Science.gov

Sample records for chlorination environmental impact

  1. Impacts of Water Chlorination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    To learn the consequences of one aspect of technology on man and his surroundings, scientists meeting at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discussed what is known about the impacts of water chlorination. The conference produced state-of-the-art information about the technology and attempted to summarize all the information on the subject. (BT)

  2. Environmental impact assessment of chlorine in liquid crystal display glass (LCDG) based on material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kensuke; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-12-15

    Liquid crystal display glass (LCDG) may contain chlorine in trace amounts to attain some of its special properties. LCDG is primarily manufactured by glass companies, which then supply the electronic industry for utilization in the manufacture of items such as televisions, computer monitors, etc. In order to be seen as environmentally friendly, some electronic companies that utilize LCDG request that glass companies eliminate halogens such as chlorine from LCDG. The issue of halogens in products is often associated with dioxin-like problems. By using halogen-free LCDG in their manufacturing process, electronic companies aim to enhance their eco-friendly branding. Nevertheless, the real gains in terms of environmental improvement are yet to be assessed. In this study, we discussed the effectiveness of reducing or eliminating chlorine in electrical and electronic products on a scientific basis, by carrying out a quantitative assessment of cancer risk posed by potential emissions of dioxins when discarded LCDG is incinerated. The results indicate that the maximum increase of individual lifetime cancer risk is 3.2 × 10(-10). This level of cancer risk is negligible. Consequently, we suggest that there is no need to introduce stricter standards for chlorine content in LCDG, from the viewpoint of potential dioxin formation.

  3. Water chlorination: An enigma for modern-day environmental chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Jolley, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of modern-day water chlorination is to reap the benefits of chlorine's excellent disinfection efficacy while minimizing its environmental impacts and byproduct toxicity. Chemists, biologists, and engineers need to work together to identify, quantify, and use most effectively the disinfectant forms of chlorine to maximize disinfection, while at the same time they also need to identify, quantify, and minimize the toxic forms of by-products produced by chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds found in water. To the extent that this is possible, we can enjoy the benefits of chlorine disinfection and minimize the human and environmental impacts of chlorination by-products. 22 refs.

  4. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  5. Impacts of water quality on chlorine and chlorine dioxide efficacy in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Benoit; Desjardins, Raymond; Mysore, Chandra; Prévost, Michele

    2005-05-01

    The impact of disinfection efficacy in natural waters was evaluated by performing disinfection assays using four untreated surface waters of various qualities and ultra-pure buffered waters as a baseline condition for comparison. Bacillus subtilis spores were spiked in these waters and disinfection assays were conducted at 22 degrees C using either free chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Assays using indigenous aerobic spores were also completed. The inactivation kinetics in natural and ultra-pure buffered waters were not statistically different (at p = 0.05) while using free chlorine, as long as disinfectant decay was taken into account. Filtering natural waters through a 0.45 microm did not improve the sporicidal efficacy of chlorine. For three out of the four waters tested, the efficacy of chlorine dioxide was greater in natural waters compared to that observed in ultra-pure buffered waters. Such results are consistent with previous observations using ultra-pure waters supplemented with NOM-extract from the Suwannee River. Similar to free chlorine results, the impact of filtration (0.45 microm) on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide was not statistically significant.

  6. Environmental distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Emmi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the concentration of PCB's and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Susquehanna River Basin sediments was performed on samples collected from New York and Pennsylvania in 1976-1979. Highest concentrations were found for PCB's, with median and range of 38 and 13-524 ng/g, respectively. Pesticides had median concentrations ranging from approx.1 ng/g for DDT, DDD, and DDE, to less than 0.1 ng/g for aldrin and dieldrin. Highest concentrations generally were found downstream from industrial centers. Concentrations of PCB's and pesticides were also determined for soil composites collected from six areas of the basin. For several pollutants, the highest levels were found in the Pennsylvania areas, especially the Conestoga River Basin site. The PCB levels were the same (approx.35 ng/g) in all New York soil composites; this was consistent with concentrations predicted from known atmospheric deposition data. Adsorption of atrazine and simazine on model substrates was stuided to elucidate the partitioning of these herbicides on river sediments. Clean sea sand had little affinity for these compounds. Adsorption on illite clay and humic acid-coated sea sand gave relatively large K/sub p/ and K/sub oc/ values compared to the values for river sediments, suggesting that the nature of the sites available for absorbing organic molecules needs further study.

  7. Impact of water quality on chlorine demand of corroding copper.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Liggett, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect against waterborne pathogens such as Legionella is particularly challenging since copper and other reactive distribution system materials can exert considerable demands. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the consumption of free chlorine associated with corroding copper pipes over time. A copper test-loop pilot system was used to control test conditions and systematically meet the study objectives. Chlorine consumption trends attributed to abiotic reactions with copper over time were different for each pH condition tested, and the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs increased with increasing pH. Orthophosphate eliminated chlorine consumption trends with elapsed time (i.e., chlorine demand was consistent across entire test runs). Orthophosphate also greatly reduced the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs. Interestingly, the total amount of chlorine consumed and the consumption rate were not pH dependent when orthophosphate was present. The findings reflect the complex and competing reactions at the copper pipe wall including corrosion, oxidation of Cu(I) minerals and ions, and possible oxidation of Cu(II) minerals, and the change in chlorine species all as a function of pH. The work has practical applications for maintaining chlorine residuals in premise plumbing drinking water systems including large buildings such as hospitals.

  8. Long-term Impact of Environmental Public Health Disaster on Health System Performance: Experiences from the Graniteville, South Carolina Chlorine Spill

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, Jennifer R; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the aftermath of an Environmental Public Health Disaster (EPHD) a healthcare system may be the least equipped to respond. Preventable visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) may be used as a population-based indicator to monitor health system access post-disaster. The objective of this study was to examine whether ACSCs rates among vulnerable sub-populations are sensitive to the impact of a disaster. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis using Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to calculate change in monthly ACSC visits at the disaster site in the post-disaster period compared to the pre-disaster period after adjusting for parallel changes in two control groups. Results The adjusted rate of an ACSC hospital visit pre-disaster for the direct group was 1.68 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.47, 1.93), while the adjusted ACSC hospital rate post-disaster for the direct group was 3.10 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.97, 5.18). For emergency department ACSC visits, the adjusted rate among those directly affected pre-disaster were 1.82 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.61, 2.08), while the adjusted ACSC rate post-disaster was 2.81 times the rate for the primary control group (95% CI: 1.92, 5.17). Conclusions Results revealed increased demand on the health system altered health services delivery for vulnerable populations directly impacted by the disaster. Preventable visits for ACSCs may advance meaningful use practice and public health surveillance by identifying and characterizing healthcare disparities during disaster recovery. PMID:23263318

  9. Chlorine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine ; CASRN 7782 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  10. Chlorine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical chlorine, produced in small quantities in the laboratory, is presented. The profile summarizes physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  11. Chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith

    2009-01-01

    Following a brief description of the use of chlorine as a chemical warfare agent in World War I, this chapter summarizes physical and chemical data and recent clinical and controlled laboratory studies on the irritant and lethal effects of chlorine. The mechanism of toxicity for both irritation and lethal effects is described. The mathematical relationship between concentration and exposure duration for a set endpoint is given for both an irritancy response and mortality. This information can be used to assist in time-scaling for the set endpoint to other exposure durations. Risk assessment addresses the potential for greater effects in sensitive populations such as asthmatics. A concentration of 0.5 ppm for up to 8 hours is a no-adverse-effect concentration in most sensitive subjects; whereas, a concentration of 1.0 ppm induces some sensory irritation and transient changes in respiratory tract airflow parameters. Treatment and intervention of exposed individuals is dependent upon symptoms

  12. In situ thermal desorption of soils impacted with chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Stegemeier, G.L.; Carl, F.G.; Stevenson, J.D.; Dudley, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) has been demonstrated to remove high concentrations of chlorinated solvents such as PCE and TCE even from tight clay soils. ISTD applies heat and vacuum simultaneously to subsurface soils using thermal blankets for shallow contaminants (less than 2 ft depth) and thermal wells for deeper contamination. The ISTD process possesses a high removal efficiency because the narrow range of soil thermal conductivities provides excellent sweep efficiency and because its high operating temperature increases soil permeabilities and achieves complete displacement efficiency of contaminants in the gas phase. The first full scale commercial application of the ISTD well technology is described in detail for a site in Portland, Indiana, where silty clay soil was impacted with chlorinated solvents.

  13. Environmental assessment before and after conversion of a kraft mill to elemental-chlorine-free bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Deardorff, T.L.; Renard, J.J.; Phillips, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    As part of our continuing efforts to understand the potential impact of biologically treated effluents to the aquatic ecosystem, we critically examined several environmental parameters before and after the conversion to elemental-chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching at a kraft pulp and paper mill. The study involved evaluation of filtrates, pulps, sludges, and wastewater treatment within the mill and an integrated field study of the receiving stream, which included comprehensive water and sediment toxicity testing, benthic community evaluations, fish health testing, and physicochemical and biological parameters of water quality. Following ECF conversion, no detectable levels of 2,3,7,8-dioxin or polychlorinated phenolic compounds at the bleach plant and no indications of detrimental impacts to the ecosystem from the effluent were found.

  14. FATE OF PHARMACEUTICALS: EFFECTS OF CHLORINATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERSISTENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in environmental waters has become an area of concern around the world. To maximize the impact of occurrence studies, pre-screening can help determine which compounds are likely to survive waste water treatment, as well as what by-products are for...

  15. Environmental impact report (draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  16. Remedial evaluation of a UST site impacted with chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgner, B.; Rainey, E. ); Ball, M.; Schutt, M.

    1993-10-01

    During assessment and remedial planning of an underground storage tank (UST) site, it was discovered that chlorinated hydrocarbons were present. A network of selected wells were sampled for analysis of halogenated volatile organics and volatile organic compounds to determine the extent of constituents not traditionally associated with refined petroleum motor fuel products. The constituents detected included vinyl chloride, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), bromodichloromethane, and 2-chloroethylvinyl ether. These analytical data were evaluated as to what effect the nonpetroleum hydrocarbon constituents may have on the remedial approach utilized the site hydrogeologic properties to its advantage and took into consideration the residential nature of the impacted area. The geometry of the dissolved plume is very flat and broad, emanating from the site and extending downgradient under a residential area situated in a transmissive sand unit. Ground-water pumping was proposed from two areas of the dissolved plume including five wells pumping at a combined rate of 55 gallons per minute (gpm) at a downgradient position, and two wells on-site to remove free product and highly impacted ground water. Also, to assist in remediation of the dissolved plume and to control vapors, a bioventing system was proposed throughout the plume area.

  17. Increase of cytotoxicity during wastewater chlorination: Impact factors and surrogates.

    PubMed

    Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying; Yang, Yang; Liu, Rui; Liu, Feng

    2017-02-15

    Toxic and harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were formed during wastewater chlorination. It was recently suggested that cytotoxicity to mammalian cells reflects risks posed by chlorinated wastewater. Here, ATP assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Chlorination significantly increased cytotoxicity of treated wastewater. Factors affecting cytotoxicity formation during wastewater chlorination were investigated. Quenching with sodium thiosulfate and ascorbic acid decreased the formed cytotoxicity, while ammonium kept the cytotoxicity stable. The chlorine dose required for the maximum cytotoxicity increase was dramatically affected by DOC and ammonia concentrations. The maximum cytotoxicity increase, defined as the cytotoxicity formation potential (CtFP), occurred when wastewater was treated for 48h with a chlorine dose of 2·DOC+11·NH3N+10 (mg-Cl2/L). During chlorination, the amounts of AOX formation was found to be significantly correlated with cytotoxicity formation when no DBPs were destroyed. AOX formation could be used as a surrogate to estimate cytotoxicity increase during wastewater chlorination. Besides, the CtFP of 14 treated wastewater samples was assessed ranged from 5.4-20.4mg-phenol/L. The CtFP could be estimated from UV254 of treated wastewater because CtFP and UV254 were strongly correlated.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Chlorinated-Solvent Sites on Metropolitan Groundwater Resources

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Narter, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the U.S.A. The majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on metropolitan water resources was assessed for Tucson, AZ, by comparing the aggregate volume of extracted groundwater for all pump-and-treat systems associated with contaminated sites in the region to the total regional groundwater withdrawal. The analysis revealed that the aggregate volume of groundwater withdrawn for the pump-and-treat systems operating in Tucson, all of which are located at chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites, was 20% of the total groundwater withdrawal in the city for the study period. The treated groundwater was used primarily for direct delivery to local water supply systems or for reinjection as part of the pump-and-treat system. The volume of the treated groundwater used for potable water represented approximately 13% of the total potable water supply sourced from groundwater, and approximately 6% of the total potable water supply. This case study illustrates the significant impact chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites can have on groundwater resources and regional potable-water supplies. PMID:24116872

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  20. Impact of January 2005 Solar Proton Events on Chlorine Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damiani, A.; Funke, B.; Marsh, D. R.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Wang, S.; Jackman, C. H.; von Clarmann, T.; Gardini, A.; Cordero, R. R.; Storini, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden changes in stratospheric chlorine species in the polar northern atmosphere, caused by the Solar Proton Events (SPEs) of 17 and 20 January 2005, have been investigated and compared with version 4 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). We used Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements to monitor the variability of ClO, HCl, HOCl and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounder (MIPAS) on ENVISAT to retrieve ClONO2. SPE-induced chlorine activation has been identified. HCl decrease occurred at nearly all the investigated altitudes with the lowest values (of less than 0.25 ppbv) on 21 January. HOCl was found to be the main active chlorine species under nighttime conditions (with increases of more than 0.2 ppbv) whereas both HOCL and CLO enhancements (about 0.1 ppbv) have been observed at the polar night terminator. Further, small ClO decreases (of less than 0.1 ppbv) and ClONO2 enhancements (0.2 ppbv) have been observed at higher latitudes (i.e., at nighttime) roughly above 2hPa. While WACCM4 reproduces most of the SPE-induced variability in the chlorine species fairly well, in some particular regions discrepancies between the modeled and measured temporal evolution of the abundances of chlorine species were found. HOCl changes are modelled very well with respect to both magnitude and geographic distribution. ClO decreases are reproduced at high latitudes, whereas ClO enhancements in the terminator region are underestimated and attributed to background variations. WACCM4 also reproduces the HCl depletion in the mesosphere but it does not show the observed decrease below about 2 hPa. Finally, WACCM4 simulations indicate that the observed ClONO2 increase is dominated by background variability, although SPE-induced production might contribute by 0.1 ppbv.

  1. Impact of January 2005 Solar Proton Events on Chlorine Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damiani, A.; Funke, B.; Marsh, D. R.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Wang, S.; Jackman, C. H.; vonClarmann, T.; Gardini, A.; Cordero, R. R.; Storini, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sudden changes in stratospheric chlorine species in the polar northern atmosphere, caused by the Solar Proton Events (SPEs) of 17 and 20 January 2005, have been investigated and compared with version 4 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). We used Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements to monitor the variability of ClO, HCl, HOCl and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounder (MIPAS) on ENVISAT to retrieve ClONO2. SPE-induced chlorine activation has been identified. HCl decrease occurred at nearly all the investigated altitudes (i.e., 10-0.5 hPa) with the strongest decrease (of about 0.25 ppbv) on 21 January. HOCl was found to be the main active chlorine species under nighttime conditions (with increases of more than 0.2 ppbv) whereas both HOCl and ClO enhancements (about 0.1 ppbv) have been observed at the polar night terminator. Further, small ClO decreases (of less than 0.1 ppbv) and ClONO2 enhancements (about 0.2 ppbv) have been observed at higher latitudes (i.e., at nighttime) roughly above 2 hPa. While WACCM4 reproduces most of the SPE-induced variability in the chlorine species fairly well, in some particular regions discrepancies between the modeled and measured temporal evolution of the abundances of chlorine species were found. HOCl changes are modelled very well with respect to both magnitude and geographic distribution. ClO decreases are reproduced at high latitudes, whereas ClO enhancements in the terminator region are underestimated and attributed to background variations. WACCM4 also reproduces the HCl depletion in the mesosphere but it does not show the observed decrease below about 2 hPa. Finally, WACCM4 simulations indicate that the observed ClONO2 increase is dominated by background variability, although SPE-induced production might contribute by 0.1 ppbv.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental standard reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Poster, D.L.; Schantz, M.M.; Parris, R.M.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Wise, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Natural matrix environmental sample SRMs have been developed the Analytical Chemistry Division to assist in validating measurements for organic contaminants in the environment. Many of these are well characterized for contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). SRM 1649, Organics in Urban Dust, is currently available with certified concentrations for 5 PAHs but because of the widespread use of this material in air pollution monitoring programs and to expand the usefulness of this material, the authors are further characterizing the material for a larger number of PAHs as well as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. They will also soon issue a diesel particulate extract (SRM 1975) that is well characterized for PAHS, including many nitrogen substituted compounds. In addition to natural matrix materials, solutions useful for calibrating chromatographic detector response factors and retention times, and spiking sample blanks for determination of analyte recoveries, are also available. Solution SRMs currently available contain PCS congeners, chlorinated pesticides, and PAHs. New solution SRMs in preparation will contain additional chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners (e.g., non-ortho substituted chlorobiphenyls), and perdeuterated PAHs. Recent SRM work will be presented with particular attention on the methods used for determining organic contaminant concentrations in the urban dust material and in the diesel particulate extract.

  3. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Amy M; Cromeans, Theresa L; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Humphrey, Charles D; Hill, Vincent R

    2016-06-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water.

  4. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Cromeans, Theresa L.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Humphrey, Charles D.; Hill, Vincent R.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water. PMID:26910058

  5. The impact of high level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological impact of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10 fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated pre-chill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine treate...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brochure is part of a series of information packages prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Aimed at the international community, the packages focus on key environmental and public health issues being investigated by EPA. The products highligh...

