improving landscape-level environmental impact evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, L.J.; LaGory, K.E.; Vinikour, W.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.L.; Cantwell, B.

    2012-04-01

    New spatial data and advancements in GIS tools allow much more comprehensive and quantitative analyses of the large datasets required when making programmatic evaluations of the ecological effects of proposed activities that cover a large area or region. Understanding the environmental impacts of proposed human developments is critical to making appropriate siting decisions and designing mitigation strategies to reduce impacts on important resources. Impact analyses conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) or Environmental Assessments (EAs) are intended to determine the resource-specific impacts of proposed activities of federal agencies and their alternatives using the best available information. Impacts to ecological resources are often a primary focus of these analyses. Information used in NEPA analyses include some measure of the known or probable presence of plants and wildlife in the project area, with special emphasis placed on threatened, endangered, and other special-status species. Site-specific information pertaining to ecological resources is usually easier to obtain for small-scale activities such as a local facility, road, or transmission upgrade project, where the ability to conduct fieldwork is more often feasible. However, site-specific data is more difficult-and sometimes impossible-to obtain for proposed activities that could affect a large area or region. These types of analyses often are considered in programmatic NEPA documents, in which a federal agency evaluates the implementation of a broad program or plan. Under these programmatic evaluations, the exact location and size of developments are often not known. Because obtaining quantitative information for ecological resources at such large spatial scales is difficult, programmatic impact evaluations typically rely on sketchy or partial information such as recorded species occurrences, species ranges, and general habitat

  3. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  4. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Hladik, Michelle L; Vajda, Alan M; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Douville, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m(3) d(-1) design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration=2.7 μg L(-1); n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration=4.5 μg L(-1)), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration=1.4 μg L(-1)) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative proportions of

  5. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Hladik, Michelle L; Vajda, Alan M; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Douville, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m(3) d(-1) design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration=2.7 μg L(-1); n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration=4.5 μg L(-1)), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration=1.4 μg L(-1)) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative proportions of

  6. PPCP degradation by UV/chlorine treatment and its impact on DBP formation potential in real waters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Jianliang; Fu, Wenjie; Shang, Chii; Li, Yin; Chen, Yiwei; Gan, Wenhui; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-07-01

    The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) water purification process was evaluated for its ability to degrade the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly found in drinking water sources. The disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed after post-chlorination were documented. The performance of the UV/chlorine process was compared with that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process in treating three types of sand-filtered natural water. Except caffeine and carbamazepine residues, the UV/chlorine process was found to be 59-99% effective for feed water with a high level of dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity, and 27-92% effective for water with a high ammonia content. Both chlorine radicals and hydroxyl radicals were found to contribute to the observed PPCP degradation. The removal efficiencies of chlorine- and UV-resistant PPCPs such as carbamazepine and caffeine were 2-3 times greater than in the UV/H2O2 process in waters not enriched with ammonia. UV/chlorine treatment slightly enhanced the formation chloral hydrate (CH), haloketone (HK) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). It reduced haloacetonitrile (HAN) formation during the post-chlorination in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process. In waters with high concentrations of ammonia, the UV/chlorine process was only 5-7% more effective than the UV/H2O2 process, and it formed slightly more THMs, HKs and TCNM along with reduced formation of CH and HAN. The UV/chlorine process is thus recommended as a good alternative to UV/H2O2 treatment for its superior PPCP removal without significantly enhancing DBP formation.

  7. PPCP degradation by UV/chlorine treatment and its impact on DBP formation potential in real waters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Jianliang; Fu, Wenjie; Shang, Chii; Li, Yin; Chen, Yiwei; Gan, Wenhui; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-07-01

    The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) water purification process was evaluated for its ability to degrade the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly found in drinking water sources. The disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed after post-chlorination were documented. The performance of the UV/chlorine process was compared with that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process in treating three types of sand-filtered natural water. Except caffeine and carbamazepine residues, the UV/chlorine process was found to be 59-99% effective for feed water with a high level of dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity, and 27-92% effective for water with a high ammonia content. Both chlorine radicals and hydroxyl radicals were found to contribute to the observed PPCP degradation. The removal efficiencies of chlorine- and UV-resistant PPCPs such as carbamazepine and caffeine were 2-3 times greater than in the UV/H2O2 process in waters not enriched with ammonia. UV/chlorine treatment slightly enhanced the formation chloral hydrate (CH), haloketone (HK) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). It reduced haloacetonitrile (HAN) formation during the post-chlorination in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process. In waters with high concentrations of ammonia, the UV/chlorine process was only 5-7% more effective than the UV/H2O2 process, and it formed slightly more THMs, HKs and TCNM along with reduced formation of CH and HAN. The UV/chlorine process is thus recommended as a good alternative to UV/H2O2 treatment for its superior PPCP removal without significantly enhancing DBP formation. PMID:27110887

  8. Iodine-129 and Chlorine-36 as Tracers of Hydrodynamic Processes in Coalbed Methane Systems: Environmental Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Riese, W. R.; Fehn, U.; Moran, J. E.; Pelzmann, W. L.

    2003-12-01

    local rivers and lakes. The rest of the basin is characterized by connate formation waters, some of which were modified by infiltration of groundwaters at the time of Laramide uplift. Isotopic characterization of the source and migration of waters within coalbed systems provides a promising avenue for determining if and how a resource should be developed. Further research is needed to determine the response of environmental isotopes to drilling and gas production.

  9. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  10. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  11. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  12. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  13. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  14. Character and chlorine reactivity of dissolved organic matter from a mountain pine beetle impacted watershed.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Katherine M H; Summers, R Scott

    2011-07-01

    Lodgepole pine needle leachates from trees killed by the mountain pine beetle epidemic in Colorado were evaluated for dissolved organic matter (DOM) character, biodegradation, treatability by coagulation and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. An average of 8.0 (±0.62) mg-DOC/g-dry weight of litter was leached from three sets of needle samples representing different levels of forest floor degradation. Fluorescence analysis included collection of excitation and emission matrices, examination of peak intensities and development of a 4-component parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. Peak intensity and PARAFAC analyses provided complementary results showing that fresh leachates were initially dominated by polyphenolic/protein-like components (60-70%) and humic-like fluorescence increased (40-70%) after biodegradation. Humic-like components were removed by coagulation (20-64%), while polyphenolic/protein-like components were not, which may create challenges for utilities required to meet OM removal regulations. DBP formation yields after 24 h chlorination were 20.5-26.4 μg/mg-DOC for trihalomethanes and 9.0-14.5 μg/mg-DOC for haloacetic acids for fresh leachates; increased after biodegradation to 19.2-64.2 and 7.1-30.9 μg/mg-DOC, respectively; and decreased after coagulation (fresh: 11.3-17.7;5.7-7.6 μg/mg-DOC, respectively; biodegraded: 12.0-27.3 and 2.9-7.2 μg/mg-DOC, respectively), reflective of changes in concentration of humic material. Humic-like PARAFAC components and peak intensities were positively correlated (R(2) ≥ 0.45) to DBP concentrations, while polyphenolic/protein-like components were not (R(2) ≤ 0.17).

  15. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  16. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  17. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environmental impact statement (FEIS) will be prepared pursuant to 40 CFR part 1502, which shall include a... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental...

  18. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  19. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... environmental impact statement (FEIS) will be prepared pursuant to 40 CFR part 1502, which shall include a... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental...

  20. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... environmental impact statement (FEIS) will be prepared pursuant to 40 CFR part 1502, which shall include a... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental...

  1. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  2. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... environmental impact statement (FEIS) will be prepared pursuant to 40 CFR part 1502, which shall include a... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental...

  3. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... time the document is filed with the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with 40 CFR...

  4. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  5. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... time the document is filed with the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with 40 CFR...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  7. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... time the document is filed with the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with 40 CFR...

  8. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  9. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  10. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  11. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  12. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  13. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... environmental impact statement (FEIS) will be prepared pursuant to 40 CFR part 1502, which shall include a... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental...

  14. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  15. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  16. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... time the document is filed with the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  18. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... time the document is filed with the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with 40 CFR...

  19. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  20. Environmental impacts of energy transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.P.; Limaye, D.R.; Ciliano, R.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a review and synthesis of existing knowledge about the environmental impacts of fuel transportation for the electric utility industry. Emphasis is placed on the transportation of coal, but oil, natural gas liquified natural gas methanol, and hydrogen are also covered. The major identified impacts associated with coal unit trains are the physical barriers they create, potential accidents, and noise. The former two impacts are regarded as solvable, but the noise problem is far more intractable. Other modes of coal transport generate other types of environmental concerns. Coal slurry pipeline problems are related to water requirements and disposal. Truck transportation of coal leads to increased road and bridge deterioration and needs for repair. The approach in this study was to utilize a consistent and systematic framework to assess existing studies comparatively and to identify research gaps. The results of the study indicate that, except for a number of spectacular projects which have aroused considerable concern, little effort has been dedicated to the evaluation of the environmental socio-economic impacts of fuel transportation. While much of the existing work is useful, there are significant requirements for further research.

  1. Integrating environmental justice (EJ) methodologies into environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental Justice (EJ) concerns are now a pervasive part of environmental policy. Moreover, Federal Executive Order 12898 mandates its diffusion throughout federal government programs, and many states are developing similar programs. EJ concerns first arose in the environmental field in the context of hazardous waste facilities. Thus, hazardous waste applications provide important analytical models for EJ issues addressed in other programs, such as environmental assessment (EA). At the present time, EJ concerns are treated largely qualitatively in EAs and environmental impact statements (EISs) in sections dealing with neighborhood and community character or socioeconomics. The manner in which EJ issues are examined in EISs is described using examples from recent EISs, and an approach to quantifying EJ in terms of demographic patterns is presented using techniques previously applied by the author to hazardous waste sites (primarily sites on the National Priorities List under the Superfund program). Various geographic levels and demographic parameters are discussed and compared. A key point is the manner in which the choice of a comparison area influences conclusions about a particular area. these methods are critical in addressing such issues as whether proposed projects are being located in areas with relatively greater proportions of {open_quotes}vulnerable{close_quotes} populations or, in the case of public service projects, how these populations are served relative to other populations by the facilities that are the subject of the assessment.