  7. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  8. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  9. The Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    1991-01-01

    The impact of oil spills and oil fires in the Persian Gulf is discussed. Activities to be done in the classroom that simulate oil spills are presented. Sample discussion questions and direction for the activities are included. (KR)

  10. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... addressed in the environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report: 1. March 14, 2013, 1:30-3:30 p... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass... Water Resources intend to prepare an environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report...

  11. Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) for chlorine and bromine: a review of techniques and applications to elucidate environmental sources and processes.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Pieri, Francesca; Zhang, Yuan; Seed, Mike; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    Chlorinated and brominated compounds belong to the class of organohalogen compounds that have received attention because of their widespread occurrence, use and applications. Understanding the sources and transformation processes of these contaminants in the environment enables assessment of their possible impact on humans and ecosystems. Recently new and innovative methods of Compound Specific Isotope Analysis have started to be applied to characterize the origin and fate of compounds, their breakdown products and degradation rates in different environmental compartments. Almost all studies have focussed on determination of isotopes of C and H, only recently new methodologies have been developed to measure isotopes of Cl and Br. This review firstly gives a brief description of chemistry properties and geochemical cycle of chlorine and bromine followed by a summary of their uses and applications. In the second section, an overview of CSIA techniques and new challenges and successful applications are also presented.

  12. Nearshore Berm Discussion Environmental Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-13

    Southeast • Corals • Hardbottom • Manatees • Sea Turtles • Shorebirds Southwest •Hardbottom • Manatees • Sea Turtles • Shorebirds West...Potential Environmental Impacts Corals  Concern about sedimentation impacting corals .  Mitigated by NMFS requirement to that placement occur 400...Beach Munsell Color change reduced as sediment is spread out and bleaches more naturally • Shorebird impacts eliminated BUILDING STRONG

  13. Role of plant biomass in the global environmental partitioning of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Calamari, D.; Morosini, M.; Vighi, M. ); Bacci, E.; Focardi, S.; Gaggi, C. )

    1991-08-01

    Plant biomass plays a significant role in the global environmental partitioning phenomena and plants are good indicators of tropospheric contamination levels by chlorinated hydrocarbons. In the present research 300 samples of plants were collected in 265 areas distributed worldwide and analyzed for HCB (hexachlorobenzene), {alpha}-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), {gamma}-HCH, p,p{prime}-DDT,o,p{prime}-DDT, and p,p{prime}-DDE (degradation product of DDT). Global HCB distribution is strongly dependent on the temperature, the HCB being present mainly in samples from cold areas. The sum of DDTs show higher concentrations in samples from topical areas, while the sum of HCHs is higher in the plants from the Northern Hemisphere. These results are discussed, taking into account the role of physicochemical properties in determining the global distribution as well as the air age of the contamination.

  14. Aqueous based replacements for chlorinated solvents meeting standards while minimizing environmental liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arcuri, K.B.; Janes, J.V. III; Janes, K.N.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 mandates the phaseout of many chlorinated solvents used in numerous cleaning and degreasing applications. Aqueous-based cleaners can be an effective alternative in many applications, however this changeover can require significant laboratory and pilot studies. Prior to the phaseout, little attention was given to the material balances and cleanliness requirements associated with many cleaning applications. Environmental regulations have forced many industries to evaluate material usage rates and waste management options associated with their cleaning applications. Aqueous-based cleaners offer the opportunity to minimize waste generation while achieving the desired cleanliness level. This paper will address the technical issues associated with identifying the types of surfactant and emulsion based organic aqueous cleaners which satisfy common cleaning scenarios. The critical issues typically include cleaning efficiency, management of the washwater, and disposal of cleaning residues. Aqueous cleaners generally offer significant advantages over other alternatives due to the flexibility in designing the most appropriate surfactant and emulsion chemistry.

  15. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  16. Combined remediation technologies: results from field trials at chlorinated solvent impacted sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Lomheim, L.; Boparai, H. K.; Weber, K.; Austrins, L. M.; Edwards, E.; Sleep, B.; de Boer, C. V.; Garcia, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are one class of waste liquids often generated from waste mixtures in industrial processes containing surfactants, chlorinated hydrocarbons and other compounds. Chlorinated solvents, a particularly persistent NAPL contaminant, frequently contaminate water sources for decades and are one of the more common contaminants at brownfield and industrialized sites. Although considerable advances in our understanding of the phenomena governing NAPL remediation have been made, and a number of innovative remediation technologies have been developed, existing technologies are rarely able to achieve clean up goals in contaminated aquifers at the completion of remedial activities. The development and pilot scale testing of new and innovative remediation technologies is, therefore, crucial to achieve clean up goals at contaminated sites. Our research group is currently investigating a number of innovative remediation technologies, either individually or as combined remedies. This includes the applicability of nanometals and ISCO (e.g., persulfate) for contaminated site remediation. These technologies can be combined with technologies to enhance amendment delivery (e.g., electrokinetics) or create conditions favorable for enhanced biotic contaminant degradation. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a number of field trials conducted at chlorinated solvent impacted sites by our group with a particular focus on combined remediation technologies.

  17. Environmental impact of wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J.; Teilmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied.

  18. Modelling the impact of chlorine and bromine emissions from large Plinian eruptions on ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenna, Hans; Krüger, Kirstin; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Large Plinian volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of atmosphere-relevant gases (e.g. S, Cl, Br) and materials into the stratosphere. If the eruption occurs in the tropics, it can have a global impact due to the dispersal through the large scale meridional overturning circulation. Most climate model studies concentrate on the sulfate aerosol effects on climate. In contrast, ozone-depletion initiated by volcanic halogens from tropical eruptions was believed to play an insignificant role for the global atmosphere, based on observations from the recent El Chichon and Pinatubo eruptions. New results regarding the halogen release by Plinian eruptions, as well as recent volcanic plume observations and model simulations facilitate now our investigation into what effect the combined chlorine and bromine emissions from large tropical eruptions have on ozone and the atmosphere in general. A complete halogen data set for the last 200 ka (Kutterolf et al., 2015), derived by the petrological method from paleo-eruptions of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), are used to force simulations with the advanced chemistry climate model WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). The goal is to quantify the impact of volcanic halogens on the preindustrial atmosphere when the background chlorine levels were low compared to the present day with the main focus on stratospheric ozone. We carried out 5 model simulations assuming that 10% of the Cl and Br (9.51e+6 kg Br and 2.93e+9 kg Cl) emitted from the average CAVA eruption is injected into the tropical stratosphere during January. The model response reveals a global impact on the ozone layer affecting via radiation also atmospheric dynamics for more than 5 years. Given the current decline in anthropogenic chlorine, the results will become relevant for future halogen-rich explosive eruptions in the tropics. References: Kutterolf, S., T. Hansteen, A. Freundt, H. Wehrmann, K. Appel, K. Krüger, and W. Pérez (2015), Bromine

  19. Chlorine dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 00 / 007 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORITE ( CAS Nos . 10049 - 04 - 4 and 7758 - 19 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the ( IRIS ) Integrated Risk Information System September 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  20. 76 FR 65746 - Notice of Availability of Joint Final Environmental Impact Statement/Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ..., LVRWB10B3800] Notice of Availability of Joint Final Environmental Impact Statement/Final Environmental Impact... Utilities Commission (CPUC) have prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR) as a joint environmental analysis document for Tule Wind, LLC's Tule...

  1. Environmental impact assessment in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.G.; De Aguiar, A.M.D. . Dept. de Ecologia e Programa de Pos- graduac ao em Analise Ambiental)

    1993-05-01

    Brazilian environmental impact assessment (EIA) had a relatively late birth and is still far from being operative by international standards. Currently, geological, economic, and social considerations are more highly valued. Nevertheless, EIA has become important in shaping governmental policy. The state of Sao Paulo is responsible for 40% of all EIAs produced in Brazil, and the number of EIAs produced is proportional to stat population density.

  2. Evaluation of polyethersulfone performance for the microextraction of polar chlorinated herbicides from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ailette; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael; Möder, Monika; Rodríguez, Isaac

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the suitability of bulk polyethersulfone (PES) for sorptive microextraction of eight polar, chlorinated phenoxy acids and dicamba from environmental water samples is assessed and the analytical features of the optimized method are compared to those reported for other microextraction techniques. Under optimized conditions, extractions were performed with samples (18 mL) adjusted at pH 2 and containing a 30% (w/v) of sodium chloride, using a tubular PES sorbent (1 cm length × 0.7 mm o.d., sorbent volume 8 µL). Equilibrium conditions were achieved after 3h of direct sampling, with absolute extraction efficiencies ranging from 39 to 66%, depending on the compound. Analytes were recovered soaking the polymer with 0.1 mL of ethyl acetate, derivatized and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Achieved quantification limits (LOQs) varied between 0.005 and 0.073 ng mL(-1). After normalization with the internal surrogate (IS), the efficiency of the extraction was only moderately affected by the particular characteristics of different water samples (surface and sewage water); thus, pseudo-external calibration, using spiked ultrapure water solutions, can be used as quantification technique. The reduced cost of the PES polymer allowed considering it as a disposable sorbent, avoiding variations in the performance of the extraction due to cross-contamination problems and/or surface modification with usage.

  3. [Impacts of suspended solids on "tailing" phenomenon in disinfection of sewage with chlorine].

    PubMed

    Lang, Yong-Me; Liu, Chao-Bin; Yu, Yong-Zhen; Qian, Yu-Jia; Zhang, Li; Liu, Wei

    2010-06-01

    The impacts of suspended solids in secondary effluent on "tailing" phenomenon in disinfection of E. coli with chlorine were investigated using kinetic disinfection curves. Higher SS concentration led to earlier beginning of "tailing" region with lower inactivation level. Comparison between lg-lg regression analyses of disinfection curves demonstrated that the SS concentration correlated with overall inactivation rate, which decreased by 10 times while SS concentration increased from 6 to 85 mg/L. The results of segmental modeling of disinfection curves showed that the SS concentration (at a range of 10-55 mg/L) correlated with the starting time of "tailing" region as well as the log-kill at the starting point of tailing region (R2 > 0.99). The starting time was shortened from 330 min to 55 min, and the log-kill dropped from 5.8 down to 0.8 with SS concentration increasing. Better removal of SS will improve the lg-kill of E. coli at tailing region and the inactivation rate, resulting in lower cost of construction and running. In addition, higher chlorine dosage and lower pH value could slightly enhance the log-kill in the "tailing" region.

  4. 76 FR 41817 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Alta East Wind Project, and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Kern..., California, intend to prepare a joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/ Environmental Impact Report...

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Chen, K.; Whiteside, M.; Mazzola, C.

    2011-05-10

    A train derailment occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning of January 6, 2005, and resulted in the release of a large amount of cryogenic pressurized liquid chlorine to the environment in a short time period. A comprehensive evaluation of the transport and fate of the released chlorine was performed, accounting for dilution, diffusion, transport and deposition into the local environment. This involved the characterization of a three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of local atmospheric mechanisms acting on the released chlorine, the establishment of atmospheric-hydrological physical exchange mechanisms, and aquatic dilution and mixing. This presentation will provide an overview of the models used in determining the total air-to-water mass transfer estimated to have occurred as a result of the roughly 60 tons of chlorine released into the atmosphere from the train derailment. The assumptions used in the modeling effort will be addressed, along with a comparison with available observational data to validate the model results. Overall, model-estimated chlorine concentrations in the airborne plume compare well with human and animal exposure data collected in the days after the derailment.

  6. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through 08/02/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  7. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections.

  8. Are BKME effects on fish caused by chlorinated compounds?

    SciTech Connect

    Burnison, B.K.; Hodson, P.V.; Parrott, J.

    1995-12-31

    Much of the debate about the use and environmental impacts of chlorinated compounds has been fueled by attempts to regulate the effluents discharged by pulp and paper mills. Swedish field studies have associated effects on fish health and reproduction with the discharge of AOX. A recent study has demonstrated that the effect of black liquor is three orders of magnitude more potent than the first chlorine dioxide bleachery effluent on fish. Black liquors from various pulp mills, including a mill which uses alcohol to extract lignin, also suggest that effects on fish could be caused by non-chlorinated wood extractives, Chemical analysis of isolated fractions from final BKME effluent and pure compound bioassays also indicate the high probability that non-chlorinated compounds may be responsible for fish effects. While chlorination may increase the potency of these compounds, it is clear that chlorine is not essential for effects on fish.

  9. [Coagulation and adsorption on treating the Yellow River and the impact on chlorine decay during chlorination process].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao; Gao, Bao-yu; Liu, Bin; Xu, Chun-hua; Yue, Qin-yan

    2010-05-01

    Two types of inorganic polymer coagulants, polyferric chloride (PFC) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), were chosen to treat the Yellow River water. Different dosages were investigated in order to investigate the turbidity, UV24, DOC and permanganate index removal efficiency and their coagulation mechanisms based on the Zeta potentials. The natural organic matter removal by the combination of coagulation and adsorption with powder activated carbon were analyzed based on different coagulant and adsorbent dosages and dosing orders. The effects of combination of coagulation and adsorption on the residual chlorine decay were analyzed. The results showed that the two coagulants had high turbidity removal efficiency ( > 90%). The UV254, DOC, permanganate index removal efficiency were 29.2%, 26.1% and 27.9% respectively for PAC coagulation and were 32.3%, 23.3% and 32.9% respectively for PFC. Electric neutralization played an important role in the PAC coagulation process while both adsorption bridging and electric neutralization performed when PFC was used. The removal percentage of organic matter increased with the increase coagulant and adsorbent. The adsorption after coagulation process gave the better UV254 and DOC removal efficiency than the coagulation after adsorption. The UV254 and DOC removal efficiency were 95.2% and 99.9% for PAC coagulation after adsorption and were 90.1% and 99.9% for PFC coagulation first. But adding powder activated carbon can improve floc settlement performance and maintained persistent disinfection effect.

  10. Impact of vegetation and ecosystems on chlorine(-36) cycling and its modeling: from simplified approaches towards more complex biogeochemical tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Yves; Redon, Paul-Olivier; Gustafsson, Malin; Marang, Laura; Bastviken, David

    2013-04-01

    Chlorine is very soluble at a global scale with chloride (Cl-), the dominating form. Because of its high mobility, chlorine is usually perceived as a good conservative tracer in hydrological studies and by analogy as little reactive in biosphere. Since 36Cl can be considered to have the same behaviour than stable Cl, a good knowledge of chlorine distribution between compartments of terrestrial ecosystems is sufficient to calibrate a specific activity model which supposes rapid dilution of 36Cl within the large pool of stable Cl and isotopic equilibrium between compartments. By assuming 36Cl redistribution similar to that of stable Cl at steady-state, specific activity models are simplified interesting tools for regulatory purposes in environmental safety assessment, especially in case of potential long term chronic contamination of agricultural food chain (IAEA, 2010). In many other more complex scenarios (accidental acute release, intermediate time frame, and contrasted natural ecosystems), new information and tools are necessary for improving (radio-)ecological realism, which entails a non-conservative behavior of chlorine. Indeed observed dynamics of chlorine in terrestrial ecosystems is far from a simple equilibrium notably because of natural processes of organic matter (SOM) chlorination mainly occurring in surface soils (Öberg, 1998) and mediated by microbial activities on a large extent (Bastviken et al. 2007). Our recent studies have strengthened the view that an organic cycle for chlorine should now be recognized, in addition to its inorganic cycle. Major results showed that: organochlorine (Clorg) formation occurs in all type of soils and ecosystems (culture, pasture, forest), leading to an average fraction of the total Cl pool in soil of about 80 % (Redon et al., 2012), chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Clorg pool and in turn to a possible high internal supply of inorganic chlorine (Clin) upon dechlorination. (Gustafsson et

  11. Ports Primer: 7.1 Environmental Impacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  12. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A

    2016-01-15

    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters.

  13. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  14. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  15. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  16. 76 FR 59119 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Proposed Marine Terminal Development at Pier S and Back Channel... Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for the Pier S Marine Terminal and Back... terminal, and would include the following elements: Property acquisition; dredging, wharf...

  17. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental...

  18. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental...

  19. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental...

  20. Impact of chlorine disinfectants on dissolution of the lead corrosion product PbO2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjiao; Wang, Yin; Giammar, Daniel E

    2010-09-15

    Plattnerite (β-PbO(2)) is a corrosion product that develops on lead pipes that have been in contact with free chlorine present as a residual disinfectant. The reductive dissolution of PbO(2) can cause elevated lead concentrations in tap water when the residual disinfectant is switched from free chlorine to monochloramine. The objectives of this study were to quantify plattnerite dissolution rates in the presence of chlorine disinfectants, gain insights into dissolution mechanisms, and measure plattnerite's equilibrium solubility in the presence of free chlorine. The effects of free chlorine and monochloramine on the dissolution rates of plattnerite were quantified in completely mixed continuous-flow reactors at relevant pH and dissolved inorganic carbon conditions. Plattnerite dissolution rates decreased in the following order: no disinfectant > monochloramine > chlorine, which was consistent with the trend in the redox potential. Compared with experiments without disinfectant, monochloramine inhibited plattnerite dissolution in continuous-flow experiments. Although free chlorine maintained steady-state lead concentrations below the action level of 15 μg/L in flow-through experiments, in batch experiments lead concentrations exceeded the action level for longer residence times and approached an equilibrium value that was several orders of magnitude higher than that predicted from available thermodynamic data.

  1. Evaluating the environmental fate of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the Nordic environment using a dynamic multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Krogseth, Ingjerd S; Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) raise concerns due to their potential for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and adverse effects. An understanding of their environmental fate remains limited, partly due to the complexity of the mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a mechanistic, integrated, dynamic environmental fate and bioaccumulation multimedia model (CoZMoMAN) can reconcile what is known about environmental emissions and human exposure of SCCPs in the Nordic environment. Realistic SCCP emission scenarios, resolved by formula group, were estimated and used to predict the composition and concentrations of SCCPs in the environment and the human food chain. Emissions at the upper end of the estimated range resulted in predicted total concentrations that were often within a factor of 6 of observations. Similar model performance for a complex group of organic contaminants as for the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls strengthens the confidence in the CoZMoMAN model and implies a relatively good mechanistic understanding of the environmental fate of SCCPs. However, the degree of chlorination predicted for SCCPs in sediments, fish, and humans was higher than observed and poorly established environmental half-lives and biotransformation rate constants contributed to the uncertainties in the predicted composition and ∑SCCP concentrations. Improving prediction of the SCCP composition will also require better constrained estimates of the composition of SCCP emissions. There is, however, also large uncertainty and lack of coherence in the existing observations, and better model-measurement agreement will require improved analytical methods and more strategic sampling. More measurements of SCCP levels and compositions in samples from background regions are particularly important.

  2. [Impacts of the hydraulic characteristics of pilot clearwell on chlorine disinfection efficiency].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Wen-Jun; Gao, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Su-Xia

    2009-09-15

    A pilot clearwell was used to simulate the chlorine disinfection process with the Bacillus subtilis spores as the target microbe. The effluent of the activated carbon filter tank was radiated by low pressure UV lamp and then used as the influent the pilot clearwell. The impacts of hydraulic characteristics of pilot clearwell on disinfection efficiency of Bacillus subtilis spores was studied under different hydraulic characteristics which was changed by the number of the baffles. Under the conditions of this experiment, the inactivation coefficients of Bacillus subtilis spores with NaC10 as disinfectant which were calculated by Ct10 value were almost same under different hydraulic characteristics, but the inactivation coefficients which were calculated by CT value were very different under different hydraulic characteristics. This verified that it was more reasonable to evaluate the disinfection efficiency by Ct10 value than CT value. When Ct10 value was in the range of 100 - 300 mg x min/L, the inactivation coefficient of Bacillus subtilis spores with NaClO as disinfectant was 0.001 6 L(mg x min), which highly coincided with others' results. When CT value was in the range of 100 - 700 mg x min/L, under the same CT value, the disinfection efficiency of target microbe would be notably enhanced by increasing the number of baffles which would improve the hydraulic characteristics. So the results verified that the disinfection efficiency could be enhanced by improving the hydraulic characteristics of the clearwell.

  3. Impact of chlorinated disinfection on copper corrosion in hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, J. Castillo; Hamdani, F.; Creus, J.; Touzain, S.; Correc, O.

    2014-09-01

    In France, hot water quality control inside buildings is occasionally ensured by disinfection treatments using temperature increases or addition of sodium hypochlorite (between 0.5 ppm and 1 ppm residual free chlorine). This disinfectant is a strong oxidiser and it could interact with metallic pipes usually used in hot water systems. This work deals with the study of the impact of these treatments on the durability of copper pipes. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration and temperature on the copper corrosion mechanism. Copper samples were tested under dynamic and static conditions of ageing with sodium hypochlorite solutions ranging from 0 to 100 ppm with temperature at 50 °C and 70 °C. The efficiency of a corrosion inhibitor was investigated in dynamic conditions. Visual observations and analytical analyses of the internal surface of samples was studied at different ageing duration. Corrosion products were characterised by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Temperature and disinfectant were found to considerably affect the copper corrosion mechanism. Surprisingly, the corrosiveness of the solution was higher at lower temperatures. The temperature influences the nature of corrosion products. The protection efficiency is then strongly depend on the nature of the corrosion products formed at the surface of copper samples exposed to the aggressive solutions containing different concentration of disinfectant.

  4. Chemistry of saline-water chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.R.

    1981-06-01

    Vast quantities of natural waters are used by power plants for cooling purposes. This water is chlorinated to prevent slime build-up inside the cooling pipes, is circulated through the cooling system, and eventually discharged back into the water body. In order to assess the environmental impact of water chlorination, it is necessary to know what chemical compounds are produced and discharged into the receiving waters. To attack this problem, a review of the present state of knowledge of natural water chlorination chemistry was performed, and some experimental work explained the results of previous workers by showing that chlorine losses at very high doses in seawater are simply the result of chlorate and bromate formation which, however, is negligible at normal doses. The most important chlorine-produced oxidants, along with the relevant chemical reactions, were chosen as a basis for a kinetic model of saline water chlorination chemistry. Kinetic data were compiled in a computer program which simultaneously solves 24 differential equations, one for each species modelled. Estimates were made for the unknown rate constants. A purely predictive model was not possible due to the great variability in the organic demand; however, the model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions (except sunlight), and it provides a reasonably good description of a halamine chemistry under environmental conditions.

  5. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  6. Environmental occurrence and distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments and soils from the Liaohe River Basin, P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Haijun; Su, Fan; Tian, Yuzeng; Chen, Jiping

    2012-04-03

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are industrially produced in large quantities in the Liaohe River Basin. Their discharge inevitably causes environmental contamination. However, very limited information is available on their environmental levels and distributions in this typical industrial region. In this study, short chain CPs (SCCPs) were analyzed in sediments, paddy soils, and upland soils from the Liaohe River Basin, with concentrations ranging from 39.8 to 480.3 ng/g dry weight. A decreasing trend in SCCP concentrations was found with increasing distance from the cities, suggesting that local industrial activity was the major source of SCCP contamination. A preliminary sediment inventory of SCCPs indicated approximately 30.82 tonnes of SCCPs residual in the sediments from the Liaohe River. The average discharge of SCCPs was estimated to be about 74.4 mg/tonne industrial wastewater. The congener group profiles showed that the relative abundances of shorter chain and lower chlorinated CP congeners (C(10)-CPs with 5 or 6 chlorine atoms) in soils in rural areas were higher than in sites near cities, which demonstrated that long-range atmospheric transportation could be the major transport pathway. Environmental degradation of SCCPs might occur, where higher chlorinated congeners could dechlorinate to form the lower chlorinated congeners.

  7. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared...

  8. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared...

  9. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared...

  10. Mitigation of adverse environmental and unavoidable impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a broad scope discussion of the mitigation of adverse environmental and unavoidable impacts. TVA will mitigate site specific environmental impacts from the construction and operation of new power facilities through a combination of planning, pollution prevention, and environmental controls. However, one of the most important mitigative measures associated with Energy Vision 2020 is the multi-attribute tradeoff method used for the evaluation. This method allowed proposed strategies to be reformated in order to reduce potential impacts.

  11. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  12. Environmental impact on workplace performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Derrick P.; Orfield, Steven J.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-05-01

    Since 1998, Orfield Laboratories has led research efforts into the effects of the office environment on worker performance through the Open Plan Working Group. This collaboration of researchers, designers, and facility managers works with OPWG in gathering environmental data (including noise, lighting, and thermal measurements) and subjective occupant ranking data. The OPWG then employs statistical analysis to correlate the environmental measurements, occupant performance, and occupant preference measurements. Through efficient measurement stations and Web-based surveys, Orfield Laboratories has helped many companies to begin to view their employees as their greatest operational profit center. This presentation will discuss the effect that noise as well as other environmental factors has on work performance.

  13. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS...

  14. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS...

  15. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  16. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  17. Evaluation of biomarkers of environmental exposures: urinary haloacetic acids associated with ingestion of chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Haltmeier, P; Klotz, J B; Weisel, C P

    1999-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if DCAA and TCAA urinary excretion rates are valid biomarkers of chronic ingestion exposure to these disinfection by-products of chlorination of drinking water. Entire first morning urine voids, time-of-visit urine samples, and tap water samples were collected from 47 female subjects. In addition, a 48-h recall questionnaire was administered to determine the amounts and types of liquids ingested by each subject as well as other exposures that could lead to DCAA and TCAA urinary excretion. The TCAA excretion rate for the first morning urine samples was significantly correlated with the estimated 48-h TCAA ingestion exposure for 25 subjects whose ingestion exposures primarily occurred at home, while the DCAA excretion rate was not correlated with the DCAA ingestion exposure. Thus, urinary TCAA appears to be a valid biomarker of chronic ingestion exposure to TCAA from chlorinated water, while urinary DCAA is not. It is proposed that the difference in the biological half-lives between these two compounds is the rationale for this finding. The biological half-life of TCAA is longer than successive exposure intervals; thus TCAA accumulates until it reaches a steady state. The half-life of DCAA is shorter than successive exposure intervals; thus DCAA is almost completely metabolized following an exposure and is eliminated from the body. This study suggests that biological half-life, exposure interval, and sample collection interval should be considered in selecting biomarkers and designing studies to validate them.

  18. 75 FR 52804 - Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Stanislaus County... subsequent environmental documentation for project-specific impacts. Letters describing the proposed...

  19. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site.

  20. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  1. Determination of bromine, chlorine and iodine in environmental aqueous samples by epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D. J.; Braisted, J.; Panno, S.

    2006-01-01

    Halides, particularly Br- and Cl-, have been used as indicators of potential sources of Na+ and Cl- in surface water and groundwater with limited success. Contamination of groundwater and surface water by Na+ and Cl- is a common occurrence in growing urban areas and adversely affects municipal and private water supplies in Illinois and other states, as well as vegetation in environmentally sensitive areas. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be effectively used to determine these halogens, but often the elevated concentrations of sodium and chlorine in water samples can give rise to very high detection limits for bromine and iodine due to elevated backgrounds from the activation process. We present a detailed analytical scheme to determine Cl, Br and I in aqueous samples with widely varying Na and Cl concentrations using epithermal NAA in conjunction with Compton suppression. ?? 2006 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  2. Hydrogen, socio-environmental impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. S.; Matthews, W. E.; Duff, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    The concept and logic flow of a hydrogen technology assessment are described along with a specific procedure for such an assessment. The development of hydrogen technology is discussed. Factors considered in the development and use of hydrogen include: stimulus of societal needs and technological innovations; economic factors; and social and environmental effects.

  3. Environmental impact of water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and the use of water in agricultural production is necessary to feed the world’s population and provide ecosystem services. As the population increases there is more concern about the potential role of agriculture on environmental quality...

  4. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of...

  5. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if...

  6. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of...

  7. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if...

  8. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if...

  9. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if...

  10. A Procedure for Evaluating Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Luna B.; And Others

    This report contains one of the first procedures available to environmental impact statements. The heart of the system is a matrix which is general enough to be used as a reference checklist or a reminder of the full range of actions and impacts on the environment that may relate to any proposed action. This comparatively simple system is intended…

  11. A Manual for Conducting Environmental Impact Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, L. Ellis, Jr.; And Others

    This report presents methodologies for measuring the anticipated environmental impact of proposed highways at the conceptual, location, and design planning stages. An interdisciplinary team approach is recommended. The research emphasizes the systematic collection and evaluation of data on various types of impacts, including those related to…

  12. Environmental impact of adjuvants in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Ryckaert, B; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W; Heremans, B; Haesaert, G; de Coen, W

    2005-01-01

    The overall performance of chemical and biological plant protection products is enhanced by the use of adjuvants in the formulation (formulation adjuvants) or in the spray tank (spray adjuvants). Both types of adjuvants aim to stabilize the formulation, to improve the efficiency of the active ingredients and to reduce application and environmental risks. As an important part of the formulation, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the environmental impact and toxicology of adjuvants can not always be considered as inert. However, little is known of their impact as part of plant protection products compared with the active substances. Therefore an experimental framework is needed as a tool for a consistent environmental legislation.

  13. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts...

  14. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts...

  15. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts...

  16. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts...

  17. 76 FR 57720 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Impact Statement for Military Readiness Activities in the Mariana Islands Training and Testing Study Area... Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement for the Mariana Islands Training and Testing Study...

  18. Recent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A review.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Louise M; Leonards, Pim E G; Gaus, Caroline; de Boer, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about the high production volumes, persistency, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of chlorinated paraffin (CP) mixtures, especially short-chain CPs (SCCPs), are rising. However, information on their levels and fate in the environment is still insufficient, impeding international classifications and regulations. This knowledge gap is mainly due to the difficulties that arise with CP analysis, in particular the chromatographic separation within CPs and between CPs and other compounds. No fully validated routine analytical method is available yet and only semi-quantitative analysis is possible, although the number of studies reporting new and improved methods have rapidly increased since 2010. Better cleanup procedures that remove interfering compounds, and new instrumental techniques, which distinguish between medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and SCCPs, have been developed. While gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) remains the most commonly applied technique, novel and promising use of high resolution time of flight MS (TOF-MS) has also been reported. We expect that recent developments in high resolution TOF-MS and Orbitrap technologies will further improve the detection of CPs, including long-chain CPs (LCCPs), and the group separation and quantification of CP homologues. Also, new CP quantification methods have emerged, including the use of mathematical algorithms, multiple linear regression and principal component analysis. These quantification advancements are also reflected in considerably improved interlaboratory agreements since 2010. Analysis of lower chlorinated paraffins (

  19. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  20. Designing environmental research for impact.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations.

  1. 1995 Environmental Trends Impacts Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-08

    Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to...dctiwties ot enwonmental ~ntertf~t froups in the U S . and h w t nations Jrt: also discuwd I XCKNOWLEDGhIENTS This document \\ vas preprued under the...tor environmental st;ltf. and s h i f t s to outsourcing m d p n va t I zau o n o t e n v i ron me n tal 1 y re 1 ate d o pe rat 1 o n s

  2. Documentation of cumulative impacts in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.A.; Canter, L.W.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations in the United States require federal agencies to apply an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in decision-making related to their actions. One aspect requires an examination of direct, indirect and cumulative impacts (CIs). Historically, cumulative impact assessment (CIA) has been given limited attention in EIA and resultant environmental impact statements (EISs), not because of its lack of importance, but owing to limitations in methodologies and procedures, including documentation consistency. The objectives of this study were to identify deficiencies in the documentation of CIs and CIA in EISs and to formulate appropriate recommendations (potential solutions) related to such deficiencies. The study involved the systematic review of 33 EISs. The results indicate that improvements have been made in documentation practices since 1990; however, inconsistencies and inadequacies still exist. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed: (1) CIs should be reported in a separate part of the Environmental Consequences section, and they should be addressed for each pertinent environmental resource; (2) a summary of CIs should be included; (3) any CIs considered not significant should be mentioned plus the reason(s) for their non-significance; (4) spatial and temporal boundaries addressed within the CIA process should be defined for pertinent environmental resources; and (5) utilized guidelines and methodologies should be described.

  3. Environmental behaviour of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijuan; Fu, Jianjie; Pan, Wenxiao; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-07-15

    The environmental behaviour of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) was investigated in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic. The mean concentrations of SCCPs in the aquatic and terrestrial samples were 178.9ng/g dry weight (dw) and 157.2ng/g dw, respectively. Short carbon chain (C10) and less-chlorinated (Cl6) congener groups were predominant in the Arctic samples, accounting for 48.6% and 34.8% of the total SCCPs, respectively. The enrichment of lighter SCCP congener groups (i.e., fewer chlorine atoms with shorter carbon chain lengths) indicated that the fractionation process occurred during long-range transport. The biomagnification factor (BMF) was 0.46 from gammarid to cod, which indicated that the SCCPs did not biomagnify between these two species. The soil-vegetation bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of SCCPs was 29.9, and C13 and Cl7, 8 congener groups tended to accumulate in the terrestrial vegetation. Regression analysis (BAFs=10.9×#C+5.6×#Cl-125.2, R=0.53, P<0.01) showed that the number of carbon and chlorine atoms influenced the bioaccumulative behaviour of SCCPs and suggested that the number of carbon atoms had a greater influence on the BAFs of SCCPs in the terrestrial ecosystem than did the number of chlorine atoms.

  4. Evidence for in situ production of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on tidal flats: environmental monitoring and laboratory scale experiment.

    PubMed

    Sankoda, Kenshi; Nomiyama, Kei; Yonehara, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Tomonori; Shinohara, Ryota

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated environmental distributions and production mechanisms of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in the sediments from some tidal flats located in Asia. Cl-PAHs were found in sediments taken from Arao tidal flat, Kikuchigawa River and Shirakawa River. The range of ∑Cl-PAHs was from 25.5 to 483 pg g(-1) for Kikuchigawa River and Arao tidal flat, respectively. Concentrations of PAHs and Cl-PAHs showed no significant correlations (r=0.134). This result suggests that the origins of these compounds differ. In the identified Cl-PAH isomers, the most abundant Cl-PAH isomer was 9,10-dichloroanthracene (9,10-di-Cl-ANT) in the three sites. In general, concentrations of Cl-ANTs in the coastal environment are about 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than those of anthracene (ANT). However, concentration ratios between Cl-ANTs and ANT (Cl-ANTs/ANT) in the sediments ranged from 4.1% to 24.6%. This result indicated that Cl-PAHs were not generated under industrial processes but the high concentration ratios have resulted from the contribution of photochemical production of Cl-ANTs in the sediments because ANT is known to have high photochemical reactivity. For examining this phenomenon, ANT adsorbed onto glass beads was irradiated with UV under the mimicked field conditions of tidal flats. As a result, it was noticed that, while chlorinated derivatives were negligible in a light-controlled group, production of 2-Cl-ANT, 9-Cl-ANT and 9,10-diCl-ANT on the irradiated surface were found in this study. These results suggest that photochemical reaction of PAHs can be a potential source of the occurrence of Cl-PAHs in the coastal environment.

  5. Environmental impact of population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, Rosamond; Matson, Pamela

    Earth's population currently numbers 5.4 billion; even given optimistic assumptions for reduction in growth rates, the number will double by the middle of the next century with most of the increase in the developing countries. Rapid population growth in the developing world raises the fundamental dilemma of how to alleviate chronic hunger and poverty in the short run while preserving the atmosphere and ecosystem services required for long-term human and biospheric sustenance. This dilemma, and the compromises required to solve it, were discussed by twenty-five researchers from five countries at the Aspen Global Change Institute 1992 Summer Science Session III, Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible?, held from August 16 to 28, in Aspen, Colo.