  2. Estimating the in situ sediment-porewater distribution of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic impacted sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Peter H. Arp; Gijs D. Breedveld; Gerard Cornelissen

    2009-08-15

    It has become increasingly apparent that the in situ sediment-porewater distribution behavior of organic compounds within anthropogenic impacted sediments is quite diverse, and challenging to generalize. Traditional models based on octanol-water partitioning generally overestimate native porewater concentrations, and modern approaches accounting for multiple carbon fractions, including black carbon, appear sediment specific. To assess the diversity of this sorption behavior, we collected all peer-reviewed total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized in situ sediment-porewater distribution coefficients, K{sub TOC}, for impacted sediments. This entailed several hundreds of data for PAHs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and chlorinated benzenes, covering a large variety of sediments, locations, and experimental methods. Compound-specific KTOC could range up to over 3 orders of magnitude. Output from various predictive models for individual carbonaceous phases found in impacted sediments, based on peer-reviewed polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs), Raoult's Law, and the SPARC online-calculator, were tested to see if any of the models could consistently predict literature K{sub TOC} values within a factor of 30 (i.e. about 1.5 orders of magnitude, or half the range of K{sub TOC} values). The Raoult's Law model and coal tar PP-LFER achieved the sought-after accuracy for all tested compound classes, and are recommended for general, regional-scale modeling purposes. As impacted sediment-porewater distribution models are unlikely to get more accurate than this, this review underpins that the only way to accurately obtain accurate porewater concentrations is to measure them directly, and not infer them from sediment concentrations. 86 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Review of chlorinated phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Exon, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    The chlorinated phenols are a group of 19 isomers composed of phenol with substituted chlorines. These chemicals are readily soluble in organic solvents but only slightly soluble in water, except for the chlorophenate salts. Chlorophenols with less than 3 chlorines are not used extensively except in the production of higher chlorophenols and chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides. Pentachlorophenol and some tetrachlorophenols are used worldwide, primarily as wood preservatives or fungicides. Residues of chlorophenols have been found worldwide in soil, water and air samples, in food products, and in human and animal tissues and body fluids. Environmental contamination with these chemicals occurs from industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, breakdown of chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides and hexachlorobenzene, and from spontaneous formation following chlorination of water for disinfection and deodorization. The acute toxicity of these chemicals is relatively low and little is known concerning their chronic effects. Chlorophenols have not been shown conclusively to be mutagens, teratogens or carcinogens. However, these compounds may act as promotors or cocarcinogens and the immune system is particularly sensitive to their toxic effects. Transplacental exposure to chlorophenols may result in embryotoxicity and abortion. The major mode of toxic action is as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The toxicity of chlorophenols decreases with decreasing chlorination. These chemicals are mild hepatotoxins and are stored mainly in hepatic and renal tissues.

  4. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental...

  5. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental...

  6. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental...

  7. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental...

  8. Chlorination/dechlorination studies relating to proposed cooling towers for K and C reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the chlorination and dechlorination of the cooling water that is pumped through the C- and K-Reactor heat exchangers. More specifically, data were obtained on: (1) chlorine demand and dissipation rates; (2) the effectiveness of sodium sulfite as a dechlorinating agent; (3) the toxicity of chlorination and dechlorination on indigenous fish; (4) the effects of dechlorination on water quality; and (5) the comparative precision of three conventional residual chlorine detection methods. The study results strongly indicate that implementation of present plans for chlorination and dechlorination (with sodium sulfite) of SRP reactor cooling towers will cause no significant adverse environmental impacts and should not result in problems in meeting future regulatory guidelines for TRC. 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Novel oxidative electrophilic coupling reactions of phenoxazine derivatives with MBTH and their applications to spectrophotometric determination of residual chlorine in drinking water and environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Al-Okab, Riyad Ahmed; Syed, Akheel Ahmed

    2009-10-15

    Novel, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric methods, using phenoxazine (PNZ), 2-chlorophe-noxazine (CPN) and 2-trifluoromethylphenoxazine (TPN) as chromogenic reagents for the determination of residual chlorine are proposed. The methods are based on the reduction of chlorine by an electrophilic coupling reagent, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline hydrazono hydrochloride hydrate (MBTH) in mild hydrochloric acid medium and subsequent coupling with PNZ, CPN or TPN. The blue color formed in the reaction showed maximum absorbance at 680-690 nm and obeyed Beer's law over the range 0.1-2.2 microg ml(-1). The molar absorptivity values with PNZ, CPN and TPN were 2.80 x 10(4), 2.67 x 10(4) and 1.91 x 10(4) l mol(-1)cm(-1) and Sandell's sensitivity values were 0.028, 0.027 and 0.028 microg cm(-2) respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied in the determination of residual chlorine in drinking water and environmental water samples. The performance of proposed methods was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test which indicated the significance of proposed methods over the standard spectrophotometric method.

  10. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to...

  11. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to...

  12. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to...

  13. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to...

  14. Environmental Impact of Buildings--What Matters?

    PubMed

    Heeren, Niko; Mutel, Christopher L; Steubing, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, York; Wallbaum, Holger; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-08-18

    The goal of this study was to identify drivers of environmental impact and quantify their influence on the environmental performance of wooden and massive residential and office buildings. We performed a life cycle assessment and used thermal simulation to quantify operational energy demand and to account for differences in thermal inertia of building mass. Twenty-eight input parameters, affecting operation, design, material, and exogenic building properties were sampled in a Monte Carlo analysis. To determine sensitivity, we calculated the correlation between each parameter and the resulting life cycle inventory and impact assessment scores. Parameters affecting operational energy demand and energy conversion are the most influential for the building's total environmental performance. For climate change, electricity mix, ventilation rate, heating system, and construction material rank the highest. Thermal inertia results in an average 2-6% difference in heat demand. Nonrenewable cumulative energy demand of wooden buildings is 18% lower, compared to a massive variant. Total cumulative energy demand is comparable. The median climate change impact is 25% lower, including end-of-life material credits and 22% lower, when credits are excluded. The findings are valid for small offices and residential buildings in Switzerland and regions with similar building culture, construction material production, and climate. PMID:26176213

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  16. Impact of carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of microscale zerovalent iron particles on its reactivity towards chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Larsson, Per-Olof; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2013-11-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) abiotically degrades several chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via reductive dechlorination, which offers perspectives for in situ groundwater remediation applications. The difference in reactivity between ZVI particles is often linked with their specific surface area. However, other parameters may influence the reactivity as well. Earlier, we reported for a set of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles the disappearance kinetic of different CAHs which were collected under consistent experimental conditions. In the present study, these kinetic data were correlated with the carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of mZVI particles. It was confirmed that not only the specific surface area affects the disappearance kinetic of CAHs, but also the chemical composition of the mZVI particles. The chemical composition, in addition, influences CAHs removal mechanism inducing sorption onto mZVI particles instead of dechlorination. Generally, high disappearance kinetic of CAHs was observed for particles containing less oxygen. A high carbon content, on the other hand, induced nonreactive sorption of the contaminants on the mZVI particles. To obtain efficient remediation of CAHs by mZVI particles, this study suggested that the carbon and oxygen content should not exceed 0.5% and 1% respectively. Finally, the efficiency of the mZVI particles may be improved to some extent by enriching them with sulfur. However, the impact of sulfur content on the reactivity of mZVI particles is less pronounced than that of the carbon and oxygen content.

  17. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact...

  18. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  19. 75 FR 26272 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite... Environmental Impact Statement for development of a new environmental education center in Yosemite National Park... practical the NPS will begin to implement development of a new environmental education center at...

  20. Environmental impact report. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2. Chapter 4.1-4.10. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.; Bakle, W.

    1996-07-31

    Impacts Evaluated in Other Sections: A summary of where to find topics associated with the section`s analysis which are addressed elsewhere in the EIR/EIS. Affected Environment (Setting): A description of the existing conditions for each environmental discipline. The setting acts as a baseline to which the analysis compares the effects of the alternatives and components. Evaluation Criteria with Point of Significance: A table presenting the criteria used to determine specific impacts, measurements used to determine whether an impact is `significant,` and the point at which the impact becomes significant. The source and justification for each criterion is also identified in the table. Methodology: A brief description of how the impact analysis was done. Environmental Consequences (Impacts) and Recommended Mitigation: A presentation of the results of the environmental analysis for each discipline, including the identification of impacts, the determination regarding significance, the description of mitigation measures proposed to avoid or lessen impacts, and whether mitigation will reduce the effects to less than significant.

  1. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 622 FTA RIN 2132-AB04 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Highway... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  7. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the...

  8. 75 FR 69154 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Rescind Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed 24th Street Improvement Project in...

  9. 76 FR 6461 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 01/24/2011 through 01/28/2011 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In..., Evaluates Environmental Impacts of Stationing Army Combat Aviation Brigade at Fort Carson, CO and Joint...

  10. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  11. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final environmental impact...

  12. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  13. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final environmental impact...

  14. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative environmental impact statement shall conform to the requirements of 40 CFR 1506.8 of the CEQ Regulations. The... environmental impact statements in accordance with criteria set forth in 14 CFR 1216.305. (b) For the......

  15. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative environmental impact statement shall conform to the requirements of 40 CFR 1506.8 of the CEQ Regulations. The... environmental impact statements in accordance with criteria set forth in 14 CFR 1216.305. (b) For the......

  16. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact...

  17. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  18. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  19. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Final environmental impact...

  20. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final environmental impact...

  1. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  2. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  3. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  4. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  5. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  6. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative environmental impact statement shall conform to the requirements of 40 CFR 1506.8 of the CEQ Regulations. The... environmental impact statements in accordance with criteria set forth in 14 CFR 1216.305. (b) For the......

  7. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  8. 75 FR 883 - Environmental Impact Statement; Maricopa County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Maricopa County, AZ AGENCY: Federal Highway... public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Maricopa... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on proposed operational improvements to the Interstate...

  9. 77 FR 6622 - Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway... public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Caddo... Council of Governments (NLCOG), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal...