  6. 75 FR 47796 - Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    .../ Environmental Impact Report for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study in San Clemente, CA AGENCY... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Draft EIS/EIR) for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study. The purpose of the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study (Project) is to provide shore protection...

  7. 78 FR 37846 - Resource Management Plan/General Plan and Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    .../Environmental Impact Report for the San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area, Merced County, California AGENCY... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area Resource... of Reclamation (Reclamation) and includes the water surfaces of San Luis Reservoir, O'Neill...

  8. 75 FR 8047 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Lower Walnut Creek General Reevaluation Report AGENCY... statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Lower Walnut Creek General Reevaluation Report... management and ecosystem restoration along the northern portion of the Walnut Creek watershed in the...

  9. 78 FR 5837 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Sacramento River Water Reliability Study, California AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice... plans to continue work on a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) on implementing the Sacramento River Water Reliability Study. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  10. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  13. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the...

  14. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  15. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  16. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental Impact Statements (FEISs) (referred to collectively as EISs) (§ 1.1317) shall be prepared by...

  18. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  19. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement...

  20. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement...

  1. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement...

  2. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental Impact Statements (FEISs) (referred to collectively as EISs) (§ 1.1317) shall be prepared by...

  4. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement...

  5. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  6. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental Impact Statements (FEISs) (referred to collectively as EISs) (§ 1.1317) shall be prepared by...

  7. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements... significant environmental impacts that were not evaluated in the EIS; or (2) New information or...

  8. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  9. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  10. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  11. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These...

  12. Determination of mono- and non-o,o′-chlorine substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in Aroclors and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Peterman, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) is the best known technique for the separation of complex mixtures; however, no single GC column has yet separated all 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A number of coeluting PCB congener pairs exist, and even under favorable separation conditions such as with multidimensional GC, assignment of peak identities to known PCB structures is tedious, subject to errors from other contaminants, and requires enrichment to achieve the necessary detection limits for the most toxic PCB congeners. Routine analysis of PCBs is also complicated by coelution with other halogenated hydrocarbons such as naphthalenes, terphenyls, dibenzofurans, and pesticides. Therefore, techniques for class separations of PCBs prior to gas chromatography must be developed. These techniques should separate PCB congeners along lines that have environmental or toxicological significance. The unique ability of activated carbon to separate halogenated aromatics on the basis of molecular planarity and degree of halogenation has been demonstrated. We present a method that uses dispersed carbon on glass fibers and commercially available instrumentation to fractionate and determine mono- and non-o,o′-chlorine substituted PCB congeners in Aroclors and environmental samples.

  13. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California... District Director, California Department of Transportation, District 7, Division of Environmental...

  14. 76 FR 49526 - Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared to respond to the terms... INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip Forst, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 380...

  15. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY... Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public of its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact..., Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249,...

  16. 75 FR 62627 - Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT AGENCY: Federal Highway... that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for proposed transportation improvements in Davis County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental...

  17. Chlorination pattern effect on thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability for C₁₀-SCCPs: Quantum chemical calculation based on virtual combinational library.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuzhen; Pan, Wenxiao; Lin, Yuan; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are still controversial candidates for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention. The inherent mixture nature of SCCPs makes it rather difficult to explore their environmental behaviors. A virtual molecule library of 42,720 C10-SCCP congeners covering the full structure spectrum was constructed. We explored the structural effects on the thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability of C10-SCCPs through semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The thermodynamic properties were acquired using the AM1 method, and frontier molecular orbital analysis was carried out to obtain the E(HOMO), E(LUMO) and E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) for degradability exploration at the same level. The influence of the chlorination degree (N(Cl)) on the relative stability and environmental degradation was elucidated. A novel structural descriptor, μ, was proposed to measure the dispersion of the chlorine atoms within a molecule. There were significant correlations between thermodynamic values and N(Cl), while the reported N(Cl)-dependent pollution profile of C10-SCCPs in environmental samples was basically consistent with the predicted order of formation stability of C10-SCCP congeners. In addition, isomers with large μ showed higher relative stability than those with small μ. This could be further verified by the relationship between μ and the reactivity of nucleophilic substitution and OH attack respectively. The C10-SCCP congeners with less Cl substitution and lower dispersion degree are susceptible to environmental degradation via nucleophilic substitution and hydroxyl radical attack, while direct photolysis of C10-SCCP congeners cannot readily occur due to the large E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) values. The chlorination effect and the conclusions were further checked with appropriate density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  18. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  19. The environmental impact of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Barlow, C. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The first generation of wind turbine (WT) blades are now reaching their end of life, signalling the beginning of a large problem for the future. Currently most waste is sent to landfill, which is not an environmentally desirable solution. Awareness of this issue is rising, but no studies have fully assessed the eco impact of WT blades. The present study aims to provide a macroscopic quantitative assessment of the lifetime environmental impact of WT blades. The first stage has been to analyse global data to calculate the amount of WT blade materials consumed in the past. The life cycle environmental impact of a single WT blade has then been estimated using eco data for raw materials, manufacturing processes, transportation, and operation and maintenance processes. For a typical 45.2 meter 1.5 MW blade this is 795 GJ (CO2 footprint 42.1 tonnes), dominated by manufacturing processes and raw materials (96% of the total. Based on the 2014 installed capacity, the total mass of WTB is 78 kt, their energy consumption is 82 TJ and the carbon dioxide footprint is 4.35 Mt. These figures will provide a basis for suggesting possible solutions to reduce WTB environmental impact.

  20. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  1. OTEC power system development and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sather, N.F.

    1980-02-20

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a proven solar energy technology with enormous potential as a supplier of electric power. However, before this potential can be realized there must be significant reductions in OTEC plant investment costs estimated for state-of-the-art designs. A comprehensive survey of the opportunities for reducing costs of the heat exchangers and other components of the power system of closed-cycle OTEC plants is given. These cost-reducing inventives are strongly dependent on the extent to which the environmental impacts of OTEC plants will have to be controlled. The environmental concerns associated with the deployment of OTEC plants are reviewed, and approaches to alleviating these concerns are described. Finally, the key roles of the OTEC-1 component test facility and the OTEC pilot plant planned for a 1984 start up in providing information about the critical power system development and environmental impact problems are summarized.

  2. Improving landscape-level environmental impact evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, L.J.; LaGory, K.E.; Vinikour, W.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.L.; Cantwell, B.

    2012-04-01

    New spatial data and advancements in GIS tools allow much more comprehensive and quantitative analyses of the large datasets required when making programmatic evaluations of the ecological effects of proposed activities that cover a large area or region. Understanding the environmental impacts of proposed human developments is critical to making appropriate siting decisions and designing mitigation strategies to reduce impacts on important resources. Impact analyses conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) or Environmental Assessments (EAs) are intended to determine the resource-specific impacts of proposed activities of federal agencies and their alternatives using the best available information. Impacts to ecological resources are often a primary focus of these analyses. Information used in NEPA analyses include some measure of the known or probable presence of plants and wildlife in the project area, with special emphasis placed on threatened, endangered, and other special-status species. Site-specific information pertaining to ecological resources is usually easier to obtain for small-scale activities such as a local facility, road, or transmission upgrade project, where the ability to conduct fieldwork is more often feasible. However, site-specific data is more difficult-and sometimes impossible-to obtain for proposed activities that could affect a large area or region. These types of analyses often are considered in programmatic NEPA documents, in which a federal agency evaluates the implementation of a broad program or plan. Under these programmatic evaluations, the exact location and size of developments are often not known. Because obtaining quantitative information for ecological resources at such large spatial scales is difficult, programmatic impact evaluations typically rely on sketchy or partial information such as recorded species occurrences, species ranges, and general habitat

  3. Bel Martin Keys Unit 5. Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3. Comments Received

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A273 059 A - S3"" MARiN KEYS UNIT SFINAL , i:•Environmental Impact Report/ • Environmental Impact ’Statement Corpsc Notice No. 15813N33A Stato...CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. mm~. .... m I I I I I BEL MARIN KEYS UNIT 5 FINA Environmental Impact Report/ U...Invironimegimi Swte 200 Suste 220 SiW 480 Schnee Sin Francisco, Sacranemo, Losm Angeles. A d i, Ceskmforn C mao Califoria 94107-1811 95814-7044 90010-3512

  4. Chlorine Dioxide (Gas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a sterilant for use in manufacturing, laboratory equipment, medical devices, environmental surfaces, tools and clean rooms. Aqueous ClO2 is registered by the EPA as a surface disinfectant and sanitizer fo...

  5. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  6. A global model of tropospheric chlorine chemistry: Organic versus inorganic sources and impact on methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Monks, Sarah; Feng, Wuhu; Brauer, Peter; Glasow, Roland

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine atoms (Cl) are highly reactive toward hydrocarbons in the Earth's troposphere, including the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). However, the regional and global CH4 sink from Cl is poorly quantified as tropospheric Cl concentrations ([Cl]) are uncertain by 2 orders of magnitude. Here we describe the addition of a detailed tropospheric chlorine scheme to the TOMCAT chemical transport model. The model includes several sources of tropospheric inorganic chlorine (Cly), including (i) the oxidation of chlorocarbons of natural (CH3Cl, CHBr2Cl, CH2BrCl, and CHBrCl2) and anthropogenic (CH2Cl2, CHCl3, C2Cl4, C2HCl3, and CH2ClCH2Cl) origin and (ii) sea-salt aerosol dechlorination. Simulations were performed to quantify tropospheric [Cl], with a focus on the marine boundary layer, and quantify the global significance of Cl atom CH4 oxidation. In agreement with observations, simulated surface levels of hydrogen chloride (HCl), the most abundant Cly reservoir, reach several parts per billion (ppb) over polluted coastal/continental regions, with sub-ppb levels typical in more remote regions. Modeled annual mean surface [Cl] exhibits large spatial variability with the largest levels, typically in the range of 1-5 × 104 atoms cm-3, in the polluted northern hemisphere. Chlorocarbon oxidation provides a tropospheric Cly source of up to 4320 Gg Cl/yr, sustaining a background surface [Cl] of <0.1 to 0.5 × 103 atoms cm-3 over large areas. Globally, we estimate a tropospheric methane sink of 12-13 Tg CH4/yr due the CH4 + Cl reaction ( 2.5% of total CH4 oxidation). Larger regional effects are predicted, with Cl accounting for 10 to >20% of total boundary layer CH4 oxidation in some locations.

  7. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Adoption and Recirculation of Final Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Availability...

  8. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final...

  10. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  11. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  12. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  13. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  14. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  15. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  16. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  17. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.63 Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (a) Initial determination. OJP will...

  18. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance...

  19. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.63 Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (a) Initial determination. OJP will...

  20. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  1. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  2. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  3. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  4. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed...

  5. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action...

  6. 75 FR 22723 - Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement (EIS) under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  7. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.63 Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (a) Initial determination. OJP will...

  8. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use of various materials in laptop enclosures (excluding mounting hardware, internal components, and insulation) using screening-level life cycle assessment. The baseline material, is a fossil plastic blend of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Alternative materials include polylactic acid, bamboo, aluminum, and various combinations of these materials known to be currently used or being considered for use in laptops. The flame retardants considered in this study are bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, and borax-boric acid-phosphorous acid. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts v2.1 was used for the assessment of impacts related to climate change, human and ecological health, and resource use. The assessment demonstrates that plastics, relative to the other materials, are currently some of the better performing materials in terms of having the lowest potential environmental impact for a greater number of impact categories based on product life cycle models developed in this study. For fossil plastics, the material performance increases with increasing post-con

  9. PROFILE: Integrating Sustainability and Environmental Impact Assessment

    PubMed

    LAWRENCE

    1997-01-01

    / Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been identified as an important instrument for facilitating sustainability. However, to do so requires the integration of sustainability into EIA theory and practice. The sustainability concept is a valid and important environmental management perspective. However, many issues and obstacles need to be addressed further if the concept is to be translated into practical strategies. Sustainability can potentially infuse EIA with a clearer sense of direction, an ethical foundation, a mechanism for establishing priorities and assessing choices, and a means of linking EIA to other environmental management instruments. Conceptually, EIA and sustainability can be integrated, but frameworks should be refined, adpated to context, and linked to related initiatives. Sustainability should be explicitly incorporated into EIA legislation, guidelines, and institutional arrangements. An experimental approach to testing, assessing, and sharing experiences is suggested.A framework is first presented that defines and characterizes the sustainability concept. A further framework is then described for integrating sustainability into EIA at the conceptual level. The integration of sustainability and EIA at the regulatory level is next addressed through an overview of sustainability initiatives in EIA requirements in Canada. The Canadian examples include many promising initiatives but these and other experiences will need to be monitored, shared, and integrated into comprehensive environmental management strategies. Finally, means of incorporating sustainability into each activity in the EIA planning process are identified.KEY WORDS: Sustainability; Environmental impact assessment

  10. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... significant impacts on the environment. When the applicant, after consultation with any project sponsor...

  11. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... significant impacts on the environment. When the applicant, after consultation with any project sponsor...

  12. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... significant impacts on the environment. When the applicant, after consultation with any project sponsor...

  13. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... significant impacts on the environment. When the applicant, after consultation with any project sponsor...

  14. Environmental impact assessment in Estonia and Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, J.

    1997-11-01

    Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental impact assessment (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.

  15. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to...

  16. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be... impact statement to which it relates. (d) News releases stating the availability for comment and...

  17. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be... impact statement to which it relates. (d) News releases stating the availability for comment and...

  18. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be... impact statement to which it relates. (d) News releases stating the availability for comment and...

  19. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be... impact statement to which it relates. (d) News releases stating the availability for comment and...

  20. Environmental Impact of Buildings--What Matters?

    PubMed

    Heeren, Niko; Mutel, Christopher L; Steubing, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, York; Wallbaum, Holger; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-08-18

    The goal of this study was to identify drivers of environmental impact and quantify their influence on the environmental performance of wooden and massive residential and office buildings. We performed a life cycle assessment and used thermal simulation to quantify operational energy demand and to account for differences in thermal inertia of building mass. Twenty-eight input parameters, affecting operation, design, material, and exogenic building properties were sampled in a Monte Carlo analysis. To determine sensitivity, we calculated the correlation between each parameter and the resulting life cycle inventory and impact assessment scores. Parameters affecting operational energy demand and energy conversion are the most influential for the building's total environmental performance. For climate change, electricity mix, ventilation rate, heating system, and construction material rank the highest. Thermal inertia results in an average 2-6% difference in heat demand. Nonrenewable cumulative energy demand of wooden buildings is 18% lower, compared to a massive variant. Total cumulative energy demand is comparable. The median climate change impact is 25% lower, including end-of-life material credits and 22% lower, when credits are excluded. The findings are valid for small offices and residential buildings in Switzerland and regions with similar building culture, construction material production, and climate.

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  2. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Bercz, J P; Jones, L L; Harrington, R M; Bawa, R; Condie, L

    1986-01-01

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO2 ingestion, it seems that ClO2 does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decrease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrients, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 1. c PMID:3816729

  3. Lifetimes of atmospheric species: Integrating environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Michael J.

    2002-11-01

    The environmental damage caused by atmospheric pollutants is proportional to the duration of their effects. The global impacts of greenhouse gases (as measured by global warming potential) and ozone depleting substances (as measured by ozone depletion potential) have traditionally been calculated using the atmospheric lifetime of the source gas as a quantitative measure of the impact's duration, assuming that the gas quickly reaches a steady-state pattern which decays exponentially according to the lifetime. This assumed behavior obviously does not match the true rise and fall of impacts, particularly secondary ones like ozone depletion, that can be seen in numerical integrations or chemical mode decomposition. Here, the modes decomposition is used to prove that: (a) the steady-state pattern of impacts caused by specified emissions, multiplied by (b) the steady-state lifetime of the source gas for that emission pattern, is exactly equal to (c) the integral of all impacts - independent of the number and atmospheric residence times of secondary impacts.

  4. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  5. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  6. Surrogate testing suggests that chlorine dioxide gas exposure would not inactivate Ebola virus contained in environmental blood contamination.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John J; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Smith, Philip W; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-05-08

    The ability to decontaminate a room potentially containing the Ebola virus is important to healthcare facilities in the United States. Ebola virus remains viable in body fluids, a room that has housed a patient with Ebola virus disease must have all surfaces manually wiped with an approved disinfectant, which increases occupational exposure risk. This study evaluated the efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide inactivation of bacterial organisms in blood as Ebola virus surrogates and as the organisms used by the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit to provide the margin of safety for decontamination. Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis blood suspensions that were exposed to ClO2 gas concentrations and exposure limits. The log reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) was determined for each bacterial blood suspension. Exposure parameters approximating industry practices for ClO2 environmental decontamination (360ppm concentration to 780 ppm-hrs exposure, 65% relative humidity) as well as parameters exceeding current practice (1116 ppm concentration to 1400 ppm-hrs exposure; 1342ppm concentration to 1487 ppm-hrs exposure) were evaluated. Complete inactivation was not achieved for any of the bacterial blood suspensions tested. Reductions were observed in concentrations of B. anthracis spores (1.3 -3.76 log) and E. faecalis vegetative cells (1.3 log) whereas significant reductions in vegetative cell concentrations for E. coli and M. smegmatis blood suspensions were not achieved. Our results showed that bacteria in the presence of blood were not inactivated using gaseous ClO2 decontamination. ClO2 decontamination alone should not be used for Ebola virus, but decontamination processes should first include manual wiping of potentially contaminated blood; especially for microorganisms as infectious as the Ebola virus.

  7. Environmental impact report. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2. Chapter 4.1-4.10. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.; Bakle, W.