  10. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  11. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  12. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  13. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  14. Potential environmental impacts of future halocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K.J.; Ellis, J.H.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated analysis of future halocarbon emissions and their environmental impacts shows that strict global compliance is required if the Montreal Protocol is to accomplish the goal of eliminating the lower stratospheric ozone hole. This analysis is integrated in the sense that demographic, economic, and regulatory processes controlling future production were linked explicitly to the technological factors translating production into emissions and the environmental processes transforming emissions into environmental impacts. Given current models of halocarbon transformation and atmospheric response, this research suggests that if a small percentage of nations continues to expand production at modest rates, the ozone hole will not be eliminated. In addition, high growth rate assumptions for halocarbon production by noncompliance nations will result in significantly increased ozone depletion. This research also shows that the continued use of small amounts of ozone-depleting substances for essential uses and the failure to adequately replace all ozone-depleting substances can eliminate the possibility of returning the atmosphere to pre-ozone hole conditions. The global climate change potential of halocarbons is fairly small if growth rates for chlorofluorocarbon substitutes remain low. If growth rates return to precontrol levels, these substitutes could contribute significantly to global climate change. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Environmental impact and management of phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Tayibi, Hanan; Choura, Mohamed; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2009-06-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid production, and worldwide PG generation is estimated to be around 100-280 Mt per year. This by-product is mostly disposed of without any treatment, usually by dumping in large stockpiles. These are generally located in coastal areas close to phosphoric acid plants, where they occupy large land areas and cause serious environmental damage. PG is mainly composed of gypsum but also contains a high level of impurities such as phosphates, fluorides and sulphates, naturally occurring radionuclides, heavy metals, and other trace elements. All of this adds up to a negative environmental impact and many restrictions on PG applications. Up to 15% of world PG production is used to make building materials, as a soil amendment and as a set controller in the manufacture of Portland cement; uses that have been banned in most countries. The USEPA has classified PG as a "Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material" (TENORM). This work reviews the different environmental impacts associated with PG storage and disposal. The methods described in the literature to minimise the negative effects of this waste are classified by treatment type, i.e. physical, chemical, thermal, etc., and different suggested applications for PG are detailed.

  16. Environmental impact and management of phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Tayibi, Hanan; Choura, Mohamed; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2009-06-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid production, and worldwide PG generation is estimated to be around 100-280 Mt per year. This by-product is mostly disposed of without any treatment, usually by dumping in large stockpiles. These are generally located in coastal areas close to phosphoric acid plants, where they occupy large land areas and cause serious environmental damage. PG is mainly composed of gypsum but also contains a high level of impurities such as phosphates, fluorides and sulphates, naturally occurring radionuclides, heavy metals, and other trace elements. All of this adds up to a negative environmental impact and many restrictions on PG applications. Up to 15% of world PG production is used to make building materials, as a soil amendment and as a set controller in the manufacture of Portland cement; uses that have been banned in most countries. The USEPA has classified PG as a "Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material" (TENORM). This work reviews the different environmental impacts associated with PG storage and disposal. The methods described in the literature to minimise the negative effects of this waste are classified by treatment type, i.e. physical, chemical, thermal, etc., and different suggested applications for PG are detailed. PMID:19406560

  17. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  18. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  19. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  20. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  1. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  2. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CSREES official specified in § 3407.4(b) that the changes are pertinent to environmental concerns, a... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving...

  3. Impact of cosmic rays on stratospheric chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Müller, Rolf

    2003-08-01

    Dissociation induced by cosmic rays of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and HCl on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) has been suggested as playing a significant role in causing the ozone hole. However, observed stratospheric CFC distributions are inconsistent with a destruction of CFC on PSC surfaces and no significant correlation exists between ozone levels and cosmic-ray activity inside the polar regions. Model simulations indicate that this mechanism can have only a limited impact on chemical ozone loss and thus on the recovery of stratospheric ozone.

  4. Chlorine cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 77 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  5. Chlorine dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine dioxide ; CASRN 10049 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  6. Human impact: man's role in environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon worldwide examples, the author traces mankind's interaction with nature and examines human interference with environmental systems at various stages of social development. Succeeding chapters take up man's specific impact on vegetation, animals, the soil, the waters, landforms, climate, and the atmosphere. With the aid of maps, diagrams, and graphs, the book analyzes the causes and consequences of environmental changes associated with such large-scale events as agricultural expansion, domestication, deforestation, and urbanization, including the spread of salination, extinction, erosion, and pollution. Interrelations, often dynamic and unpredictable, between these phenomena make it difficult to isolate the causes of changes and to determine the resiliency of natural systems to change. 505 references, 82 figures, 97 tables.

  7. Managing sediment to minimize environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, K.

    1995-12-31

    When considering licensing of a hydroelectric project, FERC must give equal consideration to power and nonpower values such as environmental resources. A case study is the existing Rock-Creek Cresta Project, located on the North Fork of the Feather River in northern California, which is in the process of relicensing by the Commission. This project includes two reservoirs - Rock Creek and Cresta Reservoirs, each formed by a dam that diverts water from the river into a tunnel and to a powerhouse. The watershed includes large natural and man-made sediment sources. Rock Creek Reservoir has accumulated 3.9 million cubic yards of sediments since the dam was built in 1950; Cresta Reservoir has accumulated 2.9 million cy of sediments since 1949. Operational problems began in the 1980s. As part of the relicensing process, Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) initially proposed a combination of dredging 500,000 cy of sediment from each reservoir, land disposal of dredged sediments, followed by sediment pass-through to achieve a long term net balance of sediment inflow and outflow. This proposal had substantial economic costs and environmental impact. Potential environmental effects included impacts to water quality and aquatic organisms and to terrestrial habitat from disposal of a million cy of dredged sediments. PG&E used physical and mathematical models to develop an innovative approach that minimized the amount of sediment needed to be dredged by limiting dredging to the area immediately adjacent to the intake structures. This would also tend to minimize impacts to water quality and aquatic habitat by reducing the area of disturbance within the reservoirs. PG&E proposes to keep the intake areas open and provide for long-term sediment pass-through by providing additional low-level outlet capacity. This would permit reservoir drawdown, which would increase velocities and sediment movement out of the reservoirs.

  8. Impact of Environmental Chemicals on Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.; Marty, Melanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Disruption of fundamental biologic processes and associated signaling events may result in clinically significant alterations in lung development. Objectives We reviewed evidence on the impact of environmental chemicals on lung development and key signaling events in lung morphogenesis, and the relevance of potential outcomes to public health and regulatory science. Data sources We evaluated the peer-reviewed literature on developmental lung biology and toxicology, mechanistic studies, and supporting epidemiology. Data synthesis Lung function in infancy predicts pulmonary function throughout life. In utero and early postnatal exposures influence both childhood and adult lung structure and function and may predispose individuals to chronic obstructive lung disease and other disorders. The nutritional and endogenous chemical environment affects development of the lung and can result in altered function in the adult. Studies now suggest that similar adverse impacts may occur in animals and humans after exposure to environmentally relevant doses of certain xenobiotics during critical windows in early life. Potential mechanisms include interference with highly conserved factors in developmental processes such as gene regulation, molecular signaling, and growth factors involved in branching morphogenesis and alveolarization. Conclusions Assessment of environmental chemical impacts on the lung requires studies that evaluate specific alterations in structure or function—end points not regularly assessed in standard toxicity tests. Identifying effects on important signaling events may inform protocols of developmental toxicology studies. Such knowledge may enable policies promoting true primary prevention of lung diseases. Evidence of relevant signaling disruption in the absence of adequate developmental toxicology data should influence the size of the uncertainty factors used in risk assessments. PMID:20444669

  9. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  10. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the...

  11. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the impacts must be included, as well as an evaluation of such impacts on the basis of theoretical... relationship between the cost-benefit analysis and any analysis of unquantified environmental impacts,...

  12. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the impacts must be included, as well as an evaluation of such impacts on the basis of theoretical... relationship between the cost-benefit analysis and any analysis of unquantified environmental impacts,...

  13. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999) require the reevaluation of a Final EIS if major steps toward... Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation...

  14. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  15. 76 FR 54451 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Folsom Dam Modification Project, Approach.../environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Folsom Dam Modification, Approach Channel Project. The...

  16. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  17. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  18. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  19. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  20. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  1. 75 FR 25288 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Report and Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... need for the EITP project is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application for a right.... Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6, 1506.10, and 43 CFR 1610.2 Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. BILLING...

  2. 75 FR 80068 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Report/Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... for the EITP is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application under Title V of the... was published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2009 (74 FR 37053) followed by a 30-day...

  3. 77 FR 46427 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for Proposed Aggregate Terminal Project on Pier D in the... the Eagle Rock Aggregates Terminal Project. The proposed project would include the following in- water... owned by L.G. Everist, Inc. and would be leased to Eagle Rock Aggregate, Inc. for terminal...

  4. 77 FR 59180 - Withdrawal of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., 2005 (70 FR 55116). The study's purpose is to evaluate structural and non-structural means of restoring... Corps published a Notice of Intent to Prepare an EIS in the Federal Register on July 25, 2012 (77 FR... Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Ballona Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study,...

  5. 75 FR 41163 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... ``training and testing'' activities) conducted within the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing (AFTT) study area. The AFTT study area includes the western North Atlantic Ocean along the east coast of North... Environmental Impact Statement for Navy Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing and To Announce Public...

  6. 76 FR 53693 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed McCoy Solar Energy Project and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment... located on about 7,700 acres of public lands and 470 acres of private land under the land use authority of... resources, geology and soils, hazards and hazardous materials, hydrology and water quality, land use,...

  7. 76 FR 77008 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statements and Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Environmental Impact Statements To Incorporate Greater Sage-Grouse Conservation Measures Into Land Use Plans and... a Western Region. The Eastern Region includes BLM land use plans in the States of Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, and portions of Utah and Montana. The Western Region includes BLM land...

  8. 75 FR 34709 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Newhall Ranch Resource Management and Development Plan and... District (Regulatory Division), in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), has... Resource Management and Development Plan and Spineflower Conservation Plan. The project proponent...

  9. 76 FR 41817 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... for the Alta East Wind Project (Project), a 300-megawatt (MW) wind farm. By this notice BLM and Kern... Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Alta East Wind Project, and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Kern... comments on issues and alternatives related to the Alta East Wind Project Draft EIS/EIR and CDCA...

  10. 77 FR 17091 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Management Plan (RMP) Amendment for the Calnev Pipe Line Expansion Project in San Bernardino County... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Calnev Pipe Line, LLC (Calnev... Environmental Impact Report and the Draft California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment for the Calnev...

  11. 77 FR 14416 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Environmental Impact Report for the Pattern Energy Group's Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Project and Proposed... decommission an approximately 12,436 acre, up to 456 megawatt (MW), wind energy project including up to 155... either: (1) Available for future wind energy generation projects; or (2) Unavailable for future...

  12. Chlorine Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

    The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine.

    Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  13. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  14. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC AGENCY: U.S. Federal Highway... of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). SUMMARY: The U.S. Federal Highway... Washington, DC is issuing this notice to advise agencies and the public that a Draft Environmental...

  15. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner... issued by OFE for environmental reports should be used in preparing this analysis (44 FR 63740,...

  16. 77 FR 793 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/27/2011 through 12/30/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  17. 75 FR 38517 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/21/2010 through 06/25/210. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  18. 76 FR 13401 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/28/2011 Through 03/04/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice:...

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  20. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  1. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  2. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  3. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  4. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  5. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  6. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314... IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a... new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns, as discussed in 40 CFR...

  7. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  8. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  9. 75 FR 72823 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements ] Filed 11/15/2010 Through 11/19/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  10. 76 FR 80367 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/12/2011 Through 12/16/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice:...

  11. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314... IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a... new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns, as discussed in 40 CFR...

  12. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314... IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a... new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns, as discussed in 40 CFR...

  13. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314... IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a... new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns, as discussed in 40 CFR...

  14. 78 FR 50054 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/05/2013 Through 08/09/2013. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  15. 75 FR 1057 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements filed...

  16. 78 FR 29131 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/06/2013 Through 05/10/2013. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  17. 78 FR 2397 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/31/2012 Through 01/04/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  18. 77 FR 70160 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/12/2012 Through 11/16/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. SUMMARY:...

  19. 78 FR 16500 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 03/04/2013 Through 03/08/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  20. 76 FR 30937 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/16/2011 Through 05/20/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice...

  1. 78 FR 75919 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/02/2013 through 12/06/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  2. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; especially the directive that environmental concerns, effects, and values shall be given appropriate... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress...

  3. Determination of water movement in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain using chloride, bromide, and chlorine isotopes as environmental tracers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-31

    This report, prepared by Hydro Geo Chem staff for Los Alamos National Laboratory, summarizes work conducted by the company under Subcontract 9-XG1-N3993-1. The ultimate objective of this work is to characterize the movement of subsurface water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Data produced under this contract is to be used by the US Department of Energy in its Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) to help determine hydrologic flows that may affect the performance of a potential nuclear waste repository. The data may be used in the licensing proceedings, and certain quality assurance procedures have thus been required. The work has focussed on measuring the distribution of environmental tracers-chlorine-36, chlorine, and bromine-and on evaluating the depth to which these conservative solutes have percolated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The following discussion summarizes progress made on the tasks outlined in the original Scope of Work. Details of this work and all data acquired by Hydro Geo Chem for this subcontract have been systematically organized in logbooks and laboratory notebooks. These documents have been structured to make it easy to trace the analytical history of a sample, from time of receipt to the final analytical results.

  4. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  5. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  6. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  7. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  8. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  9. 75 FR 10254 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/22/2010 Through 02/26/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. ] EIS No... Update the Stream Impacts, Oakland City to Washington, (IN-64 to US 50), Gibson, Pike and...

  10. 75 FR 67806 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... this notice to advise the public that the NOI to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for... were defined as the limits of potential impacts from the proposed action. The study limits were...

  11. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regional Administrator may at any time supplement a draft or final environmental impact statement. The... impact statements. 10.10 Section 10.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that...

  12. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement... appropriate adjudicatory or rulemaking proceeding. final environmental impact......

  13. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement... appropriate adjudicatory or rulemaking proceeding. final environmental impact......

  14. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement... appropriate adjudicatory or rulemaking proceeding. final environmental impact......

  15. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement... appropriate adjudicatory or rulemaking proceeding. final environmental impact......

  16. Environmental impacts of human action in watercourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes do Carmo, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The economic, social and environmental conditions of various European river basins and estuarine systems have changed dramatically in the last decades as a consequence of anthropogenic effects, and they will go on changing in the years to come due to increasing human pressure. Particularly in Portugal, various river-estuary systems have undergone several human interventions, notably engineering works to restore considerable stretches of channels and river banks. Whenever the characteristics and natural evolution of a river are altered as a result of human intervention there is an environmental impact. In other words, it is understood that differences can be observed between any present situation that is the result of the evolution of an environment after human intervention, and the natural situation that would have existed if this type of intervention had not taken place, taking into account our previous knowledge of the situation. A thorough understanding of the fluvial processes and new strategies are needed to develop a multifunctional use structure, which must take into account the many-faceted aims of sustainable development. This paper provides a brief description of the nature and distribution of the direct and indirect types of impact arising out of building and operating large dams, as well as some specific points that should be taken into consideration. It also reflects on the way in which the problem of extracting inert material from water environments has been dealt with in Portugal and offers a brief technical contribution which, although qualitative, provides a basic record and explanation of the consequences of significant interventions in water environments that have not been properly assessed or have not taken other mitigating circumstances into consideration.

  17. Impact of chlorine and temperature on Listeria monocytogenes survival growth behavior on ready-to-eat meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) continues to pose a food safety hazard in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat due to potential cross-contamination. Chlorine is commonly used to sanitize processing equipment. However, Lm may survive on processing equipment surfaces, which then contaminate food products. The objec...

  18. Modeling the impact of chlorine on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) continues to pose a food safety hazard in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat due to potential cross-contamination. Chlorine is commonly used to sanitize processing equipment and utensils. However, Lm may survive the treatment and then contaminate food products. The objective of t...

  19. Chlorine chemistry in the Antarctic stratosphere - Impact of OClO and Cl2O2 and implications for observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak

    1986-01-01

    Theories have been proposed to relate the reduction of O3 during Antarctic spring to catalytic cycles involving chlorine and bromine species. A necessary condition for any chlorine-catalyzed scheme is that a large fraction of the chlorine must be in the form of ClO in the lower stratosphere. It has been suggested that these high levels of ClO could be maintained by fast heterogeneous reactions, whose rates are not known at present. Model calculations based on the above mechanisms predict considerable amounts of OClO and Cl2O2, particularly during the night. Results of calculations of the diurnal variations of ClO, OClO, and Cl2O2 during Antarctic spring are presented for different cases. Results from the calculations suggest that coincident measurements of the total column abundance and diurnal variation of ClO and OClO may help constrain key aspects of the proposed chemical mechanisms. Removal of O3 by the catalytic cycle involving Cl2O2 could be as important as that involving BrO for present levels of chlorine, provided that Cl2O2 photolyzes rapidly to yield Cl and ClO2. It is shown that there is no synergy between these two cycles, since they both compete for the available ClO.

  20. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  1. Using Environmental Impact Statements as an Introduction to Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlton

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a method of introducing technical writing students to Environmental Impact Statements, which can help students understand decision-making processes, heighten their environmental awareness, and generate class camaraderie. (SR)

  2. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  4. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  5. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  6. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  7. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  8. Persistent pollutants: a brief history of the discovery of the widespread toxicity of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Rachel Carson's Silent Spring is often depicted as the beginning of a broad societal concern about the dangers of DDT and other pesticides. Attention to the other chlorinated hydrocarbons, specifically PCBs, is seen as an outgrowth of the late 1960s environmental movement. Carson's work was clearly critical in broadening the history to include the environmental impact and set the stage for the path breaking work decades later by Theo Colburn and others on endocrine disruptions associated with other synthetic chemicals. This article reviews the development of the understanding the dangers of the chlorinated hydrocarbons in the decades preceding Carson's book. Although little noticed, Rachel Carson makes this observation herself.

  9. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  10. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    PubMed

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  11. A Brief Review of the Current Status of Alternatives of Chlorine Disinfection of Water

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, A. C.; Reimers, R. S.; DeKernion, P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines some of the alternative disinfectants being considered in lieu of chlorination. Methods currently in use as well as those in the research stage are included. Each method is assessed with respect to disinfection efficiency and environmental impact. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:1290-1293.) PMID:7125035

  12. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  13. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect

    Gangolells, Marta Casals, Miquel Forcada, Núria Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  14. 78 FR 13873 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements ] Filed 02/19/2013 Through 02/22/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section... Ends: 03/26/2013, Contact: Sandra Shelin 509-527-7265. Revision to FR Notice Published...

  15. 78 FR 53754 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/19/2013 through 08/23/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section... Montoya 575- 525-4316. Revision to FR Notice Published 04/12/2013; Extending Comment Period from...

  16. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS)...

  17. 78 FR 73524 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/25/2013 Through 11/29/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Comment Period Ends: 02/03/2014, Contact: Hugh Heine 910-251-4070. Revision to the FR Notice Published...

  18. 75 FR 68355 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/25/2010 Through 10/29/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In..., USACE, FL, Martin County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project, Beach...

  19. 78 FR 52524 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/12/2013 Through 08/16/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice: Section...-792-0222, ext. 222. This document was inadvertently omitted from the FR Notice published...

  20. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than one... with the provisions of 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Supplemental statements. Where substantial...

  1. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  2. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than one... with the provisions of 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Supplemental statements. Where substantial...

  3. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  4. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than one... with the provisions of 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Supplemental statements. Where substantial...

  5. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  6. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than one... with the provisions of 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Supplemental statements. Where substantial...

  7. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  8. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  9. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existence of highly controversial environmental impacts. (b) CEQ regulations. The CEQ regulations in 40 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement 91.63 Section 91.63 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS...

  10. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... existence of highly controversial environmental impacts. (b) CEQ regulations. The CEQ regulations in 40 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement 91.63 Section 91.63 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS...

  11. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... existence of highly controversial environmental impacts. (b) CEQ regulations. The CEQ regulations in 40 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement 91.63 Section 91.63 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS...

  12. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existence of highly controversial environmental impacts. (b) CEQ regulations. The CEQ regulations in 40 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement 91.63 Section 91.63 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS...

  13. 78 FR 63977 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... 10/23/2013 to 12/10/2013. EIS No. 20130260, Draft EIS, BIA, NV, Moapa Solar Energy Center, Comment... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 09/30/2013 Through 10/18/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  14. 75 FR 55326 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    .... 20100365, Final EIS, BLM, NV, Silver State Solar Energy Project, Construction and Operation of a 400... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 08/30/2010 through 09/03/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice:...

  15. 75 FR 71179 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared ] for a proposed highway project in San Diego County... Community Center, 2258 Island Avenue, San Diego, California 92102. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. Cost analysis and environmental impact of nonthermal technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of high pressure processing (HPP) orange juice and its environmental impact were estimated. In addition, the environmental impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal pasteurization were assessed for comparison. The cost analysis was based on commercial processing conditions that wer...

  17. 78 FR 4586 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK ACTION: Notice of intent... issuing this notice to advise the public that FHWA will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Meetings will be held in the early Spring of 2013 to receive oral and written comments on...

  18. Sensory aspects and water quality impacts of chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in contact with HDPE and cPVC pipe.