    1996-07-31

    Impacts Evaluated in Other Sections: A summary of where to find topics associated with the section`s analysis which are addressed elsewhere in the EIR/EIS. Affected Environment (Setting): A description of the existing conditions for each environmental discipline. The setting acts as a baseline to which the analysis compares the effects of the alternatives and components. Evaluation Criteria with Point of Significance: A table presenting the criteria used to determine specific impacts, measurements used to determine whether an impact is `significant,` and the point at which the impact becomes significant. The source and justification for each criterion is also identified in the table. Methodology: A brief description of how the impact analysis was done. Environmental Consequences (Impacts) and Recommended Mitigation: A presentation of the results of the environmental analysis for each discipline, including the identification of impacts, the determination regarding significance, the description of mitigation measures proposed to avoid or lessen impacts, and whether mitigation will reduce the effects to less than significant.

  8. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Processing legislative environmental impact... § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative environmental impact statement shall conform to the requirements of 40 CFR 1506.8 of the CEQ Regulations....

  9. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing legislative environmental impact... § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative environmental impact statement shall conform to the requirements of 40 CFR 1506.8 of the CEQ Regulations....

  10. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legislative environmental impact... § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative environmental impact statement shall conform to the requirements of 40 CFR 1506.8 of the CEQ Regulations....

  11. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois AGENCY: Federal... revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental impact statement is being prepared for... Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve Interstate 290...

  12. 77 FR 25782 - Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed transportation... Transportation (IDOT) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a project that involves...

  13. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  14. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  15. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR...

  16. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an environmental impact statement is prepared, the following procedures must be followed to determine what...

  17. 75 FR 883 - Environmental Impact Statement; Maricopa County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Maricopa County, AZ AGENCY: Federal Highway... public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Maricopa... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on proposed operational improvements to the Interstate...

  18. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  19. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the...

  20. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  1. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR...

  2. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  3. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  4. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  5. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR...

  6. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the...

  7. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the...

  8. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR...

  9. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  10. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  11. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  12. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement...

  13. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the...

  14. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10... PROCEDURES § 372.10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a notice of intent will be published. The administrative record...

  15. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the...

  16. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  18. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... analyzed in other comprehensive CPSC documents such as hazard analyses, economic impact analyses, or... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14... Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  2. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental...

  3. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental...

  4. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more... CSREES official specified in § 3407.4(b) that the changes are pertinent to environmental concerns,...

  5. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  6. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  7. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  8. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and...

  9. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental...

  10. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental...

  11. Potential environmental impacts of future halocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K.J.; Ellis, J.H.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated analysis of future halocarbon emissions and their environmental impacts shows that strict global compliance is required if the Montreal Protocol is to accomplish the goal of eliminating the lower stratospheric ozone hole. This analysis is integrated in the sense that demographic, economic, and regulatory processes controlling future production were linked explicitly to the technological factors translating production into emissions and the environmental processes transforming emissions into environmental impacts. Given current models of halocarbon transformation and atmospheric response, this research suggests that if a small percentage of nations continues to expand production at modest rates, the ozone hole will not be eliminated. In addition, high growth rate assumptions for halocarbon production by noncompliance nations will result in significantly increased ozone depletion. This research also shows that the continued use of small amounts of ozone-depleting substances for essential uses and the failure to adequately replace all ozone-depleting substances can eliminate the possibility of returning the atmosphere to pre-ozone hole conditions. The global climate change potential of halocarbons is fairly small if growth rates for chlorofluorocarbon substitutes remain low. If growth rates return to precontrol levels, these substitutes could contribute significantly to global climate change. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  13. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  14. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  15. Environmental impact and management of phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Tayibi, Hanan; Choura, Mohamed; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2009-06-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid production, and worldwide PG generation is estimated to be around 100-280 Mt per year. This by-product is mostly disposed of without any treatment, usually by dumping in large stockpiles. These are generally located in coastal areas close to phosphoric acid plants, where they occupy large land areas and cause serious environmental damage. PG is mainly composed of gypsum but also contains a high level of impurities such as phosphates, fluorides and sulphates, naturally occurring radionuclides, heavy metals, and other trace elements. All of this adds up to a negative environmental impact and many restrictions on PG applications. Up to 15% of world PG production is used to make building materials, as a soil amendment and as a set controller in the manufacture of Portland cement; uses that have been banned in most countries. The USEPA has classified PG as a "Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material" (TENORM). This work reviews the different environmental impacts associated with PG storage and disposal. The methods described in the literature to minimise the negative effects of this waste are classified by treatment type, i.e. physical, chemical, thermal, etc., and different suggested applications for PG are detailed.

  16. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  17. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  18. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Hladik, Michelle L; Vajda, Alan M; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Douville, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m(3) d(-1) design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration=2.7 μg L(-1); n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration=4.5 μg L(-1)), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration=1.4 μg L(-1)) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative proportions of

  19. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m3 d−1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L−1; n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L−1), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L−1) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  20. Human impact: man's role in environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon worldwide examples, the author traces mankind's interaction with nature and examines human interference with environmental systems at various stages of social development. Succeeding chapters take up man's specific impact on vegetation, animals, the soil, the waters, landforms, climate, and the atmosphere. With the aid of maps, diagrams, and graphs, the book analyzes the causes and consequences of environmental changes associated with such large-scale events as agricultural expansion, domestication, deforestation, and urbanization, including the spread of salination, extinction, erosion, and pollution. Interrelations, often dynamic and unpredictable, between these phenomena make it difficult to isolate the causes of changes and to determine the resiliency of natural systems to change. 505 references, 82 figures, 97 tables.

  1. Predicting the Environmental Impact of Active Sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Alec J.; McCauley, Robert D.; Maggi, Amos L.

    2004-11-01

    The effect of active sonar on marine animals, particularly mammals, has become a hot topic in recent times. The Australian Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 obligates Defence to avoid significant environmental impacts from Navy activities including those which produce underwater sound such as active sonar. It is in the interests of all parties that these effects be modeled accurately to facilitate both the quantitative evaluation of the consequences of any proposed sonar trials, and the identification of suitable mitigation procedures. This paper discusses the received signal parameters that are of importance when predicting the effect of sonar systems on marine animals and techniques for modeling both the expected values of these parameters and their statistical fluctuations.

  2. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  3. PPCP degradation by UV/chlorine treatment and its impact on DBP formation potential in real waters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Jianliang; Fu, Wenjie; Shang, Chii; Li, Yin; Chen, Yiwei; Gan, Wenhui; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-07-01

    The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) water purification process was evaluated for its ability to degrade the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly found in drinking water sources. The disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed after post-chlorination were documented. The performance of the UV/chlorine process was compared with that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process in treating three types of sand-filtered natural water. Except caffeine and carbamazepine residues, the UV/chlorine process was found to be 59-99% effective for feed water with a high level of dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity, and 27-92% effective for water with a high ammonia content. Both chlorine radicals and hydroxyl radicals were found to contribute to the observed PPCP degradation. The removal efficiencies of chlorine- and UV-resistant PPCPs such as carbamazepine and caffeine were 2-3 times greater than in the UV/H2O2 process in waters not enriched with ammonia. UV/chlorine treatment slightly enhanced the formation chloral hydrate (CH), haloketone (HK) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). It reduced haloacetonitrile (HAN) formation during the post-chlorination in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process. In waters with high concentrations of ammonia, the UV/chlorine process was only 5-7% more effective than the UV/H2O2 process, and it formed slightly more THMs, HKs and TCNM along with reduced formation of CH and HAN. The UV/chlorine process is thus recommended as a good alternative to UV/H2O2 treatment for its superior PPCP removal without significantly enhancing DBP formation.

  4. Impact Of Landfill Closure Designs On Long-Term Natural Attenuation Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    and W. Francke. 1991. Degradation of 1,2,4-trichloro- and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene by Pseudomonas strains. Applied Environmental Microbiology...Neerven, P.J. Colberg, and A.J.B. Zehnder. 1986. Degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene by Alcaligene sp. Strain A175. Applied Environmental Microbiology

  5. 77 FR 43575 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Ballona Wetlands Restoration Project at Ballona Creek Within the... of Fish and Game (CDFG) intend to jointly prepare a Draft Environmental Impact...

  6. 77 FR 23802 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement, a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Report/ Environmental Impact Statement, a Final Section 4(f) Evaluation, and a Draft General Conformity Determination... this notice to advise the public that FRA is issuing a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)...

  7. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the...

  8. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fish and Game. The Rincon Indian Reservation also commented. Agencies expressed concern for biological, cultural, and water resources...Environmental Impact Statement 49 Figure 12. Vegetative Provinces of the Sonoran Desert. SO U RC E : Shreve & W igg ins, 1964 Needles Yum a San Luis ...County 76,205 106,895 119,650 Major Communities San Luis 1,946 4,212 7,910 Somerton 3,969 5,282 5,970 Wellton 911 1,066 1,075 Yuma 42,481 54,923 60,150

  9. Environmental impact of solvent refined coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lobnitz, M.A.; Firley, J.A.; Loran, B.

    1982-08-01

    The SRC-1 process produces low sulfur and low ash solid and liquid fuels from coal which can replace corresponding petroleum products. Sources of air pollution are fuel gas combustion products, solids and liquids handling, and waste gases. The SRC-1 demonstration plant planned is projected to have very small impacts on air quality. The wastewater treatment system is designed for zero-discharge and process-derived solids are to be disposed in suitably selected land areas. Environmental unknowns in the project include operator skill in managing startup, shutdown and upset emissions; regional impact of the CO/sub 2/ released; detailed characterization of wastewater streams; and solid waste leachate kinetics. These issues are expected to be explored and possibly resolved through experience acquired during operation of the demonstration plant.

  10. Estimating the in situ sediment-porewater distribution of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic impacted sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Peter H. Arp; Gijs D. Breedveld; Gerard Cornelissen

    2009-08-15

    It has become increasingly apparent that the in situ sediment-porewater distribution behavior of organic compounds within anthropogenic impacted sediments is quite diverse, and challenging to generalize. Traditional models based on octanol-water partitioning generally overestimate native porewater concentrations, and modern approaches accounting for multiple carbon fractions, including black carbon, appear sediment specific. To assess the diversity of this sorption behavior, we collected all peer-reviewed total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized in situ sediment-porewater distribution coefficients, K{sub TOC}, for impacted sediments. This entailed several hundreds of data for PAHs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and chlorinated benzenes, covering a large variety of sediments, locations, and experimental methods. Compound-specific KTOC could range up to over 3 orders of magnitude. Output from various predictive models for individual carbonaceous phases found in impacted sediments, based on peer-reviewed polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs), Raoult's Law, and the SPARC online-calculator, were tested to see if any of the models could consistently predict literature K{sub TOC} values within a factor of 30 (i.e. about 1.5 orders of magnitude, or half the range of K{sub TOC} values). The Raoult's Law model and coal tar PP-LFER achieved the sought-after accuracy for all tested compound classes, and are recommended for general, regional-scale modeling purposes. As impacted sediment-porewater distribution models are unlikely to get more accurate than this, this review underpins that the only way to accurately obtain accurate porewater concentrations is to measure them directly, and not infer them from sediment concentrations. 86 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Chlorine transfer between glycine, taurine, and histamine: reaction rates and impact on cellular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Alexander V; Midwinter, Robyn G; Harwood, David T; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2005-02-01

    Hypochlorous acid formed by activated neutrophils reacts with amines to produce chloramines. Chloramines vary in stability, reactivity, and cell permeability. We have examined whether chloramine exchange occurs between physiologically important amines or amino acids and if this affects interactions of chloramines with cells. We have demonstrated transchlorination reactions between histamine, glycine, and taurine chloramines by measuring chloramine decay rates with mixtures as well as by mass spectrometry. Kinetic analysis suggested the formation of an intermediate complex with a high Km. Apparent second-order rate constants, determined for concentrations chlorine exchange resulted in GAPDH inhibition by Tau-Cl, whereas Gly-Cl was less effective than in Hanks' buffer. Thus interchange between chloramines occurs readily and modulates their cellular effects.

  12. Chlorine transfer between glycine, taurine, and histamine: reaction rates and impact on cellular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Alexander V; Midwinter, Robyn G; Harwood, David T; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2004-11-15

    Hypochlorous acid formed by activated neutrophils reacts with amines to produce chloramines. Chloramines vary in stability, reactivity, and cell permeability. We have examined whether chloramine exchange occurs between physiologically important amines or amino acids and if this affects interactions of chloramines with cells. We have demonstrated transchlorination reactions between histamine, glycine, and taurine chloramines by measuring chloramine decay rates with mixtures as well as by mass spectrometry. Kinetic analysis suggested the formation of an intermediate complex with a high K(m). Apparent second-order rate constants, determined for concentrations chlorine exchange resulted in GAPDH inhibition by Tau-Cl, whereas Gly-Cl was less effective than in Hanks' buffer. Thus interchange between chloramines occurs readily and modulates their cellular effects.

  13. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  14. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  15. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... prepare an EA or an EIS is found in Subpart G of Part 1940 of this Chapter. Assessments must be made...

  16. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  17. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  18. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  19. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  20. Use of environmental impacts in sensor scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Peter J.; Gioioso, Marisa; Snell, Hilary E.

    2010-04-01

    Current surveillance systems operate in a highly dynamic environment in which large numbers of sensors on board multiple platforms must cooperate in order to achieve overall mission success. In an attempt to maximize sensor performance, today's sensors employ rudimentary or, in some cases, inflexible sensor tasking schemes. These approaches are highly tuned to a specific scenario and geometry and are inflexible to changes in the mission, environmental conditions, heterogeneous sensors, and different system architectures. As the complexity of the problem space increases and new sensors become available, it is critical to have a sensor management scheme that is capable of incorporating new environmental knowledge, new sensors and different systems approaches with minimal computational impact on the overall system. Each system should develop an autonomous sensor tasking capability which factors in global concerns within the complete distributed network of platforms and sensors. Moreover, tasking efficiency can be improved by a highly developed understanding of sensor performance at each point in time. This can be achieved by incorporating the impact of problem geometry - sensor location, track object type and view angle - and weather phenomena, such as clouds, aerosols, turbulence and sun glint. This paper describes our approach for simultaneously optimizing sensor resource management, surveillance objectives, and atmospheric transmission of signals while minimizing sensor and environmental noise. Our approach uses a genetic algorithm to evolve a population of sensor tasking assignments through constantly-updating track locations, weather conditions, and lighting conditions. Preliminary studies demonstrate encouraging improvements in sensor management performance. We will present results from our preliminary studies and discuss a path forward for our technology.

  1. 76 FR 53693 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed McCoy Solar Energy Project and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment... as amended), related to McCoy Solar, LLC's right-of-way (ROW) application for the McCoy Solar Energy Project (MSEP), a 750-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity generation project. By this...

  2. 75 FR 25288 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Report and Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... need for the EITP project is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application for a right.... Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6, 1506.10, and 43 CFR 1610.2 Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. BILLING...

  3. 75 FR 80068 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Report/Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... for the EITP is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application under Title V of the.... Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6, 1506.10, and 43 CFR 1610.2. Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. BILLING...

  4. 76 FR 51956 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact.... Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District (Regulatory Division), in coordination with...

  5. 77 FR 46427 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for Proposed Aggregate Terminal Project on Pier D in the... the Eagle Rock Aggregates Terminal Project. The proposed project would include the following in- water... owned by L.G. Everist, Inc. and would be leased to Eagle Rock Aggregate, Inc. for terminal...

  6. 77 FR 14416 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Environmental Impact Report for the Pattern Energy Group's Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Project and Proposed... Report (EIR) for the Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Facility (OWEF) and by this notice is announcing the... decommission an approximately 12,436 acre, up to 456 megawatt (MW), wind energy project including up to...

  7. 75 FR 2517 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Lower San Joaquin River Feasibility Study AGENCY... (EIS/EIR) for the Lower San Joaquin River Feasibility Study (LSJRFS). The EIS/EIR will be prepared in... received at (see ADDRESSES) by February 15, 2010. ADDRESSES: Written comments concerning this study...

  8. 76 FR 29215 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Draft Environmental Impact Statements/Environmental Impact Reports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    .../Environmental Impact Reports for the Sutter Basin Feasibility Study and the Section 408 Permission for the...-central California: a Feasibility Study of flood risk management and related water resources problems in.../index.php/notices_documents . Sutter Basin Feasibility Study. On March 20, 2000, the State of...

  9. 77 FR 59180 - Withdrawal of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Ballona Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study, Los... the Ballona Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study in the Federal Register on September 20... study within its Civil Works program. Although SMBRC requested the Corps terminate the feasibility...

  10. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert H.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. PMID:10742264

  11. 77 FR 74479 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/03/2012 Through 12/07/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  12. 78 FR 20632 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 03/25/2013 Through 03/29/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  13. 77 FR 46433 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/23/2012 Through 07/27/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  14. 78 FR 5439 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/14/2013 Through 01/18/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice Section...

  15. 77 FR 793 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/27/2011 through 12/30/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  16. 77 FR 62235 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 198 (Friday, October 12, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 62235] [FR Doc No: 2012-25154] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9005-5] Environmental Impacts Statements...-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements...

  17. 78 FR 43200 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/08/2013 Through 07/12/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  18. 78 FR 4143 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/07/2013 Through 01/11/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  19. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  20. 75 FR 68355 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/25/2010 Through 10/29/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  1. 78 FR 2397 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/31/2012 Through 01/04/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  2. 78 FR 12309 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/11/2013 Through 02/15/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  3. 78 FR 32645 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/20/2013 Through 05/24/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  4. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  5. 77 FR 58539 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 09/10/2012 Through 09/14/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  6. 78 FR 21938 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/01/2013 Through 04/05/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  7. 76 FR 26286 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/25/2011 through 04/29/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice...

  8. 75 FR 55326 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 08/30/2010 through 09/03/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice:...

  9. 78 FR 35928 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 06/03/2013 through 06/07/2013. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  10. 78 FR 26027 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/22/2013 Through 04/26/2013, Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  11. 76 FR 35433 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/06/2011 Through 06/10/2011. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  12. 75 FR 31785 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 05/24/2010 through 05/28/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  13. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statement... Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project is... and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD...

  14. 76 FR 13401 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/28/2011 Through 03/04/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice:...

  15. 78 FR 37539 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 06/10/2013 Through 06/14/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  16. 76 FR 78252 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed...

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  18. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than...

  19. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section 1021.314 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements....

  20. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section 1021.314 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements....

  1. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section 1021.314 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements....

  2. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  3. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  4. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than...

  5. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  6. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than...

  7. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  8. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section 1021.314 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements....

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  10. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  11. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare...

  12. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving more than one agency. If more than...

  13. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... expertise with respect to any environmental impact involved, and to public and private organizations and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section 216.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES §...

  14. 75 FR 38517 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/21/2010 through 06/25/210. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  15. 77 FR 55213 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/27/2012 through 08/31/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  16. 75 FR 43160 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 07/12/2010 through 07/16/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  17. 77 FR 49792 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/06/2012 Through 08/10/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice Section...

  18. 76 FR 80367 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-32944] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9000-6] Environmental Impacts...) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements... Tract Project, Proposed Federal Coal Leasing and Subsequent Underground Coal Mining, Funding and...

  19. 78 FR 63977 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 09/30/2013 Through 10/18/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  20. 78 FR 59677 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 09/16/2013 Through 09/20/2013. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  1. 78 FR 50054 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/05/2013 Through 08/09/2013. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  2. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... environmental effects, as well as any other issues, that could and should be examined in the EIS. The EIS will... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management... environmental impact statement and proposed scope of study. SUMMARY: We are announcing to the public that...

  3. 78 FR 75919 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/02/2013 through 12/06/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section... . EIS No. 20130356, Final EIS, FRA, MS, Tupelo Railroad Relocation Planning and Environmental...

  4. 76 FR 50213 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 08/01/2011 through 08/05/2011. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  5. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  6. Impact of carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of microscale zerovalent iron particles on its reactivity towards chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Larsson, Per-Olof; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2013-11-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) abiotically degrades several chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via reductive dechlorination, which offers perspectives for in situ groundwater remediation applications. The difference in reactivity between ZVI particles is often linked with their specific surface area. However, other parameters may influence the reactivity as well. Earlier, we reported for a set of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles the disappearance kinetic of different CAHs which were collected under consistent experimental conditions. In the present study, these kinetic data were correlated with the carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of mZVI particles. It was confirmed that not only the specific surface area affects the disappearance kinetic of CAHs, but also the chemical composition of the mZVI particles. The chemical composition, in addition, influences CAHs removal mechanism inducing sorption onto mZVI particles instead of dechlorination. Generally, high disappearance kinetic of CAHs was observed for particles containing less oxygen. A high carbon content, on the other hand, induced nonreactive sorption of the contaminants on the mZVI particles. To obtain efficient remediation of CAHs by mZVI particles, this study suggested that the carbon and oxygen content should not exceed 0.5% and 1% respectively. Finally, the efficiency of the mZVI particles may be improved to some extent by enriching them with sulfur. However, the impact of sulfur content on the reactivity of mZVI particles is less pronounced than that of the carbon and oxygen content.

  7. Chlorinous flavor perception in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Piriou, P; Mackey, E D; Suffet, I H; Bruchet, A

    2004-01-01

    Chlorinous flavors at the tap are the leading cause of customers' complaints and dissatisfaction with drinking water. To characterize consumer perception and acceptance to chlorinous tastes, extensive taste testing was performed with both trained panelists and average consumers. Taste testing with trained panelists showed that chlorine perception is underestimated by disinfectant flavor thresholds reported in the literature. However, trained panelists significantly overestimate the average consumer's ability to perceive chlorine. In addition, consumer perception seems to be influenced by the chlorination practices of the country they live in. Among water quality characteristics that may influence chlorine perception, temperature was not found to induce any significant change. The influence of total dissolved solids (TDS) on chlorine perception remains unclear and, as reported elsewhere, background tastes such as musty, may significantly impact chlorine threshold.

  8. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  9. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  10. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  11. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  12. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  13. The impact of environmental pollution on congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Dolk, Helen; Vrijheid, Martine

    2003-01-01

    Major congenital anomalies are diagnosed in 2-4% of births. In this paper we review epidemiological studies that have specifically looked at congenital anomalies as a possible outcome of community exposure to chemical exposures associated with environmental pollution. These include studies of drinking water contaminants (heavy metals and nitrates, chlorinated and aromatic solvents, and chlorination by-products), residence near waste disposal sites and contaminated land, pesticide exposure in agricultural areas, air pollution and industrial pollution sources, food contamination, and disasters involving accidental, negligent or deliberate chemical releases of great magnitude. We conclude that there are relatively few environmental pollution exposures for which we can draw strong conclusions about the potential to cause congenital anomalies and, if so, the chemical constituents implicated, to provide an evidence base for public health and clinical practice. A precautionary approach should be adopted at both community and individual level. In order to prevent congenital anomalies, one must reduce exposure to potential teratogens before pregnancy is recognized (i.e. preconceptionally and in the first few weeks of pregnancy). It is a challenge to develop effective strategies for preconceptional care within the primary care framework. Prenatal service providers and counsellors need to be aware of the uncertainties regarding environmental pollution when addressing parental concerns.

  14. Maiden Wind Farm Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-03-29

    In February 2001, Washington Winds Inc. (the project developer) submitted a proposal to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a site north of the cities of Sunnyside and Prosser in Washington where wind power facilities could be developed. After considering preliminary information, BPA decided to examine the proposed project and consider purchasing and transmitting power from the project. The project developer also submitted Conditional use Permit (CUP) applications to Benton and Yakima Counties. Benton County, serving as the lead agency for the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), issued a Determination of Significance on June 11, 2001. The action proposed by BPA is to: (1) execute a 20-year power purchase agreement with the project developer for up to 50 average megawatts (aMW) (up to about 200 megawatts [MW]) of electrical energy from the proposed Maiden Wind Farm; and (2) execute construction and generation interconnection agreements with the project developer to integrate the power generated by the proposed Maiden Wind Farm into BPA's transmission system. The need for the proposed action arises primarily from BPA's statutory obligations and planning directives. BPA will consider the information in this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments, and other factors when deciding whether to purchase power from the proposed wind project and transmit it over BPA transmission lines. Benton and Yakima County Planning Departments will consider information in this EIS when deciding whether to grant a CUP and allow the proposed project to be developed.

  15. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  16. Berkeley's Course on Environmental Assessment and Impact Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, John G.; Nicholas, Tawna

    1976-01-01

    A four-quarter sequence of courses to assess environmental impact, to provide students with knowledge of environmental law, a strong interdisciplinary base, and an understanding of the processes of planning and policy formation, is described. (BT)

  17. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an... authorized to develop and enforce environmental standards. (iii) The appropriate review officials identified in the Postal Service regulations and procedures governing intergovernmental review of Postal...

  18. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an... authorized to develop and enforce environmental standards. (iii) The appropriate review officials identified in the Postal Service regulations and procedures governing intergovernmental review of Postal...

  19. Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Simmons, Ardyth

    2010-10-01

    This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

  20. Environmental applications for the analysis of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, E.J.; Schellenberg, D.H.; Taguchi, V.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    A mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring (MS/MS-MRM) technique for the analysis of all tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Cl{sub x}DD, x = 4-8) and dibenzofurans (Cl{sub x}DF, x = 4-8) has been developed at the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) utilizing a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Optimization of instrumental parameters using the analyte of interest in a direct insertion probe (DIP) resulted in sensitivities approaching those obtainable by high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) methods. All congeners of dioxins and furans were detected in the femtogram range. Results on selected samples indicated that for some matrices, fewer chemical interferences were observed by MS/MS than by HRMS. The technique used to optimize the instrument for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) analysis is adaptable to other analytes.

  1. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  2. Impact of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization on Nosocomial Organism Viability in a Hospital Room

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John J.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Iwen, Peter C.; Smith, Philip W.; Hewlett, Angela L.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of ClO2 to decontaminate pathogens known to cause healthcare-associated infections in a hospital room strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Staphylococcus aureus were spot placed in duplicate pairs at 10 sites throughout a hospital room and then exposed to ClO2 gas. Organisms were collected and evaluated for reduction in colony forming units following gas exposure. Six sterilization cycles with varied gas concentrations, exposure limits, and relative humidity levels were conducted. Reductions in viable organisms achieved ranged from 7 to 10-log reductions. Two sterilization cycles failed to produce complete inactivation of organisms placed in a bathroom with the door closed. Reductions of organisms in the bathroom ranged from 6-log to 10-log reductions. Gas leakage between hospital floors did not occur; however, some minor gas leakage from the door of hospital room was measured which was subsequently sealed to prevent further leakage. Novel technologies for disinfection of hospital rooms require validation and safety testing in clinical environments. Gaseous ClO2 is effective for sterilizing environmental contamination in a hospital room. Concentrations of ClO2 up to 385 ppm were safely maintained in a hospital room with enhanced environmental controls. PMID:23792697

  3. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  4. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  5. Separation and screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zhu, Shuai; Zheng, Minghui

    2014-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures with thousands of isomers and numerous homologs. They are classified as priority candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention for their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Analyzing SCCPs is challenging because of the complexity of the mixtures. Chromatograms of SCCPs acquired using one-dimensional (1D) gas chromatography (GC) contain a large characteristic "peak" with a broad and unresolved profile. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) shows excellent potential for separating complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC coupled with micro electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and screen SCCPs. The chromatographic parameters, including the GC column types, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. The SCCP congeners were separated into groups using a DM-1 column connected to a BPX-50 column. The SCCP congeners in technical mixtures were separated according to the number of chlorine substituents for a given carbon chain length and according to the number of carbon atoms plus chlorine atoms for different carbon chain lengths. A fish tissue sample was analyzed to illustrate the feasibility of the GC×GC-μECD method in analyzing biological samples. Over 1,500 compounds were identified in the fish extract, significantly more than were identified using 1D GC. The detection limits for five selected SCCP congeners were between 1 and 5 pg/L using the GC×GC method, and these were significantly lower than those achieved using 1D GC. This method is a good choice for analysis of SCCPs in environmental samples, exhibiting good separation and good sensitivity.

  6. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  7. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  8. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    PubMed

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  9. Chlorine cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 77 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  10. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  11. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect

    Gangolells, Marta Casals, Miquel Forcada, Núria Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  12. Determination of water movement in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain using chloride, bromide, and chlorine isotopes as environmental tracers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-31

    This report, prepared by Hydro Geo Chem staff for Los Alamos National Laboratory, summarizes work conducted by the company under Subcontract 9-XG1-N3993-1. The ultimate objective of this work is to characterize the movement of subsurface water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Data produced under this contract is to be used by the US Department of Energy in its Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) to help determine hydrologic flows that may affect the performance of a potential nuclear waste repository. The data may be used in the licensing proceedings, and certain quality assurance procedures have thus been required. The work has focussed on measuring the distribution of environmental tracers-chlorine-36, chlorine, and bromine-and on evaluating the depth to which these conservative solutes have percolated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The following discussion summarizes progress made on the tasks outlined in the original Scope of Work. Details of this work and all data acquired by Hydro Geo Chem for this subcontract have been systematically organized in logbooks and laboratory notebooks. These documents have been structured to make it easy to trace the analytical history of a sample, from time of receipt to the final analytical results.

  13. 78 FR 4586 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK ACTION: Notice of intent... issuing this notice to advise the public that FHWA will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Meetings will be held in the early Spring of 2013 to receive oral and written comments on...

  14. 78 FR 13609 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... criteria under the Surface Transportation Program and Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement... 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Highway... (EA) or environmental impact statement (EIS): (1) Any project (as defined in 23 U.S.C. 101(a))...

  15. Cost analysis and environmental impact of nonthermal technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of high pressure processing (HPP) orange juice and its environmental impact were estimated. In addition, the environmental impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal pasteurization were assessed for comparison. The cost analysis was based on commercial processing conditions that wer...

  16. 75 FR 30022 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ..., Whistling Ridge Energy Project, Construction and Operation of a 75-megawatt (MW) Wind Turbine Facility, City... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/17/2010 Through 05/21/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice:...

  17. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC AGENCY: U.S. Federal Highway... Washington, DC is issuing this notice to advise agencies and the public that a Draft Environmental Impact... Avenue Tunnel in Washington, DC. The tunnel is owned and operated by CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSX),...

  18. 77 FR 38708 - Environmental Impact Statement: Ouachita Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Ouachita Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway..., Baton Rouge, LA 70808 Telephone: 225.757.7615. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Highway...), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to construct the LA 143--US...

  19. 75 FR 7536 - Environmental Impact Statement: Ottawa County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Ottawa County, MI AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Final Environmental Impact...

  20. 40 CFR 6.207 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 6.207 Section 6.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR... local government, or federally-recognized Indian tribe environmental, resource-protection, or...

  1. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 622 FTA RIN 2132-AB04 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Highway... procedures that implement the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The revisions are prompted by...: Adam Alexander, Office of Project Delivery and Environmental Review, HEPE-10, (202) 366-1473, or...

  2. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  3. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  4. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  5. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  6. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section 651.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  7. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    slow; pollution control agencies need to address existing emissions with in-use programs, such as exhaust trap retrofits and smoke inspections. Such a program is underway in California. These and other steps that can be continued and improved will allow the use of the diesel engine, with its superior fuel consumption, to continue to benefit society while greatly reducing its negative environmental and health impacts. The next ten years can and must become the "Decade of Clean Diesel."

  8. Environmental Impacts of Class A Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. L.; Bennett, P.

    2001-12-01

    Class A foam (CAF) is widely used in wildland firefighting as an extinguishing agent. Commonly CAF concentrate consists of a mixture of water and glycol, with a blend of surfactants to enhance the `wetting' capability of water. CAF is attractive to firefighters as it enhances heat absorption of water, while increasing fuel moisture content, resulting in more effective extinguishment with less water, and greater safety. In other settings, however, surfactants were found to change soil properties, alter infiltration rates, and enhance contaminant mobility. Evaluation of wildfires at Los Alamos National Laboratory raised the question of the impact of extinguishing agents on the mobility of high explosive residues, such as TNT, in soil. The use of agents such as CAF may enhance the mobility of hydrophobic compounds, flushing the residues out of soil and into underlying water bearing units. We report here the results of field and laboratory experiments evaluating the potential impact of CAF on the mobility of organic contaminants in soil. Samples of CAF concentrate and water mixtures were characterized for surfactant content. The persistence of CAF under non-fire, wildfire and pre-burn versus post-burn application conditions were analyzed. Solubility of TNT in CAF solutions was determined, and transport of TNT and CAF solutions through soil columns was analyzed to determine the effect of CAF on retardation of TNT. The surfactant content in CAF concentrates is typically 10-20%. Field investigations show that the surfactants applied in at recommended concentrations (1%) persist in soil for about three weeks. Actual application rates are as much as 4 times the recommended rate due to equipment variability and widespread confusion during actual fire situations, and here surfactant persists for more than three months. Foam persistence decreases after exposure to fire, suggesting that surfactants volatilize or decompose during the fire. Foam solutions at typical fire

  9. Final environmental impact statement for the Galileo Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the proposed action of completing the preparation and operation of the Galileo spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1989, and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal launch vehicle operation, and are treated in published National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents on the Shuttle (NASA 1978) and the Kennedy Space Center (NASA 1979), and in the KSC Environmental Resources Document (NASA 1986) and the Galileo Tier 1 EIS (NASA 1988a). The environmental impacts of a normal launch were deemed insufficient to preclude Shuttle operations. Environmental impacts may also result from launch or mission accidents that could release plutonium fuel used in the Galileo power system. Intensive analysis of the possible accidents associated with the proposed action reveal small health or environmental risks. There are no environmental impacts in the no-action alternative. The remote possibility of environmental impacts of the proposed action must be weighed against the large adverse fiscal and programmatic impacts inherent in the no-action alternative.

  10. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final... which it relates. (e) News releases stating the availability and place for obtaining or inspecting...

  11. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final... which it relates. (e) News releases stating the availability and place for obtaining or inspecting...

  12. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final... which it relates. (e) News releases stating the availability and place for obtaining or inspecting...

  13. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final... which it relates. (e) News releases stating the availability and place for obtaining or inspecting...

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Oceanic Impact: Mechanisms and Environmental Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, Rainer (Editor); Deutsch, Alex (Editor); Ivanov, Boris A. (Editor); Kyte, Frank T. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The contents include the following: Oceanic impacts-a growing field of fundamental geoscience. Shock metamorphism on the ocean floor (numerical simulations). Numerical modeling of impact-induced modifications of the deep-sea floor. Computer modelling of the water resurge at a marine impact: the Lockne crater, Sweden. Experimental investigation of the role of water in impact vaporization chemistry. Calcareous plankton stratigraphy around the Pliocene Eltanin asteroid impact area (SE Pacific): documentation and application for geological and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Composition of impact melt debris from the Eltanin impact strewn field, Bellingshausen Sea. Iridium concentrations and abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin impact in sediment cores from Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4. Unmelted meteoritic debris collected from Eltanin ejecta in Polarstern cores from expedition ANT XII/4. Impact tsunami-Eltanin. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America. The Mjolnir marine impact crater porosity anomaly. Kardla (Hiiu-maa Island, Estonia) - the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure. Long-term effect of the Kardla crater (Hiiu-maa, Estonia) on Late Ordovician carbonate sedimentation. The middle Devonian Kaluga impact crater (Russia): new interpretation of marine setting.