    PubMed

    Heim, Timothy H; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2007-02-01

    Pipes constructed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. In this comprehensive investigation, the effects on odor, organic chemical release, trihalomethane (THM) formation, free chlorine demand and monochloramine demand were determined for water exposed to HDPE and cPVC pipes. The study was conducted in accordance with the Utility Quick Test (UQT), a migration/leaching protocol for analysis of materials in contact with drinking water. The sensory panel consistently attributed a weak to moderate intensity of a "waxy/plastic/citrus" odor to the water from the HDPE pipes but not the cPVC-contacted water samples. The odor intensity generated by the HDPE pipe remained relatively constant for multiple water flushes, and the odor descriptors were affected by disinfectant type. Water samples stored in both types of pipe showed a significant increase in the leaching of organic compounds when compared to glass controls, with HDPE producing 0.14 microgTOC/cm(2) pipe surface, which was significantly greater than the TOC release from cPVC. Water stored in both types of pipe showed disinfectant demands of 0.1-0.9 microg disinfectant/cm(2) pipe surface, with HDPE exerting more demand than cPVC. No THMs were detected in chlorinated water exposed to the pipes. The results demonstrate the impact that synthetic plumbing materials can have on sensory and chemical water quality, as well as the significant variations in drinking water quality generated from different materials.

  19. Toward a Systematic Approach to Environmental Impact Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgold, Marian S.; Enk, Gordon A.

    A workshop conducted for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation served to orient field and central staff with a multi-disciplinary, generalist approach to environmental impact review. The program was designed to provide content input from many different environmentally-related disciplines. It was also designed to assist staff…

  20. Impact of Environmental Education for Guam Schools, An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallingal, Anthony

    The 1972 Environmental Education for Guam Schools Project originated from the recognition of a need for environmental education on the island. The ultimate goal was to graduate citizens who were knowledgeable and conscientious about environmental concerns. This report describes and assesses the impact of this project on Guam and provides a source…

  1. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  2. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  3. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  4. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  5. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  6. Environmental Impacts of Class A Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. L.; Bennett, P.

    2001-12-01

    Class A foam (CAF) is widely used in wildland firefighting as an extinguishing agent. Commonly CAF concentrate consists of a mixture of water and glycol, with a blend of surfactants to enhance the `wetting' capability of water. CAF is attractive to firefighters as it enhances heat absorption of water, while increasing fuel moisture content, resulting in more effective extinguishment with less water, and greater safety. In other settings, however, surfactants were found to change soil properties, alter infiltration rates, and enhance contaminant mobility. Evaluation of wildfires at Los Alamos National Laboratory raised the question of the impact of extinguishing agents on the mobility of high explosive residues, such as TNT, in soil. The use of agents such as CAF may enhance the mobility of hydrophobic compounds, flushing the residues out of soil and into underlying water bearing units. We report here the results of field and laboratory experiments evaluating the potential impact of CAF on the mobility of organic contaminants in soil. Samples of CAF concentrate and water mixtures were characterized for surfactant content. The persistence of CAF under non-fire, wildfire and pre-burn versus post-burn application conditions were analyzed. Solubility of TNT in CAF solutions was determined, and transport of TNT and CAF solutions through soil columns was analyzed to determine the effect of CAF on retardation of TNT. The surfactant content in CAF concentrates is typically 10-20%. Field investigations show that the surfactants applied in at recommended concentrations (1%) persist in soil for about three weeks. Actual application rates are as much as 4 times the recommended rate due to equipment variability and widespread confusion during actual fire situations, and here surfactant persists for more than three months. Foam persistence decreases after exposure to fire, suggesting that surfactants volatilize or decompose during the fire. Foam solutions at typical fire

  7. Impacts of environmental factors on urban heating.

    PubMed

    Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Leung, Dennis Y C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of important environmental variables (i.e., wind speed, solar radiation and cloud cover) on urban heating. Meteorological parameters for fifteen years (from 1990 to 2005), collected at a well developed and densely populated commercial area (Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong), were analyzed in details. Urban heat island intensity (UHII), a well known indicator of urban heating, has been determined as the spatially averaged air-temperature difference between Tsim Sha Tsui and Ta Kwu Ling (a thinly populated rural area with lush vegetation). Results showed that the UHII and cloud cover have increased by around 9.3% and 4%, respectively, whereas the wind speed and solar radiation have decreased by around 24% and 8.5%, respectively. The month of December experienced the highest UHII (10.2 degrees C) but the lowest wind speed (2.6 m/sec) and cloud cover (3.8 oktas). Conversely, the month of April observed the highest increases in the UHII (over 100%) and the highest decreases in wind speed (over 40%) over fifteen years. Notably, the increases in the UHII and reductions in the wind speed were the highest during the night-time and early morning. Conversely, the intensity of solar radiation reduced while the intensity of urban cool island (UCII) increased during solar noon-time. Results demonstrated strong negative correlation between the UHII and wind speed (coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.8) but no negative correlation between UCII and solar radiation attenuation. A possible negative correlation between UHII and cloud cover was investigated but could not be substantiated. PMID:21462708

  8. Final environmental impact statement for the Galileo Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the proposed action of completing the preparation and operation of the Galileo spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1989, and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal launch vehicle operation, and are treated in published National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents on the Shuttle (NASA 1978) and the Kennedy Space Center (NASA 1979), and in the KSC Environmental Resources Document (NASA 1986) and the Galileo Tier 1 EIS (NASA 1988a). The environmental impacts of a normal launch were deemed insufficient to preclude Shuttle operations. Environmental impacts may also result from launch or mission accidents that could release plutonium fuel used in the Galileo power system. Intensive analysis of the possible accidents associated with the proposed action reveal small health or environmental risks. There are no environmental impacts in the no-action alternative. The remote possibility of environmental impacts of the proposed action must be weighed against the large adverse fiscal and programmatic impacts inherent in the no-action alternative.

  9. 77 FR 63299 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Folsom Dam Water Control Manual Update AGENCY: Department of.../Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Folsom Dam Water Control Manual Update (Folsom WCM Update). USACE... Folsom WCM Update is intended to improve the ability of Folsom Dam to utilize the new physical...

  10. Oceanic Impact: Mechanisms and Environmental Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, Rainer (Editor); Deutsch, Alex (Editor); Ivanov, Boris A. (Editor); Kyte, Frank T. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The contents include the following: Oceanic impacts-a growing field of fundamental geoscience. Shock metamorphism on the ocean floor (numerical simulations). Numerical modeling of impact-induced modifications of the deep-sea floor. Computer modelling of the water resurge at a marine impact: the Lockne crater, Sweden. Experimental investigation of the role of water in impact vaporization chemistry. Calcareous plankton stratigraphy around the Pliocene Eltanin asteroid impact area (SE Pacific): documentation and application for geological and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Composition of impact melt debris from the Eltanin impact strewn field, Bellingshausen Sea. Iridium concentrations and abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin impact in sediment cores from Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4. Unmelted meteoritic debris collected from Eltanin ejecta in Polarstern cores from expedition ANT XII/4. Impact tsunami-Eltanin. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America. The Mjolnir marine impact crater porosity anomaly. Kardla (Hiiu-maa Island, Estonia) - the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure. Long-term effect of the Kardla crater (Hiiu-maa, Estonia) on Late Ordovician carbonate sedimentation. The middle Devonian Kaluga impact crater (Russia): new interpretation of marine setting.

  11. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S. F.; Cada, G. F.; Petrich, C. H.; Sale, M. J.; Shaakir-Ali, J. A.; Watts, J. A.; Webb, J. W.

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  12. The effects of low level chlorination and chlorine dioxide on biofouling control in a once-through service water system

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W.E. Jr.

    1995-06-01

    Continuous chlorination has been successfully used for the control of Corbicula at a nuclear power plant located on the Chattahoochee River in southeastern Alabama, since 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate further minimization of chlorine usage and determine if chlorine dioxide is a feasible alternative. Four continuous biocide treatments were evaluated for macro and microfouling control effectiveness, operational feasibility, and environmental acceptability. One semi-continuous chlorination treatment was also evaluated for macrofouling control effectiveness. Higher treatment residuals were possible with chlorine dioxide than with chlorination due to the river discharge limitations. At the levels tested, continuous chlorine dioxide was significantly more effective in providing both macro and microfouling control. Semi-continuous chlorination was just as effective as continuous chlorination for controlling macrofouling. The Corbicula treatment programs that were tested should all provide sufficient control for zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide was not as cost effective as chlorination for providing macrofouling control. The semi-continuous treatment save 50% on chemical usage and will allow for the simultaneous treatment of two service water systems. Chlorite levels produced during the chlorine dioxide treatments were found to be environmentally acceptable. Levels of trihalomethanes in the chlorinated service water were less than the maximum levels allowed in drinking water.

  13. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  14. The Environmental Impact of Siberian Traps Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, A. D.; Reichow, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    volcanism began. Arguably, the earth system was much more vulnerable to the additional carbon loading from volcanism. The environmental impact of flood basalt eruptions may thus be strongly influenced by the prevailing global climate conditions and atmosphere-ocean composition.

  15. Laboratory assessment of environmental impact of phthalazine

    SciTech Connect

    Lande, S.S.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Reiner, E.A.; Welter, A.N.; Robideau, R.R.

    1987-02-01

    Several approaches to the environmental safety assessment of chemicals have been reported. The basic principles involved in predicting environmental behavior combine degradation kinetics and the partitioning/distribution of chemicals in the environment. The transport mechanisms within the environment can be modeled as partitioning/distribution which are essentially functions of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Phthalazine (2,3-Benzodiazine, C8H6N2) is a component of a specialized paper product. The major route for environmental entry of phthalazine is through land disposal of waste paper. Information available on phthalazine chemistry is consistent with behavior of heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several laboratory test methods and QSAR estimation procedures were used to measure key environmental properties of phthalazine. This assessment examines the environmental release of phthalazine, and its partitioning and distribution in the environment. It predicts the probable fate and possible biological effects of phthalazine.

  16. Debate over phaseout of chlorine, chlorinated organics continues

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B. )

    1993-12-06

    During the past two months, the debate over whether to phase out the use and production of chlorine and chlorinated organics as a broad class of chemicals has continued on a number of fronts. This question was the major focus of discussion at the recent biennial meeting in Windsor Ontario, of the International Joint Commission (IJC)--a binational group that oversees implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Just prior to the meeting, the governments of the US and Canada presented their views on this issue, and it was the topic most of the speakers discussed during the organized sessions and public hearings. IJC is working on its seventh Biennial Report, which will be completed shortly after the first of the year. The very large comprehensive study on the health and environmental effects of chlorinated organics being prepared by CanTox, a consulting group in Mississauga, Ontario, for CCC and the Chlorine Institute was originally scheduled to be published in June. It is now slated for release sometime in early 1994, and the conference on the health and environmental effects of chlorinated organics that was to be sponsored by CCC and held in September of this year was canceled and has not been rescheduled. The movement to phase out chlorine also may be gathering momentum in Europe. On Oct 15, the 21 nations party to the Barcelona Convention on pollution of the Mediterranean recommended that their governments phase out toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative substances, especially organohalogens (which include organochlorine), by 2005. This action is similar to proposals made in September 1992 by the Paris Commission, which oversees discharges of pollutants in the northeast Atlantic Ocean.