  16. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S. F.; Cada, G. F.; Petrich, C. H.; Sale, M. J.; Shaakir-Ali, J. A.; Watts, J. A.; Webb, J. W.

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  17. Chlorine Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

    The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine.

    Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  18. The Environmental Impact of Siberian Traps Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, A. D.; Reichow, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    volcanism began. Arguably, the earth system was much more vulnerable to the additional carbon loading from volcanism. The environmental impact of flood basalt eruptions may thus be strongly influenced by the prevailing global climate conditions and atmosphere-ocean composition.

  19. Laboratory assessment of environmental impact of phthalazine

    SciTech Connect

    Lande, S.S.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Reiner, E.A.; Welter, A.N.; Robideau, R.R.

    1987-02-01

    Several approaches to the environmental safety assessment of chemicals have been reported. The basic principles involved in predicting environmental behavior combine degradation kinetics and the partitioning/distribution of chemicals in the environment. The transport mechanisms within the environment can be modeled as partitioning/distribution which are essentially functions of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Phthalazine (2,3-Benzodiazine, C8H6N2) is a component of a specialized paper product. The major route for environmental entry of phthalazine is through land disposal of waste paper. Information available on phthalazine chemistry is consistent with behavior of heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several laboratory test methods and QSAR estimation procedures were used to measure key environmental properties of phthalazine. This assessment examines the environmental release of phthalazine, and its partitioning and distribution in the environment. It predicts the probable fate and possible biological effects of phthalazine.

  20. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Determinations...

  1. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Determinations...

  2. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Determinations...

  3. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Determinations...

  4. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Determinations...

  5. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  6. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  7. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  8. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Hanshaw, Bruce B.; Balsley, James R.

    1971-01-01

    The procedure does not limit the development of detail in any specific aspect of the environment; a separate expanded matrix for any environmental aspect can easily be developed within the framework provided.

  9. Uncertainty in environmental health impact assessment: quantitative methods and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Vanni, Tazio; Foss, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health impact assessment models are subjected to great uncertainty due to the complex associations between environmental exposures and health. Quantifying the impact of uncertainty is important if the models are used to support health policy decisions. We conducted a systematic review to identify and appraise current methods used to quantify the uncertainty in environmental health impact assessment. In the 19 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, several methods were identified. These were grouped into random sampling methods, second-order probability methods, Bayesian methods, fuzzy sets, and deterministic sensitivity analysis methods. All 19 studies addressed the uncertainty in the parameter values but only 5 of the studies also addressed the uncertainty in the structure of the models. None of the articles reviewed considered conceptual sources of uncertainty associated with the framing assumptions or the conceptualisation of the model. Future research should attempt to broaden the way uncertainty is taken into account in environmental health impact assessments.

  10. 75 FR 75721 - Environmental Impact Statement: Billings County, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Billings County, North Dakota AGENCY... Little Missouri River within a study area bounded by the northern border of the Billings County line, the... Administrator, Federal Highway Administration. BILLING CODE 4910-22-P...

  11. International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

  12. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... highway project in Yellowstone County, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right... (I-90) and Old Highway 312 in or near the city of Billings, Yellowstone County, Montana....

  13. 77 FR 6622 - Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway..., Louisiana Division, Federal Highway Administration, 5304 Flanders Drive, Suite A, Baton Rouge, LA...

  14. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  15. ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS WITH THE WAR ALGORITHM: REVIEW AND UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review uses of the WAR algorithm and current developments and possible future directions. The WAR algorithm is a methodology for analyzing potential environmental impacts of 1600+ chemicals used in the chemical processing and other industries. The algorithm...

  16. Anticipating the Environmental Impacts and Behavioral Drivers of Deep Decarbonization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing research that will contribute to an improved ability to understand and anticipate the public health and environmental impacts and behavioral drivers of significant changes in energy consumption

  17. First compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis of environmentally-bioaccumulated organochlorines indicates a degradation-relatable kinetic isotope effect for DDT.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Henry; Mandalakis, Manolis; Zencak, Zdenek; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2007-11-01

    Compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis (CSIA-Cl) of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) in blubber from Baltic Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was performed in order to investigate if a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) could be observed concomitant to environmental degradation of DDT. The delta(37)Cl of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were -0.69 +/- 0.21 per thousand and -2.98 +/- 0.57 per thousand (1s igma, n = 3), respectively. Both samples were enriched relative to the hypothesized initial isotope composition (-4.34 per thousand), thus indicating a composite KIE associated with the degradation mechanisms pertaining to DDT. An isotope fractionation factor for degradation of dichloromethane, from the literature, was adapted and modified for use in the calculation of DDT degradation. A subsequent simplified Rayleigh distillation model of the DDT chlorine-isotope composition yielded an estimated fraction (f) of 7 +/- 2% of released DDT presently remaining as undegraded compound in the environment. The consistency between the result of the Rayleigh model (f approximately 7%) and the use of the DDT/(DDT + DDE) ratio as a measure of DDT degradation ( approximately 10% undegraded DDT) suggests that the KIE of DDT degradation may be significant, and that the novel approach of CSIA-Cl may be a valuable tool for degradation/persistence studies of lipophilic organochlorines in the environment.

  18. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  19. 76 FR 38685 - Draft General Management Plan Amendment/Environmental Impact Statement, Tumacacori National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... National Park Service Draft General Management Plan Amendment/Environmental Impact Statement, Tumacacori... Termination of Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Tumacacori National Historical... preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the General Management Plan, Tumacacori...

  20. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

  1. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460.... ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Federal...) will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) to evaluate the Route 460...

  2. 75 FR 21386 - Philadelphia International Airport, Capacity Enhancement Program, Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ..., Environmental Impact Statement, Announcement of a Preferred Alternative AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Alternative for the Philadelphia International Airport, Capacity ] Enhancement Program, Environmental Impact... the process of completing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Philadelphia...

  3. 78 FR 16483 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... of Availability of the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...) announces the availability of the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... 1021) to analyze the reasonably foreseeable potential environmental impacts, including the...

  4. Reliance on Pumped Mother's Milk Has an Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Becker, Genevieve; Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne

    2016-09-10

    Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother's milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may also effect obesity and family size, which in turn have further environmental impacts. Information on pump equipment rarely includes environmental information and may focus on marketing the product for maximum profit. In order for parents, health workers, and health policy makers to make informed decisions about the reliance on pumped mother's milk, they need information on the broad and far reaching environmental aspects. There was no published research found that examined the environmental impact of using pumped mother's milk. A project is ongoing to examine this issue.

  5. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  6. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  7. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  8. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  9. Environmental Impact Statement: Peacekeeper Missile System Deactivation and Dismantlement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    210 -536-3069 f. Designation: Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) g. Abstract: This EIS was prepared in accordance with the National...environmental control systems), remove electrical filters and switches, and remove the power supply batteries. The only asbestos believed to remain is in...3-23 3.3.2. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS .................................................................3-25 3.3.2.1. Asbestos

  10. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake...

  11. 75 FR 54145 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-22074] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8992-5] Environmental Impacts... Management Plan, Manage and Control Exotic Plants in Nine Parks, Five in South Florida Parks: Big Cypress... Districts of the Bighorn National Forest, Johnson, Sheridan, Big Horn and Washakie Counties, WY,...

  12. 75 FR 1057 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 5 (Friday, January 8, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 1057] [FR Doc No: 2010-120] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8987-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or...

  13. 78 FR 8964 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... environmental process for transit projects, in response to the August 31, 2011, Presidential Memorandum titled... the list of project types that normally result in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement... EIS projects. The comment period closed on May 14, 2012. Numerous organizations submitted...

  14. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  15. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  16. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section 1021.314 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT...)(1). (b) DOE may supplement a draft EIS or final EIS at any time, to further the purposes of NEPA,...

  17. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discussion of need for power, or of alternative energy sources, or of alternative sites, or of any aspect of... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95 Section 51.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  19. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... resources, property, and human health and safety. This notice identifies potential issues and alternatives... alternatives and environmental impacts and issues, and provides notice of public meeting. DATES: We will... economic or environmental harm, or harm to human health caused by invasive species. The Animal Plant...

  20. Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.

  1. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  2. Sensory aspects and water quality impacts of chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in contact with HDPE and cPVC pipe.

    PubMed

    Heim, Timothy H; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2007-02-01

    Pipes constructed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. In this comprehensive investigation, the effects on odor, organic chemical release, trihalomethane (THM) formation, free chlorine demand and monochloramine demand were determined for water exposed to HDPE and cPVC pipes. The study was conducted in accordance with the Utility Quick Test (UQT), a migration/leaching protocol for analysis of materials in contact with drinking water. The sensory panel consistently attributed a weak to moderate intensity of a "waxy/plastic/citrus" odor to the water from the HDPE pipes but not the cPVC-contacted water samples. The odor intensity generated by the HDPE pipe remained relatively constant for multiple water flushes, and the odor descriptors were affected by disinfectant type. Water samples stored in both types of pipe showed a significant increase in the leaching of organic compounds when compared to glass controls, with HDPE producing 0.14 microgTOC/cm(2) pipe surface, which was significantly greater than the TOC release from cPVC. Water stored in both types of pipe showed disinfectant demands of 0.1-0.9 microg disinfectant/cm(2) pipe surface, with HDPE exerting more demand than cPVC. No THMs were detected in chlorinated water exposed to the pipes. The results demonstrate the impact that synthetic plumbing materials can have on sensory and chemical water quality, as well as the significant variations in drinking water quality generated from different materials.

  3. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... resource impacts including air quality, wetlands, water resources, noise, vibration, energy, wildlife and... Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The EIS will analyze potential impacts of the proposed action of improving and... emissions, improve air quality, and further regional land use and transportation planning goals under...

  4. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  5. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Alaskan Radar System Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    distibution is = im ited. _ Environmental Impact Analysis Process Draft Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Alaskan Radar System Over-the-Horizon...Backscatter Radar Program August 1986 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS DIVISION YU-~v930:2FROMI HO LIS~iFCER...Fish and Wildlife Service. (b) Proposed Action: Construction and operation of the Alaskan Radar System , an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B

  6. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  7. Environmental effects of large impacts on Mars.

    PubMed

    Segura, Teresa L; Toon, Owen B; Colaprete, Anthony; Zahnle, Kevin

    2002-12-06

    The martian valley networks formed near the end of the period of heavy bombardment of the inner solar system, about 3.5 billion years ago. The largest impacts produced global blankets of very hot ejecta, ranging in thickness from meters to hundreds of meters. Our simulations indicated that the ejecta warmed the surface, keeping it above the freezing point of water for periods ranging from decades to millennia, depending on impactor size, and caused shallow subsurface or polar ice to evaporate or melt. Large impacts also injected steam into the atmosphere from the craters or from water innate to the impactors. From all sources, a typical 100-, 200-, or 250-kilometers asteroid injected about 2, 9, or 16 meters, respectively, of precipitable water into the atmosphere, which eventually rained out at a rate of about 2 meters per year. The rains from a large impact formed rivers and contributed to recharging aquifers.

  8. The impact of supply management on environmental performance outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Wendy L.; Ellram, Lisa M.; Carter, Craig R.

    2004-12-01

    Environmentally responsible manufacturing is concerned with minimizing the environmental impact of products from development to end-of-life disposal or remanufacture. Environmental pressures from customers, regulation, legislation and competition have made organizations more aware of the impact that products have on the natural environment. This study focuses on environmental concerns during the early stages of product design. We examine these concerns with a specific focus on the involvement of supply management personnel, inter-organizational supplier relationships and a determination of how environmental issues affect supplier selection and supply base management. The literature on environmental supplier and purchasing involvement in product development and environmental supplier selection criteria and codes of conduct is reviewed. Following this, secondary data from the websites of environmentally proactive organizations will be gathered to examine what type of tracking is used for suppliers. Finally, discussions with proactive organizations will be presented during the conference that explore the role of supply management personnel in capturing, measuring, quantifying and reporting on the environmental costs and benefits associated with its suppliers. This research provides insights into how the involvement of supply management can improve the environmental performance outcomes of an organization.

  9. (Environmental impact statement on the US Antarctic program)

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.M.; Railsback, S.F.; McLean, R.B.

    1989-12-22

    Three staff members from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in a site visit to US Antarctic Program (USAP) facilities at McMurdo Station, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and remote field and support sites. Interviews were conducted with National Science Foundation, Navy, and ITT/Antarctic Services staff responsible for environmental management functions. The ORNL team visited all facilities at McMurdo Station, three remote field camps, a Navy refueling facility, South Pole Station, and Scott Base (a New Zealand installation). In general, the team found that environmental impacts of the USAP are minor for the Antarctic continent as a whole. Improvements for the handling and disposal of solid wastes and the discharge of wastewaters that have been initiated should help minimize environmental impacts of USAP activities. The information collected during the site visit will be used in a draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the USAP to be published for public review in June 1990.

  10. Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique

    SciTech Connect

    Kurian, P.A. |

    1995-06-01

    The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.

  11. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  12. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  13. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... place, or on the air or water quality or ambient noise levels of such environment(s); (4) The action... floodplain; (5) The action will not cause a significant short- or long-term increase in traffic congestion... affect the quality of the human environment. The finding of no significant impact shall include...

  14. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... place, or on the air or water quality or ambient noise levels of such environment(s); (4) The action... floodplain; (5) The action will not cause a significant short- or long-term increase in traffic congestion... affect the quality of the human environment. The finding of no significant impact shall include...

  15. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... place, or on the air or water quality or ambient noise levels of such environment(s); (4) The action... floodplain; (5) The action will not cause a significant short- or long-term increase in traffic congestion... affect the quality of the human environment. The finding of no significant impact shall include...

  16. Global impact of biotech crops: environmental effects, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the assessment of the impact commercialized agricultural biotechnology is having on global agriculture, from some important environmental perspectives. It focuses on the impact of changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of biotech crops. The technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 443 million kg (-9.1%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops [as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)] by 17.9%. The technology has also significantly reduced the release of greenhouse gas emissions from this cropping area, which, in 2010, was equivalent to removing 8.6 million cars from the roads.

  17. Global impact of biotech crops: environmental effects 1996-2009.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the assessment of the impact commercialised agricultural biotechnology is having on global agriculture from an environmental perspective. It focuses on the impact of changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of biotech crops. The technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 393 million kg (-8.7%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by 17.1 %. The technology has also significantly reduced the release of greenhouse gas emissions from this cropping area, which, in 2009, was equivalent to removing 7.8 million cars from the roads.

  18. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  19. The effects of low level chlorination and chlorine dioxide on biofouling control in a once-through service water system

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W.E. Jr.

    1995-06-01

    Continuous chlorination has been successfully used for the control of Corbicula at a nuclear power plant located on the Chattahoochee River in southeastern Alabama, since 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate further minimization of chlorine usage and determine if chlorine dioxide is a feasible alternative. Four continuous biocide treatments were evaluated for macro and microfouling control effectiveness, operational feasibility, and environmental acceptability. One semi-continuous chlorination treatment was also evaluated for macrofouling control effectiveness. Higher treatment residuals were possible with chlorine dioxide than with chlorination due to the river discharge limitations. At the levels tested, continuous chlorine dioxide was significantly more effective in providing both macro and microfouling control. Semi-continuous chlorination was just as effective as continuous chlorination for controlling macrofouling. The Corbicula treatment programs that were tested should all provide sufficient control for zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide was not as cost effective as chlorination for providing macrofouling control. The semi-continuous treatment save 50% on chemical usage and will allow for the simultaneous treatment of two service water systems. Chlorite levels produced during the chlorine dioxide treatments were found to be environmentally acceptable. Levels of trihalomethanes in the chlorinated service water were less than the maximum levels allowed in drinking water.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The Industrial College of the Armed Forces National Defense...Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application Kenneth A. Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The...before them. This conference generated a flood of legislation. Then, in February, 1969, Representative John Dingell (D-MI) introduced H.R.6750 (later

  1. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    of airfield operation to 24 hr/day. On June 13, 1986, the Westover Metropolitan Development Corporation (WMDC) submitted a request to increase the...hours of airfield opera- tion from the current 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. to 24 hr/day. This increase is considered by WMDC to be necessary for the development of...impacts on current land uses (primarily residential development ) and could impose constraints on future development (also primarily residential uses

  2. Ecosystem services impacts associated with environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nitrogen release to the environment from human activities can have important and costly impacts on human health, recreation, transportation, fisheries, and ecosystem health. Recent efforts to quantify these damage costs have identified annual damages associated with reactive nitrogen release to the EU and US in the hundreds of billions of US dollars (USD). The general approach used to estimate these damages associated with reactive nitrogen are derived from a variety of methods to estimate economic damages, for example, impacts to human respiratory health in terms of hospital visits and mortality, willingness to pay to improve a water body and costs to replace or treat drinking water systems affected by nitrate or cyanotoxin contamination. These values are then extrapolated to other areas to develop the damage cost estimates that are probably best seen as potential damage costs, particularly for aquatic ecosystems. We seek to provide an additional verification of these potential damages using data assembled by the US EPA for case studies of measured costs of nutrient impacts across the US from 2000-2012. We compare the spatial distribution and the magnitude of these costs with the spatial distribution and magnitude of costs from HUC8 watershed units across the US by Sobota et al. (2015). We anticipate that this analysis will provide a ground truthing of existing damage cost estimates, and continue to support the incorporation of cost and benefit informatio

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Langley Research Center is described, together with the nature of its activities, from which it can be seen that the Center is basically not a major pollution source. Geographical, geological, and climatic charateristics of the site are also described. inasmuch as they influence both the choice of disposal methods and the environmental effects of the pollutants. The known or probable pollution sources at the Center are described. Where the intensities of these sources might exceed the recommended guide-lines, the corrective actions that have been taken or are being taken are described. The entire inventory of pollution sources and control methods is summarized in an appendix.