  17. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  18. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  19. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Clarke, F.E.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Balsley, J.R.

    1971-01-01

    The procedure does not limit the development of detail in any specific aspect of the environment; a separate expanded matrix for any environmental aspect can easily be developed within the framework provided.

  20. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... highway project in Yellowstone County, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right... (I-90) and Old Highway 312 in or near the city of Billings, Yellowstone County, Montana....

  1. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... training areas over land below 30,000 feet MSL (mean sea level). (7) Disposal and reuse of closing... classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  2. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... training areas over land below 30,000 feet MSL (mean sea level). (7) Disposal and reuse of closing... classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  3. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... training areas over land below 30,000 feet MSL (mean sea level). (7) Disposal and reuse of closing... classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  4. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  5. 76 FR 84 - Notice of Environmental Impact Statement; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ..., Federal Register notice (75 FR 9388) which announced their intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... included vegetation treatments to reduce fuels exceeding 9'' in diameter in Mexican Spotted Owl...

  6. International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

  7. ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS WITH THE WAR ALGORITHM: REVIEW AND UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review uses of the WAR algorithm and current developments and possible future directions. The WAR algorithm is a methodology for analyzing potential environmental impacts of 1600+ chemicals used in the chemical processing and other industries. The algorithm...

  8. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... training areas over land below 30,000 feet MSL (mean sea level). (7) Disposal and reuse of closing... classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  9. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... training areas over land below 30,000 feet MSL (mean sea level). (7) Disposal and reuse of closing... classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  10. 76 FR 61135 - Environmental Impact Statement: El Paso County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ...FHWA is issuing this notice to advise the public that the NOI to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for proposed improvements to Loop 375 Border Highway West, in El Paso County, Texas, is being...

  11. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  12. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  13. Environmental and health risks of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), an alternative to potent greenhouse gases in the semiconductor industry.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2011-06-15

    The first accident involving chlorine trifluoride (ClF(3)) in the history of semiconductor fabrication processes occurred on 28 July 2006 at Hsinchu (Taiwan), resulting in a large release of the highly reactive material and causing the chemical burn to several workers. ClF(3) is used primarily as an in situ cleaning gas in the manufacture of semiconductor silicon-wafer devices in replacement of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) because they have the high potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article aimed at reviewing ClF(3) in the physicochemical properties, the industrial uses, and the environmental implications on the basis of its toxicity, reactivity, health hazards and exposure limits. The health hazards of probable decomposition/hydrolysis products from ClF(3) were also evaluated based on their basic physicochemical properties and occupational exposure limits. The occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand potentially hazardous risks caused by hydrogen fluoride and fluorides from the decomposition/hydrolysis products of ClF(3).

  14. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program... Vaccination Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Yellowstone National Park. This planning...

  15. 77 FR 56671 - Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... National Park Service Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for... Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. DATES: The Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (SRMP) will...

  16. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

  17. Reliance on Pumped Mother's Milk Has an Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Becker, Genevieve; Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother's milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may also effect obesity and family size, which in turn have further environmental impacts. Information on pump equipment rarely includes environmental information and may focus on marketing the product for maximum profit. In order for parents, health workers, and health policy makers to make informed decisions about the reliance on pumped mother's milk, they need information on the broad and far reaching environmental aspects. There was no published research found that examined the environmental impact of using pumped mother's milk. A project is ongoing to examine this issue. PMID:27626456

  18. Reliance on Pumped Mother's Milk Has an Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Becker, Genevieve; Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother's milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may also effect obesity and family size, which in turn have further environmental impacts. Information on pump equipment rarely includes environmental information and may focus on marketing the product for maximum profit. In order for parents, health workers, and health policy makers to make informed decisions about the reliance on pumped mother's milk, they need information on the broad and far reaching environmental aspects. There was no published research found that examined the environmental impact of using pumped mother's milk. A project is ongoing to examine this issue.

  19. Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.

  20. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project is... recommended by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10) unless a determination is made on a particular...

  1. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project is... recommended by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10) unless a determination is made on a particular...

  2. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  5. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-03-30

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments.

  6. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-03-30

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments. PMID:25754645

  7. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  9. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  10. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  11. In Pennsylvania, Department of Environmental Resources Leads Impact Statement Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigman, Harry

    1975-01-01

    Environmental impact statements are required for all projects undertaken by state agencies. Pennsylvania's Department of Environmental Resources issues permits for regulatory activities affecting the environment. Statements sent to a state clearinghouse are logged and reviewed. State Departments and regional clearinghouses review and comment…

  12. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  13. 76 FR 35433 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... . Revision to FR Notice Published 04/22/2011: Extending Comment Period from 06/13/2011 to 07/15/2011 Dated... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of...

  14. 77 FR 5513 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    .... Flannery (415) 701-5598, Revision to FR Notice Published 12/30/11: Extending Comment Period from 2/13/ 2012... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of...

  15. 78 FR 35928 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    .... Revision to FR Notice Published 06/07/2013; Change Agency Contact and Phone Number to Keith Keeney (502... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of...

  16. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake...

  17. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  18. 76 FR 50323 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ..., Environment and Systems Planning Division, Office of Railroad Policy and Development, Federal Railroad... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report...: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION:...

  19. 76 FR 50324 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Valenstein, Chief, Environment and Systems Planning Division, Office of Railroad Policy and Development... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report...: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION:...

  20. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  1. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 36 CFR part 800 shall be submitted with the application. (c) Highway or highway-related facilities... substantive Federal Highway Administration regulations on environmental considerations (23 CFR part 771). ... human environment: Rehabilitation or improvement consisting of work normally performed on a...

  2. Environmental Impact: University Programs in Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert J.; Schoenfeld, Clay

    1982-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed and used to measure various aspects of environmentally-related materials/activities in curriculum, internship and placement programs, public service, faculty interests, and institutional liaisons in journalism and mass media communications programs at United States colleges and universities. Background information,…

  3. Quantification of the environmental impact of different dietary protein choices.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Lucas; Soret, Sam

    2003-09-01

    Quantitative environmental evaluations of meat, fresh vegetables, and processed protein based on soybeans suggest that the environmental burden of vegetarian foods is usually relatively low when production and processing are considered. The environmental comparison of cheese varieties made from cow milk and directly from lupine and the evaluation of energy inputs in fish protein and vegetable protein also suggest an environmental advantage for vegetarian food. In the evaluation of processed protein food based on soybeans and meat protein, a variety of environmental impacts associated with primary production and processing are a factor 4.4-> 100 to the disadvantage of meat. The comparison of cheese varieties gives differences in specific environmental impacts ranging between a factor 5 and 21. And energy use for fish protein may be up to a factor 14 more than for protein of vegetable origin. Assessment suggests that on average the complete life cycle environmental impact of nonvegetarian meals may be roughly a factor 1.5-2 higher than the effect of vegetarian meals in which meat has been replaced by vegetable protein. Although on average vegetarian diets may well have an environmental advantage, exceptions may also occur. Long-distance air transport, deep-freezing, and some horticultural practices may lead to environmental burdens for vegetarian foods exceeding those for locally produced organic meat. PMID:12936964

  4. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  5. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  6. 76 FR 74804 - Reopening the Comment Period for the Klamath Facilities Removal Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report AGENCY: Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance... the content for the Klamath Facilities Removal Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Draft EIS/ EIR). We will accept comments until December 30, 2011. ] DATES: Submit...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary....

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary....

  9. Factors Regulating Soil Organic Matter Chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, T.; Gustavsson, M.; Reyier, H.; Rietz, K.; Karlsson, S.; Göransson, C.; Andersson, M.; Öberg, G.; Bastviken, D.

    2013-12-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is a common process in various soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil organic chlorine, knowledge on the processes and regulation of soil organic matter chlorination are modest. The purpose of this study is to elucidate how environmental factors may influence chlorination of organic matter in soil. Four factors were chosen for this study; water content, and nitrogen, organic carbon, and chloride concentrations. The variables are all known in different ways as important for microbes and transformation of chlorine in soil. The soil was collected from 5-15 cm depth in a coniferous forest southeast of Sweden. To test how the selected factors influenced chlorination of organic matter, we used soil laboratory incubations using 36Cl-chloride as a radioisotopic marker. A multivariate factorial design with two levels of i) soil moisture, ii) chloride amendment, iii) nitrogen amendment, and iv) glucose and maltose addition was used to simultaneously test for possible combination effects for all factors. A known radioactivity of 36chloride was added to the soil samples and incubated with four different factor treatments during an incubation period of 15 and 60 days. This presentation will discuss the results of this study including what combination of factors enhanced or hampered chlorination and thereby discuss previous observed variability of organic chlorine and chloride in soil.

  10. Characterization of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Environmental Variables in a Shallow Groundwater in Shanghai Using Kriging Interpolation and Multifactorial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Qi Shi; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong Di; Gu, Ji Dong; Fei Lin, Kuang

    2015-01-01

    CAHs, as a cleaning solvent, widely contaminated shallow groundwater with the development of manufacturing in China's Yangtze River Delta. This study focused on the distribution of CAHs, and correlations between CAHs and environmental variables in a shallow groundwater in Shanghai, using kriging interpolation and multifactorial analysis. The results showed that the overall CAHs plume area (above DIV) was approximately 9,000 m2 and located in the 2–4 m underground, DNAPL was accumulated at an area of approximately 1,400 m2 and located in the 6-8m sandy silt layer on the top of the muddy silty clay. Heatmap of PPC for CAHs and environmental variables showed that the correlation between “Fe2+” and most CAHs such as “1,1,1-TCA”, “1,1-DCA”, “1,1-DCE” and “%TCA” were significantly positive (p<0.001), but “%CA” and/or “%VC” was not, and “Cl-” was significantly positive correlated with “1,1-DCA” and “1,1-DCE” (p<0.001). The PCA demonstrated that the relative proportions of CAHs in groundwater were mostly controlled by the sources and the natural attenuation. In conclusion, the combination of geographical and chemometrics was helpful to establishing an aerial perspective of CAHs and identifying reasons for the accumulation of toxic dechlorination intermediates, and could become a useful tool for characterizing contaminated sites in general. PMID:26565796

  11. Pilot test of a vacuum extraction system for environmental remediation of chlorinated solvents at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Pickett, J.B.; Malot, J.J.

    1991-12-29

    Vacuum extraction is an environmental restoration technique that is currently being applied to the remediation of soils and shallow segments that are contaminated with volatile constituents. In 1987, a h study was performed to evaluate the performance and potential applicability of this technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Vacuum extraction is useful when volatile constituents are present in the vadose zone. The technology has been used to remediate a number of sites across the country, including leading underground storage tanks, spill sites, landfill, and production facilities. The primary objective of the pilot study was to test the performance of the technology under the conditions specific to many of the potential areas of application at SRS. There is only a limited body of literature documenting field studiesin similar environments with in sands and clayey zones and a relatively thick vadose zone. Careful studies of this type are needed to develop full scale designs at SRS. The vacuum extraction pilot study at SRS was performed by a mm consisting of technical representatives of the Environmental Sciences Section in the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), the Raw Materials Engineering and Technology Section of SRS, and TerraVac Inc., a subcontractor with experience in this field.

  12. Characterization of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Environmental Variables in a Shallow Groundwater in Shanghai Using Kriging Interpolation and Multifactorial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Qi Shi; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong Di; Gu, Ji Dong; Lin, Kuang Fei; Fei Lin, Kuang

    2015-01-01

    CAHs, as a cleaning solvent, widely contaminated shallow groundwater with the development of manufacturing in China's Yangtze River Delta. This study focused on the distribution of CAHs, and correlations between CAHs and environmental variables in a shallow groundwater in Shanghai, using kriging interpolation and multifactorial analysis. The results showed that the overall CAHs plume area (above DIV) was approximately 9,000 m(2) and located in the 2-4 m underground, DNAPL was accumulated at an area of approximately 1,400 m(2) and located in the 6-8m sandy silt layer on the top of the muddy silty clay. Heatmap of PPC for CAHs and environmental variables showed that the correlation between "Fe(2+)" and most CAHs such as "1,1,1-TCA", "1,1-DCA", "1,1-DCE" and "%TCA" were significantly positive (p<0.001), but "%CA" and/or "%VC" was not, and "Cl-" was significantly positive correlated with "1,1-DCA" and "1,1-DCE" (p<0.001). The PCA demonstrated that the relative proportions of CAHs in groundwater were mostly controlled by the sources and the natural attenuation. In conclusion, the combination of geographical and chemometrics was helpful to establishing an aerial perspective of CAHs and identifying reasons for the accumulation of toxic dechlorination intermediates, and could become a useful tool for characterizing contaminated sites in general. PMID:26565796

  13. Characterization of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Environmental Variables in a Shallow Groundwater in Shanghai Using Kriging Interpolation and Multifactorial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Qi Shi; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong Di; Gu, Ji Dong; Lin, Kuang Fei; Fei Lin, Kuang

    2015-01-01

    CAHs, as a cleaning solvent, widely contaminated shallow groundwater with the development of manufacturing in China's Yangtze River Delta. This study focused on the distribution of CAHs, and correlations between CAHs and environmental variables in a shallow groundwater in Shanghai, using kriging interpolation and multifactorial analysis. The results showed that the overall CAHs plume area (above DIV) was approximately 9,000 m(2) and located in the 2-4 m underground, DNAPL was accumulated at an area of approximately 1,400 m(2) and located in the 6-8m sandy silt layer on the top of the muddy silty clay. Heatmap of PPC for CAHs and environmental variables showed that the correlation between "Fe(2+)" and most CAHs such as "1,1,1-TCA", "1,1-DCA", "1,1-DCE" and "%TCA" were significantly positive (p<0.001), but "%CA" and/or "%VC" was not, and "Cl-" was significantly positive correlated with "1,1-DCA" and "1,1-DCE" (p<0.001). The PCA demonstrated that the relative proportions of CAHs in groundwater were mostly controlled by the sources and the natural attenuation. In conclusion, the combination of geographical and chemometrics was helpful to establishing an aerial perspective of CAHs and identifying reasons for the accumulation of toxic dechlorination intermediates, and could become a useful tool for characterizing contaminated sites in general.

  14. Contributions to an environmental impact statement.

    PubMed

    Grob, R L; Schuster, J J

    1975-01-01

    Assessment of the effects on land use, social, economic, historic and natural environment as a result of highway construction are discussed. Predictions of these effects on the various categories twenty years hence are also presented. Information of this type is a necessary segment of an environment impact study soas to conform to EPAand Department of Rransportation (DOT) guidelines.

  15. Reducing environmental impacts through non-uniform loading of casks

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, N.B.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a scoping-level estimate of the reduction in environmental impacts that could be realized by the use of spent nuclear fuel transportation and storage casks designed and certified for nonuniform loading, as compared to very similar casks designed and certified using current, uniform-loading assumptions. The environmental impacts considered are the total number of cask loadings required, and the radiological impact of those loadings. The results described in this paper are for transportation casks, but the conclusions also apply to storage casks.

  16. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  17. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  18. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture. PMID:20122392

  19. The impact of supply management on environmental performance outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Wendy L.; Ellram, Lisa M.; Carter, Craig R.

    2004-12-01

    Environmentally responsible manufacturing is concerned with minimizing the environmental impact of products from development to end-of-life disposal or remanufacture. Environmental pressures from customers, regulation, legislation and competition have made organizations more aware of the impact that products have on the natural environment. This study focuses on environmental concerns during the early stages of product design. We examine these concerns with a specific focus on the involvement of supply management personnel, inter-organizational supplier relationships and a determination of how environmental issues affect supplier selection and supply base management. The literature on environmental supplier and purchasing involvement in product development and environmental supplier selection criteria and codes of conduct is reviewed. Following this, secondary data from the websites of environmentally proactive organizations will be gathered to examine what type of tracking is used for suppliers. Finally, discussions with proactive organizations will be presented during the conference that explore the role of supply management personnel in capturing, measuring, quantifying and reporting on the environmental costs and benefits associated with its suppliers. This research provides insights into how the involvement of supply management can improve the environmental performance outcomes of an organization.

  20. The environmental impact of petroleum on the environment.

    PubMed

    Edoigiawerie, Charles; Spickett, Jeffery

    1995-05-01

    Nigeria, a Western African country is particularly prone to the effects of oil pollution because it produces large quantities of crude oil (1.9 million barrels per day) for export. Results compiled by the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation over a period of 15 years i.e. between 1976 to 1991 showed that there was a total of 2,976 spills, resulting in the release of 2 million barrels of crude oil into the Nigerian environment, with damaging health and ecological effects, particularly on the southern coastal communities of the country. The environmental and health impact of these spills is made worse by the inappropriate and inadequate environment and health impact assessment processes and policies in Nigeria. However proper environmental and health impact assessment processes of petroleum drilling and transport projects is a major factor helping in the prediction and reduction of the health and environmental impacts of petroleum on the local environment in western Australia. A comparison of the crude oil spills, and its associated environmental and health effects in Western Australia and Nigeria revealed that the rather devastating impact oil pollution in Nigeria is due, in part, to the poor environmental and health impact assessment policies and control procedures employed in Nigeria, particularly in the area of public participation and governmental control of petroleum projects. PMID:12160434

  1. Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, J.K. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

  2. The Chlorination Quandary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Current use of chlorination technology to disinfect water supplies can cause the production of undesirable products, among them chloroform and chlorobenzene. Alternatives to this methodology include the use of ozone, chlorine dioxide, and bromine chloride in place of chlorine. Presently, the methods are feasible in developed countries only. (MA)

  3. Biodegration of chlorinated ethenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes by naturally occurring or artificially enhanced processes is an important component of current site remediation strategies. At this writing, several microbial mechanisms for chlorinated ethene transformation and degradation have been identified. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly summarize the current understanding of those processes that lead to the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes.

  4. Chloride and organic chlorine in forest soils: storage, residence times, and influence of ecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Redon, Paul-Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Bastviken, David; Cecchini, Sébastien; Nicolas, Manuel; Thiry, Yves

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that extensive chlorination of natural organic matter significantly affects chlorine (Cl) residence time in soils. This natural biogeochemical process must be considered when developing the conceptual models used as the basis for safety assessments regarding the potential health impacts of 36-chlorine released from present and planned radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this study, we surveyed 51 French forested areas to determine the variability in chlorine speciation and storage in soils. Concentrations of total chlorine (Cl(tot)) and organic chlorine (Cl(org)) were determined in litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil samples. Cl(org) constituted 11-100% of Cl(tot), with the highest concentrations being found in the humus layer (34-689 mg Cl(org) kg(-1)). In terms of areal storage (53 - 400 kg Cl(org) ha(-1)) the mineral soil dominated due to its greater thickness (40 cm). Cl(org) concentrations and estimated retention of organochlorine in the humus layer were correlated with Cl input, total Cl concentration, organic carbon content, soil pH and the dominant tree species. Cl(org) concentration in mineral soil was not significantly influenced by the studied environmental factors, however increasing Cl:C ratios with depth could indicate selective preservation of chlorinated organic molecules. Litterfall contributions of Cl were significant but generally minor compared to other fluxes and stocks. Assuming steady-state conditions, known annual wet deposition and measured inventories in soil, the theoretical average residence time calculated for total chlorine (inorganic (Cl(in)) and organic) was 5-fold higher than that estimated for Cl(in) alone. Consideration of the Cl(org) pool is therefore clearly important in studies of overall Cl cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:21761932

  5. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  6. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions.

  7. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  8. The impact of changes in source water quality on trihalomethane and haloacetonitrile formation in chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chonghua; Wang, Qi; Chu, Wenhai; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including nitrogenous DBPs, haloacetonitriles (HANs), and carbonaceous DBPs, trihalomethanes (THMs), upon chlorination of water samples collected from a conventional Chinese surface water treatment plant (i.e. applying coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration). Reductions in the average concentrations (and range, shown in brackets) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from 4.8 (3.0-7.3) μg/L and 0.52 (0.20-0.81) μg/L in 2010 to 2.4 (1.4-3.7) μg/L and 0.17 (0.11-0.31) μg/L in 2012, respectively, led to a decrease in HANs and THMs from 5.3 and 28.5 μg/L initially to 0.85 and 8.2 μg/L, as average concentrations, respectively. The bromide concentration in the source water also decreased from 2010 to 2012, but the bromine incorporation factor (BIF) for the THMs did not change significantly; however, for HAN the BIFs increased because the reduction in DON was higher than that of bromide. There was good linear relationship between DOC and THM concentrations, but not between DON and HANs.

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Langley Research Center is described, together with the nature of its activities, from which it can be seen that the Center is basically not a major pollution source. Geographical, geological, and climatic charateristics of the site are also described. inasmuch as they influence both the choice of disposal methods and the environmental effects of the pollutants. The known or probable pollution sources at the Center are described. Where the intensities of these sources might exceed the recommended guide-lines, the corrective actions that have been taken or are being taken are described. The entire inventory of pollution sources and control methods is summarized in an appendix.

  10. Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.M.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Lees, A.R.; Heutschi, K.; Kalivoda, M.T.

    2012-01-15

    Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

  11. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  12. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion. PMID:17119229

  13. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  14. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  15. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY...

  16. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  17. Environmental impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising technology for production of energy and usable by-products from solar-generated temperature gradients in the world's oceans. Although considered benign compared to alternative forms of energy generation, deployment of OTEC plants will result in interactions with marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments and in socioeconomic interactions with surrounding areas. The Ocean Energy Technology Program of the Department of Energy has funded research to improve the understanding of these interactions. No insurmountable environmental obstacle to OTEC deployment has been uncovered. This document contains a summary of that research for entrepreneurs, utility engineers, and others interested in pursuing OTEC's potential. In addition, it provides a guide to permits, regulations, and licenses applicable to construction of an OTEC plant.

  18. A watershed-based cumulative risk impact analysis: environmental vulnerability and impact criteria.

    PubMed

    Osowski, S L; Swick, J D; Carney, G R; Pena, H B; Danielson, J E; Parrish, D A

    2001-01-01

    Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have received much attention in recent years. As a result, a watershed-based screening tool, the Cumulative Risk Index Analysis (CRIA), was developed to assess the cumulative impacts of multiple CAFO facilities in a watershed subunit. The CRIA formula calculates an index number based on: 1) the area of one or more facilities compared to the area of the watershed subunit, 2) the average of the environmental vulnerability criteria, and 3) the average of the industry-specific impact criteria. Each vulnerability or impact criterion is ranked on a 1 to 5 scale, with a low rank indicating low environmental vulnerability or impact and a high rank indicating high environmental vulnerability or impact. The individual criterion ranks, as well as the total CRIA score, can be used to focus the environmental analysis and facilitate discussions with industry, public, and other stakeholders in the Agency decision-making process. PMID:11214349

  19. Environmental impact of diuron transformation: a review.

    PubMed

    Giacomazzi, S; Cochet, N

    2004-09-01

    Diuron is a biologically active pollutant present in soil, water and sediments. A synthesis of literature data on its physicochemical properties, partitioning behaviour, abiotic and biotic transformations, toxicological and ecotoxicological impacts has been here performed. Data have shown that diuron is generally persistent in soil, water and groundwater. It is also slightly toxic to mammals and birds as well as moderately toxic to aquatic invertebrates. However, its principal product of biodegradation, 3,4-dichloroaniline exhibits a higher toxicity and is also persistent in soil, water and groundwater. Thus, diuron indirectly possesses a significant amount of toxicity and could be a potential poisoning pesticide contaminant of groundwater. Unfortunately, groundwater contamination will still persist despite the progressive suppression of diuron (Directive 200/60/CE). Therefore, determining the main factors influencing its degradation and its ecotoxicological effects on the environment and health could provide a basis for further development of bioremediation processes.

  20. Environmental impact of seawater desalination plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutaz, I S

    1991-01-01

    Enormous amounts of seawater are desalted everyday worldwide. The total world production of fresh water from the sea is about 2621 mgd (9.92 million m(3) day(-1) 1985 figures). Desalting processes are normally associated with the rejection of high concentration waste brine from the plant itself or from the pretreatment units as well as during the cleaning period. In thermal processes, mainly multistage flash (MSF) thermal pollution occurs. These pollutants increase the seawater temperature, salinity, water current and turbidity. They also harm the marine environment, causing fish to migrate while enhancing the presence of algae, nematods and tiny molluscus. Sometimes micro-elements and toxic materials appear in the discharged brine.This paper will discuss the impact of the effluents from the desalination plants on the seawater environment with particular reference to the Saudi desalination plants, since they account for about 50% of the world desalination capacity.

  1. Environmental impact of seawater desalination plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutaz, I S

    1991-01-01

    Enormous amounts of seawater are desalted everyday worldwide. The total world production of fresh water from the sea is about 2621 mgd (9.92 million m(3) day(-1) 1985 figures). Desalting processes are normally associated with the rejection of high concentration waste brine from the plant itself or from the pretreatment units as well as during the cleaning period. In thermal processes, mainly multistage flash (MSF) thermal pollution occurs. These pollutants increase the seawater temperature, salinity, water current and turbidity. They also harm the marine environment, causing fish to migrate while enhancing the presence of algae, nematods and tiny molluscus. Sometimes micro-elements and toxic materials appear in the discharged brine.This paper will discuss the impact of the effluents from the desalination plants on the seawater environment with particular reference to the Saudi desalination plants, since they account for about 50% of the world desalination capacity. PMID:24241776

  2. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan

    2013-03-19

    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  3. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  4. Impact of Environmental Controls on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Devika; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to allergens early in life can lead to sensitization and the development of childhood asthma. It is thought that increased exposure with the advent of modern housing is likely contributing to the rise in prevalence of childhood asthma during the past few decades. The progression from allergen exposure to sensitization and asthma development has been noted with respect to dust mites, pets, cockroach, mouse, mold, tobacco smoke, endotoxin, and air pollution, although some have found a protective effect with pet and endotoxin exposure. Recent studies have shown that allergen remediation may be beneficial in reducing asthma morbidity and development, although there is also some evidence to the contrary. Examples of allergen remediation that have been studied include the use of dust mite–impermeable covers, high-efficiency particulate air filtration, integrated pest management, home repairs, ventilation improvement, and pet removal. Several multifaceted, randomized controlled trials have shown that reducing multiple early allergen exposures with environmental controls is associated with a decreased risk of asthma. PMID:21710109

  5. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center environmental impact statement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The probable total impact of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operations on the environment is discussed in terms of launch operations emissions and environmental quality. A schedule of planned launches through 1973 is included with a description of the systems for eliminating harmful emissions during launch operations. The effects of KSC on wild life and environmental quality are discussed along with the irreversible and irretrievable commitments of natural resources.

  6. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Ulysses Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by the preparation and operation of the Ulysses spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The launch configuration will use the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special(PAM-S) combination. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. However, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4 for NASA, could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal Shuttle launch operations. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects have been judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. In the event of (1) an accident during launch, or (2) reentry of the spacecraft from earth orbit, there are potential adverse health and environmental effects associated with the possible release of plutonium dioxide from the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). The potential effects considered in this EIS include risks of air and water quality impacts, local land area contamination, adverse health and safety impacts, the disturbance of biotic resources, impacts on wetland areas or areas containing historical sites, and socioeconomic impacts. Intensive analysis of the possible accidents associated with the proposed action are underway and preliminary results indicate small health or environmental risks. The results of a Final Safety Analysis Report will be available for inclusion into the final EIS.

  7. 10 CFR 51.91 - Final environmental impact statement-contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-contents. 51.91... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.91 Final environmental impact statement—contents. (a)(1) The final environmental impact statement will include...

  8. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.86 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and...

  9. 10 CFR 51.117 - Draft environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a draft environmental impact statement or any supplement to a draft environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  10. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.86 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and...

  11. 10 CFR 51.118 - Final environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a final environmental impact statement or any supplement to a final environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  12. 10 CFR 51.85 - Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking. 51.85... Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.85 Draft environmental impact... Commission has determined to prepare an environmental impact statement....

  13. 10 CFR 51.85 - Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking. 51.85... Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.85 Draft environmental impact... Commission has determined to prepare an environmental impact statement....

  14. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  15. 10 CFR 51.118 - Final environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a final environmental impact statement or any supplement to a final environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  16. 10 CFR 51.72 - Supplement to draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. 51.72... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.72 Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a supplement to a draft environmental impact statement for......

  17. 10 CFR 51.70 - Draft environmental impact statement-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-general. 51.70... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.70 Draft environmental impact statement—general. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a draft environmental impact statement as soon as...

  18. 10 CFR 51.73 - Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.73 Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement. Each draft environmental impact statement and each supplement to a draft environmental impact statement distributed in accordance with § 51.74, and each news release......

  19. 10 CFR 51.117 - Draft environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a draft environmental impact statement or any supplement to a draft environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  20. 10 CFR 51.118 - Final environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a final environmental impact statement or any supplement to a final environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  1. 10 CFR 51.85 - Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking. 51.85... Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.85 Draft environmental impact... Commission has determined to prepare an environmental impact statement....

  2. 10 CFR 51.117 - Draft environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a draft environmental impact statement or any supplement to a draft environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  3. 10 CFR 51.73 - Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.73 Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement. Each draft environmental impact statement and each supplement to a draft environmental impact statement distributed in accordance with § 51.74, and each news release......

  4. 10 CFR 51.91 - Final environmental impact statement-contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-contents. 51.91... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.91 Final environmental impact statement—contents. (a)(1) The final environmental impact statement will include...

  5. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.86 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and...

  6. 10 CFR 51.117 - Draft environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a draft environmental impact statement or any supplement to a draft environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  7. 10 CFR 51.73 - Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.73 Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement. Each draft environmental impact statement and each supplement to a draft environmental impact statement distributed in accordance with § 51.74, and each news release......

  8. 10 CFR 51.70 - Draft environmental impact statement-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-general. 51.70... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.70 Draft environmental impact statement—general. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a draft environmental impact statement as soon as...

  9. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  10. 10 CFR 51.81 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.81 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement......

  11. 10 CFR 51.73 - Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.73 Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement. Each draft environmental impact statement and each supplement to a draft environmental impact statement distributed in accordance with § 51.74, and each news release......

  12. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  13. 49 CFR 520.25 - External review of draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.25 External review of draft environmental impact statements. (a... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External review of draft environmental impact... by law or special expertise with respect to the possible environmental impact involved, and from...

  14. 10 CFR 51.118 - Final environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a final environmental impact statement or any supplement to a final environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff...

  15. 10 CFR 51.72 - Supplement to draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. 51.72... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.72 Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a supplement to a draft environmental impact statement for......

  16. 10 CFR 51.81 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.81 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement......

  17. 10 CFR 51.91 - Final environmental impact statement-contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-contents. 51.91... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.91 Final environmental impact statement—contents. (a)(1) The final environmental impact statement will include...

  18. 10 CFR 51.81 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.81 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement......

  19. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  20. 10 CFR 51.72 - Supplement to draft environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. 51.72... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.72 Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a supplement to a draft environmental impact statement for......