  4. Weighing a dam's economic and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While some people claim that it was a publicity stunt or criticize it as an economic loss and a move in the wrong direction, the breaching of the low-slung Edwards Dam on July 1 has changed the landscape of the Kennebec River flowing through Augusta, Maine, and may also change the landscape for some other dammed rivers nationwide.The breaching marks the first time that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which licenses nonfederal hydroelectric projects, has ruled that a dam should be removed because the environmental damage that it causes outweighs its economic benefits.

  5. Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.M.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Lees, A.R.; Heutschi, K.; Kalivoda, M.T.

    2012-01-15

    Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

  6. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  7. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  8. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

  10. Impact of UV disinfection combined with chlorination/chloramination on the formation of halonitromethanes and haloacetonitriles in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amisha D; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G; Mitch, William A

    2011-04-15

    The application of UV disinfection in water treatment is increasing due to both its effectiveness against protozoan pathogens, and the perception that its lack of chemical inputs would minimize disinfection byproduct formation. However, previous research has indicated that treatment of nitrate-containing drinking waters with polychromatic medium pressure (MP), but not monochromatic (254 nm) low pressure (LP), UV lamps followed by chlorination could promote chloropicrin formation. To better understand this phenomenon, conditions promoting the formation of the full suite of chlorinated halonitromethanes and haloacetonitriles were studied. MP UV/postchlorination of authentic filter effluent waters increased chloropicrin formation up to an order of magnitude above the 0.19 μg/L median level in the U.S. EPA's Information Collection Rule database, even at disinfection-level fluences (<300 mJ/cm(2)) and nitrate/nitrite concentrations (1.0 mg/L-N) relevant to drinking waters. Formation was up to 2.5 times higher for postchlorination than for postchloramination. Experiments indicated that the nitrating agent, NO(2)(•), generated during nitrate photolysis, was primarily responsible for halonitromethane promotion. LP UV treatment up to 1500 mJ/cm(2) did not enhance halonitromethane formation. Although MP UV/postchloramination enhanced dichloroacetonitrile formation with Sigma-Aldrich humic acid, formation was not significant in field waters. Prechlorination/MP UV nearly doubled chloropicrin formation compared to MP UV/postchlorination, but effects on haloacetonitrile formation were not significant.

  11. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment Sandia Laboratories, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Flora on Kirtland Air Force Base East 177 APPENDIX E -- Estimated Probability of Aircraft Impacting Oil Tank, East of - Albuquerque Airport East-West...facilities 27 4 Methane gas facility 30 5 Hydrogen tube-bank trailer 32 6 Liquid ammonia storage tanks 32 7 View of oil tank farm 1.4 miles from main runway at...Albuquerque International Airport 33 8 Million-gallon oil tank 33 9 • ’iZ eratcr with stack scrubbers 35 10 Technical Area II facilities 37 11

  13. Total residual chlorine as a regulatory tool

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Inherent in the choice of total residual chlorine (TRC) as a basis for establishing water quality criteria or effluent guidelines for chlorine are assumptions that components of TRC are roughly equivalent in toxicity to aquatic species and that the toxicities of these components are additive. Most of the studies of this assumption involved comparisons of mixtures of residual chlorine components and thus led to conflicting conclusions. In addition, studies designed to avoid the mixture problem omitted one or more of the most likely products of chlorination from the comparison(s). On the other hand, the assumption of additive toxicity of residual chlorine species has largely been ignored. In view of the continuing controversy that focused on the levels of residual chlorine which can be discharged without deleterious impact on receiving waters, it is important that these assumptions be evaluated comprehensively. New data on the toxicities to the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, of inorganic monochloramine, inorganic dichloramine, a mixture of these two compounds, and two mixtures with free chlorine are reported. These and other data on the toxicity of residual chlorine species to mosquitofish are then used to examine the questions of toxicity equivalence and additivity of species of residual chlorine. (ERB)

  14. Procedures for Environmental Impact Analysis and Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    4 o 0I "a01 m* a-)C - 4*0 -L M maL . w L Ŕ" 0A 4 0 zC * p c 0 u C u14 06C V~ 0 M . 4 00 C .0~ 0-.C c v c S 0 +0 9 .-. S. 4 C4. w 2-1 4m 1MA 1*’ 41A...environment. Further infe!rmation on EA requirements is given on p 115. 24 I Army Missions and Functions Environmental evaluation may be required for five...See Step 6 [ p 501 for application.) (4) Tiering Since many programs usually go through several planning stages, agencies may use a process called

  15. Environmental impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising technology for production of energy and usable by-products from solar-generated temperature gradients in the world's oceans. Although considered benign compared to alternative forms of energy generation, deployment of OTEC plants will result in interactions with marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments and in socioeconomic interactions with surrounding areas. The Ocean Energy Technology Program of the Department of Energy has funded research to improve the understanding of these interactions. No insurmountable environmental obstacle to OTEC deployment has been uncovered. This document contains a summary of that research for entrepreneurs, utility engineers, and others interested in pursuing OTEC's potential. In addition, it provides a guide to permits, regulations, and licenses applicable to construction of an OTEC plant.

  16. Environmental and health risks of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), an alternative to potent greenhouse gases in the semiconductor industry.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2011-06-15

    The first accident involving chlorine trifluoride (ClF(3)) in the history of semiconductor fabrication processes occurred on 28 July 2006 at Hsinchu (Taiwan), resulting in a large release of the highly reactive material and causing the chemical burn to several workers. ClF(3) is used primarily as an in situ cleaning gas in the manufacture of semiconductor silicon-wafer devices in replacement of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) because they have the high potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article aimed at reviewing ClF(3) in the physicochemical properties, the industrial uses, and the environmental implications on the basis of its toxicity, reactivity, health hazards and exposure limits. The health hazards of probable decomposition/hydrolysis products from ClF(3) were also evaluated based on their basic physicochemical properties and occupational exposure limits. The occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand potentially hazardous risks caused by hydrogen fluoride and fluorides from the decomposition/hydrolysis products of ClF(3).

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Matejovic, Igor; Polak, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  18. 43 CFR 46.400 - Timing of environmental impact statement development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timing of environmental impact statement... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.400 Timing of environmental impact statement development. The bureau must prepare an environmental...

  19. 43 CFR 46.400 - Timing of environmental impact statement development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timing of environmental impact statement... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.400 Timing of environmental impact statement development. The bureau must prepare an environmental...

  20. 43 CFR 46.400 - Timing of environmental impact statement development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Timing of environmental impact statement... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.400 Timing of environmental impact statement development. The bureau must prepare an environmental...

  1. 43 CFR 46.400 - Timing of environmental impact statement development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timing of environmental impact statement... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.400 Timing of environmental impact statement development. The bureau must prepare an environmental...

  2. 43 CFR 46.400 - Timing of environmental impact statement development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timing of environmental impact statement... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.400 Timing of environmental impact statement development. The bureau must prepare an environmental...

  3. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  4. 49 CFR 520.28 - Preparation of final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of final environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.28 Preparation of final environmental impact statements. (a) If the... for the action shall prepare a final environmental impact statement (FEIS), taking into account...

  5. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a) The responsible entity must prepare the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and the final...

  6. 10 CFR 51.85 - Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking. 51.85... Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.85 Draft environmental impact... Commission has determined to prepare an environmental impact statement....

  7. 49 CFR 520.25 - External review of draft environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External review of draft environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.25 External review of draft environmental impact statements. (a... by law or special expertise with respect to the possible environmental impact involved, and from...

  8. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  9. 49 CFR 520.28 - Preparation of final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation of final environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.28 Preparation of final environmental impact statements. (a) If the... for the action shall prepare a final environmental impact statement (FEIS), taking into account...

  10. 49 CFR 520.28 - Preparation of final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of final environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.28 Preparation of final environmental impact statements. (a) If the... for the action shall prepare a final environmental impact statement (FEIS), taking into account...

  11. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  12. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  13. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a) The responsible entity must prepare the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and the final...

  14. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a) The responsible entity must prepare the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and the final...

  15. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a) The responsible entity must prepare the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and the final...

  16. 49 CFR 520.28 - Preparation of final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation of final environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.28 Preparation of final environmental impact statements. (a) If the... for the action shall prepare a final environmental impact statement (FEIS), taking into account...

  17. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a) The responsible entity must prepare the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and the final...

  18. 49 CFR 520.28 - Preparation of final environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation of final environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.28 Preparation of final environmental impact statements. (a) If the... for the action shall prepare a final environmental impact statement (FEIS), taking into account...

  19. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices...

  20. 76 FR 12342 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement for Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: Department of the... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement (OEIS) as the Preferred...

  1. Environmental Methods Review: Retooling Impact Assessment for the New Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Assessment: Wanted-Dead or Alive! [A. Thomas Roper and Alan L. Porter] PROCESSES 14 Methods for EIA: Selecting a Model and Approach [Ron D. Webster] 15...Emerging Issues [Cory H. Wilkinson] MODELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 33 Selecting· Computer Models and Input Parameters for Analysis of...Meier raise data and modeling issues with wide implications in EAandlA. • Brown’s "environmental overview" and "decision- scoping" offer exciting

  2. Potential Environmental Impacts of Army Laser Operations: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010. AUTHORITY CRDEC ltr, 29 Mar 1990 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED AD CHEMICAL S SYSTEMS LA1BORATORY US Army Armament Research ...and Development Command Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 Lii TECHNICAL REPORT ARCSL-TR-83066 POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL MIACTS OF ARMY LASER...PERIOD COVERED Technical Report POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ARMY LASER 25 March 1982 - 30 June 1983 OPERATIONS. AN OVERVIEW *. PERFORMING ORG

  3. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center environmental impact statement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The probable total impact of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operations on the environment is discussed in terms of launch operations emissions and environmental quality. A schedule of planned launches through 1973 is included with a description of the systems for eliminating harmful emissions during launch operations. The effects of KSC on wild life and environmental quality are discussed along with the irreversible and irretrievable commitments of natural resources.

  4. A screening approach for identifying environmental justice issues in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Schexnayder, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    Executive Order 12898 and the accompanying memorandum addressed to Federal agency heads, both issued on February 11, 1994, require NEPA processes to incorporate environmental justice. The NEPA processes affected are: (1) public involvement formats, (2) analyses of potential impacts. The Executive Order clearly indicates that research strategies and mitigation measure should be developed with the input of the populations mentioned in the Executive Order, i.e., minority and low-income populations. However, an enhanced public involvement process may not occur because the NEPA activity may have been underway before the Executive Order was issued or because the agency chooses not to change traditional public participation mechanisms. It is also possible that enhanced mechanisms may not effectively elicit involvement. In either case, analysis that considers environmental justice must proceed. These analyses could be highly data-intensive--requiring new or modified methodological approaches-- and time-intensive, particularly if the process elements of the executive order are interpreted broadly, Federal agencies and NEPA project managers already have expressed concern about the potential cost of conducting exhaustive environmental justice related analyses where they may not be warranted. Also, the time and resources required to conduct a full environmental justice analysis is counter to recent trends to streamline the NEPA process. In light of this, a process to screen for indicators of the potential for environmental justice issues has been developed. The method incorporates separate screens for human health impacts, socioeconomic impacts, and social structural impacts. Positive results of any screen indicates the need for full-scale, environmental-justice-related analysis of that category of impact. The screen is intended as a useful tool in implementing environmental justice in environmental impact statements.

  5. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  6. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    PubMed

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh.

  7. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Ulysses Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by the preparation and operation of the Ulysses spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The launch configuration will use the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special(PAM-S) combination. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. However, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4 for NASA, could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal Shuttle launch operations. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects have been judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. In the event of (1) an accident during launch, or (2) reentry of the spacecraft from earth orbit, there are potential adverse health and environmental effects associated with the possible release of plutonium dioxide from the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). The potential effects considered in this EIS include risks of air and water quality impacts, local land area contamination, adverse health and safety impacts, the disturbance of biotic resources, impacts on wetland areas or areas containing historical sites, and socioeconomic impacts. Intensive analysis of the possible accidents associated with the proposed action are underway and preliminary results indicate small health or environmental risks. The results of a Final Safety Analysis Report will be available for inclusion into the final EIS.

  8. Nanoparticles and capillary electrophoresis: A marriage with environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Mebert, Andrea Mathilde; Tuttolomondo, Maria Victoria; Echazú, Maria Inés Alvarez; Foglia, Maria Lucia; Alvarez, Gisela Solange; Vescina, María Cristina; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo Luis; Desimone, Martín Federico

    2016-08-01

    The impact of nanomaterials in the environment and human health is a cause of big concern and even though intensive studies are currently being carried out, there is still a lot to elucidate. The development of validated methods for the characterization and quantification of nanomaterials and their impact on the environment should be encouraged to achieve a proper, safe, and sustainable use of nanoparticles (NPs). Recently, CE emerged as a well-adapted technique for the analysis of environmental samples. This review presents the application of NPs together with CE systems for environmental pollutants analysis, as well as the application of CE techniques for the analysis of various types of NPs.

  9. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  10. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  11. Impact of environmental moisture on tropical cyclone intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Su, H.; Fovell, R. G.; Dunkerton, T. J.; Wang, Z.; Kahn, B. H.

    2015-06-01

    The impacts of environmental moisture on the intensification of a tropical cyclone (TC) are investigated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with a focus on the azimuthal asymmetry of the moisture impacts. A series of sensitivity experiments with varying moisture perturbations in the environment are conducted and the Marsupial Paradigm framework is employed to understand the different moisture impacts. We find that modification of environmental moisture has insignificant impacts on the storm in this case unless it leads to convective activity in the environment, which deforms the quasi-Lagrangian boundary of the storm. By facilitating convection and precipitation outside the storm, enhanced environmental moisture ahead of the northwestward-moving storm induces a dry air intrusion to the inner core and limits TC intensification. However, increased moisture in the rear quadrants favors intensification by providing more moisture to the inner core and promoting storm symmetry, with primary contributions coming from moisture increase in the boundary layer. The different impacts of environmental moisture on TC intensification are governed by the relative locations of moisture perturbations and their interactions with the storm Lagrangian structure.

  12. Impact of environmental moisture on tropical cyclone intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Su, H.; Fovell, R. G.; Dunkerton, T. J.; Wang, Z.; Kahn, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of environmental moisture on the intensification of a tropical cyclone (TC) are investigated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with a focus on the azimuthal asymmetry of the moisture impacts relative to the storm path. A series of sensitivity experiments with varying moisture perturbations in the environment are conducted and the Marsupial Paradigm framework is employed to understand the different moisture impacts. We find that modification of environmental moisture has insignificant impacts on the storm in this case unless it leads to convective activity that deforms the quasi-Lagrangian boundary of the storm and changes the moisture transport into the storm. By facilitating convection and precipitation outside the storm, enhanced environmental moisture ahead of the northwestward-moving storm induces a dry air intrusion to the inner core and limits TC intensification. In contrast, increased moisture in the rear quadrants favors intensification by providing more moisture to the inner core and promoting storm symmetry, with primary contributions coming from moisture increase in the boundary layer. The different impacts of environmental moisture on TC intensification are governed by the relative locations of moisture perturbations and their interactions with the storm Lagrangian structure.

  13. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  14. The Environmental Impact of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, A.

    The supermassive black holes observed at the centers of almost all present-day galaxies had a profound impact on their environment. I highlight the principle of self-regulation, by which supermassive black holes grow until they release sufficient energy to unbind the gas that feeds them from their host galaxy. This principle explains several observed facts, including the correlation between the mass of a central black hole and the depth of the gravitational potential well of its host galaxy, and the abundance and clustering properties of bright quasars in the redshift interval of z~ 2-6. At lower redshifts, quasars might have limited the maximum mass of galaxies through the suppression of cooling flows in X-ray clusters. The seeds of supermassive black holes were likely planted in dwarf galaxies at redshifts z> 10, through the collapse of massive or supermassive stars. The minimum seed mass can be identified observationally through the detection of gravitational waves from black hole binaries by Advanced LIGO or LISA. Aside from shaping their host galaxies, quasar outflows filled the intergalactic medium with magnetic fields and heavy elements. Beyond the reach of these outflows, the brightest quasars at z>6 have ionized exceedingly large volumes of gas (tens of comoving Mpc) prior to global reionization, and must have suppressed the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in these volumes before the same occurred through the rest of the universe.

  15. Environmental Impacts of Airport Operations: Maintenance, and Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-05

    goals. Projects funded under this category address the environmental impacts of airports, primarily to abate airport noise (e.g., soundproofing homes...of airports, primarily aircraft noise. Among other uses, those funds may be spent on projects to abate airport noise impacts (e.g., soundproofing ... soundproofing ) do not address issues associated with outdoor noise. Further, the use of limited funds for short-tem benefits detracts from investments

  16. Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J L; Holt, J K

    1992-08-01

    The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the ``Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute``; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

  17. Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Reckhow, David A

    2007-04-01

    Seven diverse natural waters were collected and treated in the laboratory under five oxidation scenarios (chlorine, chloramine, both with and without preozonation, and chlorine dioxide). The impact of these disinfectants on the formation of disinfection byproducts was investigated. Results showed that preozonation decreased the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogen (TOX) for most waters during postchlorination. A net increase in THMs, HAAs and TOX was observed for a water of low humic content. Either decreases or increases were observed in dihaloacetic acids and unknown TOX (UTOX) as a result of preozonation when used with chloramination. Chloramines and chlorine dioxide produced a higher percentage of UTOX than free chlorine. They also formed more iodoform and total organic iodine (TOI) than free chlorine in the presence of iodide. Free chlorine produced a much higher level of total organic chlorine (TOCl) and bromine (TOBr) than chloramines and chlorine dioxide in the presence of bromide.

  18. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Seiji; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells to demonstrate: (1) molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, (2) the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and (3) interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26074774

  19. Yakima Fisheries Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s (Council`s) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  20. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